use of solid phase microextraction (spme) for profiling the volatile metabolites produced by glomerella cingulata.the profile of volatile organic compounds (vocs) released from glomerella cingulata using solid phase microextraction (spme) with different fibers, polydimethylsiloxane (pdms), polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (pdms/dvb), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (car/pdms) and divinylbenzene/carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (dvb/car/pdms), was investigated. c4-c6 aliphatic alcohols were the predominant fraction of vocs isolated by car/pdms fiber. sesquiterpene hydrocarbons represented 20.3% of vocs isolate ...200818838830
secondary metabolite profile and phytotoxic activity of genetically distinct forms of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from yam (dioscorea spp.).highly virulent, slow-growing grey (sgg); moderately virulent, fast-growing salmon (fgs); and avirulent/weakly virulent, fast-growing grey (fgg) forms of colletotrichum gloeosporioides have been described from yam (dioscorea spp.), but little is known about their chemodiversity or the role of toxins in their pathogenesis. secondary metabolite profiles in high performance tlc (hptlc) showed that the pathogenic sgg and fgs forms have a chemotype (a or b) that is distinct from the non-pathogenic fg ...200918929651
antagonism of bacillus spp. isolated from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi.we aimed at determining the antagonistic behavior of bacteria derived from marine biofilms against terrestrial phytopathogenic fungi. some bacteria closely related to bacillus mojavensis (three isolates) and bacillus firmus (one isolate) displayed antagonistic activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides atcc 42374, selected as first screen organism. the four isolates were further quantitatively tested against c. gloeosporioides, colletotrichum fragariae, and fusarium oxysporum on two culture ...200918931878
pathogenic variation in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting stylosanthes spp. in a center of diversity in brazil.abstract pathogenic variation in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting species of the tropical pasture legume stylosanthes at its center of diversity was determined from 296 isolates collected from wild host population and selected germ plasm of s. capitata, s. guianensis, s. scabra, and s. macrocephala in brazil. a putative host differential set comprising 11 accessions was selected from a bioassay of 18 isolates on 19 host accessions using principal component analysis. a similar analysis of ...200218943031
genetic diversity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides from stylosanthes spp. at centers of origin and utilization.abstract using molecular markers, this work compares the genetic diversity in colletotrichum gloeosporioides infecting species of the tropical forage legume stylosanthes at the center of origin in brazil and colombia with that of australia, china, and india, where stylosanthes spp. have been introduced for commercial use. there was extensive diversity in the pathogen population from brazil, colombia, china, and india. the australian pathogen population was least diverse probably due to its geogr ...200318943132
metabolism of the flavonoid epicatechin by laccase of colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on pathogenicity on avocado fruits.abstract during avocado fruit ripening, decreasing levels of the flavonoid epicatechin have been reported to modulate the metabolism of preformed antifungal compounds and the activation of quiescent colletotrichum gloeosporioides infections. epicatechin levels decreased as well when c. gloeosporioides was grown in the presence of epicatechin in culture. extracts of laccase enzyme obtained from decayed tissue and culture media fully metabolized the epicatechin substrate within 4 and 20 h, respect ...200518943366
molecular characterization and diagnosis of qoi resistance in cucumber and eggplant fungal pathogens.abstract the molecular mechanism of qoi fungicide resistance was studied using isolates of cucumber corynespora leaf spot fungus (corynespora cassiicola) and the eggplant leaf mold (mycovellosiella nattrassii). in both pathogens, a mutation at position 143 from glycine to alanine (g143a) was detected in the cytochrome b gene that encodes for the fungicide-targeted protein. moreover, the nucleotide sequence at amino acid position 143 was converted from ggt or gga in sensitive (wild-type) to gct o ...200718943516
structural modifications and programmed cell death of chili pepper fruit related to resistance responses to colletotrichum gloeosporioides infection.abstract postharvest (detached) and in planta (attached) fruits of pepper plants, capsicum annuum cv. jejujaerae (susceptible) and capsicum baccatum cv. pbc80 (resistant), inoculated with the anthracnose pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides were examined using light, confocal laser scanning, and electron microscopy to compare the cytological differences between the compatible and incompatible interactions. in nonwound inoculation of postharvest pepper fruit, resistant pepper tissues showed a ...200418943699
genetic and pathogenic analyses of colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolates from strawberry and noncultivated hosts.abstract colletotrichum crown rot of strawberry in florida is caused primarily by colletotrichum gloeosporioides. to determine potential inoculum sources, isolates of colletotrichum spp. from strawberry and various noncultivated plants growing in the areas adjacent to strawberry fields were collected from different sites. species-specific internal transcribed spacer primers for c. gloeosporioides and c. acutatum were used to identify isolates to species. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) m ...200418943762
canopy size and induced resistance in stylosanthes scabra determine anthracnose severity at high co(2).abstract this study examines the relative importance of canopy size and induced resistance to colletotrichum gloeosporioides at 350- and 700-ppm atmospheric co(2) concentrations on susceptible stylosanthes scabra 'fitzroy' from two studies in a controlled environment facility (cef) and in the field. plants were grown at the two co(2) concentrations in a repeated experiment in the cef and inoculated at 6, 9, or 12 weeks of age. although the physiological maturity of plants was at a similar stage ...200418943969
abscission layer formation as a resistance response of peruvian apple cactus against glomerella cingulata.abstract stem disks from 2-year-old cacti cereus tetragonus (susceptible) and c. peruvianus (resistant) were inoculated in the center (pith) with glomerella cingulata isolated from colletotrichum stem rot in three-angled cacti. the susceptible cactus became extensively colonized, whereas colonization was limited to a small area in the resistant cactus. the resistant cactus formed prominent abscission layers (als) in parenchyma internal to the inoculation site. ethanol extracts of the fungal cult ...200218944021
clarification of the etiology of glomerella leaf spot and bitter rot of apple caused by colletotrichum spp. based on morphology and genetic, molecular, and pathogenicity tests.abstract morphological characteristics and vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs) of 486 isolates of glomerella cingulata, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and c. acutatum collected from apple leaves with glomerella leaf spot (gls) symptoms and fruit with bitter rot symptoms in the united states and brazil were studied. from this collection, 155 isolates of g. cingulata (93 from fruit, 61 from leaves, and 1 from buds), 42 isolates of c. gloeosporioides from fruit, and 14 isolates of c. acutatum ( ...200618944054
