TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
the distribution of rickettsia in the tissues of insects and the absence of a satisfactory definition of rickettsia the observations herein recorded were arbitrarily limited to bacterium-like organisms which are intracellular and gram-negative. rickettsia of this type were found in the following species: amblyomma americana, amblyomma hebraeum, boophilus decoloratus, atomus sp., casinaria infesta, chrysopa oculata, ctenocephalus canis, dermacentor variabilis, lepisma saccharina, lucoppia curviseta, margaropus annulatus, margaropus annulatus australis, ...192319868737
habituation of pulex irritans to animal host. 194521020359
transmission of salmonella enteritidis by pulex irritans and ctenocephalus canis. 194617790174
transmission of salmonella enteritidis by pulex irritans and ctenocephalus canis. 194620994016
different response of pulex irritans to ddt dusting and to ddt emulsion spraying in a field experiment. 195313143382
a preliminary note on the occurrence of pulex irritans l. and pulex simulans baker in north america. 195813576273
culture methods for the fleas pulex irritans (l.) and pulex simulans (baker). 195820604043
the susceptibility to dieldrin of pulex irritans and pediculus humanus corporis in the pare area of north-east tanganyika. 195913831868
clinical and epidemiological observations on an outbreak of plague in the autumn of 1967, plague broke out among hill people in western nepal, a country that had not previously reported human plague. two persons were infected from an active sylvatic focus at a grazing area 5 km from nawra, the village where the epidemic occurred. the second patient introduced plague into the village where the rest of the cases occurred. clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that plague was spread both by the airborne route, resulting in 6 cases of tonsillar plague and ...19715317008
the incidence of pulex irritans l. (siphonaptera) on pigs and its resistance to chlorinated hydrocarbons. 19724670848
[development of pulex irritans l., 1758 fleas under experimental conditions]. 19734777803
public health implications of pulex irritans infestations of dogs. 19744421000
[pulex irritans, a human flea in the plaque infection focus at general mobutu lakd region (formerly lake albert): epidemiologic significance]. 19744549199
intermittent chemotherapy of pulmonary tuberculosis using rifampicin and isoniazed for primary treatment: the influence of various factors on the frequency off side-effects.after studying more than 1,000 siphonaptera tera collected from about 300 wild carnivora (with a majority of foxes, vulpes vulpes), in the north-east of france, the authors state more precisely the biology and chorology of the main fleas collected: pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis felis, c, canis, chaetopsylla globiceps, ch. rothschildi, ch. trichosa, paraceras melis melis. 9 other species are also noted.1976937975
[pediculus vestimentorum, sarcoptes scabiei, pulex irritans. scanning electron microscopy]. 1978418026
[presence of pulex irritans l. (siphonaptera) in burundi, plague risk area]. 1979261935
[plague in central germany in the 17th century].it is reported on the experiences from several events of epidemic plague in the 17th century, above all in middle germany. documentary material and the historic literature belonging to this served as basis. the mortality rates of plague are discussed, which proved as relatively different. the seasonal courses of the individual epidemics are discussed, which took place above all in the months july, august and september and finished in winter, what is connected with the biology of the flea. it is ...19817027647
a survey of cats and dogs for fleas: with particular reference to their role as intermediate hosts of dipylidium caninum.three species of fleas, viz. ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis, and pulex irritans were found in an examination of 81 cats and 48 dogs in wellington. c. felis was the most prevalent flea in cats, and c. canis predominated in dogs. it is speculated that c. felis, and its primary host the cat, may assume greater medical and veterinary significance than c. canis. in an examination of 1578 fleas for cysticercoids of the dog tapeworm, dipylidium caninum, all were found negative. these resu ...198416031050
[flea detection (siphonaptera) in dogs at the intake area of the magdeburg polyclinic for small house and zoo animals].two random investigations carried out in 1981/1982 established 203 fleas of 5 species in a sex incidence of 1:2.4 (60 males/143 females) on 48 dogs: ctenocephalides felis occurred most frequently in an extent of infestation of 13 (1981) and 9 (1982) in 24 dogs with a population density of 1.1 to 1.9 specimens/animals, followed by c. canis with 8 (1981) and 11 (1982) from 24 dogs in a greater density of 2.3 to 5 per host. in this c. felis occurs more frequently in "town dogs": 15 identifications ...19853879113
[fleas (siphonaptera) in the human environment. analytic findings between 1961-1983 in the district of leipzig (east germany). ii. spacial and temporal distribution].during the last 20 years there has been very little infestation with fleas in the district of leipzig. out of the 8 species only pulex irritans and ctenocephalides felis are of hygienic concern. greater numbers of them were found in densely populated urban districts. origins of infestation were mainly dogs and cats kept in unhygienic conditions, and retreats of feral cats. there have been changes in the dominance of fleas associated with man. p. irritans probably had been the dominant species fo ...19854003847
flea species from dogs and cats in north-central florida.fleas were identified after removal from 100 dogs and 60 cats following routine presentation at a veterinary hospital in gainesville, fl. ctenocephalides felis comprised 92.4% and 99.8% of the fleas taken from dogs and cats respectively. pulex irritans accounted for 7.5% of the fleas found on dogs and for 0.2% of those found on cats. echidnophagia gallinacia was found on one dog. of the 100 dogs, 80 were infested with c. felis alone, one with p. irritans alone, and 18 carried a mixed infestation ...19873564340
