PMID(sorted ascending)
e-test method for testing susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. to the new triazoles voriconazole and posaconazole and to established antifungal agents: comparison with nccls broth microdilution method.nccls document m38-p describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic activities (mics) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds). this study evaluated the in vitro susceptibilities of 15 aspergillus flavus isolates, 62 a. fumigatus isolates, and 10 isolates each of a. niger, a. nidulans, and a. terreus to voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin b by the e-test and nccls m38-p microdilution methods. the agreement (within 3 dilutions) between methods for ...200212037072
structurally and functionally conserved domains in the diverse hydrophilic carboxy-terminal halves of various yeast and fungal na+/h+ antiporters (nha1p).genes encoding the na(+)/h(+) antiporter (nha1p) from candida tropicalis (c.t.), hansenula anomala (h.a.) (also named pichia anomala), and aspergillus nidulans (a.n.) were cloned, and the nucleotide sequences were determined. the deduced primary sequences revealed highly conserved hydrophobic regions and rather diverse hydrophilic regions. among the seven known nha1p sequences, schizosaccharomyces pombe (s.p.) nha1p is exceptional in lacking the hydrophilic region. within the diverse hydrophilic ...200212038978
isomaltulose synthase from klebsiella sp. strain lx3: gene cloning and characterization and engineering of thermostability.the gene (pali) encoding isomaltulose synthase (pali) from a soil bacterial isolate, klebsiella sp. strain lx3, was cloned and characterized. pali converts sucrose into isomaltulose, trehalulose, and trace amounts of glucose and fructose. sequence domain analysis showed that pali contains an alpha-amylase domain and (beta/alpha)(8)-barrel structures, suggesting that it belongs to the alpha-amylase family. sequence alignment indicated that the five amino acid residues of catalytic importance in a ...200212039719
a gene from aspergillus nidulans with similarity to ure2 of saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes a glutathione s-transferase which contributes to heavy metal and xenobiotic resistance.aspergillus nidulans is a saprophytic ascomycete that utilizes a wide variety of nitrogen sources. we identified a sequence from a. nidulans similar to the glutathione s-transferase-like nitrogen regulatory domain of saccharomyces cerevisiae ure2. cloning and sequencing of the gene, designated gsta, revealed it to be more similar to ure2 than the s. cerevisiae glutathione s-transferases. however, creation and analysis of a gsta deletion mutant revealed that the gene does not participate in nitro ...200212039735
camp and ras signalling independently control spore germination in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the role of camp signalling during germination of asexual spores (conidia) of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans was investigated. a. nidulans strains defective for adenylate cyclase (cyaa) or for the functionally overlapping camp-dependent protein kinase (pkaa) and newly characterized scha protein kinase, homologous to saccharomyces cerevisiae sch9, show altered trehalose mobilization and kinetics of germ tube outgrowth, in addition to other defects in colony formation. camp-dependent ...200212046590
mutation and functional analysis of the aspergillus nidulans ammonium permease meaa and evidence for interaction with itself and mepa.the movement of ammonium across biological membranes is mediated in both prokaryotic and eukaryotic systems by ammonium transport proteins which constitute a family of related sequences (called the amt/mep family). interestingly, recent evidence suggests that human and mouse rhesus proteins which display significant relatedness to amt/mep sequences may function as ammonium transporters. to add to the functional understanding of ammonium transport proteins, the sequence changes in 37 loss-of-func ...200212051893
proteomics of the eukaryotic transcription machinery: identification of proteins associated with components of yeast tfiid by multidimensional mass spectrometry.the general transcription factor tfiid is a multisubunit complex of tata-binding protein (tbp) and 14 distinct tbp-associated factors (tafs). although tfiid constituents are required for transcription initiation of most mrna encoding genes, the mechanism of tfiid action remains unclear. to gain insight into tfiid function, we sought to generate a proteomic catalogue of proteins specifically interacting with tfiid subunits. toward this end, tfiid was systematically immunopurified by using polyclo ...200212052880
identification and characterization of nek6 protein kinase, a potential human homolog of nima histone h3 aspergillus nidulans, the kinase activity of nima (never in mitosis, gene a) is critical for the initiation of mitosis. nima regulates mitotic chromatin condensation through phosphorylation of histone h3 at serine 10. in the present study, we identified human nek6 (hnek6), a member of the mammalian nima-related kinases. the predicted hnek6 protein is comprised of 338 amino acids. northern blot analysis revealed that hnek6 transcripts are ubiquitously expressed with the highest expression foun ...200212054534
isolation of fluconazole-tolerant micromycetes onto different cultivation media.on studying the dependence of quality and/or quantity of environmental fluconazole-tolerant micromycetes on culture medium in vitro, the highest number of isolates was obtained in sabouraud agar (sa) without fluconazole (59 cfu/mg of soil sample at 25 degrees c and 31 cfu/mg at 37 degrees c). in the case of sa, fluconazole inhibited the growth of micromycetes to 83%. significant differences were found between the average concentration of cfu/mg for six cultivation media without and with fluconaz ...200212058387
yeast npi3/bro1 is involved in ubiquitin-dependent control of permease trafficking.the membrane traffic and stability of the general amino acid permease gap1 of saccharomyces cerevisiae are under nitrogen control. addition of a preferential nitrogen source such as ammonium to cells growing on a poor nitrogen source induces internalization of the permease and its subsequent degradation in the vacuole. this down-regulation requires ubiquitination of gap1 through a process involving ubiquitin ligase npi1/rsp5, ubiquitin hydrolase npi2/doa4, and bul1/2, two npi1/rsp5 interacting p ...200212062418
molecular cloning and characterization of the human nima-related protein kinase 3 gene (nek3).neks (nima-related kinases) are a group of protein kinases sharing high amino acid sequence identities with nima (never in mitosis gene a) which control mitosis in aspergillus nidulans. we have cloned a cdna for human nek3, a novel human gene structurally related to nima, by rt-pcr. its open reading frame encodes a protein of 489 amino acid residues with the calculated molecular mass of 56.0 kda and a predicted pi of 6.58. phylogenetic analysis suggests that mouse and human nek3s constitute a su ...200112063396
schizosaccharomyces pombe nima-related kinase, fin1, regulates spindle formation and an affinity of polo for the spb.the aspergillus nidulans protein kinase nima regulates mitotic commitment, while the human and xenopus equivalents influence centrosome function. two recessive, temperature-sensitive mutations in the schizosaccharomyces pombe nima homologue, fin1, blocked spindle formation at 37 degrees c. one of the two spindle pole bodies (spbs) failed to nucleate microtubules. this phenotype was reduced by accelerating mitotic commitment through genetic inhibition of wee1 or activation of either cdc25 or cdc2 ...200212065422
