PMID(sorted ascending)
arsenate transport and reduction in the hyper-tolerant fungus aspergillus sp. p37.aspergillus sp. p37 is able to grow at arsenate concentrations of 0.2 m--more than 20-fold higher than that withstood by reference microorganisms such escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans. this paper examines the transport of arsenate and phosphate and the reduction of arsenate in aspergillus sp. p37. these properties were compared with the corresponding properties of the archetype strain aspergillus nidulans ts1. both uptake and efflux of arsenate were inhibited b ...200314641588
aspergillus nidulans rhoa is involved in polar growth, branching, and cell wall synthesis.growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans begins when the conidium breaks dormancy and grows isotropically. eventually a germ tube emerges and the axis of growth remains fixed in the primary hypha while new growth axes are established basally to form secondary germ tubes and lateral branches. rho1 is a rho family gtpase that has been shown to be involved in polarity establishment and cell wall deposition in saccharomyces cerevisiae. a gene predicted to encode a rho1 homolog was clone ...200414643255
ammonium-induced internalisation of uapc, the general purine permease from aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans uapc protein is a high-affinity, moderate-capacity, uric acid-xanthine transporter, which also displays a low transport capacity for hypoxanthine, adenine, and guanine. it has been previously shown that a functional uapc-gfp fusion protein localises at the plasma membrane. here, we demonstrate that ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source, dramatically changes the subcellular distribution of uapc. after addition of ammonium, uapc-gfp is removed from the plasma membrane and ...200414643258
aspergillus nidulans hypa regulates morphogenesis through the secretion pathway.aspergillus nidulans hypa encodes a predicted 1474 amino acid, 161.9 kda cytoplasmic peptide. strains with hypa1 and hypa6 alleles are wild type at 28 degrees c but have wide, slow-growing hyphae and thick walls at 42 degrees c. hypa1 and hypa6 have identical genetic lesions. hypa1 and hypa6 restrictive phenotypes have statistically similar morphometry, and strains with either allele can conidiate at 42 degrees c. hypa deletion strains require osmotic support and have aberrant morphology, but pr ...200414643261
sub-families of alpha/beta barrel enzymes: a new adenine deaminase gene coding for an adenine deaminase has been described in eukaryotes. however, physiological and genetical evidence indicates that adenine deaminases are present in the ascomycetes. we have cloned and characterised the genes coding for the adenine deaminases of aspergillus nidulans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe. the a.nidulans gene was expressed in escherichia coli and the purified enzyme shows adenine but not adenosine deaminase activity. the open reading frames co ...200314643670
nuclear import of yeast gcn4p requires karyopherins srp1p and kap95p.the yeast transcription factor gcn4p contains two stretches of amino acid residues, nls1 and nls2, which are independently able to relocate the cytoplasmic protein chorismate mutase into the nucleus. only nls2 is conserved among fungi. a truncated version of cpca (the counterpart of gcn4p in aspergillus nidulans), which lacks the conserved nls, accumulates in the cytoplasm instead of the nucleus. nuclear uptake mediated by the nls1 of gcn4p is impaired by defects in genes for several different k ...200414648200
the pot1+ homologue in aspergillus nidulans is required for ordering mitotic events.orderly progression through mitosis is essential to reduce segregation errors in the cell's genetic material. we have used a cytological screen to identify a mutant that progresses through mitosis aberrantly and have cloned the complementing gene, nimu, which encodes a protein related to pot1 and other telomere end-binding proteins. we show that loss of nimu function leads to premature mitotic spindle elongation, premature mitotic exit, errors in chromosome segregation, and failure to delay mito ...200414657278
compatible solutes protect against chaotrope (ethanol)-induced, nonosmotic water stress.water stress is one of the major stresses experienced by cellular systems and can take a number of distinct forms. in response to turgor-related osmotic stress, cells produce compatible solutes that are macromolecule protectants and also counteract the outflow of water from stressed cells. in this report we show that the germination of conidia of aspergillus nidulans, a sensitive indicator of water stress, in the presence of ethanol is correlated with the intracellular concentration of the compa ...200314660346
swohp, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, is essential in aspergillus nidulans.the temperature-sensitive swoh1 mutant of aspergillus nidulans was previously identified in a screen for mutants with defects in polar growth. in the present work, we found that the swoh1 mutant swelled, lysed, and did not produce conidia during extended incubation at the restrictive temperature. when shifted from the permissive to the restrictive temperature, swoh1 showed the temperature-sensitive swelling phenotype only after 8 h at the higher temperature. the swoh gene was mapped to chromosom ...200314665452
the expression of sterigmatocystin and penicillin genes in aspergillus nidulans is controlled by vea, a gene required for sexual development.secondary metabolism is commonly associated with morphological development in microorganisms, including fungi. we found that vea, a gene previously shown to control the aspergillus nidulans sexual/asexual developmental ratio in response to light, also controls secondary metabolism. specifically, vea regulates the expression of genes implicated in the synthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and the antibiotic penicillin. vea is necessary for the expression of the transcription factor aflr, wh ...200314665453
the sonb(nup98) nucleoporin interacts with the nima kinase in aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans nima kinase is essential for mitotic entry. at restrictive temperature, temperature-sensitive nima alleles arrest in g2, before accumulation of nima in the nucleus. we performed a screen for extragenic suppressors of the nima1 allele and isolated two cold-sensitive son (suppressor of nima1) mutants. the sona1 mutant encoded a nucleoporin that is a homolog of yeast gle2/rae1. we have now cloned sonb, a second nucleoporin genetically interacting with nima. sonb is essentia ...200314668365
suppressor mutations bypass the requirement of flug for asexual sporulation and sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans.asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans requires the early developmental activator flug. loss of flug results in the blockage of both conidiation and production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). to investigate molecular mechanisms of flug-dependent developmental activation, 40 suppressors of flug (sfgs) that conidiate without flug have been isolated and characterized. genetic analyses showed that an individual suppression is caused by a single secon ...200314668366
