PMID(sorted ascending)
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated genetic transformation of the phytopathogenic ascomycete calonectria morganii.conidia of the phytopathogenic fungus calonectria morganii were transformed to hygromycin b resistance using the hph gene of escherichia coli as the selective trait, governed by a heterologous fungal promoter and the aspergillus nidulans trpc terminator. agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation yielded stable hygromycin b-resistant clones (average number (106 per 10(7)) [corrected] conidia). putative transformants appeared to be mitotically and meiotically stable. the presence of the hp ...200111680825
cloning and sequence analysis of cnaa gene encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin from aspergillus oryzae.calcineurin has been implicated in ion-homeostasis, stress adaptation in yeast and for hyphal growth in filamentous fungi. genomic dna and cdna encoding the catalytic subunit of calcineurin (cnaa) were isolated from aspergillus oryzae. the cnaa open reading frame extended to 1727 bp and encoded a putative protein of 514 amino acids. comparative analysis of the nucleotide sequence of cnaa genomic dna and cdna confirmed the presence of three introns and a highly conserved calmodulin binding domain ...200111682197
complex control of the developmental regulatory locus brla in aspergillus nidulans.brla is a primary regulator of asexual development in aspergillus nidulans. activation of brla is necessary and sufficient for conidiophore development. it is known that brla produces two overlapping transcripts, designated brlaalpha and brlabeta. we found that expression of brla is subject to complex regulation, in that activation of the two brla transcripts is regulated at different levels. while brlaalpha is regulated at the transcriptional level, brlabeta is regulated at both the transcripti ...200111683268
riboflavin, overproduced during sporulation of ashbya gossypii, protects its hyaline spores against ultraviolet light.riboflavin (vitamin b2), essential in tiny amounts as a precursor for oxidoreductase coenzymes, is a yellow pigment. although it causes cytotoxicity via photoinduced damage of macromolecules, several microorganisms are striking overproducers. a question, unanswered for decades, is whether riboflavin overproducers can benefit from this property. here, we report an ultraviolet (uv) protective effect of riboflavin. the spores of ashbya gossypii, a riboflavin-overproducing fungus, are more sensitive ...200111683864
evolutionarily conserved nuclear migration genes required for early embryonic development in caenorhabditis elegans.the nudf and nudc genes of the fungus aspergillus nidulans encode proteins that are members of two evolutionarily conserved families. in a. nidulans these proteins mediate nuclear migration along the hyphae. the human ortholog of nudf is lis1, a gene essential for neuronal migration in the developing cerebral cortex. the mammalian ortholog of nudc encodes a protein that interacts with lis1. we have identified orthologs of nudc and lis1 from the nematode caenorhabditis elegans. heterologous expre ...200111685578
identification of aspergillus nidulans genes essential for the accumulation of sterigmatocystin.the fungus aspergillus nidulans (emericella nidulans) was used as a genetic model for the identification of genes required for efficient accumulation of sterigmatocystin (st). the required gene for sterigmatocystin expression was stc, which is an intermediate penultimate product in the aflatoxin biosynthetic pathway. genetic analysis included studies of the sexual and parasexual cycles. the allelic segregation rates and recombination frequencies between linked and nonlinked genetic markers were ...200111686675
biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes are influenced by the structural complexity of the nitrogen source in fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans.the structural complexity of the nitrogen sources strongly affects biomass production and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes in filamentous fungi. fusarium oxysporum and aspergillus nidulans were grown in media containing glucose or starch, and supplemented with a nitrogen source varying from a single ammonium salt (ammonium sulfate) to free amino acids (casamino acids), peptides (peptone) and protein (gelatin). in glucose, when the initial ph was adjusted to 5.0, for both microorganisms, higher bi ...200111688213
physiological characterisation of recombinant aspergillus nidulans strains with different crea genotypes expressing a. oryzae alpha-amylase.the physiology of three strains of aspergillus nidulans was examined--a crea deletion strain, a wild type crea genotype and a strain containing extra copies of the crea gene, all producing aspergillus oryzae alpha-amylase. the strains were cultured in batch and continuous cultivations and the biomass formation and alpha-amylase production was characterised. overexpression of the crea gene resulted in a lower maximum specific growth rate and a slightly higher repression of the alpha-amylase produ ...200211689252
substitution f569s converts uapa, a specific uric acid-xanthine transporter, into a broad specificity transporter for purine-related solutes.uapa, a highly specific uric acid-xanthine transporter in aspergillus nidulans, is a member of a large family of nucleobase-ascorbate transporters conserved in all domains of life. we have investigated structure-function relationships in uapa, by studying chimeric transporters and missense mutations, and showed that specific polar or charged amino acid residues (e412, e414, q449, n450, t457) on either side of an amphipathic alpha-helical transmembrane segment (tms10) are critical for purine bind ...200111697902
