PMID(sorted ascending)
Cloning and Expression of Hemicellulases from Aspergillus nidulans in Pichia pastoris.The methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris is increasingly used for heterologous expression of high quality proteins in laboratory-scale (milligram) quantities. Commercially available polysaccharide-active enzyme preparations have limited applications in plant cell wall research due to their heterogeneous mix of hydrolytic activities. P. pastoris provides an ideal in vitro expression system for producing monocomponent enzymes, since it lacks endogenous plant cell wall-active enzymes and can perfor ...201222160911
structural analysis of fungal cerebrosides.of the ceramide monohexosides (cmhs), gluco- and galactosyl-ceramides are the main neutral glycosphingolipids expressed in fungal cells. their structural determination is greatly dependent on the use of mass spectrometric techniques, including fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, electrospray ionization, and energy collision-induced dissociation mass spectrometry. nuclear magnetic resonance has also been used successfully. such a combination of techniques, combined with classical analytical ...201122164155
conserved and specific responses to hypoxia in aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus nidulans determined by comparative transcriptomics.hypoxia imposes stress on filamentous fungi that require oxygen to proliferate. global transcription analysis of aspergillus oryzae grown under hypoxic conditions found that the expression of about 50% of 4,244 affected genes was either induced or repressed more than 2-fold. a comparison of these genes with the hypoxically regulated genes of aspergillus nidulans based on their predicted amino acid sequences classified them as bi-directional best hit (bbh), one-way best hit (extra homolog, eh), a ...201122170104
Aspergillus Myosin-v supports polarized growth in the absence of microtubule-based transport.In the filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans, both microtubules and actin filaments are important for polarized growth at the hyphal tip. Less clear is how different microtubule-based and actin-based motors work together to support this growth. Here we examined the role of myosin-V (MYOV) in hyphal growth. MYOV-depleted cells form elongated hyphae, but the rate of hyphal elongation is significantly reduced. In addition, although wild type cells without microtubules still undergo polarized grow ...201122194856
studies on differential nuclear translocation mechanism and assembly of the three subunits of the arabidopsis thaliana transcription factor nf-y.the eukaryotic transcription factor nf-y consists of three subunits (a, b, and c), which are encoded in arabidopsis thaliana in multigene families consisting of 10, 13, and 13 genes, respectively. in principle, all potential combinations of the subunits are possible for the assembly of the heterotrimeric complex. we aimed at assessing the probability of each subunit to participate in the assembly of nf-y. the evaluation of physical interactions among all members of the nf-y subunit families indi ...201122199235
Isolation and characterization of self-fertile suppressors from the sterile nsdD deletion mutant of Aspergillus nidulans.To identify downstream and/or interactive factors of the nsdD gene, which encodes a positive regulator of sexual development of Aspergillus nidulans, suppressor mutants displaying a self-fertile phenotype were isolated from a sterile nsdD deletion mutant. At least five different loci (sndA-E) were identified and genetically analyzed. In the nsdD (+) background, most of the suppressors showed a marked increment of sexual development, even under the stress conditions that n ...201122203574
AreA controls nitrogen source utilisation during both growth programs of the dimorphic fungus Penicillium marneffei.The opportunistic pathogen Penicillium marneffei displays a temperature-dependent dimorphic switching program with saprophytic hyphal growth at 25 °C and yeast growth at 37 °C. The areA gene of P. marneffei has been isolated and found to be required for the utilisation of nonpreferred nitrogen sources during both growth programs of P. marneffei, albeit to differing degrees. Based on this functional characterisation and high degree of sequence conservation with other fungal GATA factors, P. marne ...201222208609
expression and characterization of an endo-1,4-β-galactanase from emericella nidulans in pichia pastoris for enzymatic design of potentially prebiotic oligosaccharides from potato galactans.potato pulp is a high-volume side-stream from industrial potato starch manufacturing. enzymatically solubilized β-1,4-galactan-rich potato pulp polysaccharides of molecular weights >100 kda (sppp) are highly bifidogenic in human fecal sample fermentations in vitro. the objective of the present study was to use potato β-1,4-galactan and the sppp as substrates for enzymatic production of potentially prebiotic compounds of lower and narrower molecular weight. a novel endo-1,4-β-galactanase from eme ...201122226198
the vea gene of the pine needle pathogen dothistroma septosporum regulates sporulation and secondary metabolism.fungi possess genetic systems to regulate the expression of genes involved in complex processes such as development and secondary metabolite biosynthesis. the product of the velvet gene vea, first identified and characterized in aspergillus nidulans, is a key player in the regulation of both of these processes. since its discovery and characterization in many aspergillus species, vea has been found to have similar functions in other fungi, including the dothideomycete mycosphaerella graminicola. ...201122227160
functional characterization and oligomerization of a recombinant xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanase (gh12) from aspergillus niveus.xyloglucan is a major structural polysaccharide of the primary (growing) cell wall of higher plants. it consists of a cellulosic backbone (beta-1,4-linked glucosyl residues) that is frequently substituted with side chains. this report describes aspergillus nidulans strain a773 recombinant secretion of a dimeric xyloglucan-specific endo-β-1,4-glucanohydrolase (xega) cloned from aspergillus niveus. the orf of the a. niveus xega gene is comprised of 714 nucleotides, and encodes a 238 amino acid pro ...201122230786
signaling the induction of sporulation involves the interaction of two secondary metabolites in aspergillus nidulans.when growing aspergillus nidulans hyphae encounter the atmosphere, they initiate a morphogenetic program leading to the production of spores. mutants that are defective in the flug gene fail to undergo sporulation because they lack an endogenous diffusible factor that purportedly accumulates on aerial hyphae, thus signaling the initiation of development. in this study, the defect could be reversed by adding culture extracts from a wild-type strain onto a mutant colony. moreover, a bioassay-guide ...201222234162
ancut2, an extracellular cutinase from aspergillus nidulans induced by olive oil.cutinases are versatile carboxylic ester hydrolases with great potential in many biocatalytic processes, including biodiesel production. genome sequence analysis of the model organism aspergillus nidulans reveals four genes encoding putative cutinases. in this work, we purified and identified for the first time a cutinase (ancut2) produced by a. nidulans. ancut2 is a 29-kda protein which consists of 255 amino acid residues. comparison of the amino acid sequence of ancut2 with other microbial cut ...201222238011
