PMID(sorted ascending)
cryptic aspergillus nidulans antimicrobials.secondary metabolite (sm) production by fungi is hypothesized to provide some fitness attribute for the producing organisms. however, most sm clusters are "silent" when fungi are grown in traditional laboratory settings, and it is difficult to ascertain any function or activity of these sm cluster products. recently, the creation of a chromatin remodeling mutant in aspergillus nidulans induced activation of several cryptic sm gene clusters. systematic testing of nine purified metabolites from th ...201121478304
regulation of pentose utilisation by arar, but not xlnr, differs in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger.filamentous fungi are important producers of plant polysaccharide degrading enzymes that are used in many industrial applications. these enzymes are produced by the fungus to liberate monomeric sugars that are used as carbon source. two of the main components of plant polysaccharides are l: -arabinose and d: -xylose, which are metabolized through the pentose catabolic pathway (pcp) in these fungi. in aspergillus niger, the regulation of pentose release from polysaccharides and the pcp involves t ...201121484208
eisosomes and membrane compartments in the ascomycetes: a view from aspergillus nidulans.eisosomes are punctate structures located in the cytoplasmic side of the cell membrane of ascomycetes. in saccharomyces cerevisiae they coincide topologically with and are necessary for the organisation of specific membrane domains. the eisosomal proteins are universally and quite strictly conserved in the sub-phylum, however this evolutionary conservation is in apparent contradiction with an elusive functional significance. the comparative analysis of the eisosomes of s. cerevisiae and aspergil ...201121509182
enzymatic properties of the recombinant serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpc, which is unique to aspergillus oryzae.gene ao090103000153 is unique to aspergillus oryzae rib40 and a. flavus nrrl3357, and is speculated to encode a serine-type carboxypeptidase. in this study, we purified and characterized a heterologously expressed gene product of ao090103000153. 5'-rapid amplification of cdna ends indicated that the translation start site of the gene is located 1,586 bp downstream of the translation start site predicted by the genome sequencing project. the gene, starting from the revised translation start codon ...201121512241
[comparison of genomes between aspergillus nidulans and 30 filamentous ascomycetes].to investigate the conserved homologs of filamentous ascomycetes genomes, the local fungal genome database used in this analysis was established, which consisted of 31 latest and complete genome data publicly available on the internet. an expectation value cutoff of 0.1 was used to identify significant hits. each complete gene set of the query genome aspergillus nidulans genome with 10,560 annotated genes was splitted into individual fasta files with seqverter and then compared separately agains ...201021513172
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus rosellinia necatrix.rosellinia necatrix is a soil-borne root pathogen affecting a wide range of commercially important plant species. the mycelium of r. necatrix was transformed to hygromycin b resistance by an agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation system using a binary plasmid vector containing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) gene controlled by the heterologous fungal aspergillus nidulans p-gpd (glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase) promoter and the trpc terminator. co-cultivation of r. n ...201121513216
formation and stability of eisosomes in the filamentous fungus ashbya hallmark of the rapid expansion of the polar surface of fungal hyphae is the spatial separation of regions of exocytosis and endocytosis at hyphal tips, as recently shown for ashbya gossypii and aspergillus nidulans. to determine where cortex-associated eisosomes form with respect to these two regions, we monitored fluorescently marked eisosomes in a. gossypii. each minute, 1.6±0.5 eisosomes form within the first 30 μm of each hypha and are exclusively subapical of the endocytosis region. th ...201121525038
adaptation of the tokuyasu method for the ultrastructural study and immunogold labelling of filamentous fungi.the study of filamentous fungi is fundamental not only to extend their biotechnological applications, but also to develop new drugs to fight pathological species. morphological analyses are particularly relevant when investigating their development and differentiation. the need to maintain the orientation of hyphae and the presence of a cell wall, which hampers the sample infiltration with cryoprotectants and other reagents necessary to preserve the cell ultrastructure, creates difficulties with ...201121527426
structural features and chaperone activity of the nudc protein family.the nudc family consists of four conserved proteins with representatives in all eukaryotes. the archetypal nudc gene from aspergillus nidulans is a member of the nud gene family that is involved in the maintenance of nuclear migration. this family also includes nudf, whose human orthologue, lis1, codes for a protein essential for brain cortex development. three paralogues of nudc are known in vertebrates: nudc, nudc-like (nudcl), and nudc-like 2 (nudcl2). the fourth distantly related member of t ...201121530541
8-carbon oxylipins inhibit germination and growth, and stimulate aerial conidiation in aspergillus nidulans.germination of aspergillus nidulans conidia in liquid cultures was progressively inhibited at inoculum loads above 1×10(5)conidiaml(-1). high conidial densities also inhibited growth of neighbouring mycelia. the eight-carbon oxylipin 1-octen-3-ol was identified as the main inhibitor in a fraction also containing 3-octanone and 3-octanol. these three oxylipins also increased the conidiation rate of dark-grown surface cultures, but had no effect on liquid cultures. 3-octanone was the most conidiog ...201121530921
multifrequency electron paramagnetic resonance characterization of ppoa, a cyp450 fusion protein that catalyzes fatty acid dioxygenation.ppoa is a fungal dioxygenase that produces hydroxylated fatty acids involved in the regulation of the life cycle and secondary metabolism of aspergillus nidulans . it was recently proposed that this novel enzyme employs two different heme domains to catalyze two separate reactions: within a heme peroxidase domain, linoleic acid is oxidized to (8r)-hydroperoxyoctadecadienoic acid [(8r)-hpode]; in the second reaction step (8r)-hpode is isomerized within a p450 heme thiolate domain to 5,8-dihydroxy ...201121548577
transcription of the hsp30, hsp70, and hsp90 heat shock protein genes is modulated by the pala protein in response to acid ph-sensing in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.heat shock proteins are molecular chaperones linked to a myriad of physiological functions in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in this study, we show that the aspergillus nidulans hsp30 (anid_03555.1), hsp70 (anid_05129.1), and hsp90 (anid_08269.1) genes are preferentially expressed in an acidic milieu, whose expression is dependent on the pala (+) background under optimal temperature for fungal growth. heat shock induction of these three hsp genes showed different patterns in response to extrac ...201121553327