invasive aspergillus infections in hematologic malignancy patients.the incidence of invasive aspergillus (ia) infections in patients with hematologic malignancies continues to increase. the most common species include aspergillus fumigatus (approximately 90% of cases), a. flavus, a. niger, a. terreus, and a. nidulans. most infections involve the pulmonary parenchyma, though systemic dissemination of the fungus from a primary pulmonary focus or the paranasal sinuses after hyphal invasion into blood vessels is frequent. early diagnosis and initiation of appropria ...200212070828
yeasts of the genus candida are the dominant cause of onychomycosis in libyan women but not men: results of a 2-year surveillance study.the reported frequency of recovery of fungi from infected nails varies according to the geographical area.200212072073
mutational analysis of the gephyrin-related molybdenum cofactor biosynthetic gene cnxe from the lower eukaryote aspergillus nidulans.we report the identification of a number of mutations that result in amino acid replacements (and their phenotypic characterization) in either the moga-like domain or domains 2 and 3 of the moea-like region of the aspergillus nidulans cnxe gene. these domains are functionally required since mutations that result in amino acid substitutions in any one domain lead to the loss or to a substantial reduction in all three identified molybdoenzyme activities (i.e., nitrate reductase, xanthine dehydroge ...200212072459
the importance of hydrophobicity and electrophilicity descriptors in mechanistically-based qsars for toxicological endpoints.quantitative structure-activity relationship (qsar) analysis of four toxicological data sets is described. the toxicological data include three data sets retrieved from the literature (the toxic and metabolic effects of 23 aliphatic alcohols on the perfused rat liver; the toxicity of 21 pyridines to mice; the lethality of 55 halogenated hydrocarbons to the mould aspergillus nidulans). in addition, the toxicity of 13 mono- and di-substituted nitrobenzenes in a 15 min assay using the alga chlorell ...200212074385
isogamous, hermaphroditic inheritance of mitochondrion-encoded resistance to qo inhibitor fungicides in blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici.a mutation of glycine to alanine at position 143 in the mitochondrial cytochrome b amino acid sequence of blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici cosegregated with the qoi-resistant phenotype in a ratio of 1:1 in a cross between a sensitive and a resistant isolate. this mutation was used as a mitochondrial marker to determine whether mitochondrial inheritance in b. graminis was anisogamous, as in heterothallic neurospora sp., or isogamous and hermaphroditic, as in aspergillus nidulans. segregation of m ...200212081463
transcriptional control of nitric oxide reductase gene (cyp55) in the fungal denitrifier fusarium oxysporum.fungal denitrification is a dissimilating metabolic mechanism for nitrate and was first described in fusarium oxysporum. here we investigated regulatory systems of expression of cyp55, which encodes cytochrome p450 (p450nor) and is essential for the fungal denitrification. promoter-reporter analysis of f. oxysporum cyp55 using escherichia coli beta-galactosidase showed that the region between nucleotides -526 and -515 was critical for induction by nitrate. it contained a nucleotide sequence simi ...200212092813
cloning and characterization of a gene (avaa) from aspergillus nidulans encoding a small gtpase involved in vacuolar biogenesis.several genes that play roles in vacuolar biogenesis and targeting of proteins to vacuoles have been characterized in saccharomyces cerevisiae. although the vacuole is one of the most prominent compartments, little is known about molecular mechanism of vacuolar biogenesis in filamentous fungi. vam4/ypt7p, a small gtpase of the rab/ypt family in s. cerevisiae, plays a vital role in homotypic vacuole fusion. we describe the isolation of the avaa gene from aspergillus nidulans as a homologue of the ...200212095681
carbon catabolite repression in the regulation of beta-galactosidase activity in aspergillus nidulans. 200212109156
functional expression and cellular localization of cercosporin-resistance proteins fused with the gfp in cercospora nicotianae.the cercospora nicotianae pdx1 and crg1 genes were previously identified as genes required for resistance to the singlet oxygen ((1)o(2))-generating toxin cercosporin. the pdx1 gene has subsequently been shown to be required for pyridoxine biosynthesis, but both the precise biochemical function of the pdx1 protein and the function of the crg1 protein remain undefined, as both sequences lack defined enzymatic domains or cofactor-binding sites. the gfp gene encoding green fluorescent protein was t ...200212111097
a regulator gene for acetate utilisation from neurospora crassa.the neurospora crassa homologue of the aspergillus nidulans regulatory gene facb has been cloned. the gene encodes a putative transcriptional activator of 865 amino acids that contains a dna-binding domain with a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) binuclear cluster, a linker region and a leucine zipper-like heptad repeat. two internal amino acid sequences are identical to peptide sequences determined from proteolytic fragments of a dna-binding protein complex specific for genes involved in acetate utilisation and ...200212111557
kinetic analysis of the interaction between the quta and qutr transcription-regulating proteins.the qutr protein is a multidomain repressor protein that interacts with the quta activator protein. both proteins are active in the signal transduction pathway that regulates transcription of the quinic acid utilization (qut) gene cluster of the microbial eukaryote aspergillus nidulans. in the presence of quinate, production of mrna from the eight genes of the qut pathway is stimulated by the quta activator protein. the qutr protein plays a key role in signal recognition and transduction, and a ...200212112685
ethanol vapor is an efficient inducer of the alc gene expression system in model and crop plant species.we have demonstrated that low concentrations of ethanol vapor efficiently induce the alc gene expression system in tobacco (nicotiana tabacum cv samsun nn), potato (solanum tuberosum cv solara), and oilseed rape (brassica napus cv westar). for many situations, this may be the preferred method of induction because it avoids direct application of comparatively high concentrations of an ethanol solution. although induction was seen with less than 0.4 microm ethanol vapor, maximal induction of the c ...200212114549
the soybean gmn6l gene encodes a late nodulin expressed in the infected zone of nitrogen-fixing nodules.previously, we determined the n-terminal amino acid sequences of a number of putative peribacteroid membrane proteins from soybean. here, we report the cloning of a gene, gmn6l, that encodes one of these proteins. the protein encoded by gmn6l is similar in sequence to mtn6, an early nodulin expressed in medicago truncatula roots in response to infection by sinorhizobium meliloti. the gmn6l gene was strongly expressed in mature nodules but not in other plant organs. gmn6l protein was first detect ...200212118878