the septin aspb in aspergillus nidulans forms bars and filaments and plays roles in growth emergence and yeast, septins form rings at the mother-bud neck and function as diffusion barriers. in animals, septins form filaments that can colocalize with other cytoskeletal elements. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans there are five septin genes, aspa (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc11), aspb (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc3), aspc (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc12), aspd (ortholog of s. cerevisiae cdc10), and aspe (found only in filamentous fungi). the aspb gene was previously reported to be ...201222247265
comparison and characterization of α-amylase inducers in aspergillus nidulans based on nuclear localization of amyr.amyr, a fungal transcriptional activator responsible for induction of amylolytic genes in aspergillus nidulans, localizes to the nucleus in response to the physiological inducer isomaltose. maltose, kojibiose, and d: -glucose were also found to trigger the nuclear localization of gfp-amyr. isomaltose- and kojibiose-triggered nuclear localization was not inhibited by the glucosidase inhibitor, castanospermine, while maltose-triggered localization was inhibited. thus, maltose itself does not appea ...201222252265
functional analysis of fara transcription factor in the regulation of the genes encoding lipolytic enzymes and hydrophobic surface binding protein for the degradation of biodegradable plastics in aspergillus oryzae.fara is a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcription factor which upregulates genes required for growth on fatty acids in filamentous fungi like aspergillus nidulans. fara is also highly similar to the cutinase transcription factor ctf1α of fusarium solani which binds to the cutinase gene promoter in this plant pathogen. this study determines whether fara transcriptional factor also works in the regulation of genes responsible for the production of cutinase for the degradation of a biodegradable plastic, pol ...201222280964
an aspergillus nidulans bzip response pathway hardwired for defensive secondary metabolism operates through aflr.the eukaryotic bzip transcription factors are critical players in organismal response to environmental challenges. in fungi, the production of secondary metabolites (sms) is hypothesized as one of the responses to environmental insults, e.g. attack by fungivorous insects, yet little data to support this hypothesis exists. here we establish a mechanism of bzip regulation of sms through rsma, a recently discovered yap-like bzip protein. rsma greatly increases sm production by binding to two sites ...201222283524
effects of laea deletion on aspergillus flavus conidial development and hydrophobicity may contribute to loss of aflatoxin production.laea of aspergillus nidulans is a putative methyltransferase and a component of the velvet complex; it is thought to mainly affect expression of genes required for the production of secondary metabolites. we found that although aspergillus flavus ca14 laea deletion mutants showed no aflatoxin production, expression of some of the early genes involved in aflatoxin formation, but not the later genes, could still be detected. the mutants grown in minimal medium supplemented with simple sugars and o ...201122289775
reengineering an azaphilone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans to create lipoxygenase inhibitors.sclerotiorin, an azaphilone polyketide, is a bioactive natural product known to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase and many other biological targets. to readily access sclerotiorin and analogs, we developed a 2-3 step semisynthetic route to produce a variety of azaphilones starting from an advanced, putative azaphilone intermediate (5) overproduced by an engineered strain of aspergillus nidulans. the inhibitory activities of the semisynthetic azaphilones against 15-lipoxygenase were evaluated with several ...201222296232
the gata factors area and areb together with the co-repressor nmra, negatively regulate arginine catabolism in aspergillus nidulans in response to nitrogen and carbon source.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans can utilize arginine both as a nitrogen and carbon source. analysis of area and areb single and double mutants has shown that the two gata transcription factors area and areb negatively regulate the expression of arginine catabolism genes agaa and otaa under nitrogen repressing conditions. area is necessary for the ammonium repression of agaa and otaa under carbon repressing conditions, while areb is involved under carbon-limiting conditions. the abili ...201222300944
genomic characteristics comparisons of 12 food-related filamentous fungi in trna gene set, codon usage and amino acid composition.filamentous fungi are widely exploited in food industry due to their abilities to secrete large amounts of enzymes and metabolites. the recent availability of fungal genome sequences has provided an opportunity to explore the genomic characteristics of these food-related filamentous fungi. in this paper, we selected 12 representative filamentous fungi in the areas of food processing and safety, which were aspergillus clavatus, a. flavus, a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger, a. oryzae, a. terreus ...201222305983
differential expression of silent polyketide biosynthesis gene clusters in chemostat cultures of aspergillus nidulans.the genome of the fungal model organism aspergillus nidulans harbors nearly 30 polyketide synthase genes, yet the majority of these genes remain silent in the absence of particular stimuli. in this study, environmental conditions such as low specific microbial growth rate as well as nitrate, orthophosphate and glucose limitations were simulated under a continuous cultivation regime to induce the expression of silent polyketide synthase genes. in addition to offline and online bioprocess paramete ...201222306112
persistence versus escape: aspergillus terreus and aspergillus fumigatus employ different strategies during interactions with macrophages.invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ibpa) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. although aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, a. fumigatus is by far the main cause of ibpa. however, once a. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as a. fumigatus infections. thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. since alveolar macrophages represent o ...201222319619
two separate gene clusters encode the biosynthetic pathway for the meroterpenoids austinol and dehydroaustinol in aspergillus nidulans.meroterpenoids are a class of fungal natural products that are produced from polyketide and terpenoid precursors. an understanding of meroterpenoid biosynthesis at the genetic level should facilitate engineering of second-generation molecules and increasing production of first-generation compounds. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has previously been found to produce two meroterpenoids, austinol and dehydroaustinol. using targeted deletions that we created, we have determined that, su ...201222329759