quantitative trait locus (qtl) mapping reveals a role for unstudied genes in aspergillus virulence.infections caused by the fungus aspergillus are a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. to identify genes required for virulence that could be used as targets for novel treatments, we mapped quantitative trait loci (qtl) affecting virulence in the progeny of a cross between two strains of a. nidulans (fgsc strains a4 and a91). we genotyped 61 progeny at 739 single nucleotide polymorphisms (snp) spread throughout the genome, and constructed a linkage map that wa ...201121559404
control of glucosylceramide production and morphogenesis by the bar1 ceramide synthase in fusarium graminearum.the contribution of plasma membrane proteins to the virulence of plant pathogenic fungi is poorly understood. accordingly, the objective of this study was to characterize the acyl-coa dependent ceramide synthase bar1 (previously implicated in plasma membrane organization) in the wheat pathogen fusarium graminearum. the role of bar1 in mediating cell membrane organization was confirmed as δbar1 mutants failed to display a distinct sterol-rich domain at the hyphal tip. the δbar1 mutants were non-p ...201121559419
mononucleotide repeats represent an important source of polymorphic microsatellite markers in aspergillus fungi, microsatellites occur less frequently throughout the genome and tend to be less polymorphic compared with other organisms. most studies that develop microsatellites for fungi focus on dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, and thus mononucleotide repeats, which are much more abundant in fungal genomes, may represent an overlooked resource. this study examined the relative probabilities of polymorphism in mononucleotide, dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats in aspergillus nidulans. a ...200921564695
strategies of xylanase supplementation for an efficient saccharification and cofermentation process from pretreated wheat straw.ethanol production from lignocellulosic raw materials includes a pretreatment step before enzymatic hydrolysis (eh). pretreated substrates contain complex hemicelluloses in the solid fraction that can protect the cellulose from enzymatic attack. in addition, soluble xylooligomers are contained in the pretreated materials and may have an inhibitory effect on cellulase activity. in this context, several approaches for xylanase supplementation have been studied to increase eh yields. in this study, ...201121567993
kin3 protein, a nima-related kinase of saccharomyces cerevisiae, is involved in dna adduct damage response.kin3 is a nonessential serine/threonine protein kinase of the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae with unknown cellular role. it is an ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase nima (never-in mitosis, gene a), which is involved in the regulation of g2/m phase progression, dna damage response and mitosis. the aim of this study was to determine whether kin3 is required for proper checkpoint activation and dna repair. here we show that kin3 gene deficient cells present sensitivity and ...201021577056
immunomodulatory and therapeutic potential of a mycelial lectin from aspergillus nidulans.lectins bind to surface receptors on target cells, and activate a cascade of events, eventually leading to altered immune status of host. the immunomodulatory potential of purified lectin from aspergillus nidulans was evaluated in swiss albino mice treated intraperitoneally with seven different doses of purified lectin. lectin prevented bsa-induced arthus reaction and systemic anaphylaxis. the enhanced functional ability of macrophages was evident from respiratory burst activity and nitric oxide ...201121590306
characterisation of anbest1, a functional anion channel in the plasma membrane of the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans.two distant homologues of the bestrophin gene family have been identified in the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans (anbest1 and anbest2). anbest1 was functionally characterised using the patch clamp technique and was shown to be an anion selective channel permeable to citrate. furthermore, anbest1 restored the growth of the pdr12δ yeast mutant on inhibitory concentrations of extracellular propionate, benzoate and sorbate, also consistent with carboxylated organic anion permeation of anbes ...201121596151
asperlin induces g(2)/m arrest through ros generation and atm pathway in human cervical carcinoma cells.we exploited the biological activity of an antibiotic agent asperlin isolated from aspergillus nidulans against human cervical carcinoma cells. we found that asperlin dramatically increased reactive oxygen species (ros) generation accompanied by a significant reduction in cell proliferation. cleavage of caspase-3 and parp and reduction of bcl-2 could also be detected after asperlin treatment to the cells. an anti-oxidant n-acetyl-l-cysteine (nac), however, blocked all the apoptotic effects of as ...201121600879
structure and activity of aspergillus nidulans copper amine oxidase.aspergillus nidulans amine oxidase (anao) has the unusual ability among the family of copper and trihydroxyphenylalanine quinone-containing amine oxidases of being able to oxidize the amine side chains of lysine residues in large peptides and proteins. we show here that in common with the related enzyme from the yeast pichia pastoris, anao can promote the cross-linking of tropoelastin and oxidize the lysine residues in α-casein proteins and tropoelastin. the crystal structure of anao, the first ...201121604787
kinetics of cyclobutane thymine dimer splitting by dna photolyase directly monitored in the uv.cpd photolyase uses light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpds) formed between adjacent pyrimidines in uv-irradiated dna. the enzyme harbors an fad cofactor in fully reduced state (fadh(-)). the cpd repair mechanism involves electron transfer from photoexcited fadh(-) to the cpd, splitting of its intradimer bonds, and electron return to restore catalytically active fadh(-). the two electron transfer processes occur on time scales of 10(-10) and 10(-9) s, respectively. until now, cpd spl ...201121606324
osteomyelitis due to aspergillus species in chronic granulomatous disease: an update of the literature.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare inherited disorder characterised by inability of phagocytes to kill catalase-positive organisms including certain fungi. aspergillus species are the most frequent fungal pathogens. this study is a systematic review of the reported cases of osteomyelitis due to aspergillus species in cgd patients. retrospective analysis of 46 osteomyelitis cases caused by aspergillus species in 43 cgd patients (three females) published in the english literature (pubme ...201121615532
autophagy induced by rapamycin and carbon-starvation have distinct proteome profiles in aspergillus is hypothesized that autophagy, a global catabolic pathway which is highly conserved from yeast to man, plays an important role in many bioprocesses. though autophagy is known to be induced by either nutrient starvation or treatment with the drug rapamycin, it is not clear whether the two modes of induction have the same long term impact in the cell, particularly in the biotechnologically important filamentous fungi. here, we compare the overall proteomes from the carbon-starved (g-) and rapa ...201121618477
