efficacy of ginger oil and extract combined with gum arabic on anthracnose and quality of papaya fruit during cold storage.effect of 2.0 % ginger oil (go) and 1.5 % ginger extract (ge) in combination with 10.0 % gum arabic (ga) was evaluated for the postharvest control of anthracnose and maintaining quality of eksotika ii papaya fruit during storage at 12 ± 1 °c and 80-85 % rh. antifungal compounds present in go and ge were analyzed using gas chromatography and go was found to contain α-pinene, 1, 8-cineole and borneol, while only borneol was present in ge due to different extraction methods applied. the highest ant ...201627570268
bzip transcription factor cgap1 is essential for oxidative stress tolerance and full virulence of the poplar anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides.yeast ap1 transcription factor is a regulator of oxidative stress response. here, we report the identification and characterization of cgap1, an ortholog of yap1 in poplar anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the expression of cgap1 was highly induced by reactive oxygen species. cgap1 deletion mutants displayed enhanced sensitivity to oxidative stress compared with the wild-type strain, and their poplar leaf virulence was obviously reduced. however, the mutants exhibited no obvious ...201627544415
chemical composition, herbicidal and antifungal activity of satureja cuneifolia essential oils from spain.the chemical composition of essential oils from satureja cuneifolia growing in east spain was analyzed by gc, gc/ms. forty-five compounds accounting for 99.1% of the total oil were identified. camphor (47.6%), followed by camphene (13.6%) were the main compounds. their herbicidal and antifungal activity was tested in vitro against three weeds (amaranthus hybridus, portulaca oleracea and conyza canadensis) and eleven common pathogenic or saprophytic fungi (phytophthora citrophthora, p. palmivora, ...201627534131
colletotrilactam a-d, novel lactams from colletotrichum gloeosporioides gt-7, a fungal endophyte of uncaria rhynchophylla.four novel lactams, colletotrilactam a-d (1-4), along with six known compounds (5-10) were isolated from the culture broth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides gt-7, a fungal endophyte of uncaria rhynchophylla. the structures of these compounds were elucidated by comprehensive nmr spectroscopy. isolates were tested for monoamine oxidase (mao) inhibitory activity and compound 9 showed potent mao inhibitory activity with ic50 value of 8.93±0.34μg/ml, when the ic50 value of iproniazid as a standard wa ...201627520493
decreased biosynthesis of jasmonic acid via lipoxygenase pathway compromised caffeine-induced resistance to colletotrichum gloeosporioides under elevated co2 in tea seedlings.caffeine, the major purine alkaloid in tea has long been known for its role in plant defense. however, its effect on colletotrichum gloeosporioides that causes brown blight disease in tea is largely unknown especially under elevated co2. here we show that elevated co2 reduced endogenous caffeine content in tea leaves, but sharply increased susceptibility of tea to c. gloeosporioides. the expression of c. gloeosporioides actin gene was gradually increased during the postinoculation period. in con ...201627392179
diacylglycerol acyl transferase: a pathogenicity related gene in colletotrichum gain more insight into the molecular mechanisms of colletotrichum gloeosporioides pathogenesis, restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) mutagenesis identified the mutants of c. gloeosporioides impaired in pathogenicity. transformants screened for defects in pathogenicity using detached leaves and fruits. of the 20 remi transformants tested, two mutants (h4 and h7) showed reduced pathogenicity on leaves of apple, kiwi, mango, peach, and fruits of guava, apple, and capsicum. one tagged g ...201627254647
fungal and host transcriptome analysis of ph-regulated genes during colonization of apple fruits by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum is a destructive phytopathogen that causes decay in deciduous fruits during postharvest handling and storage. during colonization the fungus secretes d-gluconic acid (gla), which modulates environmental ph and regulates mycotoxin accumulation in colonized tissue. till now no transcriptomic analysis has addressed the specific contribution of the pathogen's ph regulation to the p. expansum colonization process. for this purpose total rna from the leading edge of p. expansum-co ...201627146851
salicylic acid confers enhanced resistance to glomerella leaf spot in apple.glomerella leaf spot (gls) caused by glomerella cingulata is a newly emergent disease that results in severe defoliation and fruit spots in apple. currently, there are no effective means to control this disease except for the traditional fungicide sprays. induced resistance by elicitors against pathogens infection is a widely accepted eco-friendly strategy. in the present study, we investigated whether exogenous application of salicylic acid (sa) could improve resistance to gls in a highly susce ...201627139585
constitutive expression of a fungus-inducible carboxylesterase improves disease resistance in transgenic pepper plants.resistance against anthracnose fungi was enhanced in transgenic pepper plants that accumulated high levels of a carboxylesterase, pepest in anthracnose-susceptible fruits, with a concurrent induction of antioxidant enzymes and sa-dependent pr proteins. a pepper esterase gene (pepest) is highly expressed during the incompatible interaction between ripe fruits of pepper (capsicum annuum l.) and a hemibiotrophic anthracnose fungus (colletotrichum gloeosporioides). in this study, we found that exoge ...201627074836
the different interactions of colletotrichum gloeosporioides with two strawberry varieties and the involvement of salicylic acid.the disease symptoms recognized as 'anthracnose' are caused by colletotrichum spp. and lead to large-scale strawberry (fragaria×ananassa duchesne) losses worldwide in terms of both quality and production. little is known regarding the mechanisms underlying the genetic variations in the strawberry-colletotrichum spp. interaction. in this work, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (c. gloeosporioides) infection was characterized in two varieties exhibiting different susceptibilities, and the involvement ...201627004126
development of microsatellite markers and analysis of genetic diversity and population structure of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from ethiopia.twenty three polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed for citrus plant pathogenic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and were used to analyze genetic diversity and population structure of 163 isolates from four different geographical regions of ethiopia. these loci produced a total of 118 alleles with an average of 5.13 alleles per microsatellite marker. the polymorphic information content values ranged from 0.104 to 0.597 with an average of 0.371. the average observed heterozygosi ...201626978654
plant growth-promoting traits of yeasts isolated from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of drosera spatulata lab.microorganisms can promote plant growth through direct and indirect mechanisms. compared with the use of bacteria and mycorrhizal fungi, the use of yeasts as plant growth-promoting (pgp) agents has not been extensively investigated. in this study, yeast isolates from the phyllosphere and rhizosphere of the medicinally important plant drosera spatulata lab. were assessed for their pgp traits. all isolates were tested for indole-3-acetic acid-, ammonia-, and polyamine-producing abilities, calcium ...201626895872