pka, ras and rgs protein interactions regulate activity of aflr, a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor in aspergillus nidulans.sterigmatocystin (st) is a carcinogenic polyketide produced by several filamentous fungi including aspergillus nidulans. expression of st biosynthetic genes (stc genes) requires activity of a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor, aflr. aflr is transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by a g-protein/camp/protein kinase a (pkaa) signaling pathway involving flba, an rgs (regulator of g-protein signaling) protein. prior genetic data showed that flba transcriptional regulation of aflr was p ...200314668367
the phoa and phob cyclin-dependent kinases perform an essential function in aspergillus nidulans.unlike pho85 of saccharomyces cerevisiae, the highly related phoa cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) of aspergillus nidulans plays no role in regulation of enzymes involved in phosphorous acquisition but instead modulates differentiation in response to environmental conditions, including limited phosphorous. like pho85, aspergillus phoa is a nonessential gene. however, we find that expression of dominant-negative phoa inhibits growth, suggesting it may have an essential but redundant function. suppor ...200314668368
gamma-tubulin plays an essential role in the coordination of mitotic events.recent data from multiple organisms indicate that gamma-tubulin has essential, but incompletely defined, functions in addition to nucleating microtubule assembly. to investigate these functions, we examined the phenotype of mipad159, a cold-sensitive allele of the gamma-tubulin gene of aspergillus nidulans. immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized material revealed that at a restrictive temperature mipad159 does not inhibit mitotic spindle formation. anaphase a was inhibited in many nuclei, ...200414668489
regulation of cell cycle progression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathways.many hormones, growth factors, and cytokines regulate proliferation of their target cells. perhaps the most universal signaling cascades required for proliferative responses are those initiated by transient rises in intracellular calcium (ca(2+)). the major intracellular receptor for ca(2+) is calmodulin (cam). cam is a small protein that contains four ef-hand ca(2+) binding sites and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. in all organisms in which the cam gene has been deleted, it is essential. ...200314671000
cadre: the central aspergillus data repository.cadre is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of aspergillus. it arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. by implementing cadre using ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other aspergillus genomes (such as aspergillus nidulans) as ...200414681443
identification of proteins that interact with the central coiled-coil region of the human protein kinase nek1.nek protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved kinases structurally related to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima. at least nine members of the nek family in vertebrates have been described to date, but for most of them the interacting protein partners are unknown. the pleiotropic deleterious effects and the formation of kidney cysts caused by nek1 mutation in mice emphasize its involvement in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and in the etiology of polycystic kidney di ...200314690447
transinhibition and voltage-gating in a fungal nitrate transporter.we have applied enzyme kinetic analysis to electrophysiological steady-state data of zhou et al. (zhou, j.j., trueman, l.j., boorer, k.j., theodoulou, f.l., forde, b.g., miller, a.j. 2000. a high-affinity fungal nitrate carrier with two transport mechanisms. j. biol. chem. 275:39894-9) and to new current-voltage-time records from xenopus oocytes with functionally expressed nrta (crna) 2h+-no3- symporter from emericella (aspergillus) nidulans. zhou et al. stressed two michaelis-menten (mm) mechan ...200314692450
high efficiency transformation of penicillium nalgiovense with integrative and autonomously replicating plasmids.penicillium nalgiovense is a filamentous fungus that is acquiring increasing biotechnological importance in the food industry due to its widespread use as starter culture for cured and fermented meat products. strains of p. nalgiovense can be improved by genetic modification to remove the production of penicillin and other potentially hazardous secondary metabolites, to improve its capacity to control the growth of undesirable fungi and bacteria on the meat product, and other factors that contri ...200414698104
the lipid body protein, ppoa, coordinates sexual and asexual sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.the coexistence of sexual and asexual reproductive cycles within the same individual is a striking phenomenon in numerous fungi. in the fungus aspergillus nidulans (teleomorph: emericella nidulans) endogenous oxylipins, called psi factor, serve as hormone-like signals that modulate the timing and balance between sexual and asexual spore development. here, we report the identification of a. nidulans ppoa, encoding a putative fatty acid dioxygenase, involved in the biosynthesis of the linoleic aci ...200414699095
the lis1-related protein nudf of aspergillus nidulans and its interaction partner nude bind directly to specific subunits of dynein and dynactin and to alpha- and gamma-tubulin. 200414712821
apical growth and mitosis are independent processes in aspergillus is well established that cytoplasmic microtubules are depolymerized during nuclear division and reassembled as mitotic microtubules. mounting evidence showing that cytoplasmic microtubules were also involved in apical growth of fungal hyphae posed the question of whether apical growth became disrupted during nuclear division. we conducted simultaneous observations of mitosis (fluorescence microscopy) and apical growth (phase-contrast microscopy) in single hyphae of aspergillus nidulans to det ...200314714210
aspergillus niger msta encodes a high-affinity sugar/h+ symporter which is regulated in response to extracellular ph.a sugar-transporter-encoding gene, msta, which is a member of the major facilitator superfamily, has been cloned from a genomic dna library of the filamentous fungus aspergillus niger. to enable the functional characterization of msta, a full-length cdna was expressed in a saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in hexose uptake. uptake experiments using 14c-labelled monosaccharides demonstrated that although able to transport d-fructose ( k(m), 4.5+/-1.0 mm), d-xylose ( k(m), 0.3+/-0.1 mm) an ...200414717659
fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. role of acetyl coa synthetase in anaerobic atp synthesis.fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. the fungus fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp (zhou, z., takaya, n., nakamura, a., yamaguchi, m., takeo, k., and shoun, h. (2002) j. biol. chem. 277, 1892-1896). we identified the aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. the results showed that assimilatory ...200414722082