the role of flotillin floa and stomatin stoa in the maintenance of apical sterol-rich membrane domains and polarity in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.apical sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (srds), which can be viewed using the sterol-binding fluorescent dye filipin, are gaining attention for their important roles in polarized growth of filamentous fungi. the microdomain scaffolding protein flotillin/reggie and related stomatin were thought to be good candidates involved in the formation of srds. here, we show that the flotillin/reggie orthologue floa tagged with gfp localized as stable dots along the plasma membrane except hyphal tips. de ...201222329814
the cop9 signalosome counteracts the accumulation of cullin scf ubiquitin e3 ring ligases during fungal development.defects in the cop9 signalosome (csn) impair multicellular development, including embryonic plant or animal death or a block in sexual development of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. csn deneddylates cullin-ring ligases (crls), which are activated by covalent linkage to ubiquitin-like nedd8. deneddylation allows crl disassembly for subsequent reassembly. an attractive hypothesis is a consecutive order of crls for development, which demands repeated cycles of neddylation and deneddylation for rea ...201222329854
an ordered pathway for the assembly of fungal escrt-containing ambient ph signalling complexes at the plasma membrane.the fungal pal/rim signalling pathway, which regulates gene expression in response to environmental ph involves, in addition to dedicated proteins, several components of escrt complexes, which suggested that ph signalling proteins assemble on endosomal platforms. in aspergillus nidulans, dedicated pal proteins include the plasma membrane receptor palh and its coupled arrestin, palf, which becomes ubiquitylated in alkaline ph conditions, and three potentially endosomal escrt-iii associates, inclu ...201222344261
effects of sterigmatocystin on tnf-α, il-6 and il-12 expression in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal macrophages in vivo.sterigmatocystin (st) is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by the fungi aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus versicolor. st is considered a potent carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. however, over the past few years, it has been demonstrated that it is less acutely toxic to rodents in vivo. in this study, we evaluated the putative effects of st on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukin (il)-6 and il-12 at mrna levels in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mpbmcs) a ...201222344519
l-rhamnose induction of aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes is glucose repressed via a crea-independent mechanism acting at the level of inducer uptake.little is known about the structure and regulation of fungal α-l-rhamnosidase genes despite increasing interest in the biotechnological potential of the enzymes that they encode. whilst the paradigmatic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans growing on l-rhamnose produces an α-l-rhamnosidase suitable for oenological applications, at least eight genes encoding putative α-l-rhamnosidases have been found in its genome. in the current work we have identified the gene (rhae) encoding the former acti ...201222353731
the functions of myosin ii and myosin v homologs in tip growth and septation in aspergillus nidulans.because of the industrial and medical importance of members of the fungal genus aspergillus, there is considerable interest in the functions of cytoskeletal components in growth and secretion in these organisms. we have analyzed the genome of aspergillus nidulans and found that there are two previously unstudied myosin genes, a myosin ii homolog, myob (product = myob) and a myosin v homolog, myoe (product = myoe). deletions of either cause significant growth defects. myob localizes in strings th ...201222359575
disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against aspergillus spp. and candida albicans in drinking water.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic aspergillus spp. and candida albicans strains. a. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. in this case, a. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete ina ...201222361698
the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 tail is necessary and sufficient to recognize modified microtubules.posttranslational microtubule modifications (ptms) are numerous; however, the biochemical and cell biological roles of those modifications remain mostly an enigma. the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 unca uses preferably modified microtubules (mts) as tracks for vesicle transportation. here, we show that a positively charged region in the tail of unca (amino acids 1316 to 1402) is necessary for the recognition of modified mts. chimeric proteins composed of the kinesin-1 motor domain and the unca ...201222363525
physiological characterization of recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the aspergillus nidulans phosphoketolase pathway: validation of activity through 13c-based metabolic flux analysis.several bacterial species and filamentous fungi utilize the phosphoketolase pathway (phk) for glucose dissimilation as an alternative to the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. in aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of this metabolic pathway leads to increased carbon flow towards acetate and acetyl coa. in the first step of the phk, the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate xylulose-5-phosphate is converted into acetylphosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of xylulose-5-phosp ...201222367611
xlnr-independent signaling pathway regulates both cellulase and xylanase genes in response to cellobiose in aspergillus aculeatus.the expression levels of the cellulase and xylanase genes between the host strain and an xlnr disruptant were compared by quantitative rt-pcr (qpcr) to identify the genes controlled by xlnr-independent signaling pathway. the cellulose induction of the fi-carboxymethyl cellulase (cmc1) and fib-xylanase (xynib) genes was controlled by xlnr; in contrast, the cellulose induction of the fiii-avicelase (cbhi), fii-carboxymethyl cellulase (cmc2), and fia-xylanase (xynia) genes was controlled by an xlnr ...201222371227
pali domain proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans.the rim9/pali groups of proteins are members of the sur7 family, all of which contain a signal sequence and a block of three potential trans-membrane helices. multi-protein sequence comparisons among fungi suggest that there are two classes of rim9/pali proteins; longer proteins like pali that contain a sur7 domain and a c-terminal extension, and shorter proteins like rim9 that contain essentially only the sur7 domain. we have examined possible roles of the longer, pali-like proteins of both sac ...201222381911
improved biomass saccharification by trichoderma reesei through heterologous expression of laca gene from trametes sp. ah28-2.the trametes sp. ah28-2 laccase gene laca fused to cellobiohydrolase i signal peptide coding sequence was heterologously expressed in t. reesei. the laca cdna was under the control of the aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. native page analysis indicated that two transformants, l8 and l38, were able to secrete recombinant laccase a, and their laccase activities corresponding to abts oxidation reached 3.62 iuml(-1) and 1.50 iuml(-1) respectively. most of the ch ...201222387233