chronic granulomatous disease of childhood: an unusual cause of recurrent uncommon infections in a 61-year-old man.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare congenital immunodeficiency that affects 1 : 250 000 of the population, which is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections and by granuloma formation. we investigated a 61-year-old man presented with a 20-year history of a relapsing skin rash appearing as mildly pruritic and erythematous plaques affecting various body regions. cutaneous biopsies were taken and sent for histology and tissue culture. leucocyte function was assessed by ...201121623884
regulation of conidiation by light in aspergillus nidulans.light regulates several aspects of the biology of many organisms, including the balance between asexual and sexual development in some fungi. to understand how light regulates fungal development at the molecular level we have used aspergillus nidulans as a model. we have performed a genome-wide expression analysis that has allowed us to identify more than 400 genes upregulated, and more than 100 genes downregulated by light in developmentally competent mycelium. among the upregulated genes were ...201121624998
on the role of microtubules, cell end markers, and septal microtubule organizing centres on site selection for polar growth in aspergillus nidulans.tip growth of filamentous fungi depends on continuous polarized growth and requires the actin and microtubule (mt) cytoskeleton. cortical proteins at polarity sites, also known as cell end markers, play important roles in polarity maintenance. deletion of the cell end marker teaa results in zigzag hyphal morphologies, which is contrary to the normal rectilinear growth pattern. here we studied the role of teaa and mts in the establishment of polarity during tip growth of aspergillus nidulans, inc ...201121640315
role of nitric oxide and flavohemoglobin homologous genes in aspergillus nidulans sexual development and mycotoxin production.flavohemoglobins are widely distributed in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. these proteins are involved in reducing nitric oxide levels. deletion of the aspergillus nidulans flavohemoglobin gene fhba induced sexual development and decreased sterigmatocystin production. supplementation with a nitric oxide-releasing compound promoted cleistothecial formation and increased nsdd and stea expression, indicating that nitric oxide induces sexual development. this is the first study on the effect of nit ...201121642398
regulated inactivation of the spindle assembly checkpoint without functional mitotic spindles.the spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) arrests mitosis until bipolar attachment of spindle microtubules to all chromosomes is accomplished. however, when spindle formation is prevented and the sac cannot be satisfied, mammalian cells can eventually overcome the mitotic arrest while the checkpoint is still activated. we find that aspergillus nidulans cells, which are unable to satisfy the sac, inactivate the checkpoint after a defined period of mitotic arrest. such sac inactivation allows normal n ...201121642954
analysis of aspergillus nidulans germination, initial growth and carbon source response by flow this work, flow cytometry was utilized to analyze the initial vegetative growth of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans as measured by the number of events increasing size and internal complexity. it was established the ideal parameters for the analysis of conidial populations, whose growth was followed after germination in glucose or sucrose. while glucose in culture increased growth several magnitudes in comparison to control cultures in saline, growth was less intense in cultures amended ...201121656795
coordination of secondary metabolism and development in fungi: the velvet family of regulatory proteins.filamentous fungi produce a number of small bioactive molecules as part of their secondary metabolism ranging from benign antibiotics such as penicillin to threatening mycotoxins such as aflatoxin. secondary metabolism can be linked to fungal developmental programs in response to various abiotic or biotic external triggers. the velvet family of regulatory proteins plays a key role in coordinating secondary metabolism and differentiation processes such as asexual or sexual sporulation and sclerot ...201121658084
a genome-wide polyketide synthase deletion library uncovers novel genetic links to polyketides and meroterpenoids in aspergillus nidulans.fungi possess an advanced secondary metabolism that is regulated and coordinated in a complex manner depending on environmental challenges. to understand this complexity, a holistic approach is necessary. we initiated such an analysis in the important model fungus aspergillus nidulans by systematically deleting all 32 individual genes encoding polyketide synthases. wild-type and all mutant strains were challenged on different complex media to provoke induction of the secondary metabolism. screen ...201121658102
The d-galacturonic acid catabolic pathway in Botrytis cinerea.d-galacturonic acid is the most abundant component of pectin, one of the major polysaccharide constituents of plant cell walls. Galacturonic acid potentially is an important carbon source for microorganisms living on (decaying) plant material. A catabolic pathway was proposed in filamentous fungi, comprising three enzymatic steps, involving d-galacturonate reductase, l-galactonate dehydratase, and 2-keto-3-deoxy-l-galactonate aldolase. We describe the functional, biochemical and genetic characte ...201121683149
redundant ability of phagocytes to kill aspergillus species. 201121689849
roles of the aspergillus nidulans udp-galactofuranose transporter, ugta in hyphal morphogenesis, cell wall architecture, conidiation, and drug sensitivity.galactofuranose (galf) is the 5-member-ring form of galactose found in the walls of fungi including aspergillus, but not in mammals. udp-galactofuranose mutase (ugma, anid_3112.1) generates udp-galf from udp-galactopyranose (6-member ring form). ugma-gfp is cytoplasmic, so the udp-galf residues it produces must be transported into an endomembrane compartment prior to incorporation into cell wall components. anid_3113.1 (which we call ugta) was identified as being likely to encode the a. nidulans ...201121693196
substrate specifity profiling of the aspergillus fumigatus proteolytic secretome reveals consensus motifs with predominance of ile/leu and phe/tyr.the filamentous fungus aspergillus fumigatus (af) can cause devastating infections in immunocompromised individuals. early diagnosis improves patient outcomes but remains challenging because of the limitations of current methods. to augment the clinician's toolkit for rapid diagnosis of af infections, we are investigating af secreted proteases as novel diagnostic targets. the af genome encodes up to 100 secreted proteases, but fewer than 15 of these enzymes have been characterized thus far. give ...201121695046
two induced fungal polyketide pathways converge into antiproliferative spiroanthrones. 201121698737
the p25 subunit of the dynactin complex is required for dynein-early endosome interaction.cytoplasmic dynein transports various cellular cargoes including early endosomes, but how dynein is linked to early endosomes is unclear. we find that the aspergillus nidulans orthologue of the p25 subunit of dynactin is critical for dynein-mediated early endosome movement but not for dynein-mediated nuclear distribution. in the absence of nudf/lis1, p25 deletion abolished the localization of dynein-dynactin to the hyphal tip where early endosomes abnormally accumulate but did not prevent dynein ...201121708978