α-ketol linolenic acid (koda) application affects endogenous abscisic acid, jasmonic acid and aromatic volatiles in grapes infected by a pathogen (glomerella cingulata).effects of α-ketol linolenic acid (koda) application on endogenous abscisic acid (aba), jasmonic acid (ja), and aromatic volatiles were investigated in 'kyoho' grapes (vitis labrusca×vitis vinifera) infected by a pathogen (glomerella cingulata). the expressions of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (vvnced1), aba 8'-hydroxylase (vvcyp707a1), lipoxygenase (vvlox), and allene oxide synthase (vvaos) were also examined. the grape berries were dipped in 0.1mm koda solution before inoculation with the ...201626881925
antifungal activities of crude extractum from camellia semiserrata chi (nanshancha) seed cake against colletotrichum musae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and penicillium italicum in vitro and in vivo fruit test.antifungal activities of crude extractum of nanshancha seed cake (nsc), to inactivate postharvest pathogens were investigated. highest inhibitory rate was found against c. musae, c. gloeosporioides and c. papaya p.henn, which was much stronger than that by tea saponin. compared to tea saponin, effects of nsc extractum was relatively weak and similar on c. gloeosporioides penzig and p. italicum. in an in vivo study, best controlling effects by nsc extractum was found with banana anthracnose disea ...201526674222
treatment resistant fungal keratitis caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a 56 year old woman suffered corneal injury from a branch of an orange tree. forty days later she suffered a severe ocular infection, positive to colletotrichum gloeosporioides (c. gloeosporioides). the patient did not respond to traditional treatment or crosslinking, and had to be treated with keratoplasty, suffering intraoperative and postoperative complications.201626601974
[effects of elicitors on growth of adventitious roots and contents of secondary metabolites in tripterygium wilfordii hook. f].to study the effects of the extract of fungal elicitor, agno3, meja and yeast on the growth and content of secondary metabolites of adventitious roots in tripterygium wilfordii. the above elicitors were supplemented to the medium, the growth and the content of secondary metabolites were measured. when the medium was supplemented with the elicitor glomerella cingulata or collectotrichum gloeosporioides, the content of triptolide was increased by 2.24 and 1.93-fold, the alkaloids content was incre ...201526571694
transcriptome characterization and expression profiles of the related defense genes in postharvest mango fruit against colletotrichum gloeosporioides.anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major disease of the postharvest mango (mangifera indica l.) fruit. however, a lack of transcriptomic and genomic information hinders our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying the mango fruit defense response. here, we studied the host responses of the mango fruit against c. gloeosporioides using illumina paired-end sequencing technology, and expression profiles of 35 defense-related genes were further analyzed by qrt-pcr ...201626496007
expression of pathogenesis-related (pr) genes in avocados fumigated with thyme oil vapours and control of anthracnose.thyme oil (to) fumigation (96μll(-1)) to cv. hass and ryan avocados significantly reduced anthracnose incidence compared to prochloraz and the untreated control. also, enhanced activities of β-1,3-glucanase, chitinase were noted in both cultivars. to fumigation induced the expression of both β-1,3-glucanase and chitinase genes in naturally infected fruit of both cultivars, during storage at 7 or 7.5°c for up to 21d and during subsequent simulated market shelf conditions at 20°c for 5d. however, ...201626471637
a novel and effective streptomyces sp. n2 against various phytopathogenic fungi.phytopathogenic fungi would induce a variety of plant diseases, resulting in a severe reduction of agricultural output. however, the current plant disease control is mainly dependent on the environmentally and healthily hazardous chemical fungicides. thus, the present work aimed to isolate an effective antagonistic microorganism against various soilborne phytopathogenic fungi. by dual culture with rhizoctonia solani, a novel streptomyces specie, streptomyces sp. n2, was screened out from a total ...201526306529
cutaneous infection caused by plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides. 201526287364
construction of a high-density genetic map using specific length amplified fragment markers and identification of a quantitative trait locus for anthracnose resistance in walnut (juglans regia l.).walnut (juglans regia, 2n = 32, approximately 606 mb per 1c genome) is an economically important tree crop. resistance to anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is a major objective of walnut genetic improvement in china. the recently developed specific length amplified fragment sequencing (slaf-seq) is an efficient strategy that can obtain large numbers of markers with sufficient sequence information to construct high-density genetic maps and permits detection of quantitative tr ...201526283231
new constitutive latex osmotin-like proteins lacking antifungal activity.proteins that share similar primary sequences to the protein originally described in salt-stressed tobacco cells have been named osmotins. so far, only two osmotin-like proteins were purified and characterized of latex fluids. osmotin from carica papaya latex is an inducible protein lacking antifungal activity, whereas the calotropis procera latex osmotin is a constitutive antifungal protein. to get additional insights into this subject, we investigated osmotins in latex fluids of five species. ...201526231325
h2o2 plays an important role in the lifestyle of colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with cowpea [vigna unguiculata (l.) walp].plant-fungus interactions usually generate h(2)o(2) in the infected plant tissue. h(2)o(2) has a direct antimicrobial effect and is involved in the cross-linking of cell walls, signaling, induction of gene expression, hypersensitive cell death and induced systemic acquired resistance. this has raised the hypothesis that h(2)o(2) manipulation by pharmacological compounds could alter the lifestyle of colletotrichum gloeosporioides during interaction with the br-3-tracuateua cowpea genotype. the pr ...201526228563
manganese lipoxygenase of f. oxysporum and the structural basis for biosynthesis of distinct 11-hydroperoxy stereoisomers.the biosynthesis of jasmonates in plants is initiated by 13s-lipoxygenase (lox), but details of jasmonate biosynthesis by fungi, including fusarium oxysporum, are unknown. the genome of f. oxysporum codes for linoleate 13s-lox (foxlox) and for f. oxysporum manganese lox (fo-mnlox), an uncharacterized homolog of 13r-mnlox of gaeumannomyces graminis. we expressed fo-mnlox and compared its properties to cg-mnlox from colletotrichum gloeosporioides. electron paramagnetic resonance and metal analysis ...201526113537
keratitis due to colletotrichum gloeosporioides and herpesvirus reactivation. 201626093958