[flea infestation establishment in the east german district of rostock].from sendings of citizens and own examinations 9 species of fleas were found out. ctenocephalides felis was the most frequent species, followed by ceratophyllus gallinae and pulex irritans. most of the sendings came from cities. pests and flea control dominated in the months august to october.19892729648
records of ectoparasites on humans and sheep from viking-age deposits in the former western settlement of greenland.during recent archaeological excavations in viking greenland, specimens of the human flea, pulex irritans l., and the body louse, pediculus humanus humanus l., were recovered from several farmsteads. bovicola ovis (schrank) and the sheep ked, melophagus ovinus (l.), also were found in associated deposits. the specimens were dated from about ad 990 to ad 1350. these finds raise questions about the levels of hygiene of the viking farmers and open some interesting medical and biogeographical conund ...19902201769
[notes on fleas (siphonaptera) in plague foci on the tay nguyen plateau (vietnam)].the fleas of wild and commensal small mammals, domestic animals (dogs, cats) and free-living flea forms in houses have been collected in plague nidi of tay nguyen plate, dak-lak province, vietnam. pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis felis, ct. felis orientis were found in the houses on dogs, cats and on the ground floor. commensal rats in populated areas were infested by xenopsylla cheopis and rarely by lentistivalius klossi. the agricultural zone was inhabited by both home and wild animals su ...19921299806
a decade of plague epidemiology and control in the western usambara mountains, north-east tanzania.outbreaks of human plague have been occurring in the western usambara mountains since 1980, involving many cases and deaths. epidemiological surveys and control activities were carried out from june 1980 to may 1990. rodents were trapped live, identified and serologically tested for plague, using the passive haemagglutination and passive haemagglutination inhibition tests. rodent fleas were collected, processed, identified and counted. house fleas were caught with light traps and similarly treat ...19921356303
the seasonal abundance of gerbillus pyramidum and their flea ectoparasites in al arish, north sinai governorate, egypt.the seasonal abundance and the flea ectoparasites of gerbillus pyramidum were studied. the results showed that the jerboa was more common in summer (jerboa index 0.43) and least common in winter (jerboa index 0.35). the overall male to female ratio was 4.2:1. the flea ectoparasites were more common in autumn (flea index 10.5) and least common in summer (flea index 6.8). the overall flea index was 8.75 and the majority of fleas (90.9%) was collected on male jerboa. the collected fleas in a descen ...19938482875
[the present status of the conquest of tropical africa by pulex irritans linnaeus, 1758].owing to human parasites, two fleas, namely pulex irritans linné, 1758 and tunga penetrans (l., 1758) were brought from america to intertropical africa. the conquest of africa by pulex irritans, was really effective since the fifties, evidently by european strains. some examples selected in occidental and oriental africa show the reality of this fact. accordingly, the epidemiological modalities in plague's african foci can be strongly changed.19937507371
the prevalence of ectoparasites in ethiopian immigrants.newly arrived ethiopian immigrants in israel were screened for ectoparasitic insects and mites. of 304 individuals examined 65.1% were infested with the head louse (pediculus humanus capitis). the infestation rate among children varied between 65 and 100%. children aged 6-11 years were the most infested group and no differences between girls and boys were found. the infestation rate in children was significantly higher than that found in adults. approximately 39% of those examined were infested ...19938349453
experimental infection of columbian black-tailed deer with the lyme disease spirochete.the course of borrelia burgdorferi-infection in columbian black-tailed deer. (odocoileus hemionus columbianus), its effect on the health of these animals, and their reservoir competence for fleas were evaluated experimentally. four yearling females inoculated intramuscularly with 10(8) organisms of the ca4 strain of b. burgdorferi, and two yearling males unexposed to spirochetes, were monitored daily for 3 mo. spirochetes were reisolated from the blood of three does at 14 or 70 days postinjectio ...19948151819
flea species from dogs and cats in northern greece: environmental and clinical implications.fleas were identified after being collected from 129 dogs and 38 cats of random breed, sex and age. all these animals, infested with fleas and admitted to the clinic of medicine of the veterinary faculty in thessaloniki for routine procedures, were from different habitats and originated from various parts of northern greece. ctenocephalides canis was the most common species found on the dogs (71.3%). conversely, its prevalence in the 14 cats was substantially lower (5.3%). ctenocephalides felis ...19957676591
fleas on gray foxes in new mexico.from april 1992 to april 1993, fleas were collected from 15 gray foxes, urocyon cinereoargenteus schreber, in new mexico. flea species collected were cediopsylla inaequalis inaequalis baker (14/15), echidnophaga gallinacea (westwood) (1/15), euhoplopsyllus glacialis affinis baker (10/15), foxella ignota baker (1/15), pulex irritans (l.) (6/15), and pulex simulans baker (15/15). c. i. inaequalis and f. ignota are new host records for gray foxes. the collection of c. i. inaequalis, e. g. affinis, ...19957608929