the mpkb map kinase plays a role in post-karyogamy processes as well as in hyphal anastomosis during sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.two genes encoding map kinase homologs, designated as mpkb and mpkc, were isolated from aspergillus nidulans by pcr with degenerate primers. deletion and over-expression mutants of mpkc showed no detectable phenotypes under any external stress tested. deletion of mpkb caused pleiotropic phenotypes including a failure in forming cleistothecia under any induction conditions for sexual development, increased h++lle cell production, slow hyphal growth and aberrant conidiophore morphology. over-expre ...201121717328
mutational analysis and modeling reveal functionally critical residues in transmembrane segments 1 and 3 of the uapa transporter.earlier, we identified mutations in the first transmembrane segment (tms1) of uapa, a uric acid-xanthine transporter in aspergillus nidulans, that affect its turnover and subcellular localization. here, we use one of these mutations (h86d) and a novel mutation (i74d) as well as genetic suppressors of them, to show that tms1 is a key domain for proper folding, trafficking and turnover. kinetic analysis of mutants further revealed that partial misfolding and deficient trafficking of uapa does not ...201121722649
proteomics of eukaryotic microorganisms: the medically and biotechnologically important fungal genus aspergillus.fungal species of the genus aspergillus play significant roles as model organisms in basic research, as "cell factories" for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals or industrially important enzymes and as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections in animals and humans. the release of the genome sequences of several aspergillus sp. has paved the way for global analyses of protein expression in aspergilli including the characterisation of proteins, which have not designated a ...201121726053
improved pectinase production in penicillium griseoroseum recombinant strains.aims:ôçé to obtain recombinant strains of penicillium griseoroseum that produce high levels of pectin lyase (pl) and polygalacturonase (pg) simultaneously. methods and results:ôçé a strain with high production of pl was transformed with the plasmid pan52pgg2, containing the gene encoding pg of p.-ágriseoroseum, under control of the gpd promoter gene from aspergillus nidulans. southern blot analysis demonstrated that all strain had at least one copy of pan52pgg2 integrated into the genome. the re ...201121726361
Osmotic stabilizer-coupled suppression of NDR defects is dependent on the calcium-calcineurin signaling cascade in Aspergillus nidulans.Establishment and maintenance of cell polarity are coordinated by signaling pathways such as NDR (nuclear Dbf2-related) protein-kinase signaling and calcium signaling pathway. The NDR family of kinase is structurally related to the human myotonic dystrophy kinase, which, when impaired, confers a disease that involves changes in cytoarchitecture and ion homeostasis. CotA kinase, a member of the NDR protein kinase family, forms a complex with MobB to regulate cell polarized growth in Aspergillus n ...201121741477
conidial dihydroxynaphthalene melanin of the human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus interferes with the host endocytosis pathway.aspergillus fumigatus is the most important air-borne fungal pathogen of humans. the interaction of the pathogen with the host's immune system represents a key process to understand pathogenicity. for elimination of invading microorganisms, they need to be efficiently phagocytosed and located in acidified phagolysosomes. however, as shown previously, a. fumigatus is able to manipulate the formation of functional phagolysosomes. here, we demonstrate that in contrast to pigmentless pksp mutant con ...201121747802
ehd2 mediates trafficking from the plasma membrane by modulating rac1 activity.ehds, eh domain containing proteins, participate in different stages of endocytosis. ehd2 is a plasma membrane associated, ehd which regulates trafficking from the plasma membrane [1]and recycling [2]. ehd2 has a role in nucleotide dependent membrane remodeling and its atp binding domain is involved in dimerization, which creates a membrane binding region. nucleotide binding is important for association of ehd2 with the plasma membrane, since a nucleotide free mutant (ehd2 t72a) failed to do so ...201121756249
experimental evolution of defense against a competitive mold confers reduced sensitivity to fungal toxins but no increased resistance in drosophila larvae.abstract: background: fungal secondary metabolites have been suggested to function as chemical defenses against insect antagonists, i.e. predators and competitors. because insects and fungi often compete for dead organic material, insects may achieve protection against fungi by reducing sensitivity to fungal chemicals. this, in turn, may lead to increased resistance allowing insects better to suppress the spread of antagonistic but non-pathogenic microbes in their habitat. however, it remains co ...201121756302
[performance of locked nucleic acid probe real-time polymerase chain reaction in the detection of aspergillus fumigatus].to evaluate the performance of locked nucleic acid (lna) probe real-time polymerase chain reaction (pcr) in the detection of aspergillus fumigatus (a. fumigatus).201121756800
phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c mediates carbon sensing and vegetative nuclear duplication rates in aspergillus this work, we disrupted one of three putative phosphatidylinositol phospholipase c genes of aspergillus nidulans and studied its effect on carbon source sensing linked to vegetative mitotic nuclear division. we showed that glucose does not affect nuclear division rates during early vegetative conidial germination (6-7 h) in either the wild type or the plca-deficient mutant. only after 8 h of cultivation on glucose did the mutant strain present some decrease in nuclear duplication. however, de ...201121770720
nudc is required for interkinetic nuclear migration and neuronal migration during neocortical development.nudc is a highly conserved protein necessary for cytoplasmic dynein-mediated nuclear migration in aspergillus nidulans. nudc interacts genetically with aspergillus nudf and physically with its mammalian orthologue lis1, which is crucial for nuclear and neuronal migration during brain development. to test for related roles for nudc, we performed in utero electroporation into embryonic rat brain of cdnas encoding shrnas as well as wild-type and mutant forms of nudc. we show here that nudc, like li ...201121771589
the aspergillus nidulans cenp-e kinesin kipa is able to dimerize and to move processively along microtubules.kinesin molecular motors serve a variety of cellular functions usually in dynamic processes. one characteristic feature of many kinesins is their atp-dependent processive movement along polymerized microtubules. however, many kinesins work as stationary polymerases or depolymerases. therefore, it needs to be determined for each motor, whether it moves processively along microtubules or not. the schizosaccharomyces pombe kinesin-7, tea2, has been shown to be involved in cell end marker transporta ...201121785949