transformation of aspergillus aculeatus using the drug resistance gene of aspergillus oryzae and the pyrg gene of aspergillus nidulans.transformation systems for aspergillus aculeatus has been developed, based on the use of the pyrithiamine resistance gene of aspergillus oryzae and the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrg) of aspergillus nidulans. an a. aculeatus mutant which can be transformed effectively by the a. nidulans pyrg gene was isolated as a transformation host. this is the first report of transformation of a. aculeatus.200314730150
nuclear migration advances in fungi.nuclear migration encompasses three areas: separation of daughter nuclei during mitosis, congress of parental nuclei before they fuse during fertilization, and positioning of nuclei in interphase cells. this review deals primarily with interphase nuclear migration, which is crucial for events as disparate as vertebrate embryonic development and growth of fungal mycelia. mutants of aspergillus nidulans, neurospora crassa and saccharomyces cerevisiae have been particularly informative, and a detai ...199514732112
aspergillus fumigatus rasa and rasb regulate the timing and morphology of asexual development.expression of rasa plays an important role in conidial germination in aspergillus nidulans. conidial germination is required to initiate both infection and asexual development in the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. therefore, we sought to determine the requirements for ras proteins in conidial germination and asexual development of a. fumigatus. a second homolog, rasb, has been identified that characterizes a new subclass of ras genes. dominant active (da) and dominant negative (dn ...200414732259
a putative high affinity hexose transporter, hxta, of aspergillus nidulans is induced in vegetative hyphae upon starvation and in ascogenous hyphae during cleistothecium formation.fungi employ different carbohydrate uptake systems to adapt to certain environmental conditions and to different carbon source concentrations. the hydrolysis of polymeric carbohydrates and the subsequent uptake of monomeric forms may also play a role in development. aspergillus nidulans accumulates cell wall components during vegetative growth and degrades them during sexual development. we have identified the hxta (high affinity hexose transporter) gene in a differential library, which was enri ...200414732261
selection arena in aspergillus nidulans.the selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes--a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants--can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. as a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called dikaryons. then, progeny choice might involve selection on which of these dikaryons will thrive to produce thousands of zygotes. these zygotes each produce eight sexual spores which together fill up one ...200414732264
use of expressed sequence tag analysis and cdna microarrays of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the use of microarrays in the analysis of gene expression is becoming widespread for many organisms, including yeast. however, although the genomes of a number of filamentous fungi have been fully or partially sequenced, microarray analysis is still in its infancy in these organisms. here, we describe the construction and validation of microarrays for the fungus aspergillus nidulans using pcr products from a 4092 est conidial germination library. an experiment was designed to validate these arra ...200414732266
novel effect of voriconazole on conidiation of aspergillus species.our previous studies of aspergillus fumigatus showed that colonies that grew in the presence of voriconazole (vcz) were characteristically white without pigmentation. we therefore investigated the effect of various triazoles on conidiation and pigmentation in four commonly isolated aspergillus species and the results were compared with those obtained for polyene and echinocandin classes of antifungal drugs. aspergillus cultures were grown on sabouraud dextrose agar containing subinhibitory conce ...200414732317
osteomyelitis due to aspergillus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: comparison of aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare inherited disorder of nadph oxidase in which phagocytes fail to generate reactive antimicrobial oxidants. invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cgd patients, with aspergillus spp. being the most frequent fungal pathogens. we reviewed the reported cases of osteomyelitis in cgd patients due to aspergillus nidulans and compared them with those due to aspergillus fumigatus.200414732328
meab is a component of the methylmalonyl-coa mutase complex required for protection of the enzyme from inactivation.adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-coa mutase catalyzes the interconversion of methylmalonyl-coa and succinyl-coa. in humans, deficiencies in the mutase lead to methylmalonic aciduria, a rare disease that is fatal in the first year of life. such inherited deficiencies can result from mutations in the mutase structural gene or from mutations that impair the acquisition of cobalamins. recently, a human gene of unknown function, mmaa, has been implicated in methylmalonic aciduria (dobson, c. ...200414734568
negative selection using thymidine kinase increases the efficiency of recovery of transformants with targeted genes in the filamentous fungus leptosphaeria maculans.a vector system was constructed that is designed to decrease the number of transformants required to be screened when looking for gene disruption events in filamentous fungi. this vector was used to mutate two genes, an atp-binding cassette transporter ( lmabct4) and a two-component histidine kinase gene ( lmhk1) in the ascomycete leptosphaeria maculans. the system uses the thymidine kinase gene from the herpes simplex virus as a negative selectable marker. thymidine kinase expression is regulat ...200414749893
mate transposable elements in aspergillus nidulans: evidence of repeat-induced point mutation.the sequences of five mate transposable elements were retrieved from the aspergillus nidulans genome sequence. these elements are 6.1 kb in length and are characterized by 9-10 bp target site duplications, paired approximately 40 bp palindromes close to each end, and in the unmutated elements, 57 clustered spe-motifs (rwctagwy) scattered through their length. short open reading frames have no known homology. two of the mate elements have numerous c --> t transitions on both dna strands relative ...200414761791
activation of caspase-like activity and poly (adp-ribose) polymerase degradation during sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.mycelium vacuolization, protein degradation, and as the final stage autolysis, often accompanies developmental changes in fungi and similarities between autolysis and apoptosis have previously been suggested. caspases are the key executors of apoptosis and in this study caspase-like activities were detected in protein extracts from aspergillus nidulans during sporulation. this was shown by hydrolysis of the fluorescent devd- and ietd-afc peptide substrates specific for caspase 3- and 8-like acti ...200414761796
chromatin rearrangements in the prnd-prnb bidirectional promoter: dependence on transcription factors.the prnd-prnb intergenic region regulates the divergent transcription of the genes encoding proline oxidase and the major proline transporter. eight nucleosomes are positioned in this region. upon induction, the positioning of these nucleosomes is lost. this process depends on the specific transcriptional activator prna but not on the general gata factor area. induction of prnb but not prnd can be elicited by amino acid starvation. a specific nucleosomal pattern in the prnb proximal region is as ...200414871945
