PMID(sorted ascending)
a library-based method to rapidly analyse chromatin accessibility at multiple genomic regions.traditional chromatin analysis methods only test one locus at the time or use different templates for each locus, making a standardized analysis of large genomic regions or many co-regulated genes at different loci a difficult task. on the other hand, genome-wide high-resolution mapping of chromatin accessibility employing massive parallel sequencing platforms generates an extensive data set laborious to analyse and is a cost-intensive method, only applicable to the analysis of a limited set of ...200919251760
aspergillus: a primer for the novice.aspergillus is a genus of molds named after the morphological structure that bears asexual spores, the aspergillum, which resembles a liturgical device. this genus contains several species of positive or negative economic importance in industry, agriculture and medicine. the majority of aspergilli, including most species of economic importance, are known to reproduce only by asexual spores. genome projects have been completed for a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger and a. oryzae; several other s ...200919253144
imaging living cells of aspergillus in imaging techniques are now routinely used to study filamentous fungi. this has been very much facilitated by the development of a wide range of novel microscope technologies, new fluorescent probes (vital dyes and fluorescent proteins), and major advances in computing hardware and software. here we show what can be achieved with imaging living cells of aspergillus fumigatus and a. nidulans in vitro using confocal laser scanning microscopy. basic techniques for successful live-cell imag ...200919255923
identification of ppoa from aspergillus nidulans as a fusion protein of a fatty acid heme dioxygenase/peroxidase and a cytochrome p450.the homothallic ascomycete aspergillus nidulans serves as model organism for filamentous fungi because of its ability to propagate with both asexual and sexual life cycles, and fatty acid-derived substances regulate the balance between both cycles. these so-called psi (precocious sexual inducer) factors are produced by psi factor-producing oxygenases (ppo enzymes). bioinformatic analysis predicted the presence of two different heme domains in ppo proteins: in the n-terminal region, a fatty acid ...200919286665
differential roles of the chib chitinase in autolysis and cell death of aspergillus nidulans.autolysis is a natural event that occurs in most filamentous fungi. such self-degradation of fungal cells becomes a predominant phenomenon in the absence of the regulator of g protein signaling flba in aspergillus nidulans. among a number of potential hydrolytic enzymes in the a. nidulans genome, the secreted endochitinase chib was shown to play a major role in autolysis. in this report, we investigate the roles of chib in fungal autolysis and cell death processes through genetic, biochemical, a ...200919286987
recombinantly produced hydrophobins from fungal analogues as highly surface-active performance proteins.hydrophobins are available from natural resources only in milligram amounts. basf succeeded in a recombinant production process, up-scaled to pilot plant production in kilogram scale. strain and protein optimization by modulation of gene expression and generation of fusion proteins finally leads to two class i hydrophobins called h*protein a and h*protein b. by analytical ultracentrifugation, we confirm that the self-association of h*proteins in solution is governed by their sequence, because ol ...201019290518
a novel hybrid dual-channel catalytic-biological sensor system for assessment of fruit quality.the release of volatile ethylene and acetaldehyde characterizes the metabolic state and quality of fruit. we have designed and implemented a hybrid dual-channel catalytic-biological sensor system, which is able to quantify both volatiles in situ. this sensor system consists of a mammalian cell line engineered for constitutive expression of an aspergillus nidulans-derived biosensor which triggers quantitative reporter gene expression in the presence of volatile acetaldehyde. ethylene, oxidized to ...200919297727
re-characterisation of saccharomyces cerevisiae ach1p: fungal coa-transferases are involved in acetic acid detoxification.saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa mutants defective in the so-called acetyl-coa hydrolases ach1p and acu-8, respectively, display a severe growth defect on acetate, which is most strongly pronounced under acidic conditions. acetyl-coa hydrolysis is an energy wasting process and therefore denoted as a biochemical conundrum. acetyl-coa hydrolases show high sequence identity to the coa-transferase coat from aspergillus nidulans. therefore, we extensively re-characterised the yeast enzy ...200919298859
characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus aspergillus niger.aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. interestingly, recent genome analysis of a. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. an example of such genes are the dioxygenase genes which in aspergillus nidulans, have been shown to be connected to oxylipin production and regulation of both sexual and asexual sporulation 234. nevertheless, the presence of sex related genes alon ...200919309517
importin alpha is an essential nuclear import carrier adaptor required for proper sexual and asexual development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus eukaryotes, the principal nuclear import pathway is driven by the importin alpha/beta1 heterodimer. kapa, the aspergillus nidulans importin alpha, is an essential protein. we generated a conditional allele, kapa31, mimicking the srp1-31 allele in saccharomyces cerevisiae. kapa31 carries a ser111phe amino acid substitution which, at the restrictive temperature of 42 degrees c, reduces nuclear import of cargos containing classical nuclear-localization-sequences, cnls. using kapa31, we have demo ...200919318129
deletion analysis of the promoter of aspergillus oryzae gene encoding heat shock protein order to find a promoter that could be influenced by temperature shift, we explored and isolated an aspergillus oryzae gene expressed at high temperatures (37-42 degrees c) by the cdna subtraction method. of the 96 cdna clones isolated from the subtraction library, one cdna clone showed 73% identity with aspergillus nidulans heat shock protein 30 (hsp30). based on this, we designated the isolated gene hsp30 of a. oryzae. a. oryzae hsp30 was weakly expressed at 30 degrees c, but strongly at 40 ...200919332290
functional characterization of the aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductases (msra and msrb).proteins are subject to modification by reactive oxygen species (ros), and oxidation of specific amino acid residues can impair their biological function, leading to an alteration in cellular homeostasis. sulfur-containing amino acids as methionine are the most vulnerable to oxidation by ros, resulting in the formation of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)] residues. this modification can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductases (msr). two distinct classes of these enzymes, msra and msrb, which ...200919373970
improved tryprostatin b production by heterologous gene expression in aspergillus nidulans.tryprostatin b, a prenylated diketopiperazine with anti-tubulin activity, has been overproduced in fungal culture by expression of genes of the fumitremorgin cluster from aspergillus fumigatus in the naïve host aspergillus nidulans using the alca promoter. the products of the expressed genes catalyse the first two steps of fumitremorgin biosynthesis, namely the formation of brevianamide f and its conversion to tryprostatin b. yields of tryprostatin b were up to 250 mg/l, a significant improvemen ...200919373974