dynamics and mechanism of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer repair by dna photolyase.photolyase uses blue light to restore the major ultraviolet (uv)-induced dna damage, the cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (cpd), to two normal bases by splitting the cyclobutane ring. our earlier studies showed that the overall repair is completed in 700 ps through a cyclic electron-transfer radical mechanism. however, the two fundamental processes, electron-tunneling pathways and cyclobutane ring splitting, were not resolved. here, we use ultrafast uv absorption spectroscopy to show that the cpd sp ...201121804035
microtubule dynamics in mitosis in aspergillus nidulans.mitosis in aspergillus nidulans is very rapid, requiring less than 5min at 37°c in germlings (bergen and morris, 1983). in this time the cytoplasmic microtubules (mts) must disassemble, the mitotic spindle assemble, function and disassemble, and cytoplasmic mts reassemble. it follows that cytoplasmic mts must be extremely dynamic in this period and we were interested, in particular, in examining the processes of mt disassembly in prophase and reassembly in anaphase and telophase. we observed a d ...201121807107
Engineering of an "Unnatural" Natural Product by Swapping Polyketide Synthase Domains in Aspergillus nidulans.An StcA-AfoE hybrid polyketide synthase (PKS), generated by swapping the AfoE (asperfuranone biosynthesis) SAT domain with the StcA (sterigmatocystin biosynthesis) SAT domian, produced a major new metabolite with the same chain length as the native AfoE product. Structure elucidation allowed us to propose a likely pathway, and feeding studies supported the hypothesis that the chain length of PKS metabolites may be under precise control of KS and PT domains.201121815681
a unique regulatory mechanism for d-galactose utilization in aspergillus nidulans.this study describes two novel regulators, galx and galr, that control d-galactose utilization in aspergillus nidulans. this system is unique for a. nidulans since no galr homologs were found in other ascomycetes. galr, but not galx, shares significant sequence identity with the arabinanolytic and xylanolytic regulators arar and xlnr, but galx is more distantly related.201121821745
Preliminary X-ray crystallographic studies of UDP-glucose-4-epimerase from Aspergillus nidulans.UDP-glucose-4-epimerase (GALE) from Aspergillus nidulans was overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified via His-tag affinity chromatography and cocrystallized with UDP-galactose using the microbatch method. The crystals diffracted to 2.4ÔÇà+à resolution using synchrotron radiation on the Canadian Light Source 08ID-1 beamline. Examination of the data with d*TREK revealed nonmerohedral twinning, from which a single lattice was ultimately extracted for processing. The final space group was found t ...201121821886
bacteria-induced natural product formation in the fungus aspergillus nidulans requires saga/ada-mediated histone acetylation.sequence analyses of fungal genomes have revealed that the potential of fungi to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. in fact, most gene clusters coding for the biosynthesis of antibiotics, toxins, or pigments are silent under standard laboratory conditions. hence, it is one of the major challenges in microbiology to uncover the mechanisms required for pathway activation. recently, we discovered that intimate physical interaction of the important model fungus aspergillus nidu ...201121825172
backbone and sidechain (1)h, (13)c and (15)n chemical shift assignments of the hydrophobin dewa from aspergillus nidulans.hydrophobins are proteins secreted by filamentous fungi that are able to self-assemble into monolayers at hydrophobic:hydrophilic interfaces. the layers are amphipathic and can reverse the wettability of surfaces. hydrophobins have several roles in fungal development, including the formation of coatings on fungal structures to render them hydrophobic. here we report the backbone and sidechain assignments for the class i hydrophobin dewa from the fungus aspergillus nidulans.201121845363
Polyphasic characterization of "Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus" ATCC 58397.Polyphasic characterization of the echinocandin B producer Aspergillus nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 strain was carried out to elucidate its taxonomical status. According to its carbon source utilization and secondary metabolite spectrum as well as the partial ß-tubulin, calmodulin, and ?-actin gene sequences, A. nidulans var. roseus belongs to the Emericella rugulosa species. Auxotroph mutants of A. nidulans var. roseus ATCC 58397 and E. rugulosa CBS 171.71 and CBS 133.60 formed stable hetero ...201121858538
recombinant production and characterisation of two related gh5 endo-β-1,4-mannanases from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 showing distinctly different transglycosylation capacity.the glycoside hydrolase family 5 (gh5) endo-β-1,4-mannanases mana and manc from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 were produced in pichia pastoris x33 and purified in high yields of 120 and 145mg/l, respectively, from the culture supernatants. both enzymes showed increasing catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/k(m)) towards β-1,4 manno-oligosaccharides with the degree of polymerisation (dp) from 4 to 6 and also hydrolysed konjac glucomannan, guar gum and locust bean gum galactomannans. manc had up to two-fol ...201121867780
complex mechanisms regulate developmental expression of the mata (hmg) mating type gene in homothallic aspergillus nidulans.sexual reproduction is a fundamental developmental process that allows for genetic diversity through the control of zygote formation, recombination, and gametogenesis. the correct regulation of these events is paramount. sexual reproduction in filamentous fungi, including mating strategy (self-fertilization/homothallism or outcrossing/heterothallism), is determined by the expression of mating type genes at mat loci. aspergillus nidulans mata encodes a critical regulator that is a fungal ortholog ...201121868608
wild-type mic distributions and epidemiological cutoff values for amphotericin b and aspergillus spp. for the clsi broth microdilution method (m38-a2 document).although clinical breakpoints have not been established for mold testing, epidemiological cutoff values (ecvs) are available for aspergillus spp. versus the triazoles and caspofungin. wild-type (wt) mic distributions (organisms in a species-drug combination with no acquired resistance mechanisms) were defined in order to establish ecvs for six aspergillus spp. and amphotericin b. two sets (clsi/eucast broth microdilution) of available mics were evaluated: those for a. fumigatus (3,988/833), a. f ...201121876047
nuclear transporters in a multinucleated organism: functional and localization analyses in aspergillus nidulans.nuclear transporters mediate bidirectional macromolecule traffic through the nuclear pore complex (npc), thus participating in vital processes of eukaryotic cells. a systematic functional analysis in aspergillus nidulans permitted the identification of 4 essential nuclear transport pathways of a hypothetical number of 14. the absence of phenotypes for most deletants indicates redundant roles for these nuclear receptors. subcellular distribution studies of these carriers show three main distribut ...201121880896