yeast pala/aip1/alix homolog rim20p associates with a pest-like region and is required for its proteolytic cleavage.the saccharomyces cerevisiae zinc finger protein rim101p is activated by cleavage of its c-terminal region, which resembles pest regions that confer susceptibility to proteolysis. here we report that rim20p, a member of the broadly conserved pala/aip1/alix family, is required for rim101p cleavage. two-hybrid and coimmunoprecipitation assays indicate that rim20p binds to rim101p, and a two-hybrid assay shows that the rim101p pest-like region is sufficient for rim20p binding. rim101p-rim20p intera ...200111698381
identification and assignment of the human nima-related protein kinase 7 gene (nek7) to human chromosome 1q31.3.neks (nima-related kinase) are a group of protein kinases sharing high amino acid sequence identity with nima which controls initiation of mitosis in aspergillus nidulans. we have identified and characterized human nek7, a novel human gene structurally related to nima. its open reading frame encodes a 302-amino acid protein and is 77% identical to human nek6 protein. phylogenetic analysis suggests that nek6, nek7, and caenorhabditis elegans f19h6.1 constitute a subfamily within the nima family o ...200111701951
wdchs2p, a class i chitin synthase, together with wdchs3p (class iii) contributes to virulence in wangiella (exophiala) dermatitidis.the chitin synthase structural gene wdchs2 was isolated by screening a subgenomic dna library of wangiella dermatitidis by using a 0.6-kb pcr product of the gene as a probe. the nucleotide sequence revealed a 2,784-bp open reading frame, which encoded 928 amino acids, with a 59-bp intron near its 5' end. derived protein sequences showed highest amino acid identities with those derived from the cichs1 gene of coccidioides immitis and the anchsc gene of aspergillus nidulans. the derived sequence a ...200111705928
apparent genetic redundancy facilitates ecological plasticity for nitrate transport.aspergillus nidulans possesses two high-affinity nitrate transporters, encoded by the nrta and the nrtb genes. mutants expressing either gene grew normally on 1-10 mm nitrate as sole nitrogen source, whereas the double mutant failed to grow on nitrate concentrations up to 200 mm. these genes appear to be regulated coordinately in all growth conditions, growth stages and regulatory genetic backgrounds studied. flux analysis of single gene mutants using 13no3(-) revealed that k(m) values for the n ...200111707396
microbial, chemical and physical aspects of citrus waste composting.citrus waste supplemented with calcium hydroxide and with a c/n ratio of 24:1, ph of 6.3 and moisture content of 60% was composted by piling under shelter. with regular turning over of the pile and replenishment of moisture, the thermic phase lasted for 65-70 days and composting was completed after 3 months. compost thus prepared had an air-filled porosity of 14%, water-holding capacity of 590 ml l(-1), bulk density of 1.05 g cm(-3) and conductivity of 480 ms m(-1). phosphorus content (in mg l(- ...200211708757
purification and properties of pi-repressible acid phosphatases from aspergillus nidulans.two forms of the paca-encoded acid phosphatase (designated acid phosphatases i and ii) secreted by the mold aspergillus nidulans grown in low-pi medium at 37 degrees, ph5.0, were purified to apparent homogeneity by page. the m(r) of the purified enzyme forms were ca 115000 (60000) and 113000 (62000) respectively for forms i and ii secreted by strain bia1 and ca 118000 (60000) and 121000 (61000) respectively for forms i and ii secreted by strain bia1 paca1, as determined by exclusion chromatograp ...199811711060
deletion of the cnxe gene encoding the gephyrin-like protein involved in the final stages of molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans cnxe gene, required for molybdenum cofactor biosynthesis, was isolated by functional complementation of an escherichia coli moga mutant strain. the deduced cnxe polypeptide consists of two domains which display similarity to the e. coli proteins moea and moga, respectively, separated by a putative hinge region of around 58 amino acid residues which is notably histidine rich. a deletion mutant lacking the entire cnxe gene, including both moea-like and moga-like domains, w ...200111713674
effect of macerating enzymes on red wine aroma at laboratory scale: exogenous addition or expression by transgenic wine yeasts.the effects of a trichoderma longibrachiatum endoglucanase and an aspergillus nidulans endoxylanase on the concentration of free and bound volatiles, color, and phenolics during maceration in red wine vinification has been studied. two different approaches have been considered for the utilization of these enzymes: (i) direct addition of the enzymes to must and (ii) inoculation of must with recombinant wine yeasts overexpressing these activities. an experimental design based on a taguchi orthogon ...200111714353
genetic and cytological characterization of a developmental mutant of aspergillus nidulans induced by analysis of a new medusa mutant of aspergillus nidulans obtained by 5-azacytidine-treatment and named b116 is provided. the b116 mutant was phenotypically characterized by the production of conidiophores with reduced pigmentation and vesicles bearing multiple tiers of sterigmata. a single nuclear gene located on chromosome i is responsible for phenotypical changes in the mutant. the 5-azacytidine-altered locus, designated meda102, is recessive in heterozygous diploid and the medusa mutant is ...200111715212