transient and multivariate system for transformation of a fungal plant pathogen, rosellinia necatrix, using autonomously replicating vectors.rosellinia necatrix is a fungus that infects a wide range of host plants and ruins a variety of commercially important crops. dna fragments can be introduced into r. necatrix using conventional protoplast-peg transformation and genome-integrating vectors; however, transformation efficiency with this strategy is quite low. therefore, to establish a more effective transformation system for the studies of r. necatrix, an autonomously replicating vector was constructed using ama1 sequences derived f ...201222388868
gliotoxin effects on fungal growth: mechanisms and exploitation.although initially investigated for its antifungal properties, little is actually known about the effect of gliotoxin on aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi. we have observed that exposure of a. fumigatus to exogenous gliotoxin (14 μg/ml), under gliotoxin-limited growth conditions, results in significant alteration of the expression of 27 proteins (up- and down-regulated >1.9-fold; p<0.05) including de novo expression of cu, zn superoxide dismutase, up-regulated allergen asp f3 expression and ...201222405895
pcr detection of aflatoxin producing fungi and its limitations.unlike bacterial toxins that are primarily peptides and are therefore encoded by a single gene, fungal toxins such as the aflatoxins are multi-ring structures and therefore require a sequence of structural genes for their biological synthesis. there is therefore no specific pcr for any one of the four biologically produced aflatoxins. unfortunately, the structural genes presently in use for pcr detection of aflatoxin producing fungi are also involved in the synthesis of other fungal toxins such ...201222445201
identification of a permease gene involved in lactose utilisation in aspergillus nidulans.lactose is intracellularly hydrolysed by aspergillus nidulans. classical mutation mapping data and the physical characteristics of the previously purified glycosyl hydrolase facilitated identification of the clustered, divergently transcribed intracellular β-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes. at the transcript level, bgad and lacpa were coordinately expressed in response to d-galactose, lactose or l-arabinose, while no transcription was detectable in the additional presence ...201222445777
fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic deglycosylation of ginsenosides.a ginseng pathogen, cylindrocarpon destructans, and five nonpathogens were tested for their sensitivity to a total ginsenoside fraction (t-gf), a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppd-gf) and a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppt-gf) from the roots of panax ginseng c.a. meyer. the results showed that t-gf inhibited growth of the five ginseng nonpathogens, while it promoted growth of the ginseng pathogen c. destructans. ppt-gf and ppd-gf both inhibited the growth of the five ...201222449289
methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates.plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. a positive result was also achieved using the β-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. the potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by ...201222449314
[application of pcr combined with reverse line blot assay in detection and identification of common pathogenic aspergillus in fungal sinusitis].to evaluate the feasibility of pcr/reverse line blot hybridization (rlb) assay in the detection and identification of clinical pathogens in fungal sinusitis (fs).201222455842
endosomal maturation by rab conversion in aspergillus nidulans is coupled to dynein-mediated basipetal movement.we exploit the ease with which highly motile early endosomes are distinguished from static late endosomes in order to study aspergillus nidulans endosomal traffic. rabs(rab7) mediates homotypic fusion of late endosomes/vacuoles in a homotypic fusion- and vacuole protein sorting/vps41-dependent manner. progression across the endocytic pathway involves endosomal maturation because the end products of the pathway in the absence of rabs(rab7) are minivacuoles that are competent in multivesicular bod ...201222456509
allergens/antigens, toxins and polyketides of important aspergillus species.the medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the fungi was recognized way back in 1920. among various groups of fungi, the aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus terreus are some of the important species r ...201122468035
aspergillus nidulans ckia is an essential casein kinase i required for delivery of amino acid transporters to the plasma membrane.type i casein kinases are highly conserved among eukaryotes. of the two aspergillus nidulans casein kinases i, ckia is related to the δ/ε mammalian kinases and to saccharomyces cerevisiae hrr25p. ckia is essential. three recessive ckia mutations leading to single residue substitutions, and downregulation using a repressible promoter, result in partial loss-of-function, which leads to a pleiotropic defect in amino acid utilization and resistance to toxic amino acid analogues. these phenotypes cor ...201222489878
functional and phylogenetic analysis of the aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflq (orda) gene ortholog.within the aspergillus parasiticus and a. flavus aflatoxin (af) biosynthetic gene cluster the aflq (orda) and aflp (omta) genes encode respectively an oxidoreductase and methyltransferase. these genes are required for the final steps in the conversion of sterigmatocystin (st) to aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). aspergillus nidulans harbors a gene cluster that produces st, as the aflq and aflp orthologs are either non-functional or absent in the genome. aspergillus ochraceoroseus produces both af and st, ...201222495451
reprogramming of carbon metabolism by the transcriptional activators acuk and acum in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of fungi to use carbon sources metabolized via the tca cycle requires gluconeogenesis. in aspergillus nidulans the acuk and acum transcription factors regulate the expression of the gluconeogenic genes acuf, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and acug, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. expressed proteins containing the acuk/acum n-terminal dna-binding domains bind together in vitro to motifs containing repeats of cgg separated by seven bases (ccgn7ccg) and the functional ...201222500966
identification and characterization of a novel diterpene gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites are a rich source of medically useful compounds due to their pharmaceutical and toxic properties. sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters, yet products of many of these biosynthetic pathways are unknown since the expression of the clustered genes usually remains silent in normal laboratory conditions. therefore, to discover new metabolites, it is important to find ways to induce the expression of genes in these otherwise ...201222506079
illuminating the diversity of aromatic polyketide synthases in aspergillus nidulans.genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the ability to synthesize many more natural products (nps) than are currently known, but methods for obtaining suitable expression of nps have been inadequate. we have developed a successful strategy that bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms. by efficient gene targeting, we have replaced, en masse, the promoters of nonreducing polyketide synthase (nr-pks) genes, key genes in np biosynthetic pathways, and other genes necessary for nr-pks product for ...201222510154
conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi.rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. we therefore used the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. a screen of a n. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for gro ...201222532664
deletion of the ustilago maydis ortholog of the aspergillus sporulation regulator meda affects mating and virulence through pheromone response.mating of compatible haploid cells of ustilago maydis is essential for infection and disease development in the host. for mating and subsequent filamentous growth and pathogenicity, the transcription factor, prf1 is necessary. prf1 is in turn regulated by the camp and mapk pathways and other regulators like rop1 and hap1. here we describe the identification of another putative prf1 regulator, med1, the ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans medusa (meda) transcription factor and show that it is re ...201222537792
α-glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using α-glucosidase from halomonas sp. h11, and its physical properties.6-gingerol [(s)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (zingiber officinale). it has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. to improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using α-glucosidases (ec. from aspergillus niger, aspergillus nidulans abpu1, acremonium strictum, hal ...201222537860
γ-heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by aspergillus nidulans.microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. it is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. when these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered in a coordinated manner. this work provides evidence that aspergillus nidulans produces at least one small diffusible molecule during its growth cycle ...201222543352
involvement of a natural fusion of a cytochrome p450 and a hydrolase in mycophenolic acid biosynthesis.mycophenolic acid (mpa) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. the gene cluster coding for the mpa biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by mpac, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-moa). however, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the mpa gene cluster is still unknown. based on bioinfo ...201222544261
mrna 3' tagging is induced by nonsense-mediated decay and promotes ribosome dissociation.for a range of eukaryote transcripts, the initiation of degradation is coincident with the addition of a short pyrimidine tag at the 3' end. previously, cytoplasmic mrna tagging has been observed for human and fungal transcripts. we now report that arabidopsis thaliana mrna is subject to 3' tagging with u and c nucleotides, as in aspergillus nidulans. mutations that disrupt tagging, including a. nidulans cuta and a newly characterized gene, cutb, retard transcript degradation. importantly, nonse ...201222547684
the echinocandin b producer fungus aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 is an echinocandin b (ecb) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. as demonstrated by ecb/caspofungin sensitivity assays, a. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer a. nidulans fgsc a4 strain. under ecb producing conditions or ecb exposures, a. nidulans var. roseus induced its ecb tolerance via up-regul ...201222555909
correlation of mycelial growth rate with other phenotypic characters in evolved genotypes of aspergillus nidulans.fungal populations can adapt to their environment by the generation and fixation of spontaneous beneficial mutations. in this study we examined whether adaptation, measured as an increased mycelial growth rate, has correlated responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans with several other metric characters that could be important fitness components (colony forming units, germination speed, and biomass formation). studying 60 populations that had evolved over 800 generations by experi ...201222559923
fungal s-adenosylmethionine synthetase and the control of development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans carries a single gene for the s-adenosylmethionine (sam) synthetase sasa, whereas many other organisms possess multiple sam synthetases. the conserved enzyme catalyzes the reaction of methionine and atp to the ubiquitous methyl group donor sam. sam is the main methyl group donor for methyltransferases to modify dna, rna, protein, metabolites, or phospholipid target substrates. we show here that the single a. nidulans sam synthetase encoding gene sasa i ...201222561085
volatile organic compounds produced by the phytopathogenic bacterium xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria 85-10.xanthomonas campestris is a phytopathogenic bacterium and causes many diseases of agricultural relevance. volatiles were shown to be important in inter- and intraorganismic attraction and defense reactions. recently it became apparent that also bacteria emit a plethora of volatiles, which influence other organisms such as invertebrates, plants and fungi. as a first step to study volatile-based bacterial-plant interactions, the emission profile of xanthomonas c. pv. vesicatoria 85-10 was determin ...201222563356
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation for investigating pathogenicity genes of the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has become a common technique for dna transformation of yeast and filamentous fungi. in this study, we first established a protocol of atmt for the phytopathogenic fungus colletotrichum sansevieriae. binary t-dna vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene controlled by the aspergillus nidulans gpda promoter and the trpc terminator was constructed with pcambia0380 and used with three different strains lba4404, gv3101, and gv ...201222585286
an efficient method for transient gene expression in monocots applied to modify the brachypodium distachyon cell wall.agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used to produce insertions into plant genomes. there are a number of well-developed agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for dicotyledonous plants, but there are few for monocotyledonous plants.201222589326
cryptic peroxisomal targeting via alternative splicing and stop codon read-through in fungi.peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles important for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids. here we show that in numerous fungal species, several core enzymes of glycolysis, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), reside in both the cytoplasm and peroxisomes. we detected in these enzymes cryptic type 1 peroxisomal targeting signals (pts1), which are activated by post-transcriptional processes. notably, the molecular mechanisms that genera ...201222622582
molecular genetic analysis reveals that a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene in aspergillus nidulans is responsible for microperfuranone biosynthesis.genome sequencing of aspergillus species including aspergillus nidulans has revealed that there are far more secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters than secondary metabolites isolated from these organisms. this implies that these organisms can produce additional secondary metabolites, which have not yet been elucidated. the a. nidulans genome contains 12 nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps), one hybrid polyketide synthase/nrps, and 14 nrps-like genes. the only nrps-like gene in a. nid ...201222627757