gamma-tubulin. 200212123586
the aspergillus nidulans cyclin pcla accumulates in the nucleus and interacts with the central cell cycle regulator nimx(cdc2).the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans reproduces asexually through conidiospores, which are continuously generated at morphologically differentiated structures, the conidiophores. in contrast to vegetative, multinucleate cells, spore formation requires a strict coordination of mitosis and cytokinesis. it was shown recently that the key regulator of the cell cycle in a. nidulans nimx(cdc2) and a g(1)/s cyclin, pcla, are transcriptionally upregulated during development. here we show that pcl ...200212123821
vincristine induces somatic segregation, via mitotic crossing-over, in diploid cells of aspergillus nidulans.vincristine is an alkaloid widely used as an antineoplastic agent. in eukaryotic cells the drug causes blockage in the g2 phase of the cell cycle and an increase in the frequency of sister chromatid exchanges. due to the fact that germinating aspergillus nidulans cells spend most of their cycle in g2 phase, they provide an excellent system for the study of mitotic crossing-over. taking into account that mitotic crossing-over occurs during g2 period, the evaluation of recombinagenic and aneugenic ...200212125202
functional characterization of 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase genes of bacterial and fungal origin by complementation of saccharomyces cerevisiae lys5.lysine biosynthesis in yeast requires the posttranslational conversion of the alpha-aminoadipate semialdehyde reductase lys2 by the 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase (pptase) lys5 from the inactive apo-form into the catalytically active holo-form. in this reaction, the peptidyl carrier domain of lys2 is modified at a conserved serine residue side chain with the 4'-phosphopantetheine moiety derived from coenzyme a. we have deleted the lys5 gene in saccharomyces cerevisiae to investigate the subs ...200212127488
improving extracellular production of food-use enzymes from aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi, and particularly those of the genus aspergillus, are major producers of enzymatic activities that have important applications in the food and beverage industries. prior to the availability of transformation systems improvement of industrial production strains was largely restricted to the strategy of mutagenesis, screening and selection. aspergillus nidulans is a genetically amenable filamentous fungus the ease of handling and analysis of which has led to its use as a model sy ...200212142142
properties and application of a partially purified alkaline xylanase from an alkalophilic fungus aspergillus nidulans alkalophilic aspergillus nidulans kk-99 produced an alkaline, thermostable xylanase (40 iu/ml) in a basal medium supplemented with wheat bran (2% w/v) and kno3 (at 0.15% n) ph 10.0 and 37 degrees c. the partially purified xylanase was optimally active at ph 8.0 and 55 degrees c. the xylanase was stable in a broad ph range of 4.0-9.5 for 1 h at 55 degrees c, retaining more than 80% of its activity. the enzyme exhibited greater binding affinity for xylan from hardwood than from softwood. the xy ...200212146641
comparison of the etest and the sensititre colorimetric methods with the nccls proposed standard for antifungal susceptibility testing of aspergillus species.the susceptibilities of 25 clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. terreus, a. nidulans, and a. ustus to itraconazole and amphotericin b were determined by an agar diffusion-dilution method (the etest method) and a colorimetric broth microdilution method (the sensititre method); and the results were compared with those obtained by the nccls proposed standard m-38p method for antifungal susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi. various mic endpoints for the three methods were ...200212149345
disruption of the glucosylceramide biosynthetic pathway in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus by inhibitors of udp-glc:ceramide glucosyltransferase strongly affects spore germination, cell cycle, and hyphal growth.the opportunistic mycopathogen aspergillus fumigatus expresses both glucosylceramide and galactosylceramide (glccer and galcer), but their functional significance in aspergillus species is unknown. we here identified and characterized a glccer from aspergillus nidulans, a non-pathogenic model fungus. involvement of glccer in fungal development was tested on both species using a family of compounds known to inhibit glccer synthase in mammals. two analogs, d-threo-1-phenyl-2-palmitoyl-3-pyrrolidin ...200212163162
the absence of molybdenum cofactor sulfuration is the primary cause of the flacca phenotype in tomato plants.the molybdenum cofactor (moco)-containing enzymes aldehyde oxidase (ao; ec and xanthine dehydrogenase (xdh; ec require for activity a sulfuration step that inserts a terminal sulfur ligand into the moco. the tomato flacca mutation was originally isolated as a wilty phenotype due to a lack of abscisic acid (aba) that is related to simultaneous loss of ao and xdh activities. an expressed sequence tag candidate from tomato was selected on the basis of homology to sulfurases from ...200212164810
chsz, a gene for a novel class of chitin synthase from aspergillus oryzae.we cloned and characterized a novel aspergillus oryzae chitin synthase gene, chsz, encoding a polypeptide containing a new myosin motor-like domain in its n-terminal half. alignment analysis revealed that chsz was less homologous to known class v enzymes, except for its probable chitin synthase conserved region in the c-terminal half. we also found a chsy gene and found that chsy showed higher similarity to the class v enzymes than did chsz. phylogenetic analysis clearly demonstrated that the a. ...200212172967
a novel method used to delete a new aspergillus fumigatus abc transporter-encoding gene.aspergillus fumigatus is an important opportunistic human pathogenic fungus. in severely immunocompromised patients, the fungus causes life-threatening diseases, such as pneumonia and invasive aspergillosis. in order to obtain a better understanding of the key elements involved in a. fumigatus virulence and for identifying possible drug targets, it is essential to be able to generate gene-deletion strains. until recently, the molecular techniques available did not provide a rapid method for gene ...200212172968
saka map kinase is involved in stress signal transduction, sexual development and spore viability in aspergillus eukaryotic cells, environmental stress signals are transmitted by evolutionarily conserved mapks, such as hog1 in the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, spc1 in the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces pombe and p38/jnk in mammalian cells. here, we report the identification of the aspergillus nidulans saka gene, which encodes a member of the stress mapk family. the saka gene is able to complement the s. pombe spc1- defects in both osmo-regulation and cell cycle progression. moreover, saka m ...200212180932
identification of genes involved in terbinafine resistance in aspergillus determine the pattern and the genetic basis of resistance to terbinafine, a drug extensively used for the treatment of fungal infections in humans.200212180946