aspergillus species cystitis in a cat.a persian male cat with a history of lower urinary tract disease was presented because of polydipsia, polyuria, constipation and nasal discharge. ten weeks before admission, the cat had been treated for lower urinary tract disease by catheterisation and flushing of the bladder. the animal was thin, dehydrated, anaemic and azotaemic. urine culture revealed aspergillus species cystitis. antibodies against aspergillus nidulans were identified in serum. fluconazole was administered orally (7.5 mg/kg ...200111716628
characterization of the ethanol-inducible alc gene-expression system in arabidopsis thaliana.controlled expression of transgenes in plants is key to the characterization of gene function and the regulated manipulation of growth and development. the alc gene-expression system, derived from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, has previously been used successfully in both tobacco and potato, and has potential for use in agriculture. its value to fundamental research is largely dependent on its utility in arabidopsis thaliana. we have undertaken a detailed function analysis of the ...200111722766
comparison of spectrophotometric and visual readings of nccls method and evaluation of a colorimetric method based on reduction of a soluble tetrazolium salt, 2,3-bis [2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino) carbonyl]-2h-tetrazolium-hydroxide], for antifungal susceptibility testing of aspergillus species.the susceptibilities of 25 clinical isolates of various aspergillus species (aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. terreus, a. ustus, and a. nidulans) to itraconazole (itc) and amphotericin b (amb) were determined using the standard proposed by nccls for antifungal susceptibility testing of[filamentous fungi, a modification of this method using spectrophotometric readings, and a colorimetric method using the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis [2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulfenylamino) carbonyl]-2h-tetrazolium-h ...200111724829
the structure of the negative transcriptional regulator nmra reveals a structural superfamily which includes the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductases.nmra is a negative transcriptional regulator involved in the post-translational modulation of the gata-type transcription factor area, forming part of a system controlling nitrogen metabolite repression in various fungi. x-ray structures of two nmra crystal forms, both to 1.8 a resolution, show nmra consists of two domains, including a rossmann fold. nmra shows an unexpected similarity to the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase (sdr) family, with the closest relationship to udp-galactose 4-epime ...200111726498
lipid peroxidation as a possible secondary mechanism of sterigmatocystin toxicity.sterigmatocystin (stg), a major secondary metabolite of aspergillus versicolor and a. nidulans, is the precursor of aflatoxin b1. in this study, male albino rats were treated with stg-contaminated diet for 30 days, resulting in reduced levels of glutathione, ascorbic acid, and alpha-tocopherol. the activity of catalase in liver was reduced, whereas an increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase was observed. the levels of cytochrome p450, cytochrome b5, cytochro ...200111727790
characterization of the gdha gene from the phytopathogen botrytis cinerea.a 3.48-kb dna region containing the gdha gene, which codifies the nadp-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme from botrytis cinerea, has been cloned and characterized. a fragment of 2351 nucleotides was sequenced and found to contain an orf of 1350 bp that encodes a protein of 450 amino acids. the gene, containing two introns that showed polymorphic size between them, was located by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis in chromosome x in seven strains, which were isolated from several hosts and ha ...200111728157
aspergillus nidulans alpha-1,3 glucanase (mutanase), muta, is expressed during sexual development and mobilizes mutan.we established a subtractive cdna library of aspergillus nidulans to identify differentially expressed genes during sexual development. one of the clones displayed homology to fungal alpha-1,3 glucanases (mutanase). since alpha-1,3 glucan is considered the main reserve material accumulated during vegetative growth as a cell wall component and consumed during sexual development, we analyzed this gene in detail. the gene, muta, is disrupted by three introns and encodes a putative protein of 48 kda ...200111728159
dna from aspergillus flavus contains 5-methylcytosine.dna from aspergillus sp. has been reported not to contain 5-methylcytosine. however, it has been found that aspergillus nidulans responds to 5-azacytidine, a drug that is a strong inhibitor of dna methyltransferases. therefore, we have re-examined the occurrence of 5-methylcytosine in dna from aspergillus flavus by using a highly sensitive and specific method for detection of modified bases in genomic dna comprising high-performance liquid chromatography separation of nucleosides, labeling of th ...200111728730
septum formation in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungi form multicellular hyphae that are partitioned by septa. in a. nidulans, septum formation requires the assembly of a septal band following the completion of mitosis. recent observations show that this band is a dynamic structure composed of actin, a septin and a formin. in addition, assembly is dependent upon a conserved protein kinase cascade that regulates mitotic exit and septation in yeast. hyphal differentiation may reflect the regulation of this cascade by cyclin-dependen ...200111731327