molecular characterization of abc transporter-encoding genes in aspergillus a preliminary step towards characterizing genes encoding atp-binding cassette (abc) transporters that confer pleiotropic drug resistance in aspergillus, we used a pcr-based approach to isolate four dna fragments corresponding to different abc type transporter genes. dna sequencing and southern blot analysis confirmed that they were distinct genes, which were designated abca-d. one of these genes, abcd, was cloned and characterized. it was found to have a predicted 1,452-amino acid translation ...200214963824
alternative reproduction pathway in aspergillus nidulans.recombinant haploid segregants were recovered in filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans (eidam) g. winter directly from the heterokaryons instead of diploid segregants (process described earlier as parameiosis). in spite of the reproductive complexity of a. nidulans, parameiosis has only now been observed in this fungus. since parameiosis was characterized by the occurrence of genetic recombination inside heterokaryotic hyphae, master strains (uvs+) and uvs mutants with high rate of both mitoti ...200314976715
nek2a interacts with mad1 and possibly functions as a novel integrator of the spindle checkpoint signaling.chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by protein kinase signaling cascades. a biochemical cascade named spindle checkpoint ensures the spatial and temporal order of chromosome segregation during mitosis. here we report that spindle checkpoint protein mad1 interacts with nek2a, a human orthologue of the aspergillus nidulans nima kinase. mad1 interacts with nek2a in vitro and in vivo via a leucine zipper-containing domain located at the c terminus of mad1. like mad1, nek2a is localized ...200414978040
a putative g protein-coupled receptor negatively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) are key components of heterotrimeric g protein-mediated signalling pathways that detect environmental signals and confer rapid cellular responses. to broaden our understanding of signalling mechanisms in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, intensive analyses of the aspergillus nidulans genome have been carried out and nine genes (gpra approximately gpri) that are predicted to encode seven transmembrane spanning gpcrs have been identified. six of nine ...200414982628
disruption of the gene encoding the v-atpase subunit a results in inhibition of normal growth and abolished sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.the authors have previously reported on molecular responses of aspergillus nidulans to bacterial antifungal metabolites, e.g. bafilomycins and the related concanamycins. these compounds are known inhibitors of v-atpases and cause dramatic effects on mycelial growth and morphology. in neurospora crassa, studies have shown that disruption of the gene encoding subunit a of the v-atpase results in morphological changes and reduced growth similar to those observed after addition of concanamycin. this ...200414993324
uv mutagenesis in inhibitor depleted conidia of aspergillus nidulans.uv treated conidia of a strain of aspergillus nidulans (meth gl. bial) depleted of germination inhibitory substances have been examined for inactivation and mutation induction at groups of suppressor gene loci defining three classes of methionine revertants. an exponential decline in the colony forming ability and quadratic increase in mutation frequency (for each class of revertant) as the incident dose increased were observed. the induced mutation frequency for each class and the loss of colon ...197614997599
the early impact of genetics on our understanding of cell cycle regulation in aspergillus nidulans.the application of genetic analysis was crucial to the rapid progress that has been made in cell cycle research. ron morris, one of the first to apply genetics to cell cycle research, developed aspergillus nidulans into an important model system for the analysis of many aspects of cell biology. within the area of cell cycle research, ron's laboratory is noted for development of novel cell biological and molecular genetic approaches as well as seminal insights regarding the regulation of mitosis, ...200414998523
nuclear migration and positioning in filamentous fungi.genetic analyses of nuclear distribution mutants have indicated that functions of the microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein, and its regulators are important for nuclear positioning in filamentous fungi. here we review these studies and also present the need to further dissect how dynein and its associated microtubule cytoskeleton are involved mechanistically in nuclear positioning in the multinucleated hyphae.200414998524
tubulins in aspergillus nidulans.the discovery and characterization of the tubulin superfamily in aspergillus nidulans is described. remarkably, the genes that encode alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tubulins were all identified first in a. nidulans. there are two alpha-tubulin genes, tuba and tubb, two beta-tubulin genes, bena and tubc, and one gamma-tubulin gene, mipa. hyphal tubulin is encoded mainly by the essential genes tuba and bena. tubc is expressed during conidiation and tubb is required for the sexual cycle. promoter swappin ...200414998525
aspergillus nidulans as a model system to characterize the dna damage response in eukaryotes.interest in dna repair in aspergillus nidulans had mainly grown out of studies of three different biological processes, namely mitotic recombination, inducible responses to detrimental environmental changes, and genetic control of the cell cycle. ron morris started the investigation of the genetic control of the cell cycle by screening hundreds of cell cycle temperature sensitive aspergillus mutants. the sequencing and innovative analysis of these genes revealed not only several components of th ...200414998526
insight into the genome of aspergillus fumigatus: analysis of a 922 kb region encompassing the nitrate assimilation gene cluster.aspergillus fumigatus is the most ubiquitous opportunistic filamentous fungal pathogen of human. as an initial step toward sequencing the entire genome of a. fumigatus, which is estimated to be approximately 30 mb in size, we have sequenced a 922 kb region, contained within 16 overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clones. fifty-four percent of the dna is predicted to be coding with 341 putative protein coding genes. functional classification of the proteins showed the presence of a h ...200414998527
identification of a novel gene hbrb required for polarised growth in aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned a novel gene, hbrb, by complementation of a temperature sensitive hyperbranching (hbr) mutant of aspergillus nidulans. the mutant, hbrb3, exhibits hyperseptation and shows a marked increase in hyphal branching at the restrictive temperature. a genomic library incorporating the ama1 sequence, which confers autonomous replication on the plasmid, was used to clone the gene. co-ordinate loss of the complementing plasmid and wild type phenotype was shown. the 847 amino acid predicted p ...200414998529