proteome analysis of the farnesol-induced stress response in aspergillus nidulans--the role of a putative dehydrin.the isoprenoid alcohol farnesol represents a quorum-sensing molecule in pathogenic yeasts, but was also shown to inhibit the growth of many filamentous fungi. in order to gain a deeper insight into the antifungal activity of farnesol, we performed 2d-differential gel electrophoretic analysis (2d-dige) of aspergillus nidulans exposed to farnesol. we observed an increased abundance of antioxidative enzymes and proteins involved in protein folding and the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. a s ...201222634043
searching for gold beyond mitosis: mining intracellular membrane traffic in aspergillus nidulans.the genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. more recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of a. nidulans cell biology studies. this review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in a. nidulans. the cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth ...201222645705
morphogenetic and developmental functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologues of the yeast bud site selection proteins bud4 and axl2.the yeast bud site selection system represents a paradigm for understanding how fungal cells regulate the formation of a polarity axis. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, bud4 and axl2 are components of the axial bud site marker. to address the possibility that these proteins regulate cellular morphogenesis in filamentous fungi, we have characterized homologues of bud4 and axl2 in aspergillus nidulans. our results show that bud4 is involved in septum formation in both hyphae and developing conidiophor ...201222651396
fungal photobiology: a synopsis.fungi respond and adapt to many environmental signals including light. the photobiology of fungi has been extensively investigated, but in recent years the identification of the first fungal photoreceptor, wc-1 in the ascomycete neurospora crassa, and the discovery that similar photoreceptors are required for photoreception in other ascomycete, basidiomycete and zygomycete fungi has allowed the molecular characterization of light reception and the early steps of signal transduction in a number o ...201122679584
stabilizing the heterologously expressed uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa from the lower eukaryote aspergillus nidulans.despite detailed genetic and mutagenic analysis and a recent high-resolution structure of a bacterial member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family, understanding of the mechanism of action of eukaryotic nats is limited. preliminary studies successfully expressed and purified wild-type uapa to high homogeneity; however, the protein was extremely unstable, degrading almost completely after 48 h at 4°c. in an attempt to increase uapa stability we generated a number of single point mu ...201322694048
lis1 is an initiation factor for dynein-driven organelle transport.the molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for most minus-end-directed, microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells. it is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. for example, lissencephaly is caused by mutations in the dynein-associated protein lis1. in this paper, using the long, highly polarized hyphae of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we show that three morphologically and functionall ...201222711696
fgvelb is associated with vegetative differentiation, secondary metabolism and virulence in fusarium graminearum.the velvet complex containing vea, velb and laea has been showed to play critical roles in the regulation of secondary metabolism and diverse cellular processes in aspergillus spp. in this study, we identified fgvelb, a homolog of aspergillus nidulans velb, from fusarium graminearum using the blastp program. disruption of fgvelb gene led to several phenotypic defects, including suppression of aerial hyphae formation, reduced hyphal hydrophobicity and highly increased conidiation. the mutant show ...201222713714
lae1 regulates expression of multiple secondary metabolite gene clusters in fusarium verticillioides.the filamentous fungus fusarium verticillioides can cause disease of maize and is capable of producing fumonisins, a family of toxic secondary metabolites linked to esophageal cancer and neural tube defects in humans and lung edema in swine and leukoencephalomalacia in equines. the expression of fumonisin biosynthetic genes is influenced by broad-domain transcription factors (global regulators) and fum21, a pathway-specific transcription factor. laea is a global regulator that in aspergillus nid ...201222713715
genetic and biosynthetic studies of the fungal prenylated xanthone shamixanthone and related metabolites in aspergillus spp. revisited.biosynthetic genes for the prenylated xanthone shamixanthone have been identified in the aspergillus nidulans genome; based on assignment of putative functions from sequence analyses and selected gene deletions, a pathway was proposed leading from the anthraquinone emodin via the benzophenone carboxylic acid monodictyphenone and the xanthone emericellin to shamixanthone. several aspects of this proposed pathway are inconsistent with previously identified biosynthetic intermediates: the anthraqui ...201222730213
bioaugmented composting of jatropha de-oiled cake and vegetable waste under aerobic and partial anaerobic conditions.this study was conducted to assess the effect of microbial inoculation in jatropha cake composting with different vegetable waste. the microbial inoculums composed of fungal strains (aspergillus awamori, aspergillus nidulans, trichoderma viride, phanerochaete chrysosporium) and bacterial inoculums (pseudomonas striata as phosphorus solublizer and azotobacter chroococcum as nitrogen fixer) were added to the compost mixture after the thermophilic phase was over for bioaugmenting of jatropha cake u ...201322736484
otomycosis in central iran: a clinical and mycological study.otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear with bothersome symptoms. the aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of fungal agents, predisposing factors and characteristics of patients.201122737432
alanine scanning mutagenesis of a high-affinity nitrate transporter highlights the requirement for glycine and asparagine residues in the two nitrate signature motifs.common to all of the nitrate nitrite porter family are two conserved motifs in transmembrane helices 5 and 11 termed ns (nitrate signature) 1 and ns2. although perfectly conserved substrate-interacting arginine residues have been described in transmembrane helices 2 and 8, the role of nss has not been investigated. in the present study, a combination of structural modelling of nrta (nitrate transporter from aspergillus nidulans) with alanine scanning mutagenesis of residues within and around the ...201222738143
model and test in a fungus of the probability that beneficial mutations survive drift.determining the probability of fixation of beneficial mutations is critically important for building predictive models of adaptive evolution. despite considerable theoretical work, models of fixation probability have stood untested for nearly a century. however, recent advances in experimental and theoretical techniques permit the development of models with testable predictions. we developed a new model for the probability of surviving genetic drift, a major component of fixation probability, fo ...201322740642