Post-synthetic modification of plant cell walls by expression of microbial hydrolases in the apoplast.The systematic creation of defined cell wall modifications in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana by expression of microbial hydrolases with known specific activities is a promising approach to examine the impacts of cell wall composition and structure on both plant fitness and cell wall recalcitrance. Moreover, this approach allows the direct evaluation in living plants of hydrolase specificity, which can differ from in vitro specificity. To express genes encoding microbial hydrolases in A. th ...201121910026
cytotoxic pheofungins from an engineered fungus impaired in posttranslational protein modification. 201121913294
Monitoring and assessment of airborne fungi in Kolkata, India, by viable and non-viable air sampling methods.The composition and variability of airborne fungal spores were studied using two complementary sampling methods in an outdoor environment in Kolkata suburb for 2 years, from November 2002 to October 2004. For monitoring the total fungal spore burden in the air, Burkard 7-day volumetric sampler was used, whereas Andersen two-sage viable sampler was used for isolating the cultivable airborne fungi. Among the 37 fungal spore types identified in the air samples, the predominant ones were Cladosporiu ...201121915605
a new class of imp dehydrogenase with a role in self-resistance of mycophenolic acid producing fungi.many secondary metabolites produced by filamentous fungi have potent biological activities, to which the producer organism must be resistant. an example of pharmaceutical interest is mycophenolic acid (mpa), an immunosuppressant molecule produced by several penicillium species. the target of mpa is inosine-5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (impdh), which catalyses the rate limiting step in the synthesis of guanine nucleotides. the recent discovery of the mpa biosynthetic gene cluster from penicilli ...201121923907
Putative stress sensors WscA and WscB are involved in hypo-osmotic and acidic pH stress tolerance in Aspergillus nidulans.Wsc proteins have been identified in fungi and are believed to be stress sensors in the cell wall integrity (CWI) signaling pathway. In this study, we characterized the sensor orthologs WscA and WscB in Aspergillus nidulans. Using hemagglutinin-tagged WscA and WscB, we showed both Wsc proteins to be N- and O-glycosylated and localized in the cell wall and membrane, implying that they are potential cell surface sensors. The wscA disruptant (?wscA) strain was characterized by reduced colony and co ...201121926329
farnesol-induced cell death in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.foh (farnesol), a non-sterol isoprenoid produced by dephosphorylation of farnesyl pyrophosphate, has been shown to inhibit proliferation and induce apoptosis. we have been using aspergillus nidulans and foh as a model system and cell death stimulus, respectively, aiming to understand by which means filamentous fungi are driven towards cell death. here, we review some of our findings about foh-induced cell death in a. nidulans.201121936849
The Aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein AFPNN5353 activates the cell wall integrity pathway and perturbs calcium homeostasis.The antifungal protein AFPNN5353 is a defensin-like protein of Aspergillus giganteus. It belongs to a group of secretory proteins with low molecular mass, cationic character and a high content of cysteine residues. The protein inhibits the germination and growth of filamentous ascomycetes, including important human and plant pathogens and the model organsims Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus niger.201121943024
extracellular proteinase formation in carbon starving aspergillus nidulans cultures--physiological function and regulation.extracellular proteinase formation in carbon depleted cultures of the model filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans was studied to elucidate its regulation and possible physiological function. as demonstrated by gene deletion, culture optimization, microbial physiological and enzymological experiments, the prta and pepj proteinases of a. nidulans did not appear to play a decisive role in the autolytic decomposition of fungal cells under the conditions we tested. however, carbon starvation induce ...201121953444
heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of novel pyranose 2-oxidases from the ascomycetes aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus oryzae.a gene encoding a pyranose 2-oxidase (pox; pyranose/oxygen 2-oxidoreductase; glucose 2-oxidase; ec was identified in the genome of the ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. attempts to isolate pox directly from a. nidulans cultures or to homologously overexpress the native pox (under control of the constitutive gpda promoter) in a. nidulans were unsuccessful. cdna encoding pox was synthesized from mrna and expressed in escherichia coli, and the enzyme was subsequently purified and character ...201121968652
new resources for functional analysis of omics data for the genus aspergillus.detailed and comprehensive genome annotation can be considered a prerequisite for effective analysis and interpretation of omics data. as such, gene ontology (go) annotation has become a well accepted framework for functional annotation. the genus aspergillus comprises fungal species that are important model organisms, plant and human pathogens as well as industrial workhorses. however, go annotation based on both computational predictions and extended manual curation has so far only been availa ...201121974739
Transcription of Aspergillus nidulans pacC is modulated by alternative RNA splicing of palB.Fungi have evolved elaborate signal transduction networks for remodeling metabolic pathways to scavenge nutrients, including the secretion of nutritional enzymes. This adaptive response involves the conserved PacC/Pal signal transduction pathway, which mediates the transcriptional response to ambient pH. In this study, we show that transcription of the gene for PacC is modulated in response to nutrient changes, phosphate and carbon sources, and pH. In addition, we show that transcription of pacC ...201121985967
Culture-positive invasive aspergillosis in a medical center in Taiwan, 2000-2009.We reviewed 776 patients who were culture positive for Aspergillus species at the hospital from 2000 to 2009. The isolates were collected for species identification by oligonucleotide hybridization and sequence analysis. A total of 96 cases of proven or probable IA were identified according to published criteria. The incidence of IA has increased significantly during the study period. Aspergillus fumigatus and A. flavus (41.7% each) were equally prevalent causative species. IA due to unusual spe ...201121997774
contributions of the peroxisome and β-oxidation cycle to biotin synthesis in fungi.the first step in the synthesis of the bicyclic rings of d-biotin is mediated by 8-amino-7-oxononanoate (aon) synthase, which catalyzes the decarboxylative condensation of l-alanine and pimelate thioester. we found that the aspergillus nidulans aon synthase, encoded by the biof gene, is a peroxisomal enzyme with a type 1 peroxisomal targeting sequence (pts1). localization of aon to the peroxisome was essential for biotin synthesis because expression of a cytosolic aon variant or deletion of pexe ...201121998305