a sensitive predictor for potential gpi lipid modification sites in fungal protein sequences and its application to genome-wide studies for aspergillus nidulans, candida albicans, neurospora crassa, saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe.the fungal transamidase complex that executes glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) lipid anchoring of precursor proteins has overlapping but distinct sequence specificity compared with the animal system. therefore, a taxon-specific prediction tool for the recognition of the c-terminal signal in fungal sequences is necessary. we have collected a learning set of fungal precursor protein sequences from the literature and fungal proteomes. although the general four segment scheme of the recognition si ...200415003443
genetics and physiology of aflatoxin biosynthesis.aflatoxins are the most thoroughly studied mycotoxins. elegant early research on the biosynthetic scheme of the pathway has allowed a molecular characterization of aflatoxin biosynthesis and its regulation. genetic studies on aflatoxin biosynthesis in aspergillus flavus and a. parasiticus, and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in a. nidulans, led to the cloning of 17 genes responsible for 12 enzymatic conversions in the af/st pathways. pathway-specific regulation is by a zn(ii)2cys6 dna-binding prot ...199815012504
molecular cloning and functional characterization of avab, a gene encoding vam6p/vps39p-like protein in aspergillus has been demonstrated that saccharomyces cerevisiae vam6p/vps39p plays a critical role in the tethering steps of vacuolar membrane fusion by facilitating guanine nucleotide exchange on small guanosine triphosphatase (gtpase) vam4p/ypt7p. we report here the identification and characterization of a novel protein in aspergillus nidulans, avab, that exhibits similarity to vam6p/vps39p and plays a critical role in vacuolar morphogenesis in a. nidulans. avab is comprised of 1058 amino acids with am ...200415019743
nek8, a nima family kinase member, is overexpressed in primary human breast tumors.the family of human nek (nima related kinase) kinases currently contains 11 members. we have identified nek8 as a new member of the nek kinase family. for many of the nek family members, primary tumor expression data and function have been limited. however, all of the nek family proteins share considerable homology with the never in mitosis, gene a (nima) kinase from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. nima, as well as its most closely related human ortholog, nek2, are required for g(2) ...200415019993
ren1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. f. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by ...200415020411
enzyme reactions and genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis.aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic substances mainly produced by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. sterigmatocystin is a penultimate precursor of aflatoxins and also a toxic and carcinogenic substance produced by many species, including aspergillus nidulans. recently, the majority of the enzyme reactions involved in aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthesis have been clarified, and the genes encoding the enzymes have been isolated. most of the genes constitute a large gene ...200415022028
synthesis and antifungal properties of compounds which target the alpha-aminoadipate pathway.fungi synthesize lysine via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is not found in plants or animals. this pathway has been proposed as a target for antifungal agents, but until now no reports have appeared to test this proposal. hampering studies on the susceptibility of filamentous fungi such as those of the clinically important genus aspergillus is the fact that growth quantitation is notoriously difficult. we have used the recently-reported xtt-based method of biomass quantitation to measure ...200415025175
ethylene modulates development and toxin biosynthesis in aspergillus possibly via an ethylene sensor-mediated signaling pathway.ethylene, a biologically active natural compound, inhibited aflatoxin accumulation by aspergillus parasiticus on a solid growth medium in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.1 to 150 ppm. the activity of the nor-1 promoter (an early aflatoxin gene) was reduced to nondetectable levels by similar quantities of ethylene, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on toxin synthesis occurred, at least in part, at the level of transcription. the inhibitory effect of ethylene on aflatoxin accumu ...200415035355
the aspergillus nidulans amds gene as a marker for the identification of multicopy t-dna integration events in agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aspergillus awamori.the aspergillus nidulans amds selection marker was used for the identification of multicopy t-dna insertions in agrobacterium-mediated transformation of asp. awamori. the selection of transformants on agar plates containing acetamide as sole nitrogen source and hygromycin resulted in a six-fold decrease in the transformation frequency, compared with the transformation frequency obtained after hygromycin selection alone. however, it was found that 47% of the transformants obtained after hygromyci ...200415045526
cremophor el stimulates mitotic recombination in uvsh//uvsh diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans.cremophor el is a solubilizer and emulsifier agent used in the pharmaceutical and foodstuff industries. the solvent is the principal constituent of paclitaxel's clinical formulation vehicle. since mitotic recombination plays a crucial role in multistep carcinogenesis, the study of the recombinagenic potential of chemical compounds is of the utmost importance. in our research genotoxicity of cremophor el has been studied by using an uvsh//uvsh diploid strain of aspergillus nidulans. since it spen ...200415048194
structure and biological functions of fungal cerebrosides.ceramide monohexosides (cmhs, cerebrosides) are glycosphingolipids composed of a hydrophobic ceramide linked to one sugar unit. in fungal cells, cmhs are very conserved molecules consisting of a ceramide moiety containing 9-methyl-4,8-sphingadienine in amidic linkage to 2-hydroxyoctadecanoic or 2-hydroxyhexadecanoic acids, and a carbohydrate portion consisting of one residue of glucose or galactose. 9-methyl 4,8-sphingadienine-containing ceramides are usually glycosylated to form fungal cerebros ...200415048196
transcription of purine transporter genes is activated during the isotropic growth phase of aspergillus nidulans conidia.aspergillus nidulans possesses three well-characterized purine transporters encoded by the genes uapa, uapc and azga. expression of these genes in mycelium is induced by purines and repressed by ammonium or glutamine through the action of the pathway-specific uay regulator and the general gata factor area respectively. here, we describe the regulation of expression of purine transporters during conidiospore germination and the onset of mycelium development. in resting conidiospores, mrna steady- ...200415049821