identification of members of the aspergillus nidulans srea regulon: genes involved in siderophore biosynthesis and utilization.iron is an essential trace element for almost all organisms. however, an excess of this metal within cells can be deleterious on account of catalysis of cell-damaging hydroxyl radicals. therefore, the concentration of iron within cells is tightly regulated and the primary control occurs by regulating its uptake. under conditions of low iron availability, most fungi mobilize extracellular iron by excretion of low-molecular-mass ferric iron chelators, termed siderophores. due to the potential impa ...200212196195
proteome analysis of aspergillus nidulans reveals proteins associated with the response to the antibiotic concanamycin a, produced by streptomyces species.competition between microbes is common to all ecosystems, but the exact nature of the competition is in most cases unknown. we have previously studied the antagonism between streptomyces halstedii and several fungi at both the organismal and gene expression levels. here we analysed the effect of an antibiotic produced by streptomyces, concanamycin a, on protein levels in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that 20 proteins either increased or ...200212207217
dynamic distribution of bimg(pp1) in living hyphae of aspergillus indicates a novel role in septum formation.mutation of bimg, the major protein phosphatase 1 gene in aspergillus nidulans, causes multiple cell cycle and hyphal growth defects that are associated with overphosphorylation of subcellular components. we have used functional translational fusions with the green fluorescent protein (gfp) to show that bimg has at least four discrete locations within growing hyphae. three of these locations, the hyphal tip, the spindle pole body and the nucleus, correlate with previously known requirements for ...200212207691
relationship between secondary metabolism and fungal development.filamentous fungi are unique organisms-rivaled only by actinomycetes and plants-in producing a wide range of natural products called secondary metabolites. these compounds are very diverse in structure and perform functions that are not always known. however, most secondary metabolites are produced after the fungus has completed its initial growth phase and is beginning a stage of development represented by the formation of spores. in this review, we describe secondary metabolites produced by fu ...200212208999
a single fks homologue in yarrowia lipolytica is essential for viability.the synthesis of beta-1,3-glucan, the structural component of the yeast cell wall which gives shape to the cell, occurs at the plasma membrane and is the result of the activity of at least a two-component complex. fks1p is the catalytic subunit directly responsible for the synthesis of beta-1,3-glucan, whilst the second subunit, rho1p, has a gtp-dependent regulatory role. fks1 has been characterized in saccharomyces cerevisiae, where its function is at least partially redundant with that of fks2 ...200212210896
the nek2 protein kinase: a novel regulator of centrosome structure.regulation of the centrosome, the major microtubule organizing centre in an animal cell, is in large part controlled by cell cycle-dependent protein phosphorylation. along with cyclin dependent kinases, polo kinases and aurora kinases, nima-related kinases are emerging as critical regulators of centrosome structure and function. nek2 is the most closely related vertebrate protein by sequence to the essential mitotic regulator nima of aspergillus nidulans. nek2 is highly enriched at the centrosom ...200212214248
visualization of vacuoles in aspergillus oryzae by expression of cpy-egfp.vacuolar carboxypeptidase y (cpy) from aspergillus nidulans was used to construct a cpy-egfp fusion protein and expressed in a. oryzae to study vacuolar morphology and functions in a. oryzae. while the fluorescence of egfp was barely detectable in a. oryzae expressing cpy-egfp grown under normal conditions at ph 5-6, the increase in ph of the growth medium towards alkalinity restored the fluorescence. in accordance with such an observation, the fluorescence of cpy-egfp fusion protein in cell ext ...200212223187
the vea gene activates sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the previously isolated gene complementing the vea1 mutation was confirmed to be the vea gene. the determined nucleotide sequence of the gene demonstrated that there is an open reading frame (orf) of a 573 amino acid polypeptide. the nucleotide sequence matched some clones of which functions were not assigned yet and the amino acid sequence matched that of neurospora crassa vea-related protein with 61% similarity. the nucleotide sequence of the vea1 mutant gene differed from that of the wild typ ...200212223191
heterologous expression of the aspergillus nidulans alcr-alca system in aspergillus niger.the inducible and strongly expressed alca gene encoding alcohol dehydrogenase i from aspergillus nidulans was transferred together with the activator gene alcr, in the industrial fungus aspergillus niger. this latter organism does not possess an inducible alc system but has an endogenously constitutive lowly expressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity. the overall induced expression of the alca gene was of the same order in both fungi, as monitored by alca transcription, alcohol dehydrogenase activ ...200212223193
disruption of the aspergillus niger argb gene: a tool for transformation.we disrupted the aspergillus niger gene argb, encoding ornithine transcarbamylase. full characterisation of the argb deletion was performed by southern blot analysis, growth tests and by means of mitotic recombination, complementation and transformation. the argb locus was found to be physically removed, thus creating an auxotrophic mutation. the latter can be supplemented by addition of arginine into the culture medium. the argb gene and its disruption do not correlate to the argi13 (formerly a ...200212228812
photosynthetic fractionation of the stable isotopes of oxygen and carbon.isotope discrimination during photosynthetic exchange of o2 and co2 was measured using enzyme, thylakoid, and whole cell preparations. evolved oxygen from isolated spinach thylakoids was isotopically identical (within analytical error) to its source water. similar results were obtained with anacystis nidulans richter and phaeodactylum tricornutum bohlin cultures purged with helium. for consumptive reactions, discrimination ([delta], where 1 + [delta]/1000 equals the isotope effect, k16/k18 or k1 ...199312231663
identification of vib-1, a locus involved in vegetative incompatibility mediated by het-c in neurospora crassa.a non-self-recognition system called vegetative incompatibility is ubiquitous in filamentous fungi and is genetically regulated by het loci. different fungal individuals are unable to form viable heterokaryons if they differ in allelic specificity at a het locus. to identify components of vegetative incompatibility mediated by allelic differences at the het-c locus of neurospora crassa, we isolated mutants that suppressed phenotypic aspects of het-c vegetative incompatibility. three deletion mut ...200212242225
regulation of the alpha-glucuronidase-encoding gene ( agua) from aspergillus niger.the alpha-glucuronidase gene agua from aspergillus niger was cloned and characterised. analysis of the promoter region of agua revealed the presence of four putative binding sites for the major carbon catabolite repressor protein crea and one putative binding site for the transcriptional activator xlnr. in addition, a sequence motif was detected which differed only in the last nucleotide from the xlnr consensus site. a construct in which part of the agua coding region was deleted still resulted ...200212242504