Analysis of phytochemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora L. responsible for antifungal activity against post-harvest fungi.In vitro antifungal activity and phytochemical constituents of essential oil, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves were investigated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and phenols. Methanolic extract holds all identified biochemical constituents except for the tannin. While these biochemical constituents were found to be absent in essential oil, aqu ...201121999598
Involvement of a helix-loop-helix transcription factor CHC-1 in CO(2)-mediated conidiation suppression in Neurospora crassa.The morphological switch from vegetative growth to conidiation in filamentous fungi is highly regulated, but the understanding of the regulatory mechanisms is limited. In this study, by screening a set of knock-out mutants corresponding to 103 transcription factor encoding genes in Neurospora crassa, a mutant was found to produce abundant conidia in race tubes in which conidiation in the wild-type strain was suppressed. The corresponding gene NCU00749 encodes a protein containing a helix-loop-he ...201122001287
the velvet gene, fgve1, affects fungal development and positively regulates trichothecene biosynthesis and pathogenicity in fusarium graminearum.trichothecenes are a group of toxic secondary metabolites produced mainly by fusarium graminearum (teleomorph: gibberella zeae) during the infection of crop plants, including wheat, maize, barley, oats, rye and rice. some fungal genes involved in trichothecene biosynthesis have been shown to encode regulatory proteins. however, the global regulation of toxin biosynthesis is still enigmatic. in addition to the production of secondary metabolites belonging to the trichothecene family, f. graminear ...201122013911
Physiological and Biochemical Characterization of AnNitA, the Aspergillus nidulans High-Affinity Nitrite Transporter.High-affinity nitrite influx into mycelia of Aspergillus nidulans has been characterized by use of (13)NO(2)(-), giving average K(m) and V(max) values of 48 ± 8 µM and 228 ± 49 nmol mg(-1) dry weight (DW) h(-1), respectively. Kinetic analysis of a plot that included an additional large number of low-concentration fluxes gave an excellent monophasic fit (r(2) = 0.96), with no indication of sigmoidal kinetics. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) models of AnNitA are presented, and the ...201122021238
the length of adaptive walks is insensitive to starting fitness in aspergillus nidulans.adaptation involves the successive substitution of beneficial mutations by selection, a process known as an adaptive walk. gradualist models of adaptation, which assume that all mutations are small relative to the distance to a fitness optimum, predict that adaptive walks should be longer when the founding genotype is less well adapted. more recent work modeling adaptation as a sequence of moves in phenotype or genotype space predicts, by contrast, much shorter adaptive walks irrespective of the ...201122023575
Heme-Biosynthetic Porphobilinogen Deaminase Protects Aspergillus nidulans from Nitrosative Stress.Microorganisms have developed mechanisms to combat reactive nitrogen species (RNS); however, only a few of the fungal genes involved have been characterized. Here we screened RNS-resistant Aspergillus nidulans strains from fungal transformants obtained by introducing a genomic DNA library constructed in a multicopy vector. We found that the AN0121.3 gene (hemC) encodes a protein similar to the heme biosynthesis enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase (PBG-D) and facilitates RNS-tolerant fungal growth. ...201222038601
Disruption of Trichoderma reesei cre2, encoding an ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase, results in increased cellulase activity.ABSTRACT:201122070776
[general epidemiology of invasive fungal disease.]invasive mycoses associated with high morbidity and mortality rates are increasing among immunocompromised or severely ill patients. candida, cryptococcus, pneumocystis and aspergillus are most prevalent agents with varying distribution as regards geography, patient condition and hospital units. the latest multicentre candidaemia survey conducted in spain, showed c. albicans as the most frequently isolated species followed by c. parapsilosis, c. glabrata, c. tropicalis and c. krusei in contrast ...201122079232
Invasive mold infections in chronic granulomatous disease: a 25-year retrospective survey.Invasive fungal infection (IFI) represents a life-threatening condition for patients with chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) and causes one-third of deaths in this population. This study offers a descriptive review of invasive mold infection (mIFI) in children with CGD over an extended period of time.201122080130
The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD): recent developments in comprehensive multispecies curation, comparative genomics and community resources.The Aspergillus Genome Database (AspGD; is a freely available, web-based resource for researchers studying fungi of the genus Aspergillus, which includes organisms of clinical, agricultural and industrial importance. AspGD curators have now completed comprehensive review of the entire published literature about Aspergillus nidulans and Aspergillus fumigatus, and this annotation is provided with streamlined, ortholog-based navigation of the multispecies information. AspGD fa ...201222080559
heterologous expression system in aspergillus oryzae for fungal biosynthetic gene clusters of secondary metabolites.fungal secondary metabolites have been considered promising resources in the search for novel bioactive compounds. given the high potential of fungi as genetic resources, it is essential to find an efficient way to link biosynthetic genes to the product in a heterologous system, because many genes for the secondary metabolite in the original strain are silent under standard laboratory conditions. in a previous study, we constructed a heterologous expression system for a biosynthetic gene cluster ...201122083274
sexual development and cryptic sexuality in fungi: insights from aspergillus species.major insights into sexual development and cryptic sexuality within filamentous fungi have been gained from investigations using aspergillus species. here, an overview is first given into sexual morphogenesis in the aspergilli, describing the different types of sexual structures formed and how their production is influenced by a variety of environmental and nutritional factors. it is argued that the formation of cleistothecia and accessory tissues, such as hülle cells and sclerotia, should be vi ...201222091779
Heterochromatin influences the secondary metabolite profile in the plant pathogen Fusarium graminearum.Chromatin modifications and heterochromatic marks have been shown to be involved in the regulation of secondary metabolism gene clusters in the fungal model system Aspergillus nidulans. We examine here the role of HEP1, the heterochromatin protein homolog of Fusarium graminearum, for the production of secondary metabolites. Deletion of Hep1 in a PH-1 background strongly influences expression of genes required for the production of aurofusarin and the main tricothecene metabolite DON. In the Hep1 ...201122100541