calcium/calmodulin-dependent signaling for prepenetration development in colletotrichum gloeosporioides.abstract colletotrichum gloeosporioides forms a specialized infection structure, an appressorium, for host infection. contacting hard surface induces appressorium formation in c. gloeosporioides, whereas hydrophobicity of the contact surface does not affect this infection-related differentiation. to determine if the calcium/calmodulin-dependent signaling system is involved in prepenetration morphogenesis in c. gloeosporioides pathogenic on red pepper, effects of calcium chelator (egta), phosphol ...200318944160
selection for pathogenicity to strawberry in populations of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from native plants.abstract colletotrichum gloeosporioides causes a serious crown rot of strawberry and some isolates from native plants are pathogenic to strawberry. c. gloeosporioides from lesions on wild grape and oak were sampled at two sites adjacent to commercial strawberry fields in florida and two distant sites. random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) marker data and restriction enzyme digests of amplified rdna were used to determine whether isolates were from the same c. gloeosporioides subgroup that infe ...200718944178
the analysis of fruit protection mechanisms provided by reduced-pathogenicity mutants of colletotrichum gloeosporioides obtained by restriction enzyme mediated integration.abstract colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important postharvest pathogen that attacks ripe avocado fruit. two reduced-pathogenicity mutants, cg-m-142 and cg-m-1150, previously obtained by restriction enzyme mediated integration, were used for the sequential analysis of the induction of biocontrol in avocado fruit. plant biochemical indicators, such as h(+)-atpase activity and levels of reactive oxygen species, phenylalanine ammonia lyase, epicatechin, and an antifungal diene, were investigat ...200218944245
etiology and population genetics of colletotrichum spp. causing crown and fruit rot of strawberry.abstract isolates of colletotrichum spp. from diseased strawberry fruit and crowns were evaluated to determine their genetic diversity and the etiology of the diseases. isolates were identified to species using polymerase chain reaction primers for a ribosomal internal transcribed spacer region and their pathogenicity was evaluated in bioassays. isolates were scored for variation at 40 putative genetic loci with random amplified polymorphic dna and microsatellite markers. only c. acutatum was re ...200218944251
identification and characterization of benomyl-resistant and -sensitive populations of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from statice (limonium spp.).abstract sixty-four isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides were isolated from infected limonium spp. cultivated in 12 different locations in israel. all isolates were identified as belonging to the c. gloeosporioides complex by species-specific primers. of these isolates, 46 were resistant to benomyl at 10 mug/ml and 18 were sensitive to this concentration of fungicide. based on arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction of all isolates and internal transcribed spacer-1 sequence analyses o ...200618944315
development of colletotrichum gloeosporioides restriction enzyme-mediated integration mutants as biocontrol agents against anthracnose disease in avocado fruits.abstract reduced-pathogenicity mutants of the avocado fruit pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides isolate cg-14 (teleomorph: glomerella cingulata) were generated by insertional mutagenesis by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi) transformation. following seven transformations, 3,500 hygromycin-resistant isolates were subjected to a virulence assay by inoculation on mesocarp and pericarp of cv. fuerte avocado fruits. fourteen isolates showed a reduced degree of virulence relative comp ...200118944387
early events during quiescent infection development by colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe avocado fruits.inoculation of avocado pericarp tissue with colletotrichum gloeospori-oides and treatment of avocado cell cultures with the cell wall elicitor of c. gloeosporioidesboth increased the production of reactive oxygen species (ros). however, whereas the production of ros could be detected within minutes in avocado cell suspensions, it was detected only after 2 h following inoculation of pericarp tissue. protein kinase inhibitors such as k-252a and staurosporine and the phosphatase inhibitor microcyst ...200018944563
distribution of cranberry fruit-rotting fungi in new jersey and evidence for nonspecific host resistance.abstract a survey was conducted over a 3-year period to determine the frequencies and distributions of fruit-rotting fungi in new jersey cranberry beds. in the first 2 years of the study, physalospora vaccinii and glomerella cingulata were the most prevalent and widespread field-rotting fungi. in the third year, the frequency of g. cingulata declined markedly. other species such as coleophoma empetri, phyllosticta vaccinii, and phomopsis vaccinii were isolated at high frequencies from a limited ...199918944762
catalysis by glomerella cingulata cutinase requires conformational cycling between the active and inactive states of its catalytic triad.cutinase belongs to a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of esters and triglycerides. structural studies on the enzyme from fusarium solani have revealed the presence of a classic catalytic triad that has been implicated in the enzyme's mechanism. we have solved the crystal structure of glomerella cingulata cutinase in the absence and in the presence of the inhibitors e600 (diethyl p-nitrophenyl phosphate) and petfp (3-phenethylthio-1,1,1-trifluoropropan-2-one) to resolutions between ...200918983850
mycofumigation with oxyporus latemarginatus ef069 for control of postharvest apple decay and rhizoctonia root rot on moth characterize the volatile antifungal compound produced by oxyporus latemarginatus ef069 and to examine in vitro and in vivo fumigation activity of the fungus.200919120615
association of nematodes and dogwood cankers.dogwood canker is a serious production problem of unknown etiology. from may 1985 through april 1989, cankers from 290 flowering dogwood trees in 15 separate nurseries were sampled for nematodes. seventy-three percent (213) of the cankers contained nematodes. panagrolaimus rigidus (schneider) thorne (115/290) and aphelenchoides spp. (91/290) were the most frequently collected taxa. panagrolaimus rigidus was reared on 2% water agar with unidentified bacteria as the food source. aphelenchoides spp ...199419279869
molecular and biochemical characterization of iranian surfactin-producing bacillus subtilis isolates and evaluation of their biocontrol potential against aspergillus flavus and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.the characterization of surfactin-producing bacillus subtilis isolates collected from different ecological zones of iran is presented. characterization was performed using blood agar, pcr, drop-collapse, and reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc) analyses, and the isolates' biocontrol effects against the aflatoxin-producing agent aspergillus flavus and the citrus antracnosis agent colletotrichum gloeosporioides were studied. in total, 290 b. subtilis isolates were isolated f ...200919396239