the kex2 gene from the dimorphic and human pathogenic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis.kexin-like protein is a component of the subtilase family of proteinases involved in the processing of proproteins to their active forms. kexin-like proteins are also synthesized as a propeptide and this is involved in (auto)inhibition, correct folding and subcellular sorting of proteins. the kexin-like protein was described as the product of the kex2 gene for aspergillus niger, candida albicans, saccharomyces cerevisiae, yarrowia lipolytica and other fungi. disruption of the kex2 gene in c. alb ...200212271458
conservation of the positions of metazoan introns from sponges to humans.sponges (phylum porifera) are the phylogenetic oldest metazoa still extant. they can be considered as reference animals (urmetazoa) for the understanding of the evolutionary processes resulting in the creation of metazoa in general and also for the metazoan gene organization in particular. in the marine sponge suberites domuncula, genes encoding p38 and jnk kinases contain nine and twelve introns, respectively. eight introns in both genes share the same positions and the identical phases. one p3 ...200212354665
optimal testing conditions for determining mics and minimum fungicidal concentrations of new and established antifungal agents for uncommon molds: nccls collaborative study.this collaborative three-center study evaluated nccls m38-a document testing conditions and other testing conditions for the antifungal susceptibility testing of 35 isolates of aspergillus nidulans, a. terreus, bipolaris hawaiiensis, b. spicifera, cladophialophora bantiana, dactylaria constricta, fusarium solani, paecilomyces lilacinus, scedosporium prolificans, trichoderma longibrachiatum, and wangiella dermatitidis for itraconazole, three new triazoles (voriconazole, posaconazole, and ravucona ...200212354880
the vea gene is necessary for the inducible expression by fructosyl amines of the aspergillus nidulans faoa gene encoding fructosyl amino acid oxidase (amadoriase, ec 1.5.3).the faoa gene encoding fructosyl amino acid oxidase (faod, ec 1.5.3) was isolated from aspergillus nidulans and characterized. the complete nucleotide sequence of the faoa (fructosyl amino acid oxidase) gene and its cdna revealed that the faoa gene encodes a 441-amino-acid polypeptide interrupted by five introns. expression of the a. nidulans faoa gene was inducible by fructosyl propylamine and fructosyl lysine, as is the case for the gene encoding faod in other organisms. the faoa gene was not ...200212375102
csma, a gene encoding a class v chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain of aspergillus nidulans, is translated as a single polypeptide and regulated in response to osmotic conditions.the csma gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a polypeptide that consists of an n-terminal myosin motor-like domain and a c-terminal chitin synthase domain. csma null mutants showed marked abnormalities in polarized growth, hyphal wall integrity, and conidiophore development. furthermore, the growth of the csma null mutants was sensitive to low osmotic conditions. in an effort to investigate the intracellular behavior of the csma product (csma) and the regulation of its production, we constructe ...200212379226
novel basic-region helix-loop-helix transcription factor (anbh1) of aspergillus nidulans counteracts the ccaat-binding complex ancf in the promoter of a penicillin biosynthesis gene.cis-acting ccaat elements are found frequently in eukaryotic promoter regions. many of the genes containing such elements in their promoters are regulated by a conserved multimeric ccaat-binding complex. in the fungus emericella (aspergillus) nidulans, this complex was designated ancf (a.nidulans ccaat-binding factor). ancf regulates several genes, including the penicillin biosynthesis genes ipna and aata. since it is estimated that the ccaat-binding complex regulates more than 200 genes, an imp ...200212381299
the trichoderma atroviride seb1 (stress response element binding) gene encodes an agggg-binding protein which is involved in the response to high osmolarity stress.the chitinase genes of trichoderma spp. (ech42, chit33, nag1) contain one or more copies of a pentanucleotide element (5'-agggg-3') in their 5'-noncoding regions. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, this motif is recognized and bound by the stress response regulator proteins msn2p/msn4p. to test whether this motif in the chitinase promoters is bound by a trichoderma msn2/4p homolog, we have cloned a gene (seb1) from t. atroviride which encodes a c2h2 zinc-finger protein that is 62 (64)% identical to s. ...200212395196
evidence for carbon source regulated protein kinase a and protein kinase c signaling in the duplication cycle, polarization and septum formation in aspergillus nidulans.the effects of glucose and of a pectic substrate in the duplication cycle, spore polarization and septation of aspergillus nidulans were tested in poor and rich media. growth on poor conditions and on sodium polypectate slowed nuclear duplication and reduced the coupling of polarization to mitosis. coupling of septation to the third mitosis was also reduced by changing growth conditions. when protein kinase a (pka) and protein kinase c (pkc) activators were added to the media the results suggest ...200212398295
isolation and functional analysis of a gene, tcsb, encoding a transmembrane hybrid-type histidine kinase from aspergillus nidulans.we cloned and characterized a novel aspergillus nidulans histidine kinase gene, tcsb, encoding a membrane-type two-component signaling protein homologous to the yeast osmosensor synthetic lethal n-end rule protein 1 (sln1), which transmits signals through the high-osmolarity glycerol response 1 (hog1) mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) cascade in yeast cells in response to environmental osmotic stimuli. from an a. nidulans cdna library, we isolated a positive clone containing a 3,210-bp ope ...200212406718
regulation of frea, acoa, lysf, and cyca expression by iron availability in aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, iron homeostasis is regulated at the transcriptional level by the negative-acting gata factor srea. in this study the expression of a putative heme-containing metalloreductase-encoding gene, frea, was found to be upregulated by iron limitation independently of srea, demonstrating the existence of an iron-regulatory mechanism which does not involve srea. in contrast to frea, various other genes encoding proteins in need of iron-containing cofactors- ...200212406779
regulation by carbon and nitrogen sources of a family of cellulases in aspergillus nidulans.the total amount of aspergillus nidulans secreted cellulases is affected by both the carbon and nitrogen source present in the medium, and is regulated directly and/or indirectly by the carbon metabolism regulators, crea, creb, and crec, and the global nitrogen metabolism regulator, area. we have characterized two a. nidulans genes that encode exo-cellulases, and one gene that encodes an endo-cellulase which is additional to the previously described endo-cellulase encoding gene, egla. the putati ...200212409103