analysis of fungicide sensitivity and genetic diversity among colletotrichum species in sweet persimmon.anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides (c. gloeosporioides; teleomorph: glomerella cingulata), is the most destructive disease that affects sweet persimmon production worldwide. however, the biology, ecology, and genetic variations of c. gloeosporioides remain largely unknown. therefore, in this study, the development of fungicide resistance and genetic diversity among an anthracnose pathogen population with different geographical origins and the exposure of this population to dif ...201526060430
trichoharzianol, a new antifungal from trichoderma harzianum f031.a new decalin derivative, trichoharzianol (1), together with three known compounds, eujavanicol a (2), 5-hydroxy-3-hydroxymethyl-2-methyl-7-methoxychromone (3), and 4,6-dihydroxy-5-methylphthalide (4), were isolated from trichoderma harzianum f031. for the first time, compounds 2-4 were reported from the trichoderma species. their structures were characterized by spectroscopic methods. trichoharzianol (1) showed the highest antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides, with a minim ...201525817439
genetic analysis of plant endophytic pseudomonas putida bp25 and chemo-profiling of its antimicrobial volatile organic pepper associated bacterium bp25 was isolated from root endosphere of apparently healthy cultivar panniyur-5 that protected black pepper against phytophthora capsici and radopholus similis - the major production constraints. the bacterium was characterized and mechanisms of its antagonistic action against major pathogens are elucidated. the polyphasic phenotypic analysis revealed its identity as pseudomonas putida. multi locus sequence typing revealed that the bacterium shared gene sequenc ...201525801973
de novo rna sequencing and transcriptome analysis of colletotrichum gloeosporioides es026 reveal genes related to biosynthesis of huperzine a.huperzine a is important in the treatment of alzheimer's disease. there are major challenges for the mass production of huperzine a from plants due to the limited number of huperzine-a-producing plants, as well as the low content of huperzine a in these plants. various endophytic fungi produce huperzine a. colletotrichum gloeosporioides es026 was previously isolated from a huperzine-a-producing plant huperzia serrata, and this fungus also produces huperzine a. in this study, de novo rna sequenci ...201525799531
surgical management of subcutaneous colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a 52-year-old male patient with a history of sarcoidosis and over 10 years of chronic low-dose glucocorticoid use, cirrhosis and type 2 diabetes mellitus presented with two painful, enlarging subcutaneous nodules ultimately identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides. two attempts at needle aspiration of the larger nodule resulted in rapid reaccumulation. complete surgical excision of both nodules resulted in complete resolution without the use of any concomitant antifungals. patient had no rec ...201525737220
application of lemongrass oil in vapour phase for the effective control of anthracnose of 'sekaki' evaluate the potential use of lemongrass essential oil vapour as an alternative for synthetic fungicides in controlling anthracnose of papaya.201525727701
exogenous nitric oxide-induced postharvest disease resistance in citrus fruit to colletotrichum gloeosporioides.nitric oxide (no) is an important signaling molecule involved in numerous plant responses to biotic and abiotic stresses. to investigate the effects of no on the control of postharvest anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides in citrus fruit and its possible mechanisms, citrus fruit were treated with an no donor.201625639938
isolation and characterization of an antimicrobial lipopeptide produced by paenibacillus ehimensis this study, a novel lipopeptide antibiotic was isolated from the culture supernatant of paenibacillus ehimensis strain ma2012. after analyses by mass spectrometry (ms), nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr), and high resolution mass spectrometry (hr-ms/ms) the compound was identified to be polypeptin c consisting of 3-hydroxy-4-methyl-hexanoic acid moiety and nine amino acids as peptide body. it has the same molecular mass (1115 da) with that of polypeptin a and b but the amino acid positions diff ...201525588946
a new picrotoxane sesquiterpene from the berries of baccaurea ramiflora with antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides.three picrotoxane sesquiterpenes including one new glycoside and two known constituents, sapidolide a (2) and picrotoximaesin (3), were isolated from the berries of baccaurea ramiflora. the structure of the new sesquiterpene glycoside, ramifloside (1), was elucidated as 2-one-6α-hydroxy-13-nor-11-picrotoxen-3(15β)-olide 10-o-β-d-glucopyranoside on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analysis. compounds 1-3 exhibited antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides with mics of 12.5, 1 ...201525583324
direct splash dispersal prevails over indirect and subsequent spread during rains in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting yams.plant pathogens have evolved many dispersal mechanisms, using biotic or abiotic vectors or a combination of the two. rain splash dispersal is known from a variety of fungi, and can be an efficient driver of crop epidemics, with infectious strains propagating rapidly among often genetically homogenous neighboring plants. splashing is nevertheless a local dispersal process and spores taking the droplet ride seldom move farther than a few decimeters. in this study, we assessed rain splash dispersal ...201425532124
its1, 5.8s and its2 secondary structure modelling for intra-specific differentiation among species of the colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato species complex.the colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of member species which are of quarantine importance is impacted by a number of factors that negatively affect species identification. structural information of the rrna marker may be considered to be a conserved marker which can be used as supplementary information for possible species identification. the difficulty in using its rdna sequences for identif ...201425512885
involvement of mir160/mir393 and their targets in cassava responses to anthracnose disease.cassava is a starchy root crop for food and industrial applications in many countries around the world. among the factors that affect cassava production, diseases remain the major cause of yield loss. cassava anthracnose disease is caused by the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides. severe anthracnose attacks can cause tip die-backs and stem cankers, which can affect the availability of planting materials especially in large-scale production systems. recent studies indicate that plants over- or ...201525462963
penicibilaenes a and b, sesquiterpenes with a tricyclo[,5)]dodecane skeleton from the marine isolate of penicillium bilaiae ma-267.penicibilaenes a (1) and b (2), two sesquiterpenes possessing a tricyclo[,5)]dodecane skeleton, were characterized from penicillium bilaiae ma-267, a fungus obtained from the rhizospheric soil of the mangrove plant lumnitzera racemosa. the lack of some key cosy and noesy correlations made the structure elucidation of compound 1 difficult, which was solved by a x-ray crystallographic study. compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective activity against the plant pathogenic fungus colletotrichum ...201425408229