protein phosphatase z modulates oxidative stress response in fungi.the genome of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans harbors the gene ppza that codes for the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase z (ppz), and the closely related opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus encompasses a highly similar ppz gene (phza). when ppza and phza were expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae or schizosaccharomyces pombe they partially complemented the deleted phosphatases in the ppz1 or the pzh1 mutants, and they also mimicked the effect of ppz1 overexpression in ...201222750657
development of transformation system of verticillium lecanii (lecanicillium spp.) (deuteromycotina: hyphomycetes) based on nitrate reductase gene of aspergillus nidulans.a heterologous transformation system was developed for v. lecanii based on the complementation of a nitrate reductase mutant. nitrate reductase mutants were obtained by resistance to chlorate in a rate of 23.24% when compared to other mutations that lead to the chlorate resistance. mutant no. 01 and 04 was chosen for the transformation experiments. plasmid pbt was used as transformation vector containing the aspergillus nidulans nitrate reductase gene. a frequency of approximately 3 transformant ...201122754022
mutations in the basic loop of the zn binuclear cluster of the uay transcriptional activator suppress mutations in the dimerisation domain.uay is the specific znii(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator of the purine utilisation pathway in aspergillus nidulans. previous work has determined the consensus binding sequence by emsa and foot-printing. we determine here that it binds as a dimer to its cognate cgg-n(6)-ccg sites. we identify the uay109 mutation, which has been shown to affect differentially the expression of a number of uay-regulated genes, as a f112i substitution in the dna-binding motif dimerisation domain. we isolated back ...201222760060
product patterns of a feruloyl esterase from aspergillus nidulans on large feruloyl-arabino-xylo-oligosaccharides from wheat bran.a purified feruloyl esterase (ec from aspergillus nidulans produced in pichia pastoris was used to study the de-esterification of large feruloyl oligosaccharides consisting of 4 to 20 pentose residues and (xylose plus arabinose) and one ferulic acid residue. the feruloyl oligosaccharides were prepared from total oligosaccharidic hydrolysates from wheat bran treated with a purified endoxylanase from thermobacillus xylanilyticus. the feruloyl esterase showed similar specific activity but ...201222770893
ph response pathways in fungi: adapting to host-derived and environmental signals.microorganisms are significantly affected when the ambient ph of their environment changes. they must therefore be able to sense and respond to these changes in order to survive. previous investigators have studied various fungal species to define conserved ph-responsive signaling pathways. one of these pathways, known as the pal/rim pathway, is activated in response to alkaline ph signals, ultimately targeting the pacc/rim101 transcription factor. although the central signaling components are c ...201122783112
vea-dependent rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor-like protein, rtfa, is associated with secondary metabolism and morphological development in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans the global regulatory gene vea is necessary for the biosynthesis of several secondary metabolites, including the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). in order to identify additional vea-dependent genetic elements involved in regulating st production, we performed a mutagenesis on a deletion vea (δvea) strain to obtain revertant mutants (rm) that regained the capability to produce toxin. genetic analysis and molecular characterization of one of the revertant mutants, rm3, reve ...201222783880
comprehensive analysis of the dna-binding specificity of an aspergillus nidulans transcription factor, amyr, using a bead display system.the in vitro dna binding profile of aspergillus nidulans transcription factor amyr was analyzed by a novel approach employing a genetic library of beads and flow cytometry analysis. an artificial library with 22 randomized nucleotides was constructed and subjected to a protein-dna binding reaction with male-tagged amyr. dna fragments with potential amyr-binding sites were labeled with fluorescence-conjugated antibody to be enriched by flow cytometry through 5 rounds of successive selection. fina ...201222790934
gmca is a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase required for the induction of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans asexual differentiation is induced by upstream developmental activators (udas) that include the bzip-type transcription factor (tf) flbb. a 2d-page/ms-ms-coupled screen for proteins differentially expressed in the presence and absence of flbb identified 18 candidates. most candidates belong to go term classes involved in osmotic and/or oxidative stress response. among these, we focused on gmca, a putative glucose-methanol-choline oxidoreductase which is upregulated in a δflb ...201222792266
flbd, a myb transcription factor of aspergillus nidulans, is uniquely involved in both asexual and sexual the fungus aspergillus nidulans, inactivation of the flba to -e, flug, fluf, and tmpa genes results in similar phenotypes, characterized by a delay in conidiophore and asexual spore production. flbb to -d encode transcription factors needed for proper expression of the brla gene, which is essential for asexual development. however, recent evidence indicates that flbb and flbe also have nontranscriptional functions. here we show that fluf1 is an allele of flbd which results in an r47p substitu ...201222798393
nsdc and nsdd affect aspergillus flavus morphogenesis and aflatoxin production.the transcription factors nsdc and nsdd are required for sexual development in aspergillus nidulans. we now show these proteins also play a role in asexual development in the agriculturally important aflatoxin (af)-producing fungus aspergillus flavus. we found that both nsdc and nsdd are required for production of asexual sclerotia, normal aflatoxin biosynthesis, and conidiophore development. conidiophores in nsdc and nsdd deletion mutants had shortened stipes and altered conidial heads compared ...201222798394
hydrolase controls cellular nad, sirtuin, and secondary metabolites.cellular levels of nad(+) and nadh are thought to be controlled by de novo and salvage mechanisms, although evidence has not yet indicated that they are regulated by nad(+) degradation. here we show that the conserved nudix hydrolase isozyme ndxa hydrolyzes and decreases cellular nad(+) and nadh in aspergillus nidulans. the ndxa-deficient fungus accumulated more nad(+) during the stationary growth phase, indicating that ndxa maintains cellular nad(+)/nadh homeostasis. the deficient strain also g ...201222801369
characterization of melanin pigment produced by aspergillus nidulans.although most of the ascomycetes present dhn-melanin, some reports suggest that a. nidulans does not produce this type of melanin. in this study, we analyzed the pigment extracted from highly melanized strains (mel1 and mel2) of aspergillus nidulans to determine the type of melanin present in this fungus. our results showed that the pigment produced by mel1 and mel2 mutants possesses physical and chemical properties and uv- and ir-spectra very similar to synthetic dopa-melanin. the characterizat ...201122805928