the distinctive population structure of colletotrichum species associated with olive anthracnose in the algarve region of portugal reflects a host-pathogen diversity hot spot.anthracnose (colletotrichum spp.) is an important disease of olive fruits. diversity and biogeographic relationships of the olive anthracnose pathogens in the algarve (portugal) were investigated, along with host association patterns and disease levels during 2004-2007, to test the hypothesis that this region is a host-pathogen diversity hot spot. diverse colletotrichum acutatum and colletotrichum gloeosporioides populations were identified based on rrna-internal transcribed spacer and partial b ...200919459972
global antifungal profile optimization of chlorophenyl derivatives against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides.twenty-two aromatic derivatives bearing a chlorine atom and a different chain in the para or meta position were prepared and evaluated for their in vitro antifungal activity against the phytopathogenic fungi botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the results showed that maximum inhibition of the growth of these fungi was exhibited for enantiomers s and r of 1-(4'-chlorophenyl)-2-phenylethanol (3 and 4). furthermore, their antifungal activity showed a clear structure-activity relati ...200919489624
syntheses, crystal structure, spectroscopic characterization and antifungal activity of new n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate metal complexes.five new compounds with the general formula of (bu(4)n)(2)[m(rso(2)ncs(2))(2)], where bu(4)n=tetrabutylammonium cation, (m=ni, r=4-fc(6)h(4)) (1), (m=zn, r=4-fc(6)h(4), 4-clc(6)h(4), 4-brc(6)h(4), 4-ic(6)h(4)), (2), (3), (4) and (5), respectively, were obtained by the reaction of the appropriate potassium n-r-sulfonyldithiocarbimate (rso(2)n=cs(2)k(2)) with nickel(ii) chloride hexahydrate or zinc(ii) acetate dihydrate in metanol:water 1:1. the elemental analyses and the ir data are consistent wi ...200919505726
brazilian mycobiota of the aquatic weed sagittaria montevidensis.nine species of fungi on the aquatic weed sagittaria montevidensis (arrowhead) in southern and southeastern brazil were collected, identified, described and illustrated in a survey for possible biological control agents against this weed. seven of them are anamorphic fungi, alternaria alternata, botrytis cinerea, cercospora apii, cercospora sagittariae, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, plectosporium alismatis and pseudocercospora arthrospora, and two smut fungi, doassansiopsis deformans and naras ...200919537213
colletotrichum gloeosporioides growth-no-growth interface after selected microwave study microwave heating for potential postharvest treatments against anthracnose disease, colletotrichum gloeosporioides growth-no-growth response after selected microwave treatments (2,450 mhz) was fitted by using a logistic regression model. evaluated variables were power level, exposure time, presence or absence of water in the medium during treatment, and incubation-observation time. depending on the setting, the applied power ranged from 77.2 to 435.6 w. for the experiments on dry medium ...200919681265
cgopt1, a putative oligopeptide transporter from colletotrichum gloeosporioides that is involved in responses to auxin and pathogenicity.the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene produces high levels of indole-3-acetic acid (iaa) in axenic cultures and during plant infection. we generated a suppression subtractive hybridization library enriched for iaa-induced genes and identified a clone, which was highly expressed in iaa-containing medium.200919698103
the salicylic acid-induced protection of non-climacteric unripe pepper fruit against colletotrichum gloeosporioides is similar to the resistance of ripe fruit.the anthracnose fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides deleteriously affects unripe pepper fruit, but not ripe fruit. here, we show that the induction of local acquired resistance (lar) by salicylic acid (sa), 2,6-dichloroisonicotinic acid, or benzo-(1,2,3)-thiadiazole-7-carbothioic acid s-methyl ester pretreatment protects unripe pepper fruit against the fungus, while jasmonic acid (ja) does not. the sa-mediated lar in the unripe fruit inhibited the fungal appressoria, resulting in protection ag ...200919701640
specific detection of benzimidazole resistance in colletotrichum gloeosporioides from fruit crops by pcr-rflp.anthracnose diseases, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, are a worldwide problem and are especially important in taiwan owing to the severe economic damage they cause to tropical fruits that are grown for local consumption and export. benzimidazoles are systemic fungicides widely used for controlling these diseases in taiwan. thirty-one isolates of c. gloeosporioides from mango and strawberry grown in taiwan were examined for their sensitivity to benzimidazole fungicides. the responses of ...201019854306
enantioselective analysis of propranolol and 4-hydroxypropranolol by ce with application to biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.a ce method is described for the enantioselective analysis of propranolol (prop) and 4-hydroxypropranolol (4-oh-prop) in liquid czapek medium with application in the study of the enantioselective biotransformation of prop by endophytic fungi. the electrophoretic conditions previously optimized were as follows: an uncoated fused-silica capillary, 4% w/v carboxymethyl-beta-cd in 25 mmol/l triethylamine/phosphoric acid (h(3)po(4)) buffer at ph 9 as running electrolyte and 17 kv of voltage. uv detec ...200919876961
molecular and morphological markers for rapid distinction between 2 colletotrichum species.endophytic microorganisms reside asymptomatically within plants and are a source of new bioactive products for use in medicine, agriculture, and industry. colletotrichum (teleomorph glomerella) is a fungus widely cited in the literature as a producer of antimicrobial substances. identification at the species level, however, has been a problem in this type of study. several authors have reported the presence of endophytic fungi from the medicinal plant maytenus ilicifolia ("espinheira-santa") in ...200919898550
biotransformation of isoimperatorin and imperatorin by glomerella cingulata and beta-secretase inhibitory activity.biotransformation studies conducted on the furanocoumarins isoimperatorin (1) and imperatorin (3) have revealed that 1 was metabolized by glomerella cingulata to give the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-prenyloxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), and 3 was transformed by g. cingulata to give the dealkylated metabolite, xanthotoxol (4) in high yields (83% and 81%), respectively. the structures of the new compound 2 have been established on the basis of spectral data. the metabolites 2 and 4 were t ...201019939683
polygalacturonase inhibiting protein: isolation, developmental regulation and pathogen related expression in panax ginseng c.a. meyer.polygalacturonase inhibiting proteins (pgips) are the major defense proteins which play an important role in resistance to infection of pathogens. a putative novel gene encoding pgip was isolated from panax ginseng c.a. meyer, which shows 70.3 and 68.4% homology with chick pea and arabidopsis pgips. the race pcr was preformed to isolate the full-length pgip cdna from panax ginseng. sequence analysis revealed that the cdna of pgpgip is of 1,275 bp in length and that it's containing orf encodes fo ...201019946753