sequence exploration reveals information bias among molecular markers used in phylogenetic reconstruction for colletotrichum species.the colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is among the most destructive fungal plant pathogens in the world, however, identification of isolates of quarantine importance to the intra-specific level is confounded by a number of factors that affect phylogenetic reconstruction. information bias and quality parameters were investigated to determine whether nucleotide sequence alignments and phylogenetic trees accurately reflect the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relatedness of individua ...201425392785
microbispora sp. lgmb259 endophytic actinomycete isolated from vochysia divergens (pantanal, brazil) producing β-carbolines and indoles with biological activity.endophytic actinomycetes encompass bacterial groups that are well known for the production of a diverse range of secondary metabolites. vochysia divergens is a medicinal plant, common in the "pantanal" region (brazil) and was focus of many investigations, but never regarding its community of endophytic symbionts. during a screening program, an endophytic strain isolated from the v. divergens, was investigated for its potential to show biological activity. the strain was characterized as microbis ...201525385358
simultaneous transcriptome analysis of colletotrichum gloeosporioides and tomato fruit pathosystem reveals novel fungal pathogenicity and fruit defense strategies.the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides breaches the fruit cuticle but remains quiescent until fruit ripening signals a switch to necrotrophy, culminating in devastating anthracnose disease. there is a need to understand the distinct fungal arms strategy and the simultaneous fruit response. transcriptome analysis of fungal-fruit interactions was carried out concurrently in the appressoria, quiescent and necrotrophic stages. conidia germinating on unripe fruit cuticle showed stage-specific tran ...201525377514
a role of areb in the regulation of pacc-dependent acid-expressed-genes and pathogenicity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.gene expression regulation by ph in filamentous fungi and yeasts is controlled by the pacc/rim101 transcription factor. in colletotrichum gloeosporioides, pacc is known to act as positive regulator of alkaline-expressed genes, and this regulation was shown to contribute to fungal pathogenicity. pacc is also a negative regulator of acid-expressed genes, however; the mechanism of downregulation of acid-expressed genes by pacc and their contribution to c. gloeosporioides pathogenicity is not well u ...201525317668
microsatellite isolation and characterization for colletotrichum spp, causal agent of anthracnose in andean blackberry.the genus colletotrichum, comprised of pathogenic fungi that affect plants grown worldwide, causes the disease known as anthracnose in several fruit and vegetable species. several studies conducted on plants have shown that the disease is characterized by the presence of one or several species of the fungus attacking the fruit or other organs of the same host. to develop and implement effective control strategies, it is vital to understand the genetic structure of the fungus in agricultural syst ...201425299081
taxonomic re-evaluation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from strawberry in korea.for the past two decades, the causal agent of anthracnose occurring on strawberry in korea was considered colletotrichum gloeosporioides. however, the recent molecular analysis has shown that the genus colletotrichum has undergone many taxonomic changes with introduction of several new species. as a result, it revealed that c. gloeosporioides indeed consisted of more than 20 distinct species. therefore, the korean pathogen isolated from strawberry should be reclassified. the shape and size of th ...201325288958
cultivable bacteria isolated from apple trees cultivated under different crop systems: diversity and antagonistic activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides.this study evaluated the diversity of cultivable plant growth-promoting (pgp) bacteria associated with apple trees cultivated under different crop management systems and their antagonistic ability against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. samples of roots and rhizospheric soil from apple trees cultivated in organic and conventional orchards in southern brazil were collected, together with soil samples from an area never used for agriculture (native field). bacteria were identified at the genus lev ...201425249780
synthesis, characterization and antibacterial properties of dihydroxy quaternary ammonium salts with long chain alkyl bromides.five n-methyl-n-r-n,n-bis(2-hydroxyethyl) ammonium bromides (r = -benzyl (chloride, bnqas), -dodecyl (c12qas), -tetradecyl (c14qas), -hexadecyl (c16qas), -octadecyl (c18qas)) were prepared based on n-methyldiethanolamine (mdea) and halohydrocarbon. five qas were characterized by ftir, nmr, and ms. bnqas, c12qas, c14qas, and c16qas were confirmed by x-ray single-crystal diffraction. their antibacterial properties indicated good antibacterial abilities against e. coli, s. aureus, b. subtilis, espe ...201525215430
identification of a novel endophytic fungus from huperzia serrata which produces huperzine a.huperzine a is isolated from huperzia serrata and is used for treatment of alzheimer's disease, due to its low toxicity and long effective period. the decrease in h. serrata sources means that natural huperzine a cannot meet the needs of clinical therapy. in this study, >200 endophytic fungal strains were isolated from h. serrata, and screened using high-performance liquid chromatography. strain es026 produced huperzine a. production was identified and quantified by liquid chromatography-tandem ...201425212543
a new enantioselective ce method for determination of oxcarbazepine and licarbazepine after fungal biotransformation.the present work describes, for the first time, the simultaneous separation of oxcarbazepine (oxc) and its active metabolite 10-hydroxy-10,11-dihydrocarbamazepine (licarbazepine, lic) by chiral ce. the developed method was employed to monitor the enantioselective biotransformation of oxc into its active metabolite by fungi. the electrophoretic separations were performed using 10 mmol/l of a tris-phosphate buffer solution (ph 2.5) containing 1% w/v of β-cd phosphate sodium salt (p-β-cd) as runnin ...201424981999
high level expression of glomerella cingulata cutinase in dense cultures of pichia pastoris grown under fed-batch conditions.a pichia pastoris transformant carrying the cutinase cdna of glomerella cingulata was over-expressed in a 5l bioreactor (2.0l working volume) under fed-batch conditions. bioreactor experiments rely on varying selected parameters in repeated rounds of optimisation: here these included duration of induction, ph and temperature. highest cell densities (320gl(-1) wet cell weight) with a cutinase production of 3800mgl(-1) and an activity of 434uml(-1) were achieved 24h after induction with methanol i ...201424910973
in vitro evaluation of antagonism of endophytic colletotrichum gloeosporioides against potent fungal pathogens of camellia endophytic fungus isolated from camellia sinensis, assam, northeastern india was identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides on the basis of morphological characteristics and rdna its analysis. this endophytic fungus was evaluated for growth inhibition against tea pathogens pestalotiopsis theae and colletotrichum camelliae. one isolate of c. gloeosporioides showed strong antagonistic activity against pestalotiopsis theae (64 %) and moderate activity against c. camelliae (37 %). fifty percent ...201424891737