nudc expression during amphibian identify gene products important for gastrulation in the amphibian pleurodeles waltl, a screen for regional differences in new protein expression at the early gastrula stage was performed. a 45 kda protein whose synthesis was specific for progenitor endodermal cells was identified. microsequencing and cdna cloning showed that p45 is highly homologous to rat nudc, a protein suggested to play a role in nuclear migration. although pnudc can be detected in all regions of the embryo, its de novo s ...200111732844
nudc associates with lis1 and the dynein motor at the leading pole of neurons.nudc is a highly conserved protein important for nuclear migration and viability in aspergillus nidulans. mammalian nudc interacts with lis1, a neuronal migration protein important during neocorticogenesis, suggesting a conserved mechanism of nuclear movement in a. nidulans and neuronal migration in the developing mammalian brain (s. m. morris et al., 1998). to further investigate this possibility, we show for the first time that nudc, lis1, and cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain (cdic) coloc ...200111734602
regulation of the acuf gene, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (pepck) is a key enzyme required for gluconeogenesis when microorganisms grow on carbon sources metabolized via the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle. aspergillus nidulans acuf mutants isolated by their inability to use acetate as a carbon source specifically lack pepck. the acuf gene has been cloned and shown to encode a protein with high similarity to pepck from bacteria, plants, and fungi. the regulation of acuf expression has been studied by northern blotting a ...200211741859
[activity of itraconazole against clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. and fusarium spp. determined by the m38-p nccls method].the antifungal activity of itraconazole was studied in 101 clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. niger, a. terreus, a. nidulans, a. candidus, a. glaucus, a. clavatus, fusarium solani, f. oxysporum and f. semitectum. the minimum inhibitory concentrations (mic) were determined according to the protocol of the m38-p national committee for laboratory standards (nccls) document using a microdilution method in 1640 rpmi liquid medium (visual reading at 48 and 72 h incubation). in g ...200111753450
sulphur amino acid synthesis in schizosaccharomyces pombe represents a specific variant of sulphur metabolism in fungi.schizosaccharomyces pombe, in contrast to saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans, lacks cystathionine beta-synthase and cystathionine gamma-lyase, two enzymes in the pathway from methionine to cysteine. as a consequence, methionine cannot serve as an efficient sulphur source for the fungus and does not bring about repression of sulphur assimilation, which is under control of the cysteine-mediated sulphur metabolite repression system. this system operates at the transcriptional level, ...200211754480
no factors except for the hap complex increase the taka-amylase a gene expression by binding to the ccaat sequence in the promoter examine the possibility that factors different from the hap complex are involved in increasing taka-amylase a gene (taa) expression in aspergillus nidulans, either the authentic taa gene or the mutant taa gene with a replacement of the ccaat box was expressed in either a wild type strain or a mutant strain lacking the functional hap complex (hapcdelta). when the mutant taa was expressed in the hapcdelta strain, enzyme activity was as low as that of the hapcdelta strain transformed with the au ...200111758937
ornithine decarboxylase knockout in tapesia yallundae abolishes infection plaque formation in vitro but does not reduce virulence toward wheat.a knockout strain of tapesia yallundae lacking the single ornithine decarboxylase (odc) allele has been created by targeted gene replacement. a central region of the odc gene was isolated by polymerase chain reaction with degenerate oligonucleotides and used to probe a lambda genomic library. the gene was sequenced, and the encoded odc protein sequence was shown to be similar to those from other fungi. the functionality of the t. yallundae odc was confirmed by complementation of an aspergillus n ...200111763128
the aspergillus nidulans musn gene encodes a recq helicase that interacts with the pi-3k-related kinase aspergillus nidulans, the uvsb gene encodes a member of the pi-3k-related kinase family of proteins. we have recently shown that uvsb is required for multiple aspects of the dna damage response. since the musn227 mutation is capable of partially suppressing defects caused by uvsb mutations, we sought to understand the mechanism underlying the suppression by cloning the musn gene. here, we report that musn encodes a recq helicase with homology to s. pombe rqh1, s. cerevisiae sgs1, and human bl ...200111779799
2,4-toluene diamines--their carcinogenicity, biodegradation, analytical techniques and an approach towards development of biosensors.2,4-toluene diamine (tda), a class a carcinogen, is a major raw material for the production of toluene diisocyanate (tdi), which is one of the precursors for the production of polyurethane foams (pu). this review deals with 2,4-toluene diamine's (tda) carcinogenicity, analytical techniques, biodegradation and use as a biosensor for biogenic and synthetic amines, emphasizing various carcinogenicity studies by 2,4-tda on animals and humans. this review reports some publications of the analysis of ...200111783783