association between indoor fungi in delhi homes and sensitization in children with respiratory allergy.indoor fungi are potential sensitizing agents in children and their detection and quantification in indoor air are important in the diagnosis and environmental management of fungal allergies. the objective of this investigation was to assess the prevalence of fungal allergies in children in delhi and to study the association between mold counts in the homes of children and their sensitization to respective fungal extracts. fungal concentrations and seasonality were studied at two-week intervals ...201122103346
in vivo roles of the basic domain of dynactin p150 in microtubule plus-end tracking and dynein function.microtubule (mt) plus-end-tracking proteins accumulate at mt plus ends for various cellular functions, but their targeting mechanisms are not fully understood (akhmanova a and steinmetz mo. tracking the ends: a dynamic protein network controls the fate of microtubule tips. nat rev mol cell biol 2008;9:309-322.). here, we tested in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans the requirement for plus-end localization of dynactin p150, a protein essential for dynein function. deletion of the n-term ...201122106867
A strong promoter, PMagpd, provides a tool for high gene expression in entomopathogenic fungus, Metarhizium acridum.A glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (gpd) promoter (PMagpd) was obtained from Metarhizium acridum and its active region analyzed by 5'-deletion strategy using ß-glucuronidase (GUS) as a reporter. Sequence analysis revealed that typical regulatory elements of PMagpd were included in the 1.7 kb region upstream of the start codon of the Magpd gene. Deletion of the region from -1,691 bp to -1,463 bp, where the gpd box is harbored, did not significantly affect the PMagpd activity. Deletio ...201122109936
definition and characterization of enzymes for maximal biocatalytic solubilization of prebiotic polysaccharides from potato pulp.potato pulp is a high-volume co-processing product resulting from industrial potato starch manufacturing. potato pulp is particularly rich in pectin, notably galactan branched rhamnogalacturonan i polysaccharides, which are highly bifidogenic when solubilized. the objective of the present study was to characterize and compare four homogalacturonan degrading enzymes capable of catalyzing the required solubilization of these pectinaceous polysaccharides from potato pulp in a 1 min reaction. an add ...201122112514
constitutive expression, purification and characterization of a phosphoglucomutase from fusarium oxysporum.the phosphoglucomutase gene from a wild type fusarium oxysporum strain (f3), was homologously expressed, under the control of the constitutive promoter of gpda of aspergillus nidulans. the transformant produced elevated levels of phosphoglucomutase activity compared to the wild type, a fact that facilitated the subsequent purification procedure. the enzyme (fopgm) was purified to homogeneity applying three anion exchange and one gel filtration chromatography steps. the native enzyme revealed a m ...201122112903
the anisin1 gene encodes a defensin-like protein and supports the fitness of aspergillus the genome of aspergillus nidulans, a defensin-like protein, anisin1, was annotated with high homology to the mosquito defensin aadefa1. so far, no studies exist on defensins from filamentous ascomycetes. therefore, we characterized the anisin1 gene in a. nidulans and generated a deletion mutant, which suffered from a defect in mitospore development and produced less conidia at 42°c compared to the reference strain. in surface cultures of a. nidulans wild type, the anisin1 expression correlat ...201122113351
rescue of aspergillus nidulans severely debilitating null mutations in escrt-0, i, ii and iii genes by inactivation of a salt-tolerance pathway allows examination of escrt gene roles in ph signalling.the aspergillus pal pathway hijacks escrt proteins into ambient ph signalling complexes. we show that components of escrt-0, escrt-i, escrt-ii and escrt-iii are nearly essential for growth, precluding assessment of null mutants for ph signalling or trafficking. this severely debilitating effect is rescued by loss-of-function mutations in two cation tolerance genes, one of which, slta, encodes a transcription factor whose inactivation promotes hypervacuolation. exploiting a conditional expression ...201122135362
the polo-like kinase plka in aspergillus nidulans is not essential, but plays important roles during vegetative growth and development.the polo-like kinases (plks) are conserved, multi-functional cell cycle regulators that are induced in many forms of cancer, and play additional roles in metazoan development. we previously identified plka in aspergillus nidulans, the only plk investigated in filamentous fungi to date, and partially characterized its function through overexpression. here, we report the plka null phenotype. surprisingly, plka was not essential, unlike plks in other organisms that contain a single homologue. a sub ...201122140227
molecular characterization of the aspergillus nidulans fbxa encoding an f-box protein involved in xylanase induction.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans has been used as a fungal model system to study the regulation of xylanase production. these genes are activated at transcriptional level by the master regulator the transcriptional factor xlnr and repressed by carbon catabolite repression (ccr) mediated by the wide-domain repressor crea. here, we screened a collection of 42 a. nidulans f-box deletion mutants grown either in xylose or xylan as the single carbon source in the presence of the glucose ana ...201122142781
Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities for hydrolysis of ionic liquid pretreated biomass.Critical cellulase and hemicellulase activities are identified for hydrolysis of ionic liquid (IL) pretreated poplar and switchgrass; hemicellulase rich substrates with largely amorphous cellulose. Enzymes from Aspergillus nidulans were expressed and purified: an endoglucanase (EG) a cellobiohydrolase (CBH), an endoxylanase (EX) and an acetylxylan esterase (AXE). ß-Xylosidase (ßX) from Selenomonas ruminantium and a commercial ß-glucosidase (ßG) from Novozyme 188 were admixed with the A. nidulans ...201222154300
engineering hydrophobin dewa to generate surfaces that enhance adhesion of human but not bacterial cells.hydrophobins are fungal proteins with the ability to form immunologically inert membranes of high stability, properties that makes them attractive candidates for orthopaedic implant coatings. cell adhesion on the surface of such implants is necessary for better integration with the neighbouring tissue; however, hydrophobin surfaces do not mediate cell adhesion. the aim of this project was therefore to investigate whether the class i hydrophobin dewa from aspergillus nidulans can be functionalize ...201122154865
identification of the galactitol dehydrogenase, ladb, that is part of the oxido-reductive d-galactose catabolic pathway in aspergillus niger.for the catabolism of d-galactose three different metabolic pathways have been described in filamentous fungi. apart from the leloir pathway and the oxidative pathway, there is an alternative oxido-reductive pathway. this oxido-reductive pathway has similarities to the metabolic pathway of l-arabinose, and in trichoderma reesei (hypocrea jecorina) and aspergillus nidulans the same enzyme is employed for the oxidation of l-arabitol and galactitol. here we show evidence that in aspergillus nigerl- ...201122155165
Displaying items 4201 - 4300 of 5149