phenotypic and molecular characterization of colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose of banana (musa spp) in malaysia.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum species is a common postharvest disease of banana fruit. we investigated and identified colletotrichum species associated with anthracnose in several local banana cultivars based on morphological characteristics and sequencing of its regions and of the β-tubulin gene. thirty-eight colletotrichum isolates were encountered in anthracnose lesions of five local banana cultivars, 'berangan', 'mas', 'awak', 'rastali', and 'nangka'. based on morphological characteri ...201424854442
overexpression of a defensin enhances resistance to a fruit-specific anthracnose fungus in pepper.functional characterization of a defensin, j1-1, was conducted to evaluate its biotechnological potentiality in transgenic pepper plants against the causal agent of anthracnose disease, colletotrichum gloeosporioides. to determine antifungal activity, j1-1 recombinant protein was generated and tested for the activity against c. gloeosporioides, resulting in 50% inhibition of fungal growth at a protein concentration of 0.1 mg·ml-1. to develop transgenic pepper plants resistant to anthracnose dise ...201424848280
antifungal activity of compounds extracted from cortex pseudolaricis against colletotrichum gloeosporioides.cortex pseudolaricis is the root bark of pseudolarix amabilis rehder, found only in china, and has been widely used in folk antifungal remedies in traditional chinese medicine. in order to find the natural antifungal agents against mango anthracnose, eight compounds, namely pseudolaric acid a (1), ethyl pseudolaric acid b (2), pseudolaric acid b (3), pseudolaric acid b-o-β-d-glucoside (4), piperonylic acid (5), propionic acid (6), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzoic acid (7), and 4-(3-formyl-5-methoxyphe ...201424820992
cgl-slt2 is required for appressorium formation, sporulation and pathogenicity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the mitogen-activated protein (map) kinase pathways has been implicated in the pathogenicity of various pathogenic fungi and plays important roles in regulating pathogenicity-related morphogenesis. this work describes the isolation and characterization of map kinase gene, cgl-slt2, from colletotrichum gloeosporioides. a dna sequence, including 1,633 bp of cgl-slt2 open-reading frame and its promoter and terminator regions, was isolated via dna walking and cloned. to analyze gene function, a gene ...201324688518
proteomics changes during the incompatible interaction between cowpea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) penz and sacc.anthracnose represents an important disease of cowpea [vigna unguiculata l. (walp.)] caused by the hemibiothrophic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides that drastically reduces cowpea field production. in this study we investigated some biochemical aspects underlying the incompatible interaction between a resistant cowpea genotype and c. gloeosporioides using a proteomic approach. analyses of two-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns and protein identification indicate c. gloeosporioides inf ...201424467908
colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato causing deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury.colletotrichum species have been rarely implicated in human disease. we describe a case of deep soft tissue mycosis following a penetrating injury with a lemon tree thorn. direct blankophor ba (bayer) stain from intraoperative tissue showed fungal elements. pure growth fungus was apparent at 2-4 days. morphological features provisionally identified the isolate as a coelomycetous fungus, likely colletotrichum species. this was confirmed with molecular analysis of the internal transcribed spacer r ...201324432213
geographical and temporal changes of foliar fungal endophytes associated with the invasive plant ageratina adenophora.endophytes may gradually accumulate in the new geographic range of a non-native plant, just as pathogens do. to test this hypothesis, the dynamics of colonization and diversity of foliar fungal endophytes of non-native ageratina adenophora were investigated. previous reports showed that the time since the initial introduction (1930s) of a. adenophora into china varied among populations. endophytes were sampled in three provinces of southwest china in 21 sites that varied from 20 to 70 years sinc ...201424276537
piperine production by endophytic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from piper nigrum.many endophytic fungi have been reported with the biosynthetic potential to produce same or similar metabolites present in host plants. the adaptations that might have acquired by these fungi as a result of the long-term association with their host plants can be the possible basis of their biosynthetic potential. the bioactive compounds originated from endophytes are currently explored for their potential applications in pharmaceutical, agriculture and food industries. piper nigrum, a plant of t ...201424268806
variation in flavonoid levels in citrus benikoji hort. ex. tan. infected by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious postharvest diseases of citrus fruit. fruit peels infected with c. gloeosporioides and the peels of healthy fruit were analysed for flavonoids, using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectroscopy, to evaluate variations in flavonoid levels in citrus benikoji hort. ex. tan. seventeen flavonoids were characterised from the fruit peels. the flavonoids were validated using structurally related standards ...201424262558
bioactivity, toxicity and dissipation of hexaconazole this study, the bioactivity, acute toxicity and dissipation in vegetables of the individual enantiomers of the fungicide hexaconazole had been investigated. the optical pure single enantiomers were prepared and the bioactivity of (+)-, (-)- and rac-hexaconazole was tested using four target fungi including colletotrichum gloeosporioides penz, alternaria solani, alternaria mali roberts and monilinia fructicola. the results showed (-)-hexaconazole was always more active than (+)-hexaconazole wit ...201324206830
identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( allium cepa l. aggregatum group).the n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. the purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside a (ala) and alliospiroside b. ala had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. the products of acid hydrolysis of ala showed a reduced antifunga ...201324138065
genetic variation and gains in resistance of strawberry to colletotrichum gloeosporioides.anthracnose crown rot is an important disease of strawberry primarily caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides in florida and north carolina. information on the magnitude of additive and nonadditive genetic variation is required to define breeding strategies and to estimate potential genetic gains. however, little is known about the genetic control of resistance and its utility in breeding. our objectives were to obtain estimates of heritabilities and of components of genetic variances, genotype ...201423981282
global aspects of pacc regulation of pathogenicity genes in colletotrichum gloeosporioides as revealed by transcriptome analysis.colletotrichum gloeosporioides alkalinizes its surroundings during colonization of host tissue. the transcription factor pacc is a regulator of ph-controlled genes and is essential for successful colonization. we present here the sequence assembly of the colletotrichum fruit pathogen and use it to explore the global regulation of pathogenicity by ambient ph. the assembled genome size was 54 mb, encoding 18,456 genes. transcriptomes of the wild type and δpacc mutant were established by rna-seq an ...201323902260