nek2 localizes to multiple sites in mitotic cells, suggesting its involvement in multiple cellular functions during the cell cycle.nek2 is a mammalian protein kinase that is structurally homologous to nima, a mitotic regulator in aspergillus nidulans. to understand the possible cellular processes in which nek2 participates during the cell cycle, we investigated the expression and subcellular localization of nek2 in mitotic cells. the nek2 protein levels were observed to be regulated in a cell cycle stage-specific manner in cultured cells. the cell cycle stage specificity of nek2 expression was also confirmed in cells underg ...200211785960
observation of egfp-visualized nuclei and distribution of vacuoles in aspergillus oryzae arpa null mutant.the arpa gene encoding arp1 (actin-related protein) was previously cloned and characterized from aspergillus oryzae. phenotypes of the arpa null mutant indicate its requirement for normal nuclear distribution and morphology of conidiophores. in this study, we further characterized the function of the arpa gene in distribution of organelles. for further analysis of nuclear migration in living cells, an expression system consisting of a fusion protein of aspergillus nidulans histone h2b and egfp ( ...200211786257
transactivation of a target gene through feedforward loop activation in plants.the expression of many genes encoding transcriptional activators in prokaryotes and eukaryotes is upregulated through positive feedback activation. during positive feedback activation, a transcriptional activator binds to its own promoter and thus increases its own expression as well as the expression of its target genes. in the simplest case, increased levels of the transcriptional activator can be directly correlated with increased expression of its target genes. in this study, we present a ge ...200011793220
involvement of the fungal nuclear migration gene nudc human homolog in cell proliferation and mitotic spindle formation.essential genes which are required for normal nuclear migration and play a role in developmental processes have been isolated from model genetic organisms. one such gene is nudc (nuclear distribution c), which is required for positioning nuclei in the cytoplasm of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans and for normal colony growth. this gene is highly conserved, structurally and functionally, throughout evolution and the human homolog, hnudc, has been cloned. to study the function of nudc i ...200211795948
mouse skin passage of a streptococcus pyogenes tn917 mutant of saga/pel restores virulence, beta-hemolysis and saga/pel expression without altering the position or sequence of the transposon.streptolysin s (sls), the oxygen-stable hemolysin of streptococcus pyogenes, has recently been shown to be encoded by the saga/pel gene. mutants lacking expression of this gene were less virulent in a dermonecrotic mouse infection model. inactivation of the saga/pel gene affect the expression of a variety of virulence factors in addition to the hemolysin. insertion of a tn917 transposon into the promoter region of the saga/pel gene of s. pyogenes isolate cs101 eliminated expression of sls, as we ...200111801184
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the plant pathogenic fungus, magnaporthe effective way to study the infection mechanisms of fungal pathogens is to disrupt their genes via transformation in both targeted and random manners. this isolates the mutants that exhibit altered virulence. in this paper, we report the successful transformation of magnaporthe grisea, the causal agent for rice blast, that is mediated by agrobacterium tumefaciens. employing the binary vector pbht2, which carries the bacterial hygromycin b phosphotransferase gene under the control of the asperg ...200111804343
mutations in sfda and sfdb suppress multiple developmental mutations in aspergillus nidulans.conidiophore morphogenesis in aspergillus nidulans occurs in response to developmental signals that result in the activation of brla, a well-characterized gene that encodes a transcription factor that is central to asexual development. loss-of-function mutations in flbd and other fluffy loci have previously been shown to result in delayed development and reduced expression of brla. flbd message is detectable during both hyphal growth and conidiation, and its gene product is similar to the myb fa ...200211805053
aspergillus nidulans septin aspb plays pre- and postmitotic roles in septum, branch, and conidiophore development.members of the septin family of proteins act as organizational scaffolds in areas of cell division and new growth in a variety of organisms. herein, we show that in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the septin aspb is important for cellular division, branching, and conidiation both pre- and postmitotically. aspb localizes postmitotically to the septation site with an underlying polarity that is evident as cytokinesis progresses. this localization at the septation site is dependent on ...200211809826
arca, the regulatory gene for the arginine catabolic pathway in aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned and analysed the arca gene which encodes a transcriptional activator necessary for the high-level expression of two genes for enzymes of the arginine catabolic pathway in aspergillus nidulans: agaa (for arginase) and otaa (for ornithine transaminase, otase). here we present complete genomic and cdna sequences for, and describe the pattern of expression of, the arca gene. this gene contains one intron and encodes a polypeptide of 600 amino acids. the deduced protein belongs to the ...200111810230