fvve1 regulates biosynthesis of the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarins in fusarium verticillioides.the vea gene positively regulates sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans and aflatoxin production in aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus . whether vea homologues have a role in regulating secondary metabolism in other fungal genera is unknown. in this study, we examined the role of the vea homologue, fvve1, on the production of two mycotoxin families, fumonisins and fusarins, in the important corn pathogen fusarium verticillioides . we found that fvve1 deletion completely ...200919382792
timely septation requires snad-dependent spindle pole body localization of the septation initiation network components in the filamentous fungus aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, cytokinesis/septation is triggered by the septation initiation network (sin), which first appears at the spindle pole body (spb) during mitosis. the coiled-coil protein snad is associated with the spb and is required for timely septation and conidiation. we have determined that snad acted as a scaffold protein that is required for the localization of the sin proteins of sidb and moba to the spb. another scaffold protein sepk, whose localization at ...200919386763
atan1p-an extracellular tannase from the dimorphic yeast arxula adeninivorans: molecular cloning of the atan1 gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.the tannase-encoding arxula adeninivorans gene atan1 was isolated from genomic dna by pcr, using as primers oligonucleotide sequences derived from peptides obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified tannase protein. the gene harbours an orf of 1764 bp, encoding a 587-amino acid protein, preceded by an n-terminal secretion sequence comprising 28 residues. the deduced amino acid sequence was similar to those of tannases from aspergillus oryzae (50% identity), a. niger (48%) and putative tann ...200919387973
class iii chitin synthase chsb of aspergillus nidulans localizes at the sites of polarized cell wall synthesis and is required for conidial development.class iii chitin synthases play important roles in tip growth and conidiation in many filamentous fungi. however, little is known about their functions in those processes. to address these issues, we characterized the deletion mutant of a class iii chitin synthase-encoding gene of aspergillus nidulans, chsb, and investigated chsb localization in the hyphae and conidiophores. multilayered cell walls and intrahyphal hyphae were observed in the hyphae of the chsb deletion mutant, and wavy septa wer ...200919411617
distinct roles for vea and laea in development and pathogenesis of aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus, a mycotoxigenic filamentous fungus, colonizes several important agricultural crops, such as maize and peanuts. two proteins, vea and laea, known to form a nuclear complex in aspergillus nidulans have been found to positively regulate developmental processes in several aspergillus species. here, an examination of near-isogenic a. flavus mutants differing in copy number of vea and laea alleles (0, 1, or at least 2 each) revealed critical roles for vea and laea in a. flavus deve ...200919411623
the nsdc gene encoding a putative c2h2-type transcription factor is a key activator of sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the formation of the aspergillus nidulans fruiting body is affected by a number of genetic and environmental factors. here, the nsdc (never in sexual development) gene-encoding a putative transcription factor carrying a novel type of zinc-finger dna-binding domain consisting of two c(2)h(2)'s and a c(2)hc motif that are highly conserved in most fungi but not in plants or animals-was investigated. two distinct transcripts of 2.6 and 3.0 kb were generated from nsdc. the 2.6-kb mrna accumulated dif ...200919416940
pepj is a new extracellular proteinase of aspergillus nidulans.under carbon starvation, aspergillus nidulans released a metallo-proteinase with activities comparable to those of prta, the major extracellular serine proteinase of the fungus. the relative molar mass of the enzyme was 19 kda as determined with both denaturing and renaturing sds page, while its isoelectric point and ph and temperature optima were 8.6, 5.5 and 65 degrees c, respectively. the enzyme was stable at ph 3.5-10.5 and was still active at 95 degrees c in the presence of azocasein substr ...200919418246
myosin motor-like domain of the class vi chitin synthase csmb is essential to its functions in aspergillus nidulans.chitin is one of the major cell wall components of ascomycete filamentous fungi, and chitin synthesis plays important roles in the morphogenesis of hyphae. in the aspergillus nidulans genome, there are two genes, csma and csmb, that encode a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) at their n-termini and a chitin synthase domain (csd) at their c-termini. in our previous studies, we found that the mmd of csma was required for its functionality, and that csma and csmb had certain overlapping functions essen ...200919420702
the aspergillus nidulans pigp gene encodes a subunit of gpi-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase which influences filamentation and protein secretion.glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchoring is the main mechanism allowing proper localization of secretory proteins in cell membranes. we have isolated an aspergillus nidulans homolog of the human pig-p gene, which encodes a subunit of acetylglucosaminyltransferase (gpi-gnt)-an enzyme involved in the synthesis of gpi anchors. a. nidulans pigp mutants have significantly decreased gpi synthesis. on solid media they show strong growth retardation (the "button" phenotype) while in liquid minimal m ...200919421754
the cell end marker protein teac is involved in growth directionality and septation in aspergillus nidulans.polarized growth in filamentous fungi depends on the correct spatial organization of the microtubule (mt) and actin cytoskeleton. in schizosaccharomyces pombe it was shown that the mt cytoskeleton is required for the delivery of so-called cell end marker proteins, e.g., tea1 and tea4, to the cell poles. subsequently, these markers recruit several proteins required for polarized growth, e.g., a formin, which catalyzes actin cable formation. the latest results suggest that this machinery is conser ...200919429780
molecular characterization of stci esterase from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces stci esterase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin, a precursor of aflatoxins. previous reports of this esterase in a. nidulans suggest that it is composed of 286 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 31 kda. various conditions were evaluated to determine the optimal expression conditions for stci; the highest level was observed when a. nidulans was cultured in solid oat media. various esterases were expressed differentially ...200919440704