[severe corneal infection by colletotrichum gloeosporioides in a farmer]. 201423877098
glutathione and tryptophan metabolites are key players in arabidopsis nonhost resistance against colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the nonhost resistance of arabidopsis against hemibiotrophic fungi in the genus colletotrichum consists of pre- and post-invasive immune responses. previously, we reported edr1 and pen2 as important components of arabidopsis pre-invasive resistance toward non-adapted colletotrichum gloeosporioides (cg). however, despite their defect in entry control pen2 and edr1 mutants terminated further growth of this pathogen by activating the post-invasive hypersensitive response (hr) accompanied by plant c ...201323838955
genome-wide identification and comparative expression analysis of nbs-lrr-encoding genes upon colletotrichum gloeosporioides infection in two ecotypes of fragaria vesca.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum spp. is one of the most destructive diseases of cultivated strawberry (fragaria×ananassa duchesne) worldwide. the correlation between nbs-lrr genes, the largest class of known resistance genes, and strawberry anthracnose resistance has been elusive. blast search in ncbi identified 94 fvnbss in the diploid genome of strawberry fragaria vesca, with 67 of the tir-nbs-lrr type. at least 36 fvnbss were expressed, with 25% being non-coding genes. two f. vesca ecoty ...201323806759
genetic structure and demographic history of colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato and c. truncatum isolates from trinidad and mexico.c. gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most economically important post-harvest diseases affecting papaya production worldwide. there is currently no information concerning the genetic structure or demographic history of this pathogen in any of the affected countries. knowledge of molecular demographic parameters for different populations will improve our understanding of the biogeographic history as well as the evolutionary and adaptive potential of these pathogens. in this study, sequence ...201323800297
withdrawn: molecular characterization of mango anthracnose pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato.this article has been withdrawn at the request of the author(s) and/or editor. the publisher apologizes for any inconvenience this may cause. the full elsevier policy on article withdrawal can be found at
activity of chitin deacetylase from colletotrichum gloeosporioides on chitinous substrates.production of chitin deacetylases from the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides was successfully achieved by submerged fermentation. the highest specific activity of 0.018 u mg(-1) of protein was obtained after 96 h of cultivation at ph 6 and 28°c. two bands with molecular weights of 35 kda and 170 kda determined with sds-page displayed deacetylase activities as detected in the zymograms. reacetylated commercial chitosan (52% acetylation degree) was used as substrate for the ext ...201323688474
identification of volatile compounds produced by the bacterium burkholderia tropica that inhibit the growth of fungal has been documented that bacteria from the burkholderia genera produce different kinds of compounds that inhibit plant pathogens, however in burkholderia tropica, an endophytic diazotrophic and phosphate-solubilizing bacterium isolated from a wide diversity of plants, the capacity to produce antifungal compounds has not been evaluated. in order to expand our knowledge about burkholderia tropica as a potential biological control agent, we analyzed 15 different strains of this bacterium to eval ...201523680857
isolation and antifungal properties of cyclo(d-tyr-l-leu) diketopiperazine isolated from bacillus sp. associated with rhabditid entomopathogenic nematode.bacillus sp. associated with an entomopathogenic nematode is shown to produce diketopiperazine (dkp) that showed stronger antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides [minimum inhibitory concentration (mic): 8 μg ml(- 1)] than commercial fungicide oligochitosan (mic: 125 μg ml(- 1)). dkp identified as cyclo(d-tyr-l-leu) was isolated for the first time from a natural source with a d-tyrosine residue. this report also demonstrates for the first time an antifungal property exploration ...201323672207
habitat and host indicate lineage identity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. from wild and agricultural landscapes in north america.understanding the factors that drive the evolution of pathogenic fungi is central to revealing the mechanisms of virulence and host preference, as well as developing effective disease control measures. prerequisite to these pursuits is the accurate delimitation of species boundaries. colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. is a species complex of plant pathogens and endophytic fungi for which reliable species recognition has only recently become possible through a multi-locus phylogenetic approach. ...201323671594
ethanol and methanol can improve huperzine a production from endophytic colletotrichum gloeosporioides es026.huperzine a (hupa) is a plant alkaloid that is of great interest as a therapeutic candidate for the treatment of alzheimer's disease. however, the current production of hupa from plants in large quantity is unsustainable because the plant resource is scarce and the content of hupa in plants is extremely low. surprisingly, this compound was recently found to be produced by various endophytic fungi, which are much more controllable than the plants due to simpler genetics and ease of manipulation. ...201323613930
diversity of endophytic fungi and screening of fungal paclitaxel producer from anglojap yew, taxus x media.endophytic fungi represent underexplored resource of novel lead compounds and have a capacity to produce diverse class of plant secondary metabolites. here we investigated endophytic fungi diversity and screening of paclitaxel-producing fungi from taxus x media.201323537181
determination of the variations in levels of phenolic compounds in soybean (glycine max merr.) sprouts infected by anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides).soybean sprouts (kongnamool) are one of the most popular and nutritive traditional vegetables in east asia. anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides is one of the most serious diseases of soybean sprouts. in order to obtain basic information for breeding and/or selecting soybean genotypes with increased natural defense against anthracnose, phenolic compounds were profiled for healthy and infected soybean (glycine max merr.) sprouts by using high-performance liquid chromatography coup ...201323526300
thermal stability engineering of glomerella cingulata cutinase.cutinase has been ascertained as a biocatalyst for biotechnological and industrial bioprocesses. the glomerella cingulata cutinase was genetically modified to enhance its enzymatic performance to fulfill industrial requirements. two sites were selected for mutagenesis with the aim of altering the surface electrostatics as well as removing a potentially deamidation-prone asparagine residue. the n177d cutinase variant was affirmed to be more resilient to temperature increase with a 2.7-fold increa ...201323468570