identification of conidial-enriched transcripts in aspergillus nidulans using suppression subtractive hybridization.we have isolated and sequence-identified 12 genes whose transcripts are significantly enriched in aspergillus nidulans conidia. to identify these genes, we used the method of suppressive subtraction hybridization (ssh). one of the 12 genes is similar to plant thaumatin-like proteins that have antifungal properties. four genes encode metabolic enzymes crucial in the synthesis of glucose, carbohydrates, nucleic acid, and amino acid precursors. the rest are of unknown function. we have analyzed the ...200212409104
requirement of spermidine for developmental transitions in aspergillus nidulans.deletion of the spermidine synthase gene in the fungus aspergillus nidulans results in a strain, deltaspda, which requires spermidine for growth and accumulates putrescine as the sole polyamine. vegetative growth but not sporulation or sterigmatocystin production is observed when deltaspda is grown on media supplemented with 0.05-0.10 mm exogenous spermidine. supplementation of deltaspda with >/= 0.10 mm spermidine restores sterigmatocystin production and >/= 0.50 mm spermidine produces a phenot ...200212410837
new insights in the regulation of the afp gene encoding the antifungal protein of aspergillus giganteus.the antifungal protein (afp) secreted by the mould aspergillus giganteus is a small, highly basic polypeptide with antifungal activity. previous work has shown that transcription of the corresponding afp gene is regulated by ambient ph, being suppressed under acidic and strongly induced under alkaline conditions. this observation suggested that the afp gene is regulated by the wide-domain transcriptional factor pacc. here, we show that two putative pacc binding sites within the afp promoter, den ...200212420144
isomaltose formed by alpha-glucosidases triggers amylase induction in aspergillus nidulans.among various alpha-glucobioses examined, isomaltose was the most effective inducer for amylase synthesis in aspergillus nidulans. amylase induction by maltose was completely inhibited by addition of castanospermine or cycloheximide, while induction by isomaltose was not affected by the inhibitors, suggesting that amylase induction by maltose requires inducible alpha-glucosidases. disruption of the alpha-glucosidase a gene ( agda), the alpha-glucosidase b gene ( agdb), or both genes did not abol ...200212420145
different functions of the class i and class ii chitin synthase genes, chsc and chsa, are revealed by repression of chsb expression in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans, genome contains at least five chitin synthase-encoding genes. chsb is essential for normal hyphal growth. chsa and chsc are likely to be cooperatively required for hyphal wall integrity. in this study, we constructed chsa chsb and chsc chsb double mutants, in which chsb expression was under a repressible promoter [ alca(p)]. while chsa or chsc single mutants did not show obvious growth defects, the chsa chsb and chsc chsb double mutants showed differ ...200212420146
suppression of tandem-multimer formation during genetic transformation of the mycotoxin-producing fungus penicillium paxilli by disrupting an orthologue of aspergillus nidulans orthologue of aspergillus nidulans uvsc and saccharomyces cerevisiae rad51 was cloned from the filamentous fungus, penicillium paxilli. a mutation in uvsc causes uv sensitivity during germination. the product of rad51 is involved in meiotic recombination and dna damage repair. the deduced amino acid sequence of the product of this gene (pprad51) shared 92% identity with uvsc. site-specific disruption of pprad51 showed a significant effect for extra-cellular dna integration. transformation of ...200212420147
validation of cdc68p as a novel antifungal target.candida albicans is the main cause of systemic fungal infections for which there is an urgent need for novel antifungal drugs. the cp (cdc68p-pob3p) complex, which is involved in transcription elongation, was evaluated as a putative antifungal target. in order to predict the consequences of inhibition of this complex, the largest cp subunit in saccharomyces cerevisiae, cdc68p, was the first novel target to be tested in gate, a recently described, quantitative target inactivation system. depletio ...200212420162
invasive aspergillosis in cancer.ten confirmed cases of invasive aspergillosis (ia) in cancer patients were analysed retrospectively. eight were pulmonary, one was sinonasal and one was cutaneous. the majority of patients had haematological malignancies (7), the remaining three were cases of solid tumours. fever was present in all 10 cases. cough and lung signs were present in all eight cases of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. haemoptysis was encountered in three of nine cases of pulmonary and sinonasal aspergillosis. mortali ...200212421281
case report. maxillary sinus infection due to emericella nidulans.fungal infections of the maxillary sinus are frequently caused by aspergillus species, particularly a. fumigatus. in otherwise healthy persons there is an association with overfilling of dental root canals, when zinc-containing filling materials were used. below, a maxillary sinus aspergilloma is reported in a young immunocompetent female patient caused by aspergillus (emericella) nidulans.200212421290
aspergillus nidulans is frequently resistant to amphotericin b.the high failure rate of amphotericin b-based therapy in patients with aspergillus nidulans infections may not be entirely a result of host factors as suggested previously. innate resistance of a. nidulans to polyenes may contribute to the poor response in patients.200212421291
aspergillus nidulans polarity mutant swoa is complemented by protein o-mannosyltransferase pmta.previously swoa was identified in aspergillus nidulans as a single locus, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant aberrant in polarity maintenance. swoa was complemented by transformation with a plasmid genomic library. the sequence of the complementing gene was identical to a previously submitted genbank sequence for pmta, a protein o-mannosyltransferase. the pmta/swoa-2 gene hybridized to three cosmids that are located on chromosome v and the swoa mutation was mitotically mapped to chromosome v. pmt ...200212431460
functional analysis of mlcr, a regulatory gene for ml-236b (compactin) biosynthesis in penicillium citrinum.the mlcr gene encodes a putative 50.2-kda protein with a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) dna-binding domain, which may be involved in the regulation of ml-236b biosynthesis in penicillium citrinum. the induction of ml-236b production appears to correlate with the expression of mlcr, and the ml-236b biosynthetic genes mlca- mlch, and occurs mostly during the stationary phase. the present study was designed to examine the effects of alterations in mlcr expression on ml-236b biosynthesis. we first set out to incre ...200212436257
cloning and characterization of the naga gene that encodes beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase from aspergillus nidulans and its expression in aspergillus oryzae.we isolated a beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase encoding gene and its cdna from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, and designated it naga. the naga gene contained no intron and encoded a polypeptide of 603 amino acids with a putative 19-amino acid signal sequence. the deduced amino acid sequence was very similar to the sequence of candida albicans hex1 and trichoderma harzianum nag1. yeast cells containing the naga cdna under the control of the gal1 promoter expressed beta-n-acetylglucosami ...200212450128