aspergillus nidulans as a biological system to detect the genotoxic effects of mercury fumes on eukaryotes.mercury (hg) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. due to public concern prompted by the symptoms displayed by people who consumed contaminated fish in minamata, japan in 1956, hg pollution has since been kept under constant surveillance. however, despite considerable accumulation of knowledge on the noxious effects of ingested or inhaled hg, especially for humans, there is virtually nothing known about the genotoxic effects of hg. because increased mitotic crossing over i ...200919440976
the important role of actinin-like protein (acna) in cytokinesis and apical dominance of hyphal cells in aspergillus nidulans.the actin cytoskeleton is involved in many processes in eukaryotic cells, including interaction with a wide variety of actin-binding proteins such as the actin-capping proteins, the actin filament nucleators and the actin cross-linking proteins. here, we report the identification and characterization of an actinin-like protein (acna) from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. not only did the depletion of acna by alca(p) promoter repression or the deletion of acna result in explicit abnor ...200919443549
physiological characterisation of acub deletion in aspergillus niger.the acub gene of aspergillus niger is an ortholog of facb in aspergillus nidulans. under carbon-repression conditions, facb is repressed, thereby preventing acetate metabolism when the repressing carbon source is present. even though facb is reported to be repressed directly by crea, it is believed that a basal level of facb activity exists under glucose-repressive conditions. in the present study, the effect of deletion of acub on the physiology of a. niger was assessed. differences in organic ...200919444441
chromatin-level regulation of biosynthetic gene clusters.loss-of-function aspergillus nidulans ccla, a bre2 ortholog involved in histone h3 lysine 4 methylation, activated the expression of cryptic secondary metabolite clusters in a. nidulans. one new cluster generated monodictyphenone, emodin and emodin derivatives, whereas a second encoded two anti-osteoporosis polyketides, f9775a and f9775b. modification of the chromatin landscape in fungal secondary metabolite clusters allows for a simple technological means to express silent fungal secondary meta ...200919448638
convergent evolution and orphan genes in the fur4p-like family and characterization of a general nucleoside transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the function of seven paralogues phylogenetically related to the saccharomyces cerevisiae fur4p together with a number of functionally related transporters present in aspergillus nidulans has been investigated. after deletion of the cognate genes we checked the incorporation of radiolabelled substrates, utilization of nitrogen sources, resistance to toxic analogues and supplementation of auxotrophies. fura and furd encode allantoin and uracil transporters respectively. no function was found for ...200919460095
molecular characterization of a fungal gene paralogue of the penicillin pende gene of penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium chrysogenum converts isopenicillin n (ipn) into hydrophobic penicillins by means of the peroxisomal ipn acyltransferase (iat), which is encoded by the pende gene. in silico analysis of the p. chrysogenum genome revealed the presence of a gene, pc13g09140, initially described as paralogue of the iat-encoding pende gene. we have termed this gene ial because it encodes a protein with high similarity to iat (ial for iat-like). we have conducted an investigation to characterize the ial ge ...200919470155
the vea gene is necessary for the negative regulation of the vea expression in aspergillus nidulans.the vea gene is one of the key genes in regulating sexual development of aspergillus nidulans. during the study on the vea gene, it was observed that the vea expression level is slightly higher in a vea1 mutant than in a wild type at 37 degrees c, suggesting that the wild type vea gene is necessary for the negative regulation of the vea expression. in the vea1 mutant, the vea expression was higher than in a wild type grown at 42 degrees c but equal at 30 degrees c. furthermore, in a vea deletion ...200919479257
characterisation of the cipc-like protein afua_5g09330 of the opportunistic human pathogenic mould aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus is currently the major airborne fungal pathogen that menaces immunocompromised individuals. germination of inhaled conidia is a hallmark of the early infection process, but little is known about the underlying mechanisms. the intention of our ongoing studies is the identification of a. fumigatus proteins that are differentially expressed during germination and may provide insights in the germination process. using a proteomic approach, we identified afua_5g09330 as a major ...201019486301
asexual sporulation signalling regulates autolysis of aspergillus nidulans via modulating the chitinase chib production.elucidation of the regulation of chib production in aspergillus nidulans.200919486415
the fate of gene duplicates in the genomes of fungal pathogens.understanding how molecular changes underlie phenotypic variation within and between species is one of the main goals of evolutionary biology and comparative genetics. the recent proliferation of sequenced fungal genomes offers a unique opportunity to start elucidating the extreme phenotypic diversity in the kingdom fungi.1-4 we attempted to investigate the contribution of gene families to the evolutionary forces shaping the diversity of pathogenic lifestyles among the fungi.5 we studied a famil ...200819513258
expression of a gfp gene in penicillium nordicum under control of the promoter of the ochratoxin a polyketide synthase gene.a gfp reporter gene strain of penicillium nordicum was constructed in order to be able to study the influence of environmental parameters on ochratoxin a biosynthesis. to introduce the gfp gene an agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system (atmt) for p. nordicum was established resulting in a transformation efficiency of about 60 transformants per microg of dna. the selection principle was based on the hygromycin b resistance gene located on the ti-dna fragment of the binary vector ...200919525025
aspergillus fumigatus induces immunoglobulin e-independent mast cell degranulation.pulmonary colonization by aspergillus fumigatus in chronic lung disease is associated with progressive decline in lung function even in the absence of specific allergic response. we hypothesized that a. fumigatus contributes to this decline by inducing pulmonary mast cell degranulation even in the absence of antigen-specific immunoglobulin e (ige). therefore, we investigated whether a. fumigatus can induce mast cell degranulation independently of ige.200919527167
functional analysis and subcellular localization of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from penicillium paxilli.the filamentous fungus penicillium paxilli contains two distinct geranylgeranyl diphosphate (ggpp) synthases, ggsa and ggsb (paxg). paxg and its homologues in neotyphodium lolii and fusarium fujikuroi are associated with diterpene secondary metabolite gene clusters. the genomes of other filamentous fungi including aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae and fusarium graminearum also contain two or more copies of ggpp synthase genes, although the diterpe ...200919529962