beginning to understand the role of sugar carriers in colletotrichum lindemuthianum: the function of the gene mfs1.fungi of the colletotrichum genus are among the most prominent phytopathogens that cause diseases with a considerable economic impact, such as anthracnose. the hemibiotrophic fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum (teleomorph glomerella cingulata f. sp. phaseoli) is the causal agent of the anthracnose of the common bean; and similarly to other phytopathogens, it uses multiple strategies to gain access to different carbon sources from its host. in this study, we examine mfs1, a newly identified c. ...201323456714
the potential of a fluorescent-based approach for bioassay of antifungal agents against chili anthracnose disease in thailand.severe chili anthracnose disease in thailand is caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. capsici. to discover anti-anthracnose substances we developed an efficient dual-fluorescent labeling bioassay based on a microdilution approach. indicator strains used in the assay were constructed by integrating synthetic green fluorescent protein (sgfp) and discosoma sp. red fluorescent protein (dsredexp) genes into the genomes of c. gloeosporioides or c. capsici respectively. survival of co-spore c ...201323391904
differential activation of ammonium transporters during the accumulation of ammonia by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on appressoria formation and pathogenicity.ammonium secreted by the post-harvest pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides during host colonization accumulates in the host environment due to enhanced fungal nitrogen metabolism. two types of ammonium transporter-encoding genes, amet and mep, are expressed during pathogenicity. gene disruption of amet, a gene modulating ammonia secretion, showed twofold reduced ammonia secretion and 45% less colonization on avocado fruit, suggesting a contribution to pathogenicity. mepb, a gene modulating am ...201323387470
genetic structure of colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates infecting papaya inferred by multilocus issr markers.colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is widely distributed throughout temperate and tropical regions and causes anthracnose disease in numerous plant species. development of effective disease management strategies is dependent on, among other factors, an understanding of pathogen genetic diversity and population stratification at the intraspecific level. for 132 isolates of c. gloeosporioides sensu lato collected from papaya in trinidad, inter-simple-sequence repeat-polymerase chain reactio ...201323294406
phaeohyphomycosis: a clinical-epidemiological and diagnostic study of eighteen cases in rio grande do sul, brazil.the goal of this study was to review 18 cases of phaeohyphomycosis in rio grande do sul. the records of all of the patients with a diagnosis of phaeohyphomycosis between 1995-2010 were reviewed. twelve of the 18 patients (66.6%) were male. the average age of the patients was 50 years old (range: 16-74 years). eleven patients (61%) presented with subcutaneous lesions. seven patients (38.8%) had received a solid organ transplant. in all of the cases, the presence of melanin in the fungal cells was ...201223147139
the colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex.the limit of the colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex is defined genetically, based on a strongly supported clade within the colletotrichum its gene tree. all taxa accepted within this clade are morphologically more or less typical of the broadly defined c. gloeosporioides, as it has been applied in the literature for the past 50 years. we accept 22 species plus one subspecies within the c. gloeosporioides complex. these include c. asianum, c. cordylinicola, c. fructicola, c. gloeospor ...201223136459
biocontrol of anthracnose in pepper using chitinase, beta-1,3 glucanase, and 2-furancarboxaldehyde produced by streptomyces cavourensis sy224.a strain of streptomyces cavourensis subsp. cavourensis (coded as sy224) antagonistic to colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting pepper plants was isolated. sy224 produced lytic enzymes such as chitinase, beta-1,3-glucanase, lipase, and protease in respective assays. to examine for antifungal activity, the treatments amended with the nonsterilized supernatant resulted in the highest growth inhibition rate of about 92.9% and 87.4% at concentrations of 30% and 10%, respectively. how ...201223075786
endophytic fungi from plums (prunus domestica) and their antifungal activity against monilinia fructicola.enophytic fungi were isolated from plum (prunus domestica) leaves, identified with its1 and its4 primers, and their antagonistic activity was tested against monilinia fructicola, which causes brown rot, blossom blight, and twig blight of stone fruits, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which causes anthracnose on a variety of fruit crops. the production of antifungal compounds was determined in agar-diffusion and volatile inverted-plate tests. a total of 163 fungi were recovered from 30 plum tr ...201223043843
phillyrin produced by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an endophytic fungus isolated from forsythia investigate the phillyrin-producing endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant forsythia suspensa, a total of 24 strains of endophytic fungi were isolated from the healthy stems, leaves and fruits of the plant, 9 from stems, 5 from leaves, and 10 from fruits respectively. all fungal isolates were fermented in liquid pda medium and their extracts were preliminary analyzed by tlc. one isolated strain g10, which was from the fruit of f. suspensa, had the same r(f) value as authentic phillyrin. th ...201222960349
isolation, identification, and activity in vitro of killer yeasts against colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolated from tropical fruits.a total of 580 yeasts strains, isolated from ceara state of brasil, were evaluated for their ability to produce killer toxin. of these strains, 29 tested positive for the killer phenotype and were further evaluated for their ability to control colletotrichum gloeosporioides germination in vitro. all yeast strains that expressed the killer phenotype were characterized by sequencing the d1/d2 regions of the large subunit of the rrna gene. five yeast strains provided a significant reduction in myce ...201322915228
composition and antipathogenic activities of the twig essential oil of chamaecyparis formosensis from this study, antipathogenic activities of the twig essential oil and its constituents from chamaecyparis formosensis matsum were evaluated in vitro against six plant pathogenic fungi. the essential oil from the fresh twigs was isolated using hydrodistillation in a clevenger-type apparatus, and characterized by gc-fid and gc-ms. twenty-five compounds were identified, representing 98.9% of the oil. the main components were beta-eudesmol (25.1%), tau-muurolol (21.6%), elemol (15.0%), totarol (14. ...201222908586
potential of chitosan-loaded nanoemulsions to control different colletotrichum spp. and maintain quality of tropical fruits during cold investigate the antifungal activity of conventional chitosan and chitosan-loaded nanoemulsions against anthracnose caused by colletotrichum spp. isolated from different tropical fruits.201222805053