putative cell wall integrity sensor proteins in aspergillus nidulans.the cell wall integrity (cwi) signal transduction pathway, which has been well-studied in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, plays an important role in the regulation of cell wall biogenesis. recently, we characterized the cwi stress sensor orthologs wsca and wscb in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. disruption of the wsca and wscb genes causes a change in the transcriptional levels of agsa and agsb, which encode α-1,3-glucan synthase, resulting in an increase in alkaline soluble cel ...201222808335
increasing oxidative stress tolerance and subculturing stability of cordyceps militaris by overexpression of a glutathione peroxidase other filamentous fungi, the medicinal ascomycete cordyceps militaris frequently degenerates during continuous maintenance in culture by showing loss of the ability to reproduce sexually or asexually. degeneration of fungal cultures has been related with cellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ros). in this study, an antioxidant glutathione peroxidase (gpx) gene from aspergillus nidulans was engineered into two c. militaris strains, i.e., the cm01 strain which can fruit normally a ...201322828981
aspergillus nidulans and chronic granulomatous disease: a unique host-pathogen interaction.invasive fungal infections are a major threat for patients suffering from chronic granulomatous disease (cgd), a primary immunodeficiency caused by a defect in the nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph)-oxidase. interestingly, aspergillus (emericella) nidulans is the second most encountered mold in cgd patients, causing almost exclusively invasive infections in this specific host, and is characterized by its aggressive behavior. a proper diagnosis is complicated by the often mild cl ...201222829648
the aspergillus nidulans mapk module anste11-ste50-ste7-fus3 controls development and secondary metabolism.the sexual fus3 map kinase module of yeast is highly conserved in eukaryotes and transmits external signals from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. we show here that the module of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans (an) consists of the anfus3 map kinase, the upstream kinases anste7 and anste11, and the anste50 adaptor. the fungal mapk module controls the coordination of fungal development and secondary metabolite production. it lacks the membrane docking yeast ste5 scaffold homolog; bu ...201222829779
a time course analysis of the extracellular proteome of aspergillus nidulans growing on sorghum stover.fungi are important players in the turnover of plant biomass because they produce a broad range of degradative enzymes. aspergillus nidulans, a well-studied saprophyte and close homologue to industrially important species such as a. niger and a. oryzae, was selected for this study.201222835028
vea1 is required for cleistothecial formation and virulence in histoplasma capsulatum.histoplasma capsulatum is a pathogenic fungus dependent on dimorphism for virulence. among the four described velvet family genes, two of them, ryp2 and ryp3, have been shown to be required for dimorphism. it is known that velvet a (vea) is necessary for sexual development and toxin production in aspergillus nidulans. however, the role of the vea ortholog in h. capsulatum has not yet been explored. vea1, h. capsulatum homolog of vea, was studied to determine its role in cleistothecial formation, ...201222841690
identification of the substrate recognition and transport pathway in a eukaryotic member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family.using the crystal structure of the uracil transporter uraa of escherichia coli, we constructed a 3d model of the aspergillus nidulans uric acid-xanthine/h(+) symporter uapa, which is a prototype member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family. the model consists of 14 transmembrane segments (tmss) divided into a core and a gate domain, the later being distinctly different from that of uraa. by implementing molecular mechanics (mm) simulations and quantitative structure-activity relat ...201222848666
motor-driven motility of fungal nuclear pores organizes chromosomes and fosters nucleocytoplasmic between the nucleus and the cytoplasm is controlled by nuclear pore complexes (npcs). in animals, npcs are anchored by the nuclear lamina, which ensures their even distribution and proper organization of chromosomes. fungi do not possess a lamina and how they arrange their chromosomes and npcs is unknown. here, we show that motor-driven motility of npcs organizes the fungal nucleus. in ustilago maydis, aspergillus nidulans, and saccharomyces cerevisiae fluorescently labeled npcs showed ...201222851316
aspergillus tanneri sp. nov., a new pathogen that causes invasive disease refractory to antifungal therapy.the most common cause of invasive aspergillosis (ia) in patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is aspergillus fumigatus followed by a. nidulans; other aspergilli rarely cause the disease. here we review two clinical cases of fatal ia in cgd patients and describe a new etiologic agent of ia refractory to antifungal therapy. unlike typical ia caused by a. fumigatus, the disease caused by the new species was chronic and spread from the lung to multiple adjacent organs. mycological charac ...201222855513
cis- and trans-acting localization determinants of ph response regulator rim13 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.the rim101/pacc pathway governs adaptation to alkaline ph in many fungi. output of the pathway is mediated by transcription factors of the rim101/pacc family, which are activated by proteolytic cleavage. the proteolytic complex includes scaffold protein rim20 and endosome-associated subunits of the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (escrt). we provide here evidence that saccharomyces cerevisiae rim13, the protease that is implicated in rim101 cleavage, is associated with the rim20 ...201222865500
induced mitotic homologous recombination by the babesicide imidocarb dipropionate in aspergillus nidulans diploid cells.imidocarb dipropionate (imd) is a chemotherapeutic agent prescribed for the treatment and control of babesiosis; it is known to be a nucleic acid synthesis inhibitor. although it is an effective babesicide, there are reports of persistent imd residues retained at high levels in edible tissues of cattle, swine and sheep, raising concerns about potential effects on humans. since the carcinogenic potential of a chemical compound can be assessed through its effect on the homologous recombination, we ...201222869537
overexpression of the aspergillus nidulans histone 4 acetyltransferase esaa increases activation of secondary metabolite production.regulation of secondary metabolite (sm) gene clusters in aspergillus nidulans has been shown to occur through cluster-specific transcription factors or through global regulators of chromatin structure such as histone methyltransferases, histone deacetylases, or the putative methyltransferase laea. a multicopy suppressor screen for genes capable of returning sm production to the sm deficient δlaea mutant resulted in identification of the essential histone acetyltransferase esaa, able to complemen ...201222882998
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