flea ectoparasites of commensal rodents in shebin el kom, menoufia governorate, egypt.rodents population are widely distributed in some egyptian governorates, particularly those in the nile delta. generally speaking, rodents particularly those living in close association with man, play a major role in human health, welfare and economy. besides, their arthropod ectoparasites are important vectors of pathogenic agents as well as they themselves are causative agents of many allergic disorders. no doubt, the increase in rodent population is followed by an increase in many zoonotic di ...19968721227
[insects know no border.].one of the major consequences of the joined action of demographic pressure and evolution of human activities lies in enormous increase of transportation, both in frequence and speed; taking advantage of these facilities, some arthropods could increase their geographical distribution and create new health threats. several demonstrative examples are exposed in order to illustrate this anthropic dissemination of the vectors : the introduction of anopheles gambiae s.l. in mauritius island between 18 ...199617292311
[a study on the transmission of plague though seven kinds of fleas in rat type and wild rodent type plague foci in yunnan].in order to assess vector position and vector action of seven kinds of fleas in the rat type and wild rodent type plague foci in yunnan, we studied the indices as: infection rate, rate of feed bacterial emboli, colony transmission vector efficiency, life-span, bloodthirsty to human, body weight, quantity of blood-sucking, rate of dissociation by using animal model and raise film method. the results showed that xenopsylla cheopis and neopsylla specialis specialis were the main vectors of two type ...19979812528
[differential diagnosis of medically relevant flea species and their significance in dermatology].different flea species may infest humans temporarily. such arthropods should be considered as a possible cause of erythematous and pruritic papules and nodules of unclear origin. bites from animal fleas can be seen in people with close contact to domestic or wild animals. this dermatosis may often be misdiagnosed. several flea species including pulex irritans, ctenocephalides canis, ctenocephalides felis, ceratophyllus gallinae, ceratophyllus columbae and archaeopsylla erinacei may infest human ...19979441163
pulex irritans infestation in dogs. 200011195171
[notes on fleas (siphonaptera) of the fox cerdocyon thous (canidae) from an endemic area of visceral leishmaniasis in jacobina, bahia, brazil].from july to september of 1998, 152 fleas were collected from 18 specimens of the fox cerdocyon thous captured in the visceral leishmaniasis endemic area of jacobina, state of bahia, brazil. the fleas were identified as: 136 rhopalopsyllus lutzi lutzi, 11 pulex irritans, 2 ctenocephalides canis, 1 ctenocephalides felis felis and 2 xenopsylla cheopis.200010881126
what's eating you? pulex irritans. 200011006850
[the man in the ice under special consideration of paleo-pathological evidence].dealing with archaeological findings, the physical condition of the 5000-year-old man in the ice will be discussed. several research projects with autoscopical, radiological, computertomographical and laparoscopical methods present an overview of the state of health of the tyrolean iceman. the vascular network at the lower brain shows a slight hardening of the arteries. on the right side of the thorax the sixth and seventh ribs are fractured without callus formation. on the left side serial rib ...200111894403
species of flea (siphonaptera) infesting pets and hedgehogs in germany.the species of flea infesting pets and hedgehogs in germany were investigated through a survey of small animal practitioners throughout the country who were asked to collect specimens at their veterinary practices. a total of 625 veterinarians/veterinary practices responded and provided 2445 intact anti identifiable flea specimens. these fleas originated from 294 dogs (795 fleas), 334 cats (1152 fleas), 76 hedgehogs (481 fleas), five domestic rabbits (10 fleas), one golden hamster (four fleas) a ...200111393815
ectoparasites of the island fox on santa cruz island.the ectoparasite fauna for island foxes (urocyon littoralis) on santa cruz island (california, usa) in april (wet season) and september (dry season) 1998 was evaluated. three taxa of ectoparasites were identified. these were fleas (pulex irritans), lice (neotrichodectes mephitidis), and ticks (ixodes pacificus). ectoparasite abundances varied seasonally. typical of insular endemic species, island foxes may be especially vulnerable to the introduction of novel disease organisms and their vectors.200111272496
seasonal abundance of fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae, ceratophyllidae) on wild rabbits in a semiarid area of northeastern spain.this paper reports the annual dynamics of wild rabbit fleas in a study site located in the middle ebro valley, northeastern spain. fleas collected directly from wild rabbits included the species spilopsyllus cuniculi (dale), xenopsylla cunicularis (smit), echidnophaga iberica (ribeiro, lucientes, osácar, and calvete), caenopsylla laptevi (beaucournu, gil-collado and gilot), and pulex irritans (l.). monthly collections of adult and larval fleas made from within the first meter of selected burrow ...200111372966
flea species from dogs in three cities of chile.the purpose of this study was to establish the pattern of flea infestation in dogs in the cities of santiago (33 degrees latitude south, 70 degrees longitude west), concepción (36 degrees latitude south, 73 degrees longitude west) and osorno (40 degrees latitude south, 73 degrees longitude west), located in different parts of chile. the only species of fleas found on dogs from the three cities were ctenocephalides felis felis (41.8%), ctenocephalides canis (39.4%) and pulex irritans (18.8%). alt ...200211934466
infestation of dairy goats with pulex irritans. 200312918837
ectoparasite infestations of red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in hungary.a survey was carried out to investigate the ectoparasite infestations of 100 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in hungary. the overall prevalence of flea and tick infestation was high (62 and 86% with the dominance of the anthropophil pulex irritans and ixodes ricinus), but the number of parasites was low to moderate. felicola vulpis was not found in the present study, and the prevalence of otodectes cynotis was only 2%. based on prevalence (21%), mange lesion scores, and the negative correlation betwee ...200312944049