spot anthracnose disease caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides on tulip tree in korea.the tulip tree (liriodendron chinense) has been widely cultivated in korea as a street or garden tree for its large flowers, which have a superficial resemblance to tulips. occurrence of anthracnose disease on the leaves of tulip trees growing on the campus of gyeongsang national university, jinju, korea, has been observed. based on mycological characteristics, pathogenicity, and internal transcribed spacer sequence, the causal fungus was identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides. this is the ...201222783141
diversity of leaf endophytic fungi in mangrove plants of northeast brazil.with the aim of increasing the knowledge about endophytic fungi, a group of microorganisms with high biotechnological potential and a valuable source of useful metabolites, a survey in leaves of mangrove plants (avicennia schaueriana, laguncularia racemosa, and rhizophora mangle) was performed at the itamaracá island, pe, brazil. leaves were collected, during two seasons, dry and rainy, superficially sterilized and fragments maintained in petri dishes with potato dextrose agar (pda) at 28(o) ± 2 ...201224031941
inactivation of the catalytic subunit of camp-dependent protein kinase a causes delayed appressorium formation and reduced pathogenicity of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the cyclic amp- (camp-) dependent protein kinase a signaling pathway is one of the major signaling pathways responsible for regulation of the morphogenesis and pathogenesis of several pathogenic fungi. to evaluate the role of this pathway in the plant pathogenic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the gene encoding the catalytic subunit of camp-dependent protein kinase a, cgpkac, was cloned, inactivated, and the mutant was analyzed. analysis of the cgpkac mutant generated via gene replacemen ...201222666136
role of nitrogen-metabolism genes expressed during pathogenicity of the alkalinizing colletotrichum gloeosporioides and their differential expression in acidifying pathogens.pathogens can actively alter fruit ph around the infection site, signaling modulation of pathogenicity-factor expression, as found for alkalinizing (colletotrichum and alternaria spp.) and acidifying (penicillium, botrytis, and sclerotinia spp.) fungi. the nitrogen-metabolism genes gdh2, gs1, glt, and mep genes are differentially expressed during colonization by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and a δgdh2 strain reduces ammonia accumulation and pathogenicity. we analyzed the contribution of tran ...201222571816
intraspecific differentiation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato based on in silico multilocus pcr-rflp fingerprinting.colletotrichum gloeosporioides sensu lato is one of the most common and widely distributed plant pathogens in the world. understanding fungal biodiversity is hinged on accurate identification and delimitation at the inter- and intraspecific levels. sequences of the its1-5.8s-its2 region (its), β-tubulin (tub), actin (act), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gpdh) genes of 30 c. gloeosporioides sensu lato isolates, collected from anthracnose infected papaya fruits grown in the main pro ...201322367643
polymerase chain reaction assay for rapid, sensitive detection, and identification of colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing greater yam anthracnose.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an economically important disease which affects greater yam (dioscorea alata l.) worldwide. apart from airborne conidia, the pathogen propagules surviving in soil and planting material are the major sources of inoculum. a nested pcr assay has been developed for specific detection of c. gloeosporioides in soil and planting material. in conventional (single-round) pcr, the limit of detection was 20 pg, whereas in nested pcr the detection limi ...201222315088
characterization of different fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenases for possible use in glucose-based biosensors and biofuel this study, different flavin adenine dinucleotide (fad)-dependent glucose dehydrogenases (fadgdhs) were characterized electrochemically after "wiring" them with an osmium redox polymer [os(4,4'-dimethyl-2,2'-bipyridine)(2)(pvi)(10)cl](+) on graphite electrodes. one tested fadgdh was that recently discovered in glomerella cingulata (gcgdh), another was the recombinant form expressed in pichia pastoris (rgcgdh), and the third was a commercially available glycosylated enzyme from aspergillus sp. ...201222222911
characterization by suppression subtractive hybridization of transcripts that are differentially expressed in leaves of anthracnose-resistant ramie cultivar.for the purpose of screening putative anthracnose resistance-related genes of ramie (boehmeria nivea l. gaud), a cdna library was constructed by suppression subtractive hybridization using anthracnose-resistant cultivar huazhu no. 4. the cdnas from huazhu no. 4, which were infected with colletotrichum gloeosporioides, were used as the tester and cdnas from uninfected huazhu no. 4 as the driver. sequencing analysis and homology searching showed that these clones represented 132 single genes, whic ...201224415836
effect of climate change on alternaria leaf spot of rocket salad and black spot of basil under controlled environment.plant responses to elevated co2 and temperature have been much studied in recent years, but effects of climate change on pathological responses are still largely unknown. the pathosystems rocket (eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa)--alternaria leaf spot (alternaria japonica) and basil (ocimum basilicum)--black spot (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) were chosen as models to assess the potential impact of increased co2 and temperature on disease incidence and severity under controlled environment. potte ...201223878979
antifungal activities of triterpenoids from the roots of astilbe myriantha diels.during a search for plant extracts that possess activity against the fungi that cause diseases in plants, a 95% ethanol extract from the roots of astilbe myriantha diels showed inhibitory activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. bioassay-guided fractionation of the 95% ethanol extract led to the isolation of seven triterpenoids (1-7). their structures were elucidated by spectroscopy and by a comparison with literature data. among these compounds, 3β,6β,24-trihydroxyurs-12-en-27-oic acid ...201125212161
identification of the fungal pathogen that causes strawberry anthracnose in bangladesh and evaluation of in vitro fungicide activity.this study was conducted to identify the colletotrichum species causing anthracnose disease of strawberry in balgladesh and to evaluate in vitro activity of commercial fungicides it. based on morphological and cultural characteristics, all 22 isolates were identified as colletotrichum gloeosporioides. they developed white or glittery colonies with grey to dark grey reverse colony colors and they produced cylindrical conidia. the efficacy of five commercial fungicides, bavistin df, dithane m-45, ...200923983513
antimicrobial activity and potential use of monoterpenes as tropical fruits preservatives.banana, papaya and pineapple are the most consumed tropical fruits in the world, being brazil one of the main producers. fungi colletotrichum musae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and fusarium subglutinans f.sp. ananas cause severe post harvest diseases and losses in fruits quality. the aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of five monoterpenes to inhibit the mycelial growth and conidia germination of these three phytopathogens. the monoterpenes citral, citronellal, l-carvone, isopu ...200824031197
Displaying items 401 - 500 of 502