in vivo and in vitro investigations of fungal keratitis caused by colletotrichum report a case of fungal keratitis caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, which is a rare pathogen in humans.200920028265
suppression of sos-inducing activity of chemical mutagens by metabolites from microbial transformation of (-) this study, biotransformation of (-)-isolongifolene (1) by glomerella cingulata and suppressive effect on umuc gene expression by chemical mutagens 2-(2-furyl)-3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)acrylamide (furylfuramide) and aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)) of the sos response in salmonella typhimurium ta1535/psk1002 were investigated. initially, 1 was carried out the microbial transformation by g. cingulata. the result found that 1 was converted into (-)-isolongifolen-9-one (2), (-)-(2s)-13-hydroxy-isolongifolen-9- ...201020108941
additions to the mycobiota of the invasive weed miconia calvescens (melastomataceae).miconia calvescens (melastomataceae) is a shrub or small tree native to the neotropics that has become one of the worst invaders of forest ecosystems, particularly in pacific islands such as hawaii and french polynesia. it has been a target for biological control for more than 10 y, both with arthropod and pathogen natural enemies. until now colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. miconiae was the only organism to be used in biological control against this weed. this fungus was introduced both in ...201020120231
ph regulation of ammonia secretion by colletotrichum gloeosporioides and its effect on appressorium formation and alkalinization via ammonia accumulation is key to colletotrichum spp. colonization. using macroarrays carrying c. gloeosporioides cdnas, we monitored gene expression during the alkalinization process. a set of genes involved in synthesis and catabolism of ammonia accumulation were identified. expression of nad(+)-specific glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh2, encoding ammonia synthesis) and the ammonia exporter amet were induced at ph 4.0 to 4.5. conversely, ammonia uptake and transcript ac ...201020121452
production of biosurfactant lipopeptides iturin a, fengycin and surfactin a from bacillus subtilis cmb32 for control of colletotrichum gloeosporioides.a bacterial strain isolated from soil for its potential to control the anthracnose disease caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides was identified as a bacillus subtilis. bacillus subtilis cmb32 produced antifungal agents on m9 broth at 30degreesc. biosurfactant lipopeptides produced by bacillus subtilis cmb32 were precipitated by adjusting to ph 2 and extracting using chloroform/methanol, and then were purified using column chromatography and reverse-phase hplc. molecular masses of the lipopept ...201020134245
a cona-like lectin from dioclea guianensis benth. has antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides, unlike its homologues, conm and cona.this study reports on the antifungal activity of dgui, a cona-like lectin from dioclea guianensis seeds. dgui inhibited conidial germination but not mycelial growth of colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the lectins cona and conm from canavalia ensiformis and canavalia maritima, respectively, share high levels of amino acid sequence similarity (>84%) with dgui and have the same specificity toward glucose/mannose but had no effect on the fungus. fluorescence microscopy showed that both dgui and conm ...201020201549
electroporation and agrobacterium-mediated spore transformation.genetic transformation is a key technology in modern fungal research. most commonly, protoplasts are transformed using the polyethylene glycol-mediated transformation protocols. because protoplasts are generated by treatment of mycelia with a crude enzyme preparation, the results tend to be inconsistent. furthermore, some species cannot be transformed by this method. electroporation (ep) and agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (amt) are two alternative methods. these methods allow ...201020238258
identification of endophytic bacterial strain mgp1 selected from papaya and its biocontrol effects on pathogens infecting harvested papaya fruit.traditional approaches to the control of diseases of papaya fruit rely on the use of synthetic chemicals, which can cause serious human health and environmental problems. endophytes might be used as an alternative to chemicals to effectively control diseases of harvested papaya fruit.201020355035
microbial transformation of (-)-isolongifolol by plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata.the biotransformation of terpenoids using the plant pathogenic fungus as a biocatalyst to produce useful novel organic compounds was investigated. the biotransformation of sesquiterpen alcohol, (-)-isolongifolol (1) was investigated using plant pathogenic fungus glomerella cingulata as a biocatalyst. compound 1 was converted to (-)-(3r)-3-hydroxy-isolongifolol and (-)-(9r)-9-hydroxy-isolongifolol by g. cingulata.201020431240
pelb gene in isolates of colletotrichum gloeosporioides from several hosts.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important pathogen for a great number of economically important crops. during the necrotrophic phase of infection by colletotrichum spp, the degradative enzymes of plant cell walls, such as pectate lyase, clearly increase. a gene pelb that expresses a pectate lyase was identified in isolates of c. gloeosporioides in avocado pathogens. various molecular studies have identified a kind of specialization of c. gloeosporioides isolates with specific hosts; however ...201020449798
biotransformation of bergapten and xanthotoxin by glomerella cingulata.the biotransformation of bergapten (1) by the fungus glomerella cingulata gave the corresponding reduced acid, 6,7-furano-5-methoxy hydrocoumaric acid (2), a new compound. xanthotoxin (3) was also converted to the corresponding reduced acid cnidiol b (4) and demethylated metabolite xanthotoxol (5) by g. cingulata. the structure of the new compound 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry, extensive nmr techniques, including (1)h nmr and (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h correlation spectroscopy, ...201020527746
diketopiperazines produced by endophytic fungi found in association with two asteraceae species.diketopiperazine (dkp) derivatives, named colletopiperazine, fusaperazine c and e as well as four known dkps were isolated from cultures of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, penicillium crustosum, both endophytic fungi isolated from viguiera robusta, and a fusarium spp., an endophyte of viguiera arenaria, respectively. their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data. conformational analysis of two known dkps showed that folded conformations were as energetically stable a ...201020541231
high-efficiency transformation and selective tolerance against biotic and abiotic stress in mulberry, morus indica cv. k2, by constitutive and inducible expression of tobacco osmotin.osmotin and osmotin-like proteins are stress proteins belonging to the plant pr-5 group of proteins induced in several plant species in response to various types of biotic and abiotic stresses. we report here the overexpression of tobacco osmotin in transgenic mulberry plants under the control of a constitutive promoter (camv 35s) as well as a stress-inducible rd29a promoter. southern analysis of the transgenic plants revealed the stable integration of the introduced genes in the transformants. ...201120549349