effect of ozone on spore germination, spore production and biomass production in two aspergillus species.the ability of ozone gas to reduce food spoilage is relatively well documented, but the developmental effects of the gas on food spoilage fungi are not well known. in this study two model aspergilli, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus ochraceus were used to study the effects of ozone on spore germination, sporulation and biomass production. these effects were examined under three levels of ozone; two high level ozone exposures (200 and 300 micromol mol(-1)) and one low level exposure (0.2 micr ...200919533409
characterization of the aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster.production of carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of aspergillus section flavi, aspergillus section nidulantes and a newly proposed aspergillus section ochraceorosei that consists of aspergillus ochraceoroseus and a. rambellii. unlike members of section flavi, a. ochraceoroseus and a. rambellii have been shown to accumulate both aflatoxin (af) and the aflatoxin precursor sterigmatocystin (st). alhough morphologically distinct from a. nidulans, molecular characterization of a. ...200919537208
restoration of net formation by gene therapy in cgd controls aspergillosis.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients have impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) oxidase function, resulting in poor antimicrobial activity of neutrophils, including the inability to generate neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). invasive aspergillosis is the leading cause of death in patients with cgd; it is unclear how neutrophils control aspergillus species in healthy persons. the aim of this study was to determine whether gene therapy restores net formation in ...200919541821
heterologous expression and characterization of cpi, ocpa, and novel serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpb from aspergillus the genome of aspergillus oryzae, 12 genes have been predicted to encode serine-type carboxypeptidases. however, the carboxypeptidase activities of the proteins encoded by these genes have not yet been confirmed experimentally. in this study, we have constructed three of these 12 genes overexpressing strains using aspergillus nidulans and characterized their overproduced recombinant proteins. of these three genes, one was previously named cpi; the other two have not been reported yet, and hen ...200919557408
riok3 interacts with caspase-10 and negatively regulates the nf-kappab signaling pathway.riok3 was initially characterized as a homolog of aspergillus nidulans sudd and showed down-regulation at the invasive front of malignant melanomas, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. here, we report that overexpression of riok3 inhibits tnfalpha-induced nf-kappab activation, but down-regulation of endogenous riok3 expression by sirna potentiates it. a yeast two-hybrid experiment revealed that riok3 interacted with caspase-10, and further, a gst pull-down assay and endogenous coimmunop ...200919557502
molecular characterization of the niad and pyrg genes from penicillium camemberti, and their use as transformation markers.genetic manipulation of the filamentous fungus penicillium camemberti has been limited by a lack of suitable genetics tools for this fungus. in particular, there is no available homologous transformation system. in this study, the nitrate reductase (niad) and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (pyrg) genes from penicillium camemberti were characterized, and their suitability as metabolic molecular markers for transformation was evaluated. the genes were amplified using pcr-related techniqu ...200919562269
[in vitro activity of anidulafungin. comparison with the activity of other echinocandins].anidulafungin is a new echinocandin that acts by inhibiting (1,3)-beta-d-glucan synthesis in the fungal cell wall. this agent is a semisynthetic lipopeptide synthesized from a fermentation product of aspergillus nidulans. the spectrum of activity of anidulafungin includes candida and aspergillus, the two main etiological agents causing invasive fungal infections. this drug is also active against strains of these genera resistant to azoles or amphotericin b. however, anidulafungin is not active a ...200819572429
elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a cre-expressing plasmid.a convenient method to remove selectable markers from fungal transformants permits the markers to be used for sequential transformations, and should also reduce public concerns and regulatory impediments to applications involving environmental release of genetically modified fungi. we report a method for marker removal that requires no genetic selection. protoplasts from neotyphodium coenophialum,neotyphodium uncinatum and epichloë festucae transformants containing a hygromycin b phosphotransfer ...200919576996
characterization of nika histidine kinase and two response regulators with special reference to osmotic adaptation and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans has many histidine-to-aspartate (his-asp) phosphorelay components, including 15 histidine kinases (hks), four response regulators (rrs), and a histidine-containing phosphotransfer intermediate (hpt). of these, nika (hk) is highly conserved in many filamentous fungi. it has been found that nika is responsible for the responses of filamentous fungi to fungicides such as iprodione and fludioxonil. two rrs, sska and srra, are also involved in the fungicide response, providing a ...200919584543
comprehensive genomic analysis of cell wall genes in aspergillus nidulans.knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell wall biosynthesis in aspergillus spp. is of high relevance to medicine and food safety, and for biotechnological applications. the cell wall of aspergillus nidulans is composed of galactomannoproteins, 1,3-alpha-glucan, beta-glucans, and chitin. here, we present a comprehensive inventory of the cell wall-related genes in a. nidulans. this includes glycan-synthetic and glycan-processing enzymes, spore wall maturation enzymes, gpi-anchor processing enzym ...200919585695
decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by emericella nidulans var. this study geno-toxicity analysis along with effluent treatment was taken up to evaluate the efficiency of biological treatment process for safe disposal of treated effluent. four fungi were isolated from sediments of pulp and paper mill in which pf4 reduced colour (30%) and lignin content (24%) of the effluent on 3rd day. the fungal strain was identified as emericella nidulans var. nidulans (anamorph: aspergillus nidulans) on the basis of rdna its1 and rdna its2 region sequences. the process ...200919586717
transcriptional profiling for aspergillusnidulans hoga mapk signaling pathway in response to fludioxonil and osmotic filamentous fungi, the his-asp phosphorelay signaling system and hog pathway are involved in the action of the fungicides, fludioxonil, and iprodione, as well as osmotic and oxidative stress responses. aspergillusnidulans response regulators (rrs), sska and srra, and histidine kinase (hk), nika, are involved in the growth inhibitory effects of these fungicides. to gain further insights into the molecular basis for these signaling systems, we performed dna microarray analyses of fludioxonil an ...200919596074
experimental evolution of resistance against a competing fungus in drosophila melanogaster.competition between microorganisms and arthropods has been shown to be an important ecological interaction determining animal development and spatial distribution patterns in saprophagous communities. in fruit-inhabiting drosophila, variation in insect developmental success is not only determined by species-specific effects of various noxious filamentous fungi but, as suggested by an earlier study, also by additive genetic variation in the ability to successfully withstand the negative impact of ...200919597847