infestation of dairy goats with the human flea, pulex irritans, in central greece. 200312678264
ectoparasites of the swift fox in northwestern texas.ectoparasites were collected from chemically immobilized swift foxes (vulpes velox) in the texas panhandle (usa). three species of fleas (pulex irritans, dactylopsylla percernis, and euhoplopsyllus affinis) and one species of tick (ixodes sculptus) were found. pulex irritans was the only abundant ectoparasite; it occurred on all 23 foxes brushed in 1999-2000 and all but one of 34 hosts examined in 2000-01. otherwise, this swift fox population had a depauperate ectoparasite fauna; the remainder o ...200415465723
bartonella quintana and rickettsia felis in gabon.we detected rickettsia felis dna in ctenocephalides felis and bartonella quintana dna in 3 pulex irritans fleas taken from a pet cercopithecus cephus monkey in gabon, sub-saharan africa. this is the first report of b. quintana in the human flea.200516318727
possible vector dissemination by swift foxes following a plague epizootic in black-tailed prairie dogs in northwestern determine whether swift foxes (vulpes velox) could facilitate transmission of yersinia pestis to uninfected black-tailed prairie dog (cynomys ludovicianus) colonies by acquiring infected fleas, ectoparasite and serologic samples were collected from swift foxes living adjacent to prairie dog towns during a 2004 plague epizootic in northwestern texas, usa. a previous study (1999-2001) indicated that these swift foxes were infested almost exclusively with the flea pulex irritans. black-tailed pr ...200616870868
epidemiology of flea infestation of ruminants in libya.the results of an epidemiological and clinical study of flea infestations of farm animals in northern libya is reported. of 12,130 sheep examined from 124 flocks, 150 sheep were found to be infested with fleas from 50 different flocks. likewise 23 goats from 2981 examined, and 11 calves from 1124 cattle examined were infested no fleas were recovered from camels or horses. of 1861 fleas recovered from farm livestock, 1857 were ctenocephalides felis strongylus and 4 were pulex irritans. dogs from ...200616962246
observations on the endemicity of plague in karatu and ngorongoro, northern tanzania.commensal and field rodents and wild small carnivores were live-trapped in five villages of karatu district and one settlement in the ngorongoro conservation area in ngorongoro district in tanzania. blood samples were taken and serologically tested for plague, using the blocking elisa technique. some domestic dogs and cats in the karatu villages were aseptically bled and similarly tested for plague. fleas were collected from the examined animals and from randomly selected residential houses. a t ...200617058792
arthropod-borne diseases in homeless.homeless people are particularly exposed to ectoparasite. the living conditions and the crowded shelters provide ideal conditions for the spread of lice, fleas, ticks, and mites. body lice have long been recognized as human parasites and although typically prevalent in rural communities in upland areas of countries close to the equator, it is now increasingly encountered in developed countries especially in homeless people or inner city economically deprived population. fleas are widespread but ...200617114713
incidence and distribution pattern of rickettsia felis in peridomestic fleas from andalusia, southeast spain.the presence of rickettsia felis was investigated in three species of pulicid fleas (ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis and pulex irritans) collected in 38 locales in andalusia (spain) over the period 1999-2004. amplification of a fragment of ompb gene was positive in 54.17 % of lots of ct. felis. the identity of the pcr bands was confirmed as r. felis by sequence data obtained directly from the pcr amplicon. no rickettsia was found in ct. canis nor p. irritans.200617114737
qualitative and quantitative observations on the flea population dynamics of dogs and cats in several areas of germany.from an ongoing country-wide study on the spectrum, the epidemiology and the population dynamics of flea infestations in dogs and cats, important preliminary results from the three areas of karlsruhe, nuernberg and leipzig are presented. a total of 1922 dogs and 1838 cats from 12 different veterinary practices or clinics in three areas of germany were systematically examined between july 2003 and june 2004. all dogs and cats appearing for a clinical veterinary consultation on one regular working ...200616442233
patients with papular urticaria have igg antibodies to bedbug (cimex lectularius) antigens.igg and ige against salivary gland proteins of bedbug (cimex lectularius) were assessed in comparison with mosquito (culex pipiens) and flea (pulex irritans) antigens in the sera of papular urticaria patients (group i), siblings without papular urticaria (group iia), patients' parents (group iib), and healthy controls (group iii) (immunoblotting). anti-c. lectularius igg was significantly recognized at 66 and 10 kda in 40% of group i, besides others ranging from 45 to 107 kda. group iia signific ...200616425065
biological, seasonal and environmental factors associated with pulex irritans infestation of dairy goats in greece.the objectives of the present study were to study the fauna of fleas infesting dairy goats in greece, the spectrum of hosts each flea species infests, identify risk factors in the environment, and goat management practices that favour flea infestation of goats, and describe the seasonal variation of infestation in goats. for this purpose, a total of 64 herds, with a history of flea infestation in goats, were visited during june and july of 2002 for data collection on flea burdens, species of fle ...200616414195