expression of delta(12) fatty acid desaturase during the induced accumulation of the antifungal diene in avocado fruits.summary the preformed (z,z)-1-acetoxy-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-heneicosa-12,15-diene (afd) is the most active antifungal compound in avocado; it affects the quiescence of colletotrichum gloeosporioides in unripe fruit. one of the genes encoding delta(12) fatty acid desaturase (avfad12) was hypothesized to take part in the biosynthesis of afd, and its expression pattern and enzymatic activity were determined in relation to the content of afd. using avfad12-3 as a probe, high levels of expression were dete ...200420565631
entry mode-dependent function of an indole glucosinolate pathway in arabidopsis for nonhost resistance against anthracnose pathogens.when faced with nonadapted fungal pathogens, arabidopsis thaliana mounts nonhost resistance responses, which typically result in the termination of early pathogenesis steps. we report that nonadapted anthracnose fungi engage two alternative entry modes during pathogenesis on leaves: turgor-mediated invasion beneath melanized appressoria, and a previously undiscovered hyphal tip-based entry (hte) that is independent of appressorium formation. the frequency of hte is positively regulated by carboh ...201020605856
extending the fungal host range of a partitivirus and a mycoreovirus from rosellinia necatrix by inoculation of protoplasts with virus particles.the potential host range of mycoviruses is poorly understood because of the lack of suitable inoculation methods. recently, successful transfection has been reported for somatically incompatible fungal isolates with purified virus particles of two mycoviruses, the partitivirus rnpv1-w8 (rnpv1) and the mycoreovirus rnmyrv3/w370 (myrv3), from the white root rot fungus rosellinia necatrix (class sordariomycetes, subclass xylariomycetidae). these studies examined and revealed the effect of the mycov ...201020701490
sexual recombination in colletotrichum lindemuthianum occurs on a fine scale.glomerella cingulata f. sp phaseoli is the sexual phase of the fungus colletotrichum lindemuthianum, the causal agent of common bean anthracnose. this fungus is of great concern, because it causes large economic losses in common bean crops. rapd markers of five populations of g. cingulata f. sp phaseoli from two brazilian states were analyzed to determine if this population possesses the sexual reproductive potential to generate the genetic variation that is observed in this phytopathogen. we id ...201020830667
metallocene catalyzed synthesis of fungistatic vicinal aminoalcohols under solvent free 4 and 5 metallocenes, cp(2)ticl(2), cp(2)zrcl(2) and cp(2)vcl(2), have been evaluated as catalyst in the solvent free, room temperature, preparation of vicinal aminoalcohols. the regioselectivity of the reaction and the fungistatic activity of the prepared compounds against botrytis cinerea and colletotrichum gloeosporioides are discussed.201020864345
colletotrichum gloeosporioides s.l. associated with theobroma cacao and other plants in panama: multilocus phylogenies distinguish host-associated pathogens from asymptomatic endophytes.colletotrichum interacts with numerous plant species overtly as symptomatic pathogens and cryptically as asymptomatic endophytes. it is not known whether these contrasting ecological modes are optional strategies expressed by individual colletotrichum species or whether a species' ecology is explicitly pathogenic or endophytic. we explored this question by inferring relationships among 77 c. gloeosporioides s.l. strains isolated from asymptomatic leaves and from anthracnose lesions on leaves and ...201020943565
the fungicidal terpenoids and essential oil from litsea cubeba in tibet.a new c₉ monoterpenoid acid (litseacubebic acid, 1) and a known monoterpene lactone (6r)-3,7-dimethyl-7-hydroxy-2-octen-6-olide (2), along with three known compounds--vanillic acid (3), trans-3,4,5-trimethoxylcinnamyl alcohol (4), and oxonantenine (5)--were isolated with bioassay-guided purification from the fruit extract of litsea cubeba collected in tibet. the structure of 1 was elucidated by ms, ¹h-nmr, ¹³c-nmr, cosy, hsqc, hmbc, noe spectral data as 2,6-dimethyl-6-hydroxy-2e,4e-hepta-2,4-die ...201020944522
identification of a passiflora alata curtis dimeric peptide showing identity with 2s albumins.antifungal proteins and peptides, essential compounds for plant defense, have been isolated from several tissues of various plants. these proteins could be used as a natural alternative to control phytopathogenic fungi. in this report a heterodimeric antifungal protein named pa-afp1, showing higher identity with the 2s albumin family, was purified by using 70-100% ammonium sulfate saturation and further purification steps such as anionic exchange q-sepharose chromatography associated with hplc r ...201020955745
enhanced resistance to fungal pathogens in transgenic populus tomentosa carr. by overexpression of an nsltp-like antimicrobial protein gene from motherwort (leonurus japonicus).the antimicrobial protein gene ljamp2 is a plant non-specific lipid transfer protein from motherwort (leonurus japonicus). in this study, it was introduced into chinese white poplar (populus tomentosa carr.) via agrobacterium-mediated transformation with neomycin phosphotransferase ii gene conferring kanamycin resistance as selectable marker. a total of 16 poplar lines were obtained, and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) analysis established the stable integration of transgenes in the plant genome ...201021084346
[characterization of a bacterial biocontrol strain 1404 and its efficacy in controlling postharvest citrus anthracnose].anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides (penz.) sacc. is a main disease in citrus production. to develop an effective biocontrol measure against citrus postharvest anthracnose, we screened antagonistic microbes and obtained a bacterial strain 1404 from the rhizospheric soil of chili plants in nanning city, guangxi, china. the objectives of the present study were to: (1) identify and characterize the antagonistic bacterium; and (2) to evaluate the efficacy of the antagonistic strain ...201021090261
evaluation of lactoperoxidase system treatment to reduce anthracnose, stem-end rot, and bacterial black spot development during storage of mangoes.the lactoperoxidase system (lps) was evaluated for the prevention of postharvest diseases caused by xanthomonas campestris, botryodiplodia theobromae, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'keitt' and 'kent' mangoes. the lps treatment significantly reduced the disease development on both cultivars after storage at 12 degrees c for 2 weeks, which was followed by a ripening at 25 degrees c. the lps treatment did not alter the sensory quality of mango fruits (color, firmness, titrable acidity, and ...200521132977
characterization of colletotrichum species associated with diseases of proteaceae.colletotrichum spp. are known to occur on and cause diseases of proteaceae, but their identities are confused and poorly understood. the aim of the present study thus was to identify accurately the colletotrichum spp. associated with diseases of cultivated proteaceae. colletotrichum spp. associated with proteaceous hosts growing in various parts of the world were identified based on morphology, sequence data of the internal transcribed spacer region (its-1, its-2), the 5.8s gene, and partial seq ...200421148951