biodiversity and evolution of primary carbon metabolism in aspergillus nidulans and other aspergillus spp.some of the aspergilli are reputed for their versatile and efficient catabolism of soluble carbon sources and related metabolites as well as raw polymeric materials. here, we present a detailed investigation of the genomic and evolutionary basis for this versatility, using seven aspergillus and one neosartorya genome sequences. we manually annotated about 155 genes per genome covering glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, alternative routes of d-glucose metabolism, catabolism of d-galactose a ...200919610199
morphology and development in aspergillus nidulans: a complex other filamentous fungi, aspergillus nidulans forms a multitude of cell types that facilitate colonization and development. the molecular basis of cellular morphogenesis in a. nidulans is not well, we summarize results obtained from detailed annotation of the a. nidulans genome sequence for genes with predicted roles in morphogenesis, with primary focus on polarized growth, calcium signaling, and development. we draw three broad conclusions from our results. first, the compo ...200919610202
post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of aspergillus nidulans and comparison to aspergillus niger and aspergillus oryzae.the plant polysaccharide degradative potential of aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of aspergillus niger and aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the a. nidulans orfs analysed in this study do not contain a secretion signal, of which 40% may be secreted through a non-classical method.while significant differences were found between the species in the numbers of orfs ass ...200919618505
[two-step synthesis of the full length aspergillus niger lipase gene lipa leads to high-level expression in pichia pastoris].aspergillus niger lipases are important biocatalysis widely used in industries for food processing and pharmaceutical preparation. high-level expression recombinants can lead to cost effective lipase large scale production. full length gene synthesis is an efficient measure to enhance the expression level of the gene. in order to reduce the non-specific binding between oligonucleotides and bases mutation caused by the complicate secondary structure of dna and excessive pcr amplification, a frequ ...200919621578
the spitzenkörper: a signalling hub for the control of fungal development?in aspergillus nidulans, asexual development culminates in the formation of a multicellular conidiophore that bears spores known as conidia. although several factors required for conidiophore formation have been characterized, the mechanisms underlying the transition from vegetative growth to development remain obscure. however, the recent characterization of two of these factors, flbb and flbe, provides important new insight. notably, these studies suggest that the spitzenkörper (i.e. apical bo ...200919627503
deletion and overexpression of the aspergillus nidulans gata factor areb reveals unexpected pleiotropy.the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor area is a key regulator of nitrogen metabolic gene expression. area contains a c-terminal gata zinc finger dna-binding domain and activates expression of genes necessary for nitrogen acquisition. previous studies identified areb as a potential negative regulator of nitrogen catabolism showing similarity with penicillium chrysogenum nreb and neurospora crassa asd4. the areb gene encodes multiple products containing an n-terminal gata zinc finger and a ...200919628561
partitioning the apical domain of the arabidopsis embryo requires the bobber1 nudc domain protein.the apical domain of the embryo is partitioned into distinct regions that will give rise to the cotyledons and the shoot apical meristem. in this article, we describe a novel screen to identify arabidopsis thaliana embryo arrest mutants that are defective in this partitioning, and we describe the phenotype of one such mutant, bobber1. bobber1 mutants arrest at the globular stage of development, they express the meristem-specific shootmeristemless gene throughout the top half of the embryo, and t ...200919648297
protein o-mannosyltransferases b and c support hyphal development and differentiation in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans possesses three pmt genes encoding protein o-d-mannosyltransferases (pmt). previously, we reported that pmta, a member of the pmt2 subfamily, is involved in the proper maintenance of fungal morphology and formation of conidia (t. oka, t. hamaguchi, y. sameshima, m. goto, and k. furukawa, microbiology 150:1973-1982, 2004). in the present paper, we describe the characterization of the pmta paralogues pmtb and pmtc. pmtb and pmtc were classified as members of the pmt1 and pmt4 ...200919648468
identification of novel cell wall destabilizing antifungal compounds using a conditional aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c mutant.despite the need for novel drugs to combat fungal infections, antifungal drug discovery is currently limited by both the availability of suitable drug targets and assays to screen corresponding targets. the aim of this study was to screen a library of small chemical compounds to identify cell wall inhibitors using a conditional protein kinase c (pkc)-expressing strain of aspergillus nidulans. this mutant is specifically susceptible to cell wall damaging compounds under pkc-repressive growth cond ...200919648579
the bzip-type transcription factor flbb regulates distinct morphogenetic stages of colony formation in aspergillus nidulans.conidiophore formation in aspergillus nidulans involves a developmental programme in which vegetative hyphae give rise to an ordered succession of differentiated cells: foot cell, stalk, vesicle, metulae, phialides and conidia. the developmental transition requires factors that are expressed in vegetative hyphae that activate the expression of the main regulator of conidiation, brla. one such element is the bzip-type transcription factor flbb. we found that flbb(-) mutants show defective branchi ...200919656299
methylcitrate cycle activation during adaptation of fusarium solani and fusarium verticillioides to propionyl-coa-generating carbon sources.propionyl-coa is an inhibitor of both primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus species and a functional methylcitrate cycle is essential for the efficient removal of this potentially toxic metabolite. although the genomes of most sequenced fungal species appear to contain genes coding for enzymes of the methylcitrate cycle, experimental confirmation of pathway activity in filamentous fungi has only been provided for aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus. in this study we demonstr ...200919661181
a fungal phylogeny based on 82 complete genomes using the composition vector method.molecular phylogenetics and phylogenomics have greatly revised and enriched the fungal systematics in the last two decades. most of the analyses have been performed by comparing single or multiple orthologous gene regions. sequence alignment has always been an essential element in tree construction. these alignment-based methods (to be called the standard methods hereafter) need independent verification in order to put the fungal tree of life (tol) on a secure footing. the ever-increasing number ...200919664262