a basic-region helix-loop-helix protein-encoding gene (devr) involved in the development of aspergillus nidulans.basic-region helix-loop-helix (bhlh) proteins form an interesting class of eukaryotic transcription factors often involved in developmental processes. here, a so far unknown bhlh protein-encoding gene of the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans was isolated and designated devr for regulator of development. deletion of devr revealed that the gene is non-essential for vegetative growth. however, the deletion mutant produced wrinkled colonies, a yellow pigment and did not form conidia on min ...200415049823
negative subtraction hybridization: an efficient method to isolate large numbers of condition-specific cdnas.the construction of cdna libraries is a useful tool to understand gene expression in organisms under different conditions, but random sequencing of unbiased cdna collections is laborious and can give rise to redundant est collections. we aimed to isolate cdnas of messages induced by switching aspergillus nidulans from growth on glucose to growth on selected polysaccharides. approximately 4,700 contigs from 12,320 ests were already available from a cdna library representing transcripts isolated f ...200415050035
two delta9-stearic acid desaturases are required for aspergillus nidulans growth and development.unsaturated fatty acids are important constituents of all cell membranes and are required for normal growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, unsaturated fatty acids and their derivatives also influence asexual (conidial) and sexual (ascospore) sporulation processes. to investigate the relationship between fatty acid metabolism and fungal development, we disrupted the a. nidulans sdea and sdeb genes, both encoding delta9-stearic acid desaturases responsible for the conversion of p ...200415050539
deletion of the aspergillus fumigatus lysine biosynthesis gene lysf encoding homoaconitase leads to attenuated virulence in a low-dose mouse infection model of invasive aspergillosis.aspergillus fumigatus is an important pathogen of the immunocompromised host, causing pneumonia and invasive disseminated disease with high mortality. in order to determine the importance of lysine biosynthesis for growth and pathogenicity, the a. fumigatus lysf gene, encoding a homologue of the a. nidulans homoaconitase lysf, was cloned and characterized. cosmid cosgtm encoding lysf complemented a lysf mutant of aspergillus nidulans. a. fumigatus lysf was deleted, resulting in a lysine-auxotrop ...200415052376
biosynthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate- co-3-hydroxyalkanoates) by metabolically engineered escherichia coli strains.biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates (phas) consisting of 3-hydroxy-alkanoates (3has) of 4 to 10 carbon atoms was examined in metabolically engineered escherichia coli strains. when the fada and/or fadb mutant e. coli strains harboring the plasmid containing the pseudomonas sp. 61-3 phac2 gene and the ralstonia eutropha phaab genes were cultured in luria-bertani (lb) medium supplemented with 2 g/l of sodium decanoate, all the recombinant e. coli strains synthesized phas consisting of c4, c6, c8 ...200415054261
in vivo levels of s-adenosylmethionine modulate c:g to t:a mutations associated with repeat-induced point mutation in neurospora neurospora crassa, the mutagenic process termed repeat-induced point mutation (rip) inactivates duplicated dna sequences during the sexual cycle by the introduction of c:g to t:a transition mutations. in this work, we have used a collection of n. crassa strains exhibiting a wide range of cellular levels of s-adenosylmethionine (adomet), the universal donor of methyl groups, to explore whether frequencies of rip are dependent on the cellular levels of this metabolite. mutant strains met-7 and ...200415063139
blockage of methylcitrate cycle inhibits polyketide production in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces the polyketide toxin sterigmatocystin (st) of which the biosynthetic and pathway specific regulatory genes compose a stc gene cluster. a previous mutagenesis screen identified 23 mutants defective in production of st. five mutants constitute a single locus. genetic complementation and sequencing analysis revealed the mutant locus to be mcsa encoding methylcitrate synthase that converts propionyl-coa to methylcitrate. feeding downstream products of methylcitrate synt ...200415066039
development of a system for integrative and stable transformation of the zygomycete rhizopus oryzae by agrobacterium-mediated dna transfer.two transformation systems, based on the use of cacl(2)/peg and agrobacterium tumefaciens, respectively, were developed for the zygomycete rhizopus oryzae. irrespective of the selection marker used, a pyr4 marker derived from r. niveus or a dominant amds(+) marker from aspergillus nidulans, and irrespective of the configuration of the transforming dna (linear or circular), the transformants obtained with the cacl(2)/peg transformation method were found to carry multiple copies of tandemly linked ...200415067540
identification and characterization of a nitrate transporter gene in neurospora crassa.the neurospora crassa genome database was searched for sequence similarity to crna, a nitrate transporter in aspergillus nidulans. a 3.9-kb fragment (contig 3.416, subsequence 183190-187090) was cloned by pcr. the gene coding for this nitrate transporter was termed nit-10. the nit-10 gene specifies a predicted polypeptide containing 541 amino acids with a molecular mass of 57 kda. in contrast to crna, which is clustered together with niad, encoding nitrate reductase, and niia, encoding nitrite r ...200415068336
establishment of mrfp1 as a fluorescent marker in aspergillus nidulans and construction of expression vectors for high-throughput protein tagging using recombination in vitro (gateway).the advent of fluorescent proteins as vital dyes had a major impact in many research fields. different green fluorescent protein (gfp) variants were established in prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms within the past 10 years, and other fluorescent proteins were discovered and applied. we expressed the discosoma red fluorescent protein, dsred (t4), the improved monomeric red fluorescent protein (mrfp1) and the blue fluorescent protein (bfp) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. whereas ...200415071756
a paradoxical mutant gata factor.the niia (nitrite reductase) and niad (nitrate reductase) genes of aspergillus nidulans are subject to both induction by nitrate and repression by ammonium or glutamine. the intergenic region between these genes functions as a bidirectional promoter. in this region, nucleosomes are positioned under nonexpression conditions. on nitrate induction under derepressing conditions, total loss of positioning occurs. this is independent of transcription and of the nira-specific transcription factor but a ...200415075269
dual-color imaging of nuclear division and mitotic spindle elongation in live cells of aspergillus nidulans.we have developed a dual-color imaging system based on cyan fluorescent protein-labeled histone h2a and green fluorescent protein-labeled alpha tubulin to visualize dna and spindles simultaneously in the same living cell of aspergillus nidulans. this system allows new details of mitosis and nuclear movement to be revealed.200415075284