colonization of cashew plants by lasiodiplodia theobromae: microscopical features.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing gummosis, a threatening disease for cashew plants in brazil. in an attempt to investigate the ultrastructural features of the pathogen colonization and its response to immunofluorescence labeling, light, confocal and electron microscope studies were conducted on different severity scale patterns of diseased plants. lasiodiplodia-antisera was checked for cross reactivity against common cashew plants fungi. optical microscopy analysis re ...201021194959
bioactive xanthones from the roots of hypericum perforatum (common st john's wort).extracts of hypericum perforatum l. (common st john's wort; hypericaceae) are sold as phytopharmaceuticals and herbal supplements to treat mild to moderate depression and as food additives. extensively cultivated in europe, plants can be infected by anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides), a virulent fungal pathogen that causes tissue necrosis and dramatically decreases crop value. such infections triggered the production of new secondary metabolites, specifically xanthones, in cell culture ...201021218475
novel bioactive metabolites producing endophytic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides against multidrug-resistant staphylococcus aureus.the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria such as staphylococcus aureus calls for inventive research and development strategies. inhibition of this bacterial pathogenesis may be a promising therapeutic approach. the screening of antimicrobial compounds from endophytes is a promising way to meet the increasing threat of drug-resistant strains of human and plant pathogens. in the present study, a novel endophytic fungus, colletotrichum gloeosporioides, was isolated from the medicinal plant vi ...201121219448
generation and analysis of expressed sequence tags (ests) for marker development in yam (dioscorea alata l.).anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) is a major limiting factor in the production of yam (dioscorea spp.) worldwide. availability of high quality sequence information is necessary for designing molecular markers associated with resistance. however, very limited sequence information pertaining to yam is available at public genome databases. therefore, this collaborative project was developed for genetic improvement and germplasm characterization of yams using molecular markers. the curren ...201121303556
osmotin purified from the latex of calotropis procera: biochemical characterization, biological activity and role in plant defense.a protein, similar to osmotin- and thaumatin-like proteins, was purified from calotropis procera (ait.) latex. the isolation procedure required two cation exchange chromatography steps on 50mm na-acetate buffer (ph 5.0) cm-sepharose fast flow and 25 mm na-phosphate buffer (ph 6.0) resource-s, respectively. the protein purity was confirmed by an unique n-terminal sequence [atftirnncpytiwaaavpgggrrlnsggtwtinvapgta]. the osmotin (cposm) appeared as a single band (20,100 da) in sodium dodecyl s ...201121334906
pathogenicity for onion and genetic diversity of isolates of the pathogenic fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides (phyllachoraceae) from the state of pernambuco, brazil.onion anthracnose, caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides, is one of the main diseases of onions in the state of pernambuco. we examined the pathogenicity of 15 c. gloeosporioides strains and analyzed their genetic variability using rapds and internal transcribed spacers (its) of the rdna region. ten of the strains were obtained from substrates and hosts other than onion, including chayote (sechium edule), guava (psidium guajava), pomegranate (punica granatum), water from the capibaribe river, ...201121365546
microbial metabolism of a-mangostin isolated from garcinia mangostana l.a-mangostin (1), a prenylated xanthone isolated from the fruit hull of garcinia mangostana l., was individually metabolized by two fungi, colletotrichum gloeosporioides (eyl131) and neosartorya spathulata (eyr042), repectively. incubation of 1 with c. gloeosporioides (eyl131) gave four metabolites which were identified as mangostin 3-sulfate (2), mangostanin 6-sulfate (3), 17,18-dihydroxymangostanin 6-sulfate (4)and isomangostanin 3-sulfate (5). compound 2 was also formed by incubation with n. s ...201121377704
identification of actinomycetes from plant rhizospheric soils with inhibitory activity against colletotrichum spp., the causative agent of anthracnose disease. 201121457542
regulation of pathogenic spore germination by cgrac1 in the fungal plant pathogen colletotrichum gloeosporioides.colletotrichum gloeosporioides is a facultative plant pathogen: it can live as a saprophyte on dead organic matter or as a pathogen on a host plant. different patterns of conidial germination have been recognized under saprophytic and pathogenic conditions, which also determine later development. here we describe the role of cgrac1 in regulating pathogenic germination. the hallmark of pathogenic germination is unilateral formation of a single germ tube following the first cell division. however, ...201121460190
species delimitation in fungal endophyte diversity studies and its implications in ecological and biogeographic inferences.the estimation of species diversity in fungal endophyte communities is based either on species counts or on the assignment of operational taxonomic units (otus). consequently, the application of different species recognition criteria affects not only diversity estimates but also the ecological hypotheses that arise from those observations. the main objective of the study was to examine how the choice and number of genetic markers and species delimitation criteria influence biodiversity estimates ...201121557783
effect of jasmonates on ethylene biosynthesis and aroma volatile emission in japanese apricot infected by a pathogen (colletotrichum gloeosporioides).the effects of the application of the jasmonic acid derivative n-propyl dihydrojasmonate (pdj) on ethylene biosynthesis, volatile compounds, and endogenous jasmonic acid (ja) and methyl jasmonate (meja) were examined in japanese apricot (prunus mume sieb.) infected by a pathogen (colletotrichum gloeosporioides). the fruit were dipped into 0.4 mm pdj solution before inoculation with the pathogen and stored at 25 °c for 6 days. the inoculation induced an increase in 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxyli ...201121599017
arabidopsis enhanced disease resistance 1 is required for pathogen-induced expression of plant defensins in nonhost resistance and acts through interference of myc2-mediated repressor function.arabidopsis thaliana exhibits durable resistance, called nonhost resistance, against non-adapted fungal pathogens that typically terminates pathogen entry. the pen2-dependent indole glucosinolate metabolism pathway is involved in preventing entry of a range of non-adapted fungi. here, we report that enhanced disease resistance 1 (edr1) functions in pre-invasive nonhost resistance. plants lacking edr1 exhibit impaired entry resistance to the non-adapted hemibiotrophic colletotrichum gloeosporioid ...201121605210
immunohistochemical investigation of the necrotrophic phase of the fungus colletotrichum gloeosporioides in the biocontrol of hemp sesbania (sesbania exaltata; papilionaceae).• premise of the study: fungal plant pathogens exert much of their effect on plant cells through alterations in the host cell walls. however, obtaining biochemical proof for this change is difficult because of the relatively small number of cells that are affected by the pathogen relative to the bulk of host tissue. in this study, we examined the differences in host wall composition between infected and uninfected areas of seedlings of the weed hemp sesbania (sesbania exaltata) that were treated ...201021616840