expressing a fusion protein with protease and chitinase activities increases the virulence of the insect pathogen beauveria bassiana.entomopathogenic fungi, such as beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae are being developed as alternatives to chemical insecticides. they infect insects by direct penetration of the cuticle using a combination of physical pressure and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases and chitinases. previously we found that overexpression of a subtilisin-like protease (pr1a) or a chitinase (bbchit1) resulted in increased virulence of m. anisopliae and b. bassiana, respectively. in this s ...200919666027
intimate bacterial-fungal interaction triggers biosynthesis of archetypal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans.fungi produce numerous low molecular weight molecules endowed with a multitude of biological activities. however, mining the full-genome sequences of fungi indicates that their potential to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. because most of the biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions, one of the major challenges is to understand the physiological conditions under which these genes are activated. thus, we cocultivated the important model fungus aspe ...200919666480
aspergillus nidulans protein o-mannosyltransferases play roles in cell wall integrity and developmental patterning.protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) initiate o-mannosyl glycan biosynthesis from ser and thr residues of target proteins. fungal pmts are divided into three subfamilies, pmt1, -2, and -4. aspergillus nidulans possesses a single representative of each pmt subfamily, pmta (subfamily 2), pmtb (subfamily 1), and pmtc (subfamily 4). in this work, we show that single deltapmt mutants are viable and have unique phenotypes and that the deltapmta deltapmtb double mutant is the only viable double mutant ...200919666781
modelling and mutational evidence identify the substrate binding site and functional elements in apc amino acid transporters.the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (apc) superfamily is the main family of amino acid transporters found in all domains of life and one of the largest families of secondary transporters. here, using a sensitive homology threading approach and modelling we show that the predicted structure of apc members is extremely similar to the crystal structures of several prokaryotic transporters belonging to evolutionary distinct protein families with different substrate specificities. all of these prot ...200919670073
aspergillus nidulans genes encoding reverse transsulfuration enzymes belong to homocysteine regulon.homocysteine is an intermediate in methionine synthesis in aspergillus nidulans, but it can also be converted to cysteine by the reverse transsulfuration pathway involving cystathionine beta-synthase (cbs) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (cgl). because homocysteine is toxic to the cell at high concentrations, this pathway also functions as a means of removal of its excess. we found that the transcription of the meca and mecb genes encoding cbs and cgl was upregulated by excess of homocysteine as w ...200919685245
heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide lld-acv in saccharomyces cerevisiae.non-ribosomal peptides (nrps) are a diverse family of secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological activities. we started to develop an eukaryotic microbial platform based on the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous production of nrps using delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (acv) as a model nrp. the penicillium chrysogenum gene pcbab encoding acv synthetase was expressed in s. cerevisiae from a high-copy plasmid together with phosphopantetheinyl transferase (p ...200919686863
patterns of susceptibility of aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the transplant-associated infection surveillance network.we analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the transplant-associated infection surveillance network (transnet) and examined the relationship between mic and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m38-a2 broth dilution method for amphotericin b (amb), itraconazole (itr), voric ...200919692558
organization and dynamics of the aspergillus nidulans golgi during apical extension and mitosis.aspergillus nidulans hyphae grow exclusively by apical extension. golgi equivalents (ges) labeled with mrfp-tagged ph(osbp) domain form a markedly polarized, dynamic network of ring-shaped and fenestrated cisternae that remains intact during "closed" mitosis. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges advance associated with the growing apex where secretion predominates but do not undergo long-distance movement toward the tip that could account for their polarization. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges overlap with the trans-golgi resid ...200919692566
transcriptional upregulation of four genes of the lysine biosynthetic pathway by homocitrate accumulation in penicillium chrysogenum: homocitrate as a sensor of lysine-pathway distress.the lysine biosynthetic pathway has to supply large amounts of alpha-aminoadipic acid for penicillin biosynthesis in penicillium chrysogenum. in this study, we have characterized the p. chrysogenum l2 mutant, a lysine auxotroph that shows highly increased expression of several lysine biosynthesis genes (lys1, lys2, lys3, lys7). the l2 mutant was found to be deficient in homoaconitase activity since it was complemented by the aspergillus nidulans lysf gene. we have cloned a gene (named lys3) that ...200919696106
the transcription factor homolog ctf1 regulates {beta}-oxidation in candida albicans.carbon starvation is one of the many stresses to which microbial pathogens are subjected while in the host. pathways necessary for the utilization of alternative carbon sources, such as gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, and beta-oxidation of fatty acids, have been shown to be required for full virulence in several systems, including the fungal pathogen candida albicans. we have investigated the regulatory network governing alternative carbon metabolism in this organism through characterizat ...200919700635
arfb links protein lipidation and endocytosis to polarized growth of aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans undergoes polarized hyphal growth during the majority of its life cycle. regulatory mechanisms for hyphal polarity have been intensively investigated in a variety of filamentous fungi. two important cellular processes, which have received recent attention, include protein myristoylation and endocytosis. it is clear that protein myristoylation is essential for polarity establishment because germinating a. nidulans conidia lost polarity in the presence of cerulenin, a lipid me ...200819704790
kapi, a non-essential member of the pse1p/imp5 karyopherin family, controls colonial and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.asexual development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is governed by the timely expression and cellular localization of multiple transcription factors. hence, factors mediating import and export across the nuclear pore complexes (karyopherins) are expected to play a key role in coordinating the developmental programme. here we characterize kapi, a putative homologue of the saccharomyces cerevisiae kap121/pse1p karyopherin. kapi is a non-essential importin-beta-like protein located i ...200919729403