parasites of free-ranging small canids and felids in the bolivian chaco.parasite surveys of free-ranging wildlife provide important information for monitoring population health. between march 2001 and march 2003, we sampled 10 ocelots (leopardus pardalis), eight geoffroy's cats (oncifelis geoffroyi), a jaguarundi (herpailurus yaguarondi), five pampas foxes (pseudalopex gymnocercus), and three crab-eating foxes (cerdocyon thous) at three sites in the bolivian chaco. the objective of the study was to survey the parasite fauna of these carnivores and compare prevalence ...200617312790
bartonella infections in fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) and lack of bartonellae in ticks (acari: ixodidae) from hungary.fleas (95 pulex irritans, 50 ctenocephalides felis, 45 ctenocephalides canis) and ixodid ticks (223 ixodes ricinus, 231 dermacentor reticulatus, 204 haemaphysalis concinna) were collected in hungary and tested, in assays based on pcr, for bartonella infection. low percentages of p. irritans (4.2%) and c. felis (4.0%) were found to be infected. the groel sequences of the four isolates from p. irritans were different from all the homologous sequences for bartonellae previously stored in genbank bu ...200617252927
survey of flea infestation in dogs and cats in the united kingdom during 2005.during 2005, 31 uk veterinary practices participated in a survey of flea infestation, during which 2653 dogs and 1508 cats were examined for evidence of flea infestation and skin disease compatible with flea allergy dermatitis (fad). the prevalence of flea infestation in the cats was 21.09 per cent, significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the dogs (6.82 per cent). the prevalence of skin lesions compatible with fad in the cats (8.02 per cent) was also significantly (p<0.001) higher than in the dog ...200717435095
plague and the human flea, tanzania.domestic fleas were collected in 12 villages in the western usambara mountains in tanzania. of these, 7 are considered villages with high plague frequency, where human plague was recorded during at least 6 of the 17 plague seasons between 1986 and 2004. in the remaining 5 villages with low plague frequency, plague was either rare or unrecorded. pulex irritans, known as the human flea, was the predominant flea species (72.4%) in houses. the density of p. irritans, but not of other domestic fleas, ...200717553245
ectoparasites of the endangered iberian lynx lynx pardinus and sympatric wild and domestic carnivores in spain.ectoparasites can cause important skin disorders in animals and can also transmit pathogens. the iberian lynx lynx pardinus has been stated to be the most endangered felid in the world and such vector-borne pathogens may threaten its survival. we surveyed 98 wild carnivores (26 iberian lynxes, 34 red foxes vulpes vulpes, 24 egyptian mongooses herpestes ichneumon, 11 common genets genetta genetta, two eurasian badgers meles meles, one polecat mustela putorius) and 75 domestic but free-ranging car ...200717897365
a-to-i rna editing alters less-conserved residues of highly conserved coding regions: implications for dual functions in evolution.the molecular mechanism and physiological function of recoding by a-to-i rna editing is well known, but its evolutionary significance remains a mystery. we analyzed the rna editing of the kv2 k(+) channel from different insects spanning more than 300 million years of evolution: drosophila melanogaster, culex pipiens (diptera), pulex irritans (siphonaptera), bombyx mori (lepidoptera), tribolium castaneum (coleoptera), apis mellifera (hymenoptera), pediculus humanus (phthiraptera), and myzus persi ...200818567816
parasites of importance for human health in nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners.dogs are the most common pet animals worldwide. they may harbour a wide range of parasites with zoonotic potential, thus causing a health risk to humans. in nigeria, epidemiological knowledge on these parasites is limited.200819068110
repetitive sequences in the its1 region of the ribosomal dna of tunga penetrans and other flea species (insecta, siphonaptera).different tunga penetrans isolates from various hosts obtained from south america (fortaleza. brazil) have been studied by nucleotide sequence comparison of the first and the second internal transcribed spacer (its1, its2) of the ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rdna) and part of the mitochondrial 16s rdna. results show no significant host-dependent sequence differences. no indication for intraindividual and intraspecific polymorphisms could be detected. comparing the its1 spacer region of t. pe ...200817952470
fleas parasitizing domestic dogs in addition to their importance to veterinary clinical practice as ectoparasites, fleas of domestic dogs are of special concern because they can be vectors of disease, including zoonoses. flea assemblages parasitizing domestic dogs usually comprise several flea species whose distribution is determined by factors acting at several scales. knowledge of these factors will aid in assessment of the distribution patterns of flea parasitism, and is an important tool in developing control strategies and ...200818031934
ectoparasites of the ground squirrel (citellus citellus (l.)) in turkey.a total of 100 ground squirrels, citellus (c.) citellus were trapped in rural regions of konya in order to determine the presence of ectoparasites. of these c. citellus examined, 16% (16/100) were infected with at least one ectoparasite species. two types of ectoparasites were found including 10% fleas and 7% ticks. only two flea species were found on c. citellus including nosopsyllus fasciatus 10% (10/100) and pulex irritans 1% (1/100). also, only two species of ticks were found on the c. citel ...200818645946
detection and identification of bartonella sp. in fleas from carnivorous mammals in andalusia, spain.a total of 559 fleas representing four species (pulex irritans, ctenocephalides felis, ctenocephalides canis and spilopsyllus cuniculi) collected on carnivores (five iberian lynx lynx pardinus, six european wildcat felis silvestris, 10 common genet genetta genetta, three eurasian badger meles meles, 22 red fox vulpes vulpes, 87 dogs and 23 cats) in andalusia, southern spain, were distributed in 156 pools of monospecific flea from each carnivore, and tested for bartonella infection in an assay ba ...200919941605