spontaneous second-site suppressors of the filamentation defect of prr1delta mutants define a critical domain of rim101p in candida response to changes in ambient ph the opportunistic pathogen candida albicans differentially expresses a number of genes. the response to ph affects morphological differentiation and virulence. the pathway controlling the ph response terminates in the zinc-finger containing transcription factor encoded by rim101/prr2. by analogy to the ph response pathway of aspergillus nidulans, prr1 of c. albicans encodes a protein that is presumably required to convert rim101p from an inactive to an active ...200111810234
aspergillus nidulans diga, a potential homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae pep3 (vps18), is required for nuclear migration, mitochondrial morphology and polarized growth.the fungal vacuole is an acidic organelle that is involved in a variety of physiological processes, such as protein turnover, ion and ph homeostasis and osmoregulation. the function of the vacuole largely depends on vesicle transport providing the organelle with enzymes and substrates. the process of vesicle transportation has been studied best in saccharomyces cerevisiae, where several proteins that are crucial for intracellular vesicle sorting have been identified. one such protein is pep3 (vp ...200111810240
the oxpa5 mutation of aspergillus nidulans is an allele of adb, the gene encoding adenylosuccinate synthetase.the oxpa5 mutation in aspergillus nidulans results in a pleiotropic phenotype, including resistance to oxypurinol and partial constitutivity of the enzymes of purine catabolism. here we show that the oxpa5 mutation is an allele of adb, the gene encoding adenylosuccinate synthetase (ass). cloning, sequencing and characterisation of the adb gene are reported in this paper. in vivo complementation tests indicate that the oxpa5 mutation is a partial loss-of-function mutation, and altered kinetic par ...200111810243
the effect of fungal ribosome inactivating proteins upon feeding choice in c. freemani, and indications of a mutualistic relationship with a. restrictus. environmental mycology.carpophilus freemani beetles' feeding on the fungus aspergillus nidulans was substantially inhibited when a. nidulans was transformed and induced to secrete the ribosome inactivating protein, restrictocin (genetic source: aspergillus restrictus). no inhibition of feeding was observed when a. nidulans was transformed and induced to produce an inactive form of restrictocin with a single amino-acid substitution in the active site. similarly, there was no inhibition of feeding upon transgenic strain ...200111811644
expression of drosophila melanogaster xanthine dehydrogenase in aspergillus nidulans and some properties of the recombinant enzyme.recent crystal structures of xanthine dehydrogenase, xanthine oxidase and related enzymes have paved the way for a detailed structural and functional analysis of these enzymes. one problem encountered when working with these proteins, especially with recombinant protein, is that the preparations tend to be heterogeneous, with only a fraction of the enzyme molecules being active. this is due to the incompleteness of post-translational modification, which for this protein is a complex, and incompl ...200211829759
the genes gmda, encoding an amidase, and bzua, encoding a cytochrome p450, are required for benzamide utilization in aspergillus nidulans.two unlinked loci, gmda and bzua, have previously been identified as being required for the utilization of benzamide as the sole nitrogen source by aspergillus nidulans. we have cloned each of these genes via direct complementation. the gmda gene encodes a predicted product belonging to the amidase signature sequence family that displays similarity to amds from a. nidulans. however, identity is significantly higher to the amds gene from aspergillus niger. the bzua gene encodes a protein belongin ...200211848676
molecular evaluation of the plasma membrane proton pump from aspergillus fumigatus.the gene encoding the plasma membrane proton pump (h+ -atpase) of aspergillus fumigatus, pma1, was characterized from a. fumigatus strain nih 5233 and clinical isolate h11-20. an open reading frame of 3,109 nucleotides with two introns near the n terminus predicts a protein consisting of 989 amino acids with a molecular mass of approximately 108 kda. the predicted a. fumigatus enzyme is 89 and 51% identical to h+ - atpases of aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae, respectively. the a ...200211850239
a quantity control mechanism regulating levels of the hape subunit of the hap complex in aspergillus nidulans: no accumulation of hape in hapc deletion mutants.the aspergillus nidulans ccaat-binding complex (hap complex) consists of at least three subunits, hapb, hapc and hape. to investigate the quantity control mechanisms of the subunits during assembly of the hap complex, reconstitution studies with the recombinant subunits and extracts prepared from the respective hap subunit deletion mutants were carried out. furthermore, western blot analysis of the hap subunits and northern blot analysis of the hap genes with the respective deletion mutants were ...200211852085
functional characterization and localization of the aspergillus nidulans formin sepa.formins are a family of multidomain scaffold proteins involved in actin-dependent morphogenetic events. in aspergillus nidulans, the formin sepa participates in two actin-mediated processes, septum formation and polarized growth. in this study, we use a new null mutant to demonstrate that sepa is required for the formation of actin rings at septation sites. in addition, we find that a functional sepa::gfp fusion protein localizes simultaneously to septation sites and hyphal tips, and that sepa c ...200211854405