negative roles of a novel nitrogen metabolite repression-related gene, tar1, in laccase production and nitrate utilization by the basidiomycete cryptococcus neoformans.the multicopper oxidase laccase is widespread in fungi and has great industrial importance. one puzzle regarding laccase production in the basidiomycetous yeast cryptococcus neoformans is that it is inhibited by high temperature (e.g., 37 degrees c). in this paper, we report identification of a nitrogen metabolite repression-related gene, tar1, which is responsible for laccase repression. disruption of tar1 results in a significant increase in the level of lac1 mrna at 37 degrees c. the putative ...200919734333
first case of extensive spinal cord infection with aspergillus nidulans in a child with chronic granulomatous disease.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is characterized by a defect in phagocytic cells that lead to recurrent bacterial and fungal infections. the etiology of most common fungal infections in cgd are aspergillus species. aspergillus nidulans is one of several species of aspergillus with low pathogenicity. however, it was reported to cause fatal invasive aspergillosis in patients with cgd. here we report the first cured invasive aspergillus nidulans infection with extensive involvement of the spina ...200919759498
study of codon bias perspective of fungal xylanase gene by multivariate analysis.fungal xylanases has important applications in food, baking, pulp and paper industries in addition to various other industries. xylanases are produced extensively by both bacterial and fungal sources and has tremendous potential of being active at extremes of temperature and ph. in the present study an effort has been made to explore the codon bias perspective of this potential enzyme using bioinformatics tools. multivariate analysis has been used as a tool to study codon bias perspectives of xy ...200919759864
cloning of a heat-stable chitin deacetylase gene from aspergillus nidulans and its functional expression in escherichia coli.a gene encoding chitin deacetylase was cloned by polymerase chain reaction from aspergillus nidulans. sequencing result showed 40% homology to the corresponding gene from colletotrichum lindemuthianum. the complete gene contains an open reading frame of 747 nucleotides encoding a sequence of 249 amino acid residues. the chitin deacetylase gene was subcloned into a pet28a expression vector and expressed in escherichia coli bl21 and then purified by metal affinity chromatography using a his-bind c ...201019760058
the aspergillus genome database, a curated comparative genomics resource for gene, protein and sequence information for the aspergillus research community.the aspergillus genome database (aspgd) is an online genomics resource for researchers studying the genetics and molecular biology of the aspergilli. aspgd combines high-quality manual curation of the experimental scientific literature examining the genetics and molecular biology of aspergilli, cutting-edge comparative genomics approaches to iteratively refine and improve structural gene annotations across multiple aspergillus species, and web-based research tools for accessing and exploring the ...201019773420
uncovering transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in aspergilli through genome-wide gene expression data analysis.glycerol is catabolized by a wide range of microorganisms including aspergillus species. to identify the transcriptional regulation of glycerol metabolism in aspergillus, we analyzed data from triplicate batch fermentations of three different aspergilli (aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus niger) with glucose and glycerol as carbon sources. protein comparisons and cross-analysis with gene expression data of all three species resulted in the identification of 88 genes having ...200919784673
recombinogenic activity of fluoxetine in aspergillus nidulans.the recombinogenic potential of fluoxetine, an antidepressant widely prescribed in the treatment of depressive disorders in cancer patients, was investigated in this study. a heterozygous diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans was utilized. fluoxetine at 7.5, 15, and 30 microm concentrations induced homozygosity of several nutritional genetic markers and significantly increased their homozygotization index values. since mitotic recombination is a mechanism leading to malignant growth through the ...200919793026
bicarbonate gradients modulate growth and colony morphology in aspergillus nidulans.fungal colonies expand through apically extending peripheral hyphae. these long and relatively unbranched leaders leave behind cells that show a higher degree of branching and lower growth rates. towards the centre of the colony, quiescent, but viable cells sustain processes such as transport of water, solutes and organelles, and support the concerted genesis of specialized reproductive structures. a survey of chemical signals controlling changes in hyphal growth and branching of aspergillus nid ...200919799635
remediation of arsenic in soil by aspergillus nidulans isolated from an arsenic-contaminated site.high concentrations of heavy metals, such as arsenic, in soils have potential long-term environmental and health consequences due to their persistence in the environment and their associated toxicity to biological organisms. aspergillus nidulans isolated from arsenic-contaminated soil has the potential to remove arsenic from soil. the isolated resistant strain showed resistance up to 500 ppm and the mean weight was found to be 1.309 g. the main objective of this research was to study the improve ...200919803330
reconstitution of protection against aspergillus infection in chronic granulomatous disease (cgd). 200919833851
dynein light intermediate chain in aspergillus nidulans is essential for the interaction between heavy and intermediate chains.cytoplasmic dynein is a complex containing heavy chains (hcs), intermediate chains (ics), light intermediate chains (lics), and light chains (lcs). the hcs are responsible for motor activity. the ics at the tail region of the motor interact with dynactin, which is essential for dynein function. however, functions of other subunits and how they contribute to the assembly of the core complex are not clearly defined. here, we analyzed in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans functions of the ...200919837669
genetic analysis of conidiation regulatory pathways in koji-mold aspergillus oryzae.conidia of koji-mold aspergillus oryzae are often used as starters in the fermented food industry. however, little is known about conidiation regulation in a. oryzae. to improve the productivity of conidia in a. oryzae, it is necessary to understand conidiation regulation in the strain. therefore, we analyzed the conidiation regulatory system in a. oryzae using 10 kinds of conidiation regulatory gene disruptants. the phenotypes of aorflug, aorflba, aorflbb, aorflbc, aorflbd, aorflbe, aorbrla, ao ...201019850144
a fungal ph-responsive signaling pathway regulating aspergillus adaptation and invasion into the investigate the role of palb and pacc, two components of a ph-responsive signal-transduction pathway of aspergillus nidulans, during the pathogenesis of fungal infection of the cornea.201019850840
cloning of aspergillus nidulans dna. i. selection and analysis of recombinant plasmids capable of complementing pyrf, argif and proab mutations in escherichia coli.fragments of aspergillus nidulans dna obtained after digestion with ecori, bamhi and hindiii endonucleases were cloned in escherichia coli in plasmid pbr322. these gene banks were used for transformation of 15 e. coli auxotrophic mutants and in 5 cases prototrophic clones containing recombinant plasmids were selected. three different recombinant plasmids conferring prototrophy to pyrf, proab and argif mutants were analyzed. hybridization experiments indicated that in two of these plasmids the in ...198019852107