bioactive metabolites from phoma species, an endophytic fungus from the chinese medicinal plant arisaema erubescens.through bioassay-guided fractionation, the etoac extract of a culture broth of the endophytic fungus phoma species zjwcf006 in arisaema erubescens afforded a new α-tetralone derivative, (3s)-3,6,7-trihydroxy-α-tetralone (1), together with cercosporamide (2), β-sitosterol (3), and trichodermin (4). the structures of compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic analyses. compounds 1, 2, and 3 were obtained from phoma species for the first time. additionally, the compounds were subjecte ...201121814808
clinical characteristics of keratitis due to colletotrichum gloeosporioides.abstract purpose: to determine the characteristics of the keratitis due to colletotrichum gloeosporioides. methods: the medical records of 3 cases of fungal keratitis caused by c. gloeosporioides were reviewed to determine the clinical characteristics. the minimal inhibitory concentrations of different antifungal drugs for all 3 isolates were determined. all 3 isolates were grown on sabouraud dextrose agar at 25°c, 35°c, and 37°c to determine the temperature-sensitive growth. results: all 3 pati ...201121770739
genetic differentiation of colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. truncatum associated with anthracnose disease of papaya (carica papaya l.) and bell pepper (capsium annuum l.) based on its pcr-rflp fingerprinting.members of the genus colletotrichum include some of the most economically important fungal pathogens in the world. accurate diagnosis is critical to devising disease management strategies. two species, colletotrichum gloeosporioides and c. truncatum, are responsible for anthracnose disease in papaya (carica papaya l.) and bell pepper (capsicum annuum l.) in trinidad. the its1-5.8s-its2 region of 48 colletotrichum isolates was sequenced, and the its pcr products were analyzed by pcr-rflp analysis ...201121720933
antifungal activity of sakurasosaponin from the root extract of jacquinia flammea.the methanolic crude extract from the roots of jacquinia flammea showed moderate antifungal activity against dermatophytes and very strong antifungal activity against colletotrichum gloeosporioides. the bioassay-guided purification of the extract, using a combination of vacuum-liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography, allowed the identification of sakurasosaponin as the main metabolite responsible for the antifungal activity.201121740284
biological control of anthracnose (colletotrichum gloeosporioides) in yam by streptomyces find a suitable biocontrol agent for yam anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.201121714834
Reduction of quinones and phenoxy radicals by extracellular glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata suggests a role in plant pathogenicity.The plant-pathogenic fungus Glomerella cingulata (anamorph Colletotrichum gloeosporoides) secretes high levels of an FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) when grown on tomato juice-supplemented media. To elucidate its molecular and catalytic properties, GDH was produced in submerged culture. The highest volumetric activity was obtained in shaking flasks after 6 days of cultivation (3400 U l?¹, 4.2?% of total extracellular protein). GDH is a monomeric protein with an isoelectric point of 5.6 ...201121903757
microbial transformation of isopimpinellin by glomerella cingulata.microbial transformation studies conducted on isopimpinellin (1) by the fungus glomerella cingulata have revealed that 1 was metabolized to give the corresponding reduced acid, 5,8-dimethoxy-6,7-furano-hydrocoumaric acid (2). the structure of metabolite 2 was elucidated by high-resolution mass spectrometry (hr-ms), extensive nmr techniques, including (1)h nmr, (13)c nmr, (1)h-(1)h correlation spectroscopy (cosy), heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence (hmqc) and heteonuclear multiple bond cohe ...201122027023
Antimicrobial action effect and stability of nanosized silica hybrid Ag complex.Nanosized silica hybrid silver complex (NSS) showing strong antifungal activity, in which nanosilver (nano-Ag) was bound to silica (SiO2) molecules, was synthesized via gamma-irradiation at room temperature. NSS was characterized via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDXS), ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectrophotometer, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FESEM images and EDXS data showed that well-dispersed 3-to-10-nm Ag nanopartic ...201122121607
structural analysis of fungal cerebrosides.of the ceramide monohexosides (cmhs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical ...201122164155
Electron-Transfer Studies with a New Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide Dependent Glucose Dehydrogenase and Osmium Polymers of Different Redox Potentials.A new extracellular flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD)-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from Glomerella cingulata (GcGDH) was electrochemically studied as a recognition element in glucose biosensors. The redox enzyme was recombinantly produced in Pichia pastoris and homogeneously purified, and its glucose-oxidizing properties on spectrographic graphite electrodes were investigated. Six different Os polymers, the redox potentials of which ranged in a broad potential window between +15 and +489 ...201122091984
a novel antifungal protein from seeds of sesbania virgata (cav.) pers. (leguminosae-faboideae).a novel antifungal protein with a molecular mass around 50 kda was purified from seeds of sesbania virgata (cav.) pers. using ammonium sulfate fractionation followed by gel filtration on a sephadex g-75 superfine (sigma) column and reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography on a c8 column. the protein, designated fp1-a, with a novel n-terminal sequence amvhspgg(s)fs(p), showed growth inhibitory activity of filamentous fungi aspergillus niger, cladosporium cladosporioides, colletotrichu ...201121881792
Application of the Apn2/MAT locus to improve the systematics of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides complex: An example from coffee (Coffea spp.) hosts.To improve phylogenetic resolution of the Colletotrichum gloeosporioides species complex we developed and tested the performance of a new set of primers for the Apn2/MAT locus with a case study of 22 isolates. These were isolated mainly from coffee plants and represent six divergent and well characterized species within the C. gloeosporioides complex. Following previous studies on this locus, we have generated sequence data from an expanded region (>4600 bp), revealing increased phylogenetic inf ...201122086913
A new antifungal coumarin from Clausena excavata.A new ?-lactone coumarin, named as excavarin-A, showing antifungal activity was isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata by bioassay guided fractionation method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and identified as 7((2E)-4(4,5-dihydro-3-methylene-2-oxo-5-furanyl)-3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) coumarin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against fifteen fungal strains pathogenic against plants and human. The least MIC was recorded against the human patho ...201222088496