evidence that gamma-aminobutyric acid is a major nitrogen source during cladosporium fulvum infection of tomato.the growth of the biotrophic pathogen cladosporium fulvum within the tomato (lycopersicon esculentum mill.) leaf is restricted to the intercellular space. previous studies from this laboratory have demonstrated that gamma-aminobutyric acid (gaba) accumulates to millimolar concentrations in the apoplast during a compatible interaction. we decided to further investigate the role of gaba during infection. a gene encoding a required enzyme for gaba metabolism, gaba transaminase (gat1), was cloned an ...200211855646
differential esterase expression in developmental mutants of aspergillus nidulans.esterase isozymes were used to detect substrate-preference polymorphism in five strains of aspergillus nidulans, and to show differential gene expression in developmental mutants in response to 5-azacytidine treatment. the medusa mutants b116, sm23, and m25 were selected in the presence of 5-azacytidine (5ac); also the g839 bristle mutant obtained in the absence of 5ac as well as the ut196 master strain and the normal segregant sm24 were used for the esterase studies. the esterase isozyme patter ...200111860199
genetic control of extracellular protease synthesis in the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.depending on the ph of the growth medium, the yeast yarrowia lipolytica secretes an acidic protease or an alkaline protease, the synthesis of which is also controlled by carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur availability, as well as by the presence of extracellular proteins. previous results have indicated that the alkaline protease response to ph was dependent on ylrim101p, ylrim8p/ylpalf, and ylrim21p/ylpalh, three components of a conserved ph signaling pathway initially described in aspergillus nidula ...200211861549
pcp1p, an spc110p-related calmodulin target at the centrosome of the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces the budding yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, the calmodulin-binding protein spc110p/nuf1p facilitates mitotic spindle formation from the fungal centrosome or spindle pole body (spb). the human spc110p orthologue kendrin is a centrosomal, calmodulin-binding pericentrin isoform that is specifically overexpressed in carcinoma cells. here we establish an evolutionary and functional link between spc110p and kendrin through identification and analysis of similar calmodulin-binding proteins in the fi ...200211864908
novel alpha-glucosidase from aspergillus nidulans with strong transglycosylation activity.aspergillus nidulans possessed an alpha-glucosidase with strong transglycosylation activity. the enzyme, designated alpha-glucosidase b (agdb), was purified and characterized. agdb was a heterodimeric protein comprising 74- and 55-kda subunits and catalyzed hydrolysis of maltose along with formation of isomaltose and panose. approximately 50% of maltose was converted to isomaltose, panose, and other minor transglycosylation products by agdb, even at low maltose concentrations. the agdb gene was ...200211872475
quantitative analysis of the relative transcript levels of abc transporter atr genes in aspergillus nidulans by real-time reverse transcription-pcr assay.the development of assays for quantitative analysis of the relative transcript levels of abc transporter genes by real-time reverse transcription-pcr (rt-pcr) might provide important information about multidrug resistance in filamentous fungi. here, we evaluate the potential of real-time rt-pcr to quantify the relative transcript levels of abc transporter atr genes from aspergillus nidulans. the atra to atrd genes showed different and higher levels in the presence of structurally unrelated drugs ...200211872487
oxidative stress-induced calcium signalling in aspergillus nidulans.the effects of oxidative stress on levels of calcium ion (ca(2+)) in aspergillus nidulans were measured using strains expressing aequorin in the cytoplasm (aeq(cyt)) and mitochondria (aeq(mt)). when oxidative stress was induced by exposure to 10-mm h(2)o(2), the mitochondrial calcium response (ca(mt)(2+)) was greater than the change in cytoplasmic calcium (ca(c)(2+)). the ca(mt)(2+) response to h(2)o(2) was dose dependent, while the increase in [ca(c)(2+)] did not change with increasing h(2)o(2) ...200211882388
activation of the aspergillus pacc zinc finger transcription factor requires two proteolytic steps.the aspergillus pacc transcription factor undergoes proteolytic activation in response to alkaline ambient ph. in acidic environments, the 674 residue translation product adopts a 'closed' conformation, protected from activation through intramolecular interactions involving the < or = 150 residue c-terminal domain. ph signalling converts pacc to an accessible conformation enabling processing cleavage within residues 252--254. we demonstrate that activation of pacc requires two sequential proteol ...200211889040
the mitochondnal genome of aspergillus nidulans contains reading frames homologous to the human urfs 1 and 4.a 2830-bp segment of the mitochondrial genome of the fungus aspergillus nidulans was sequenced and shown to contain two unidentified reading frames (urfs). these reading frames are 352 and 488 codons in length, and would specify unmodified proteins of mol. wts. 39,000 and 54,000, respectively. the derived amino acid sequences indicate that these genes are equivalent to the human mitochondrial urfs 1 and 4, with 39% amino acid homology for urf1 and 26% for urf4. both urfs were shown by secondary ...198311894959