protein analysis in a pleomorphically deteriorated strain of the insect-pathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae.pleomorphic deterioration is a process where a fungal isolate loses the ability to produce conidia during repeated subculturing. we have previously isolated strains of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae that have irreversibly lost the ability to produce conidia and only produce mycelia when grown on agar. gel electrophoresis was used to examine differences in intracellular protein patterns (urea-soluble proteins and urea-insoluble proteins (i.e., hydrophobins)) in conidiating and ...200212455610
aspergillus nidulans catalase-peroxidase gene (cpea) is transcriptionally induced during sexual development through the transcription factor stua.catalases, peroxidases, and catalase-peroxidases are important enzymes to cope with reactive oxygen species in pro- and eukaryotic cells. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans three monofunctional catalases have been described, and a fourth catalase activity was observed in native polyacrylamide gels. the latter activity is probably due to the bifunctional enzyme catalase-peroxidase, which we characterized here. the gene, named cpea, encodes an 81-kda polypeptide with a conserved motif ...200212455692
mcl1+, the schizosaccharomyces pombe homologue of ctf4, is important for chromosome replication, cohesion, and segregation.the fission yeast minichromosome loss mutant mcl1-1 was identified in a screen for mutants defective in chromosome segregation. missegregation of the chromosomes in mcl1-1 mutant cells results from decreased centromeric cohesion between sister chromatids. mcl1+ encodes a beta-transducin-like protein with similarity to a family of eukaryotic proteins that includes ctf4p from saccharomyces cerevisiae, sepb from aspergillus nidulans, and and-1 from humans. the previously identified fungal members o ...200212455694
aspergillus nidulans swof encodes an n-myristoyl transferase.polar growth is a fundamental process in filamentous fungi and is necessary for disease initiation in many pathogenic systems. previously, swof was identified in aspergillus nidulans as a single-locus, temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant aberrant in both polarity establishment and polarity maintenance. the swof gene was cloned by complementation of the ts phenotype and sequenced. the derived protein sequence had high identity with n-myristoyl transferases (nmts) found in fungi, plants, and animals ...200212455958
isolation and characterization of two ammonium permease genes, meaa and mepa, from aspergillus nidulans.ammonium and the analogue methylammonium are taken into the cell by active transport systems which constitute a family of transmembrane proteins that have been identified in fungi, bacteria, plants, and animals. two genes from aspergillus nidulans, mepa and meaa, which encode ammonium transporters with different affinities have been characterized. the mepa transporter exhibits the highest affinity for methylammonium (km, 44.3 microm); in comparison, the km for meaa is 3.04 mm. by use of targeted ...200212455974
calcium binding is required for calmodulin function in aspergillus explore the structural basis for the essential role of calmodulin (cam) in aspergillus nidulans, we have compared the biochemical and in vivo properties of a. nidulans cam (ancam) with those of heterologous cams. neither saccharomyces cerevisiae cam (sccam) nor a ca2+ binding mutant of a. nidulans cam (1234) interacts appreciably with a. nidulans cam binding proteins by an overlay assay or activates two essential camks, cmka and cmkb. in contrast, although vertebrate cam (vcam) binds a spectr ...200212455978
a g-protein beta subunit required for sexual and vegetative development and maintenance of normal g alpha protein levels in neurospora crassa.the genome of the filamentous fungus neurospora crassa contains a single gene encoding a heterotrimeric g-protein beta subunit, gnb-1. the predicted gnb-1 protein sequence is most identical to g beta proteins from the filamentous fungi cryphonectria parasitica and aspergillus nidulans. n. crassa gnb-1 is also 65% identical to the human gnb-1 protein but only 38 and 45% identical to g beta proteins from budding and fission yeasts. previous studies in animal and fungal systems have elucidated phen ...200212455986
g-protein signaling mediates asexual development at 25 degrees c but has no effect on yeast-like growth at 37 degrees c in the dimorphic fungus penicillium mameffei.the ascomycete penicillium marneffei is an opportunistic human pathogen exhibiting a temperature-dependent dimorphic switch. at 25 degrees c, p. marneffei grows as filamentous multinucleate hyphae and undergoes asexual development, producing uninucleate spores. at 37 degrees c, it forms uninucleate yeast cells which divide by fission. we have cloned a gene encoding a g alpha subunit of a heterotrimeric g protein from p. marneffei named gasa with high similarity to fada in aspergillus nidulans. t ...200212455992
characterization of inhibitor-resistant histone deacetylase activity in plant-pathogenic fungi.hc-toxin, a cyclic peptide made by the filamentous fungus cochliobolus carbonum, is an inhibitor of histone deacetylase (hdac) from many organisms. it was shown earlier that the hdac activity in crude extracts of c. carbonum is relatively insensitive to hc-toxin as well as to the chemically unrelated hdac inhibitors trichostatin and d85, whereas the hdac activity of aspergillus nidulans is sensitive (g. brosch et al., biochemistry 40:12855-12863, 2001). here we report that hc-toxin-resistant hda ...200212456002
polarity in filamentous fungi: establishment, maintenance and new axes.germ tube emergence in filamentous fungi appears to be similar to bud emergence in yeast. several key proteins (e.g. cdc42, septins, bni1 formin, rho1 and rho3) play common roles in polarity establishment and early polarity maintenance in both processes. although germ tube extension, which can be thought of as extreme polarity maintenance, uses some of the same genes, they are likely to be regulated differently. mutations in polarity maintenance genes often lead to a split tip in filamentous fun ...200212457701
uvsz1 mutation shows epistatic relations with uvsd153 and uvsj1 mutations without any involvement with checkpoint control in aspergillus nidulans.the participation of the recently described uvsz1 mutation in checkpoint control and the identification of epistatic relations between uvsz1 mutation and uvsd153 and uvsj1 mutations are provided. the effect of mutation uvsz1 in mitotic exchanges into paba-bi (chromosome i) and cho-nic (chromosome vii) genetic intervals has also been evaluated. the mutation uvsz1 was epistatic with regard to uvsd153 and uvsj1 mutations, with no involvement with checkpoint control. in contrast to mutations in uvsb ...200212462996
regulation of formation of the intracellular beta-galactosidase activity of aspergillus nidulans.the regulation of formation of the single intracellular beta-galactosidase activity of aspergillus nidulans was investigated. beta-galactosidase was not formed during growth on glucose or glycerol, but was rapidly induced during growth on lactose or d-galactose. l-arabinose, and -- with lower efficacy -- d-xylose also induced beta-galactosidase activity. addition of glucose to cultures growing on lactose led to a rapid decrease in beta-galactosidase activity. in contrast, in cultures growing on ...200212471499