peroxisomal localization and function of nadp+ -specific isocitrate dehydrogenases in yeast.yeast peroxisomal nadp(+)-specific isocitrate dehydrogenase (idp3) contains a canonical type i peroxisomal targeting sequence (a carboxyl-terminal cys-lys-leu tripeptide), and provides the nadph required for beta-oxidation of some fatty acids in that organelle. cytosolic yeast idp2 carrying a pts1 (idp2(+ckl)) was only partially localized to peroxisomes, and the enzyme was able to function in lieu of either peroxisomal idp3 or cytosolic idp2. the analogous isocitrate dehydrogenase enzyme (idpa) ...201019854152
in vivo analysis of the functions of gamma-tubulin-complex enhance our understanding of the function(s) of gamma-tubulin-complex proteins (gcps), we identified and analyzed the functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologs of gcp2-gcp6 (here designated gcpb-gcbf). the gamma-tubulin small complex (gamma-tusc) components, gamma-tubulin, gcpb and gcpc, are essential for viability and mitotic spindle formation, whereas gcpd-gcpf are not essential for viability, spindle formation or sexual reproduction. gcpd-gcpf function in reducing the frequency of chr ...200919861490
aspects on evolution of fungal beta-lactam biosynthesis gene clusters and recruitment of trans-acting factors.penicillins and cephalosporins are beta-lactam antibiotics. the formation of hydrophobic penicillins has been reported in fungi only, notably penicillium chrysogenum and aspergillus (emericella) nidulans, whereas the hydrophilic cephalosporins are produced by both fungi, e.g., acremonium chrysogenum (cephalosporin c), and bacteria. the producing bacteria include gram-negatives and gram-positives, e.g., streptomyces clavuligerus (cephamycin c) and lysobacter lactamgenus (cephabacins), respectivel ...200919863978
ppoc from aspergillus nidulans is a fusion protein with only one active aspergillus nidulans ppos [psi (precocious sexual inducer)-producing oxygenases] are required for the production of so-called psi factors, compounds that control the balance between the sexual and asexual life cycle of the fungus. the genome of a. nidulans harbours three different ppo genes: ppoa, ppob and ppoc. for all three enzymes two different haem-containing domains are predicted: a fatty acid haem peroxidase/dioxygenase domain in the n-terminal region and a p450 haem-thiolate domain in ...201019878096
genome mining of mycosporine-like amino acid (maa) synthesizing and non-synthesizing cyanobacteria: a bioinformatics study.mycosporine-like amino acids (maas) are a family of more than 20 compounds having absorption maxima between 310 and 362 nm. these compounds are well known for their uv-absorbing/screening role in various organisms and seem to have evolutionary significance. in the present investigation we tested four cyanobacteria, e.g., anabaena variabilis pcc 7937, anabaena sp. pcc 7120, synechocystis sp. pcc 6803 and synechococcus sp. pcc 6301, for their ability to synthesize maa and conducted genomic and phy ...201019879348
heterologous expression of an agaricus meleagris pyranose dehydrogenase-encoding gene in aspergillus spp. and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.pyranose dehydrogenase (pdh) is a flavin-dependant sugar oxidoreductase found in the family agaricaceae, basidiomycetes that degrade lignocellulose-rich forest litter, and is catalytically related to the fungal enzymes pyranose 2-oxidase and cellobiose dehydrogenase. it has broad substrate specificity and displays similar activities with most sugar constituents of lignocellulose including disaccharides and oligosaccharides, a number of (substituted) quinones, and metal ions are suitable electron ...201019888575
aspergillus fumigatus meda governs adherence, host cell interactions and medically important fungi, regulatory elements that control development and asexual reproduction often govern the expression of virulence traits. we therefore cloned the aspergillus fumigatus developmental modifier meda and characterized its role in conidiation, host cell interactions and virulence. as in the model organism aspergillus nidulans, disruption of meda in a. fumigatus dramatically reduced conidiation. however, the conidiophore morphology was markedly different between the two spec ...201019889083
the antifungal protein paf interferes with pkc/mpk and camp/pka signalling of aspergillus nidulans.the penicillium chrysogenum antifungal protein paf inhibits polar growth and induces apoptosis in aspergillus nidulans. we report here that two signalling cascades are implicated in its antifungal activity. paf activates the camp/protein kinase a (pka) signalling cascade. a pkaa deletion mutant exhibited reduced sensitivity towards paf. this was substantiated by the use of pharmacological modulators: paf aggravated the effect of the activator 8-br-camp and partially relieved the repressive activ ...201019889092
a key role for vesicles in fungal secondary metabolism.eukaryotes have evolved highly conserved vesicle transport machinery to deliver proteins to the vacuole. in this study we show that the filamentous fungus aspergillus parasiticus employs this delivery system to perform new cellular functions, the synthesis, compartmentalization, and export of aflatoxin; this secondary metabolite is one of the most potent naturally occurring carcinogens known. here we show that a highly pure vesicle-vacuole fraction isolated from a. parasiticus under aflatoxin-in ...200919889978
cucu modification of mrna promotes decapping and transcript degradation in aspergillus eukaryotes, mrna decay is generally initiated by the shortening of the poly(a) tail mediated by the major deadenylase complex ccr4-caf1-not. the deadenylated transcript is then rapidly degraded, primarily via the decapping-dependent pathway. here we report that in aspergillus nidulans both the caf1 and ccr4 orthologues are functionally distinct deadenylases in vivo: caf1 is required for the regulated degradation of specific transcripts, and ccr4 is responsible for basal degradation. intriguin ...201019901075
unilateral ureteral obstruction caused by aspergillus, subgenus nidulantes in a patient on steroid therapy: a case report and review of the literature.urinary tract obstructions caused by aspergillus bezoars has been reported on rare occasions. we describe in this paper an unusual case caused by an isolate of the aspergillus nidulantes subgenus, and review the literature on 13 additional cases of ureteral obstruction due to renoureteric aspergillosis so as to provide the characteristics of this disease entity. our case presented with a unilateral ureteral obstruction and acute renal failure due to aspergillus bezoars. the patient was immunocom ...201019905965
proteomic analysis of early phase of conidia germination in aspergillus order to investigate proteins involved in early phase of conidia germination, proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2d-ge) in conjunction with maldi-tof mass spectrometry (ms). the expression levels of 241 proteins varied quantitatively with statistical significance (p<0.05) at the early phase of the germination stage. out of these 57 were identified by maldi-tof ms. through classification of physiological functions from conserved domain database analysis ...201019919853
Displaying items 3901 - 4000 of 5149