the regulation of nitrate and ammonium transport systems in plants.inorganic nitrogen concentrations in soil solutions vary across several orders of magnitude among different soils and as a result of seasonal changes. in order to respond to this heterogeneity, plants have evolved mechanisms to regulate and influx. in addition, efflux analysis using (13)n has revealed that there is a co-ordinated regulation of all component fluxes within the root, including biochemical fluxes. physiological studies have demonstrated the presence of two high-affinity transporter ...200211912228
cloning of aspergillus fumigatus histidine kinase gene fragment and its expression during invasive was demonstrated recently that three histidine kinases genes in candida albicans contributed to virulence, indicating the importance of signaling pathways regulated by histidine kinases. in the present study, using a set of degenerate primers, rt-pcr was performed with cdna of a. fumigatus as a template. pcr products were cloned and sequenced. after blast analysis, it was found that one fragment (named as afhk1), 305 bp, was highly homologous to the two-component histidine kinase tesa gene of ...200211913767
eglc, a new endoglucanase from aspergillus niger with major activity towards xyloglucan.a novel gene, eglc, encoding an endoglucanase, was cloned from aspergillus niger. transcription of eglc is regulated by xlnr, a transcriptional activator that controls the degradation of polysaccharides in plant cell walls. eglc is an 858-amino-acid protein and contains a conserved c-terminal cellulose-binding domain. eglc can be classified in glycoside hydrolase family 74. no homology to any of the endoglucanases from trichoderma reesei was found. in the plant cell wall xyloglucan is closely li ...200211916668
osmotic stress-coupled maintenance of polar growth in aspergillus cells monitor extracellular 'osmotic strength' and respond metabolically to offset unfavourable osmotic intracellular solute concentrations. here, we report the reconstruction of the aspergillus nidulans salt stress-controlling map kinase pathway, based on homology analysis with known yeast genes. in a. nidulans, salt stress hog genes, such as pbsa, hoga, ptpa and msna, are upregulated when exposed to high concentrations of salt and, in a hoga deletion mutant (sik1), the accumulation ...200211918796
the wd40-repeat protein crec interacts with and stabilizes the deubiquitinating enzyme creb in vivo in aspergillus nidulans.genetic dissection of carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans has identified two genes, creb and crec, which, when mutated, affect expression of many genes in both carbon catabolite repressing and derepressing conditions. the creb gene encodes a functional deubiquitinating enzyme and the crec gene encodes a protein that contains five wd40 repeat motifs, and a proline-rich region. these findings have allowed the in vivo molecular analysis of a cellular switch involving deubiquitinati ...200211918805
the fle1 gene encoding a c2h2 zinc finger protein co-ordinates male and female sexual differentiation in podospora anserina.the flexuosa (fle1-1) mutant, isolated in podospora anserina, displays vegetative defects and two antagonistic sexual phenotypes: it produces several 1000-fold fewer microconidia (male gametes) than the wild-type strain and, conversely, more abundant protoperithecia (female organs). cloning and sequencing of the fle1 gene and of cdna identified an open reading frame encoding a 382-amino-acid polypeptide with two c2h2 zinc finger motifs. the predicted fle1 protein shares 46% identity with the flb ...200211918811
marker construction and cloning of a cut1-like sequence with ars activity in the fission yeast schizosaccharomyces japonicus.the dimorphic fission yeast schizosaccharomyces japonicus has proved to be an excellent experimental model for the investigation of the eukaryotic cell. here we show that it has a haplontic life cycle, in which the diploid phase is confined to the zygote. to make it amenable to genetic and molecular analysis, we generated genetic markers and cloned a genomic sequence which acts as ars when integrated into a plasmid. diploids suitable for testing complementation and recombination between markers ...200211921097
france. biologist wins battle over bureaucratic fungus. 200211923508
the dna damage response in filamentous fungi.the mechanisms used by fungal cells to repair dna damage have been subjects of intensive investigation for almost 50 years. as a result, the model yeasts schizosaccharomyces pombe and saccharomyces cerevisiae have led the way in yielding critical insights into the nature of the dna damage response. at the same time, largely through the efforts of etta kafer, hirokazu inoue, and colleagues, a substantial collection of aspergillus nidulans and neurospora crassa dna repair mutants has been identifi ...200211929209
isolation and characterization of the mating-type idiomorphs from the wheat septoria leaf blotch fungus mycosphaerella graminicola.both mating-type loci from the wheat septoria leaf blotch pathogen mycosphaerella graminicola have been cloned and sequenced. the mat1-2 gene was identified by screening a genomic library from the mat1-2 isolate ipo94269 with a heterologous probe from tapesia yallundae. the mat1-2 idiomorph is 2772 bp and contains a single gene encoding a putative high-mobility-group protein of 394 amino acids. the opposite idiomorph was obtained from isolate ipo323, which