altering the expression of two chitin synthase genes differentially affects the growth and morphology of aspergillus aspergillus oryzae, one full-length chitin synthase (chsb) and fragments of two other chitin synthases (csma and chsc) were identified. the deduced amino acid sequence of chsb was similar (87% identity) to chsb from aspergillus nidulans, which encodes a class iii chitin synthase. the sequence obtained for csma indicated that it had high similarity to class v chitin synthases. chsb and csma disruption strains and a strain in which chsb transcription was controlled were constructed using the ni ...200212480906
induction of apoptosis by sphingoid long-chain bases in aspergillus nidulans.sphingolipid metabolism is implicated to play an important role in apoptosis. here we show that dihydrosphingosine (dhs) and phytosphingosine (phs), two major sphingoid bases of fungi, have potent fungicidal activity with remarkably high structural and stereochemical specificity against aspergillus nidulans. in fact, only naturally occurring dhs and phs are active. further analysis revealed that dhs and phs induce rapid dna condensation independent of mitosis, large-scale dna fragmentation, and ...200312482970
regulation of the amylolytic and (hemi-)cellulolytic genes in aspergilli.filamentous fungi produce high levels of polysaccharide-degrading enzymes and are frequently used for the production of industrial enzymes. because of the high secretory capacity for enzymes, filamentous fungi are effective hosts for the production of foreign proteins. genetic studies with aspergillus nidulans have shown pathway-specific regulatory systems that control a set of genes that must be expressed to catabolize particular substrates. besides the pathway-specific regulation, wide domain ...200112483563
characterization of anrp-mediated negative regulation of the xylanase gene, cgxa, from chaetomium gracile in aspergillus vivo regulatory features of anrp, a repressor for the cgxa gene, were characterized.200312485344
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans transporters for the siderophores enterobactin and triacetylfusarinine c.the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans produces three major siderophores: fusigen, triacetylfusarinine c, and ferricrocin. biosynthesis and uptake of iron from these siderophores, as well as from various heterologous siderophores, is repressed by iron and this regulation is mediated in part by the transcriptional repressor srea. recently we have characterized a putative siderophore-transporter-encoding gene ( mira ). here we present the characterization of two further srea- and iron-reg ...200312487628
cloning and characterization of a second alpha-amylase gene (lka2) from lipomyces kononenkoae igc4052b and its expression in saccharomyces cerevisiae.lipomyces kononenkoae secretes a battery of highly effective amylases (i.e. alpha-amylase, glucoamylase, isoamylase and cyclomaltodextrin glucanotransferase activities) and is therefore considered as one of the most efficient raw starch-degrading yeasts known. previously, we have cloned and characterized genomic and cdna copies of the lka1 alpha-amylase gene from l. kononenkoae igc4052b (cbs5608t) and expressed them in saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe. here we report on the ...200312489127
multidrug resistance in aspergillus fumigatus. 200212501236
transformation with green fluorescent protein of trichoderma harzianum 1051, a strain with biocontrol activity against crinipellis perniciosa, the agent of witches'-broom disease of cocoa.a plasmid vector for fungal expression of an enhanced, red-shifted variant of the aequoria victoriae green fluorescent protein was constructed by fusion of the egfp gene to the highly expressed aspergillus nidulans gpd promoter and the a. nidulans trpc terminator. this construction was introduced by cotransformation, using benomyl selection, into trichoderma harzianum strain 1051, a strain being evaluated for the biological control of witches'-broom disease of cocoa caused by crinipellis pernici ...199912501389
structural features of the glycogen branching enzyme encoding genes from aspergilli.a maltose binding protein, p78, was purified to homogeneity from aspergillus nidulans by a single column chromatography step on cross-linked amylose. the partial amino acid sequence was highly homologous to the glycogen branching enzymes (gbes) of human and yeast, and p78 did show branching enzyme activity. the genomic gene and its cdna encoding gbe (p78) were isolated from the a. nidulans genomic and cdna libraries. furthermore, a cdna encoding a. oryzae gbe was entirely sequenced. a. nidulans ...200212501999
recombinagenic effect of cryptolepine in uvsh+//uvsh+ and uvsh//uvsh diploid strains of aspergillus nidulans.recombinagenic potential of the alkaloid cryptolepine was evaluated in two diploid strains of aspergillus nidulans--a wild type strain (uvsh+//uvsh+) and a dna-repair-deficient one (uvsh//uvsh). treatment of both strains with cryptolepine failed to alter colony growth in culture; its recombinagenic potential was determined by the homozygotization index (in which events of mitotic exchange may cause expression of genes previously masked by the dominant allele). mitotic crossing-overs were induced ...200212503397
the transcription factor rim101p governs ion tolerance and cell differentiation by direct repression of the regulatory genes nrg1 and smp1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae.environmental ph changes have broad consequences for growth and differentiation. the best-understood eukaryotic ph response pathway acts through the zinc-finger transcription factor pacc of aspergillus nidulans, which activates alkaline ph-induced genes directly. we show here that saccharomyces cerevisiae rim101p, the ph response regulator homologous to pacc, functions as a repressor in vivo. chromatin immunoprecipitation assays show that rim101p is associated in vivo with the promoters of seven ...200312509465
evaluation of broth microdilution testing parameters and agar diffusion etest procedure for testing susceptibilities of aspergillus spp. to caspofungin acetate (mk-0991).the nccls m38-a document does not describe guidelines for testing caspofungin acetate (mk-0991) and other echinocandins against molds. this study evaluated the susceptibilities of 200 isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. nidulans, a. niger, and a. terreus to caspofungin (mics and minimum effective concentrations [mecs]) by using standard rpmi 1640 (rpmi) and antibiotic medium 3 (m3), two inoculum sizes (10(3) and 10(4) cfu/ml), and two mic determination criteria (complete [mics-0] an ...200312517880
the requirement of the lc8 dynein light chain for nuclear migration and septum positioning is temperature dependent in aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the multisubunit motor complex cytoplasmic dynein plays essential roles in nuclear migration and septum positioning. the 8 kda light chain, lc8, the smallest subunit, is conserved among eukaryotic organisms. besides being a component in the dynein complex, lc8 also interacts with a wide spectrum of mammalian and viral proteins. to date, the function of this small polypeptide is not well understood. to address this issue, we have created a deletion ...200312519184
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