[fleas (siphonaptera): a new old infestant in urban environment. analysis of the cases verified in the south piedmont in the years 2005-2008].in the present study, ten cases of human and environmental infestation, observed between 2005 and 2008 in the southern part of piedmont, are reported. the infestation were caused by fleas and in particular by ctenocephalides felis. the importance of human pulicasis transmitted by animals you have with (cats) and related risks to human health is inderlined. in the past pulicasis, mainly due to pulex irritans, was related to poor hygienic conditions. on the contrary nowadays, pulicasis in urban ha ...200919385329
ectoparasites of dogs and cats in hundred eighty-one dogs and 26 short-hair cats from suburban areas around tirana, albania were examined for ectoparasite infestation. the dogs were examined on several occasions from 2005 through 2009 representing three seasons: winter (december-february), spring (march-may), and summer (june-august); the cats were examined in late autumn (november). in addition, deep ear swab specimens of 30 dogs were examined for ear mites. the arthropod ectoparasite fauna of the dogs included two tick spe ...200919690887
prevalence of flea infestation in dogs and cats in hungary combined with a survey of owner awareness.a survey was conducted in order to gain current information on flea species (siphonaptera: pulicidae) infesting dogs and cats living in urban and rural areas of hungary, along with data on the factors that affect the presence, distribution and seasonality of infestation. in addition, owner awareness of flea infestation was evaluated. practitioners in 13 veterinary clinics were asked to examine all dogs and cats attending the clinic and to collect fleas, when present, on 2 days in each month from ...200919712149
molecular investigation of hard ticks (acari: ixodidae) and fleas (siphonaptera: pulicidae) as potential vectors of rickettsial and mycoplasmal agents.the aim of the present study was twofold. first, in general, to reveal new aspects of the potential vector role of ixodid ticks and fleas by screening large numbers of specimens with recently developed molecular biological methods. second, to evaluate the occurrence of vector-borne infectious agents in a geographical context. altogether 3442 unfed hard ticks (ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis inermis, h. concinna, h. punctata) and 939 fleas of cats and dogs (c ...201019660880
siphonaptera (pulicidae) in dogs and cats of colombia: clinical and epidemiological aspects.flea infestation is a common worldwide problem, its effective control results in high costs and difficult implementation. during february to august 2007, an epidemiological study of siphonaptera order in dogs and cats admitted at the university of caldas-colombia - veterinary hospital (ucvh), was carried out by corporal examination and recording epidemiological variables. overall, 3698 fleas were collected from 140 dogs and 30 cats. two main species were identified: ctenocephalides felis (94.2%) ...201020728994
[tick (ixodoidea) and flea (siphonaptera) species on three red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in erzurum province].in this study, three red foxes (vulpes vulpes) which died after traffic accidents were examined in terms of ectoparasites, in the province of erzurum in january of 2009. 13 ticks and 74 fleas were collected from the foxes and taken to the laboratory in separate glasses containing 70% alcohol. ticks were taken directly from 70% alcohol and have been identified under the stereo microscope. fleas were cleared in 10% koh solution during 4-13 days and washed in distilled water 3-4 times and were iden ...201121776598
prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods on wild animals and cattle in the las merindades area (burgos, spain).this paper reports the prevalence of ectoparasitic arthropods in sampled groups of wild (n = 128; 16 species) and domestic (n = 69; 3 species) animals in the las merindades area of the province of burgos, spain. the study revealed that wild animals were more infested and with a wider variety of ectoparasites than domestic animals. the parasitic prevalence was 67% for wild animals and 48% for livestock. in this way, 39% of animals were infected by ticks. ixodes ricinus and ixodes hexagonus were t ...201121894267
ixodid ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in hawassa, southern ethiopia.this study investigated the prevalence, risk factors and species composition of ticks, fleas and lice infesting dogs and cats in and around hawassa in southern ethiopia. in total, 200 dogs and 100 cats were examined from november 2008 to april 2009. of the dogs and cats examined, 99.5% and 91.5%, respectively, were infested with one or more species of ticks, fleas or lice. the overall prevalence was higher in dogs than in cats. a total of six different species of ectoparasites were collected and ...201123327214
survey of flea infestation in cats in spain.fleas are a common cause of feline skin disorders as well as vectors of zoonotic diseases. this study evaluated the flea species infesting domestic cats in spain and assessed factors influencing their distribution. fleas from 217 cats from 57 localities in spain were identified and associations between abundance, and host-dependent, host habitat and environmental factors were examined. variations in infracommunity and component community structure were also explored. three species were present, ...201223600822
molecular detection of rickettsia felis and candidatus rickettsia asemboensis in fleas from human habitats, asembo, kenya.the flea-borne rickettsioses murine typhus (rickettsia typhi) and flea-borne spotted fever (fbsf) (rickettsia felis) are febrile diseases distributed among humans worldwide. murine typhus has been known to be endemic to kenya since the 1950s, but fbsf was only recently documented in northeastern (2010) and western (2012) kenya. to characterize the potential exposure of humans in kenya to flea-borne rickettsioses, a total of 330 fleas (134 pools) including 5 species (xenopsylla cheopis, ctenoceph ...201323675818