Heterologous overexpression of Glomerella cingulata FAD-dependent glucose dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli and Pichia pastoris.ABSTRACT:201122151971
[identification and antagonistic activities of an endophytic bacterium mgp3 isolated from papaya fruit].postharvest decay resulted from anthracnose caused by pathogens colletotrichum gloeosporioides and blight diseases caused by phytophthora nicotianae leads to significant loss of papaya fruits. in order to reduce such loss, we isolated endophytic bacteria that may possess powerful antagonistic activities toward these pathogens for effective biological control of anthracnose and blight diseases.201122126080
diversity and antimicrobial activities of the fungal endophyte community associated with the traditional brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. (solanaceae).the diversity and antimicrobial activity of endophytic fungi associated with the brazilian medicinal plant solanum cernuum vell. were studied during summer and winter seasons. a total of 246 fungal isolates were obtained, including 225 filamentous fungi and 21 yeasts. they were identified by morphological, physiological, and molecular methods. fifty-five different taxa represented by the phyla ascomycota (33 taxa), basidiomycota (21 taxa), and zygomycota (one taxon) were identified. the most a ...201122182199
cloning and characterization of a pectin lyase gene from colletotrichum lindemuthianum and comparative phylogenetic/structural analyses with genes from phytopathogenic and saprophytic/opportunistic microorganisms.abstract: background: microorganisms produce cell-wall-degrading enzymes as part of their strategies for plant invasion/nutrition. among these, pectin lyases (pnls) catalyze the depolymerization of esterified pectin by a beta-elimination mechanism. pnls are grouped together with pectate lyases (pl) in family 1 of the polysaccharide lyases, as they share a conserved structure in a parallel beta-helix. the best-characterized fungal pectin lyases are obtained from saprophytic/opportunistic fungi i ...201122151976
isolation and characterization of trichoderma spp. for antagonistic activity against root rot and foliar pathogens.trichoderma, soil-borne filamentous fungi, are capable of parasitising several plant pathogenic fungi. twelve isolates of trichoderma spp. isolated from different locations of south andaman were characterized for their cultural, morphological and antagonistic activity against soil borne and foliar borne pathogens. the sequencing of these isolates showed seven different species. the isolates revealed differential reaction patterns against the test pathogens viz., sclerotium rolfsii, colletotrichu ...201123729873
production of prodigiosin and chitinases by tropical serratia marcescens strains with potential to control plant pathogens.the potential of three serratia marcescens strains (cffsur-b2, cffsur-b3 and cffsur-b4) isolated from tropical regions in mexico to inhibit the mycelial growth and conidial germination of colletotrichum gloeosporioides, causal agent of fruit anthracnose, was evaluated. the ability of these strains to produce prodigiosin and chitinases when cultivated in oil seed-based media (peanut, sesame, soybean and castor bean) and in luria-bertani medium was determined. all of the strains exhibited similar ...201122806790
diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of tamil nadu (india) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. the oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. high shannon-index h' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). maximum colonization frequency (%) was observed for lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). dominance i ...201122806781
the ex situ comparison of two improved st. john's wort (hypericum perforatum) cultivars with an iranian wild population.this research is part of an ongoing selection and breeding effort to target iranian genotypes of hypericum perforatum with the potential to produce higher amounts of desired secondary metabolites and greater resistance to fungal pathogens. there is a significant interest in the development of such cultivars to supply materials to the local pharmaceutical industries. for this reason, two improved cultivars of h. perforatum ("gold" and "veperikon") were compared with a wild iranian population (ard ...201122661825
identification and biocontrol efficacy of streptomyces miharaensis producing filipin iii against fusarium wilt.a number of bacterial strains were isolated from the internal tissue of trapa japonica. of these, strain kpe62302h, which had a 16s rdna sequence identical to that of streptomyces miharaensis showed antifungal activity against several plant pathogens. treatment of seeds with strain kpe62302h induced a significant reduction in the incidence of fusarium wilt in tomato plants compared with untreated controls. an antifungal substance (fp-1) was purified from the culture extract of strain kpe62302h u ...201122460913
antifungal activity and isomerization of octadecyl p-coumarates from ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa.bioassay monitored hplc assisted isolation and purification of the chief antifungal fraction of the leaves of ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa (convulvulaceae) were achieved using colletotrichum gloeosporioides and cladosporium cucumerinum as test organisms. the activity of the purified fraction was further confirmed by the dose dependent inhibition of the spore germination of alternaria alternata and a. porri. the active fraction was identified as a mixture of (e)-octadecyl p-coumarate and (z)-o ...201122312731
antifungal activity in ethanolic extracts of carica papaya l. cv. maradol leaves and seeds.bioactive compounds from vegetal sources are a potential source of natural antifungic. an ethanol extraction was used to obtain bioactive compounds from carica papaya l. cv. maradol leaves and seeds of discarded ripe and unripe fruit. both, extraction time and the papaya tissue flour:organic solvent ratio significantly affected yield, with the longest time and highest flour:solvent ratio producing the highest yield. the effect of time on extraction efficiency was confirmed by qualitative identif ...201122282629
screening of jatropha curcas genotypes to anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides.anthracnose caused by colletotrichum gloeosporioides is an important physic nut (jatropha curcas) disease causing damages on leaves, stems and fruits and consequently a decrease in seed quantity and quality. physic nut is a native plant of central america that has gained international attention due to its potential as biodiesel crop. however despite its highest relevance, studies concerning the response of different jatropha genotypes to infection with this disease are very limited. the main obj ...201122702181
glutathione and tryptophan metabolism are required for arabidopsis immunity during the hypersensitive response to hemibiotrophs.the hypersensitive response (hr) is a type of strong immune response found in plants that is accompanied by localized cell death. however, it is unclear how hr can block a broad range of pathogens with different infective modes. in this study, we report that γ-glutamylcysteine synthetase gsh1, which is critical for glutathione biosynthesis, and tryptophan (trp) metabolism contribute to hr and block development of fungal pathogens with hemibiotrophic infective modes. we found that gsh1 is involve ...201323696664
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