biosynthesis and uptake of siderophores is controlled by the pacc-mediated ambient-ph regulatory system in aspergillus nidulans.biosynthesis and uptake of siderophores in aspergillus nidulans are regulated not only by iron availability but also by ambient ph: expression of this high-affinity iron uptake system is elevated by an increase in the ambient ph. mediation of this regulation by the transcriptional regulator pacc has been confirmed via acidity- and alkalinity-mimicking mutants.200415075286
structure of the 'open' form of aspergillus nidulans 3-dehydroquinate synthase at 1.7 a resolution from crystals grown following enzyme turnover.crystallization of aspergillus nidulans 3-dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), following turnover of the enzyme by addition of the substrate dahp, gave a new crystal form (form j). although the crystals have dimensions of only 50 x 20 x 5 micro m, they are well ordered, diffracting to 1.7 a. the space group is c222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.0, b = 103.7, c = 177.4 a. structure determination and refinement to r = 0.19 (r(free) = 0.25) shows the dhqs is in the 'open' form with the substrate ...200415103156
screening for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents by using a mitotic-arrest mutant of aspergillus nidulans and novel action of phenylalanine derivatives accompanying tubulin loss.the microtubule, which is one of the major targets of anthelmintics, anticancer drugs, and fungicides, is composed mainly of alpha- and beta-tubulins. we focused on a unique characteristic of an aspergillus nidulans bena33 mutant to screen for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents. this mutant, which has a beta-tubulin with a mutation of a single amino acid, undergoes mitotic arrest due to the formation of hyperstable microtubules at 37 degrees c. the heat sensitivity of the mutant is remedie ...200415105129
unusual transcription regulation of the niad gene under anaerobic conditions supporting fungal ammonia fermentation.the niad gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans encodes an assimilatory nitrate reductase and exogenous ammonium represses its expression. under anoxic conditions, however, a. nidulans expressed niad even in the presence of ammonium and used the gene product for dissimilatory nitrate reduction (ammonia fermentation). this transcription regulation mechanism under anaerobiosis is critical for the fungus to ferment ammonium.200415118339
differential expression of the chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, chsa, chsb, and chsc, in response to developmental status and environmental understand the role of the chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, we analyzed the expression of chsa, chsb, and chsc both by northern blotting and by a vital reporter system with sgfp encoding a modified version of green fluorescent protein, sgfp. chsa was expressed specifically during asexual differentiation, but not during either vegetative growth or sexual differentiation. the expression of chsb was ubiquitous throughout the fungal body and relatively independent of the change in d ...200415121085
nitrate reductase activity is required for nitrate uptake into fungal but not plant cells.the ability to transport net nitrate was conferred upon transformant cells of the non-nitrate-assimilating yeast pichia pastoris after the introduction of two genes, one encoding nitrate reductase and the other nitrate transport. it was observed that cells of this lower eukaryote transformed with the nitrate transporter gene alone failed to display net nitrate transport despite having the ability to produce the protein. in addition, loss-of-function nitrate reductase mutants isolated from severa ...200415123642
novel polyketide synthase from nectria haematococca.we identified a polyketide synthase (pks) gene, pksn, from a strain of nectria haematococca by complementing a mutant unable to synthesize a red perithecial pigment. pksn encodes a 2,106-amino-acid polypeptide with conserved motifs characteristic of type i pks enzymatic domains: beta-ketoacyl synthase, acyltransferase, duplicated acyl carrier proteins, and thioesterase. the pksn product groups with the aspergillus nidulans wa-type pkss involved in conidial pigmentation and melanin, bikaverin, an ...200415128560
the neurospora crassa cfp promoter drives a carbon source-dependent expression of transgenes in filamentous fungi.the objective of the present study was to determine the potential of promoter sequences from the cfp gene of neurospora crassa to drive the expression of transgenes in filamentous fungi.200415139917
health symptoms caused by molds in a courthouse.a majority of occupants of a newly renovated historic courthouse in calgary, alberta, canada, reported multiple (3 or more) health-related symptoms, and several reported more than 10 persistent symptoms. most required at least 1 day outside of the building to recover from their symptoms. molds that produce mycotoxins, such as stachybotrys chartarum and emericella nidulans, were identified in the building, along with fungal organisms of the genera aspergillus, penicillium, streptomyces, cladospor ...200315143857
mesa, a novel fungal protein required for the stabilization of polarity axes in aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans proteome possesses a single formin, sepa, which is required for actin ring formation at septation sites and also plays a role in polarized morphogenesis. previous observations imply that complex regulatory mechanisms control the function of sepa and ensure its correct localization within hyphal tip cells. to characterize these mechanisms, we undertook a screen for mutations that enhance sepa defects. of the mutants recovered, mesa1 causes the most dramatic defect in pola ...200415155805
crea-mediated carbon catabolite repression of beta-galactosidase formation in aspergillus nidulans is growth rate dependent.carbon catabolite repression by the crea-transcriptional repressor is widespread in filamentous fungi, but the mechanism by which glucose triggers carbon catabolite repression is still poorly understood. we investigated the hypothesis that the growth rate on glucose may control crea-dependent carbon catabolite repression by using glucose-limited chemostat cultures and the intracellular beta-galactosidase activity of aspergillus nidulans, which is repressed by glucose, as a model system. chemosta ...200415158274
altering a gene involved in nuclear distribution increases the repeat-induced point mutation process in the fungus podospora anserina.repeat-induced point mutation (rip) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanism that introduces c:g-to-t:a transitions in duplicated dna segments. cis-duplicated sequences can also be affected by another mechanism called premeiotic recombination (pr). both are active over the sexual cycle of some filamentous fungi, e.g., neurospora crassa and podospora anserina. during the sexual cycle, several developmental steps require precise nuclear movement and positioning, but connections between rip ...200415166143
streptomyces lividans and brevibacterium lactofermentum as heterologous hosts for the production of x22 xylanase from aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans gene xlna coding for the fungal xylanase x22 has been cloned and expressed in two heterologous bacterial hosts: streptomyces lividans and brevibacterium lactofermentum. streptomyces strains yielded 10 units/ml of xylanase when the protein was produced with its own signal peptide, and 19 units/ml when its signal peptide was replaced by the one for xylanase xys1 from streptomyces halstedii. b. lactofermentum was also able to produce xylanase x22, affording 6 units/ml upon ...200415168093