fleas infesting pets in the era of emerging extra-intestinal nematodes.modifications in climatic conditions, movements of hosts and goods, changes in animal phenology and human behaviour and increase of wildlife, are presently concurring in the geographic spread of vectors and cardio-respiratory nematodes, e.g. dirofilaria immitis, angiostrongylus vasorum, aelurostrongylus abstrusus and capillaria aerophila. all these factors may also influence dispersion and clinical significance of fleas, thus posing relevant challenges in those regions where other parasites are ...201323497511
prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming cats in central mexico.the prevalence of fleas and gastrointestinal parasites in free-roaming and domestic cats in central mexico was evaluated. three hundred and fifty eight cats captured in the street or brought in by owners to the animal control center unit, a unit of state government, from june 2010 to may 2011, were included in the study. all cats were examined for the presence of fleas and gastrointestinal worms. one-hundred and ninety (53%) cats were infested with at least one flea species. single infestations ...201323573282
molecular detection of rickettsia felis in different flea species from caldas, colombia.rickettsioses caused by rickettsia felis are an emergent global threat. historically, the northern region of the province of caldas in colombia has reported murine typhus cases, and recently, serological studies confirmed high seroprevalence for both r. felis and r. typhi. in the present study, fleas from seven municipalities were collected from dogs, cats, and mice. dna was extracted and amplified by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to identify glta, ompb, and 17kd genes. positive samples were s ...201323878183
parasitic infections of domestic cats, felis catus, in western hungary.during 2011, faeces from 235 owned domestic cats from a rural area in western hungary were examined using standard coproscopical techniques. the overall prevalence of cats with endoparasites was 39.6% (95% ci 33.3-46.1). the most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (toxocara, 17.4%; toxascaris 7.2%), followed by those of aelurostrongylus lungworms (14.5%), hookworms (11.1%), taeniid cestodes (4.7%), cystoisospora coccidians (4.3%), and capillarids (3.8%). single and multipl ...201323211331
monthly abundance of rodent and their ectoparasites in newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt.rodents and their ectoparasites were studied inside and outside houses in the newly settled areas, east of lakes, ismailia governorate, egypt. forty traps per month in each of the two sides were used for collecting rodent during 2009. from 221 rodent were collected from inside houses; mus musculus n=115 (52.04%), rattus rattus. frugivorous n=54 (24.43%), r. r. alexandrinus n=40 (18.10%) and r. norvegicus n=12 (5.43%). from 177 rodent were collected from outside houses; m musculus n=4 (2.3%), r. ...201324260816
plague in tanzania: an overview.human plague remains a public health concern in tanzania despite its quiescence in most foci for years, considering the recurrence nature of the disease. despite the long-standing history of this problem, there have not been recent reviews of the current knowledge on plague in tanzania. this work aimed at providing a current overview of plague in tanzania in terms of its introduction, potential reservoirs, possible causes of plague persistence and repeated outbreaks in the country. plague is bel ...201326591701
yersinia pestis in pulex irritans fleas during plague outbreak, madagascar. 201425061697
molecular detection of rickettsia felis and bartonella henselae in dog and cat fleas in central oromia, ethiopia.fleas are important vectors of several rickettsia and bartonella spp. that cause emerging zoonotic diseases worldwide. in this study, 303 fleas collected from domestic dogs and cats in ethiopia and identified morphologically as ctenocephalides felis felis, c. canis, pulex irritans, and echidnophaga gallinacea were tested for rickettsia and bartonella dna by using molecular methods. rickettsia felis was detected in 21% of fleas, primarily c. felis, with a similar prevalence in fleas from dogs and ...201424445204
detection of rickettsia felis, rickettsia typhi, bartonella species and yersinia pestis in fleas (siphonaptera) from africa.little is known about the presence/absence and prevalence of rickettsia spp, bartonella spp. and yersinia pestis in domestic and urban flea populations in tropical and subtropical african countries.201425299702
'candidatus rickettsia asemboensis' and wolbachia spp. in ctenocephalides felis and pulex irritans fleas removed from dogs in ecuador.flea-borne infections are distributed worldwide. up to date there are no reports about microorganisms associated to fleas in ecuador.201425266919
burrowing owls, pulex irritans, and plague.western burrowing owls (athene cunicularia hypugaea) are small, ground-dwelling owls of western north america that frequent prairie dog (cynomys spp.) towns and other grasslands. because they rely on rodent prey and occupy burrows once or concurrently inhabited by fossorial mammals, the owls often harbor fleas. we examined the potential role of fleas found on burrowing owls in plague dynamics by evaluating prevalence of yersinia pestis in fleas collected from burrowing owls and in owl blood. dur ...201526367482
molecular detection of zoonotic bartonellae (b. henselae, b. elizabethae and b. rochalimae) in fleas collected from dogs in israel.fleas represent an acknowledged burden on dogs worldwide. the characterization of flea species infesting kennel dogs from two localities in israel (rehovot and jerusalem) and their molecular screening for bartonella species (rhizobiales: bartonellaceae) was investigated. a total of 355 fleas were collected from 107 dogs. the fleas were morphologically classified and molecularly screened targeting the bartonella 16s-23s internal transcribed spacer (its). of the 107 dogs examined, 80 (74.8%) were ...201525865162
wild red foxes (vulpes vulpes) as sentinels of parasitic diseases in the province of soria, northern spain.four hundred red foxes (vulpes vulpes) were examined for ecto- (arthropods) and endoparasites (leishmania spp., trichinella spp., and intestinal parasites). different species of flea (total prevalence, 40.50%), tick (16.25%), mite (7.25%), and fly (1.50%) were identified. the most prevalent flea was pulex irritans (found on 29% of the foxes); the most prevalent tick, mite, and fly were ixodes canisuga (on 5%), sarcoptes scabiei (on 5.25%), and hippobosca equina (on 1%), respectively. the endopar ...201526565688
ectoparasite load in the crested porcupine hystrix cristata linnaeus, 1758 in central italy.the crested porcupine hystrix cristata is a large body-sized rodent, occurring in europe only in the italian peninsula, where it may have been introduced in early medieval times. its parasite fauna is currently poorly known and limited to few anecdotal observations. we have analyzed the ectoparasite load of 165 crested porcupines from tuscany and latium (central italy). both captured and road-killed individuals were checked for fleas and ticks. overall, only 39 porcupines were infested by four s ...201525773184
a field trial of spinosad for the treatment and prevention of flea infestation in shepherd dogs living in close proximity to flea-infested sheep.three flea species, pulex irritans, ctenocephalides canis and c. felis parasitize shepherd dogs living on sheep farms in greece. the aim of this randomized, blinded, placebo-controlled trial was to examine the efficacy of spinosad, when administered three times every 4 weeks, as the only intervention to treat and prevent flea infestations in shepherd dogs living on sheep farms.201526065677
does hair coat length affect flea infestation in naturally infested dogs?the siphonaptera are parasitic insects of endothermic animals and ctenocephalides felis and pulex irritans are important parasites of dogs. this study evaluated the effect of hair coat length and time of year on the population size of c. felis and p. irritans in naturally infested dogs. fleas were collected from 14 dogs on a monthly basis for a year (february 2015 to january 2016) at a rural property in bagé, rio grande do sul, brazil. the dogs were divided into two groups based on hair coat len ...201627925064
seroepidemiology of rickettsial infections in northeast india.resurgence of scrub typhus was reported in northeast india in 2010 after a gap of 67 years since world war ii. however, the presence of other rickettsial infections remained unknown from this region. a seroepidemiological investigation was undertaken in the scrub typhus affected areas from 2013-2015 in assam, arunachal pradesh and nagaland to assess the exposure to other rickettsial diseases besides scrub typhus.201627618917
detecting burrowing owl bloodmeals in pulex irritans (siphonaptera: pulicidae).pulex irritans l. is a cosmopolitan flea species that infests a wide variety of hosts. in north america it generally parasitizes large wild mammals, but in the pacific northwest an association has emerged between p. irritans and the western burrowing owl (athene cunicularia hypugaea). while investigators have recognized this association for decades, it has not been clear if p. irritans feeds on burrowing owls, or if the owls serve exclusively as phoretic hosts. here we describe using a real-time ...201626545716
on some issues of human-animal studies: an introduction.animals are "in" - since prehistoric times when humans (or their ancient ancestors) were hunting animals, and when they fabricated the paleolithic dog as well as the paleolithic cat. in less general terms, animals are "in" since they received names and were listed, observed, mummified, turned into totems, and, later on, dissected, tortured under laboratory conditions, trained as experimental subjects or "purified" as model organisms. and they are massively "in" again, but now from overtly legal ...201626903370
xenopsylla brasiliensis fleas in plague focus areas, madagascar. 201627513742
fleas and ticks in carnivores from a domestic-wildlife interface: implications for public health and wildlife.fleas and ticks are parasites of wild and domestic mammals, and can be vectors of several pathogens. in rural areas, domestic carnivores such as the domestic dog (canis lupus familiaris l.), may act as a "bridge" between natural areas and human settlements where ectoparasites can be used as a metric of such link. the aim of this study was to identify fleas, ticks, and rickettsia spp., collected from domestic and wild carnivores in a natural reserve and surrounding human settlements in central ch ...201627539151
parasites of sheep herding dogs in central germany.this paper reports on endoparasite infections diagnosed in 2012 by standard coproscopical techniques and coproantigen giardia elisa in 165 dogs used for sheep herding in 36 farms in central germany. the overall prevalence of dogs with evidence of endoparasite infections was 27.3% (95% ci 20.6-34.7). the most frequently identified faecal forms were those of ascarids (toxocara, 6.7%; toxascaris 3.6%), hookworms (5.5%) and taeniid cestodes (4.2%), followed by those of trichuris whipworms (3.0%), ca ...201626904898
insecticide resistance in fleas.fleas are the major ectoparasite of cats, dogs, and rodents worldwide and potential vectors of animal diseases. in the past two decades the majority of new control treatments have been either topically applied or orally administered to the host. most reports concerning the development of insecticide resistance deal with the cat flea, ctenocephalides felis felis. historically, insecticide resistance has developed to many of the insecticides used to control fleas in the environment including carba ...201626999217
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