pina is essential for growth and positively influences nima function in aspergillus nidulans.the phospho-ser/thr-directed prolyl-isomerase pin1 was originally identified in vertebrate systems as a negative regulator of nima, a ser/thr protein kinase that regulates the g(2)/m transition in aspergillus nidulans. here we explore the physiological roles of the pin1 orthologue, pina, in a. nidulans and evaluate the relevance of the interaction of pina with nima in this fungus. we find pina to be an essential gene in a. nidulans. in addition, when pina levels are reduced 50-fold the cells gro ...200415178679
the dual nature of the wheat xylanase protein inhibitor xip-i: structural basis for the inhibition of family 10 and family 11 xylanases.the xylanase inhibitor protein i (xip-i) from wheat triticum aestivum is the prototype of a novel class of cereal protein inhibitors that inhibit fungal xylanases belonging to glycoside hydrolase families 10 (gh10) and 11 (gh11). the crystal structures of xip-i in complex with aspergillus nidulans (gh10) and penicillium funiculosum (gh11) xylanases have been solved at 1.7 and 2.5 a resolution, respectively. the inhibition strategy is novel because xip-i possesses two independent enzyme-binding s ...200415181003
fungal metabolic model for type i 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.aspergillus nidulans catabolizes leu to acetyl-coa and acetoacetate through a pathway homologous to that used by humans. fungal hlya encodes a bifunctional polypeptide comprising the last two enzymes in this pathway, 3-methylglutaconyl-coa hydratase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa lyase. hlya transcription is specifically induced by leu. a delta hlya mutation removing the complete 3-methylglutaconyl-coa hydratase c-terminal domain prevents growth on leu but not on lactose or other amino acids ...200415181004
molecular characterization of protein o-mannosyltransferase and its involvement in cell-wall synthesis in aspergillus nidulans.protein o-glycosylation is essential for protein modification and plays important roles in eukaryotic cells. o-mannosylation of proteins occurs in the filamentous fungus aspergillus. the structure and function of the pmta gene, encoding protein o-d-mannosyltransferase, which is responsible for the initial o-mannosylation reaction in aspergillus nidulans, was characterized. disruption of the pmta gene resulted in the reduction of in vitro protein o-d-mannosyltransferase activity to 6 % of that of ...200415184583
the kip3-like kinesin kipb moves along microtubules and determines spindle position during synchronized mitoses in aspergillus nidulans hyphae.kinesins are motor proteins which are classified into 11 different families. we identified 11 kinesin-like proteins in the genome of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. relatedness analyses based on the motor domains grouped them into nine families. in this paper, we characterize kipb as a member of the kip3 family of microtubule depolymerases. the closest homologues of kipb are saccharomyces cerevisiae kip3 and schizosaccharomyces pombe klp5 and klp6, but sequence similarities outside ...200415189985
candida albicans rim13p, a protease required for rim101p processing at acidic and alkaline phs.candida albicans is an important commensal of mucosal surfaces that is also an opportunistic pathogen. this organism colonizes a wide range of host sites that differ in ph; thus, it must respond appropriately to this environmental stress to survive. the ability to respond to neutral-to-alkaline phs is governed in part by the rim101 signal transduction pathway. here we describe the analysis of c. albicans rim13p, a homolog of the rim13p/palb calpain-like protease member of the rim101/pacc pathway ...200415189995
successful elimination of an invasive aspergillus nidulans lung infection by voriconazole after failure of a combination of caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin b in a boy with chronic granulomatous disease.chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited defect in host defense mechanisms mainly affecting neutrophil function. pulmonary infection with aspergillus nidulans in a child with chronic granulomatous disease could not be eliminated by a combination of caspofungin and liposomal amphotericin b. voriconazole was successful in clearing the infection.200415194848
a nudel-dependent mechanism of neurofilament assembly regulates the integrity of cns neurons.the cytoskeleton controls the architecture and survival of central nervous system (cns) neurons by maintaining the stability of axons and dendrites. although neurofilaments (nfs) constitute the main cytoskeletal network in these structures, the mechanism that underlies subunit incorporation into filaments remains a mystery. here we report that nudel, a mammalian homologue of the aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule nude, is important for nf assembly, transport and neuronal integrit ...200415208636
regulators of g-protein signalling in aspergillus nidulans: rgsa downregulates stress response and stimulates asexual sporulation through attenuation of ganb (galpha) signalling.regulators of g-protein signalling play a crucial role in controlling the degree of heterotrimeric g-protein signalling. in addition to the previously studied flba, we have identified three genes (rgsa, rgsb and rgsc) encoding putative rgs proteins in the genome of aspergillus nidulans. characterization of the rgsa gene revealed that rgsa downregulates pigment production and conidial germination, but stimulates asexual sporulation (conidiation). deletion of rgsa (deltargsa) resulted in reduced c ...200415228532
tangled nudels? 200415232582
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the entomopathogenic fungus beauveria bassiana.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (agro-transformation) was successfully applied to the entomogenous fungus beauveria bassiana. conidia of b. bassiana were transformed to hygromycin b resistance using the hph gene of escherichia coli as the selective trait, under the control of a heterologous fungal promoter and the aspergillus nidulans trpc terminator. the efficiency of transformation was up to 28 and 96 transformants per 10(4) and 10(5) target conidia, respectively, using three ...200415234517
airborne fungi in industrial environments--potential agents of respiratory diseases.investigations on airborne fungi in a poultry house, a swinery, a feed preparing and storing house, a grain mill, a wooden panel producing factory, and organic waste recycling facilities have been carried out in lithuania. low concentrations of fungal spores were detected in the wooden panel producing factory, the swinery, the feed preparing and storing house, and the poultry house; moderate concentrations were found in the organic waste recycling facilities; high concentrations were revealed at ...200415236494
ph control of the production of recombinant glucose oxidase in aspergillus nidulans.recombinant aspergillus nidulans sval040, capable of synthesizing and secreting glucose oxidase derived from aspergillus niger was used to study the influence of ph and carbon source on enzyme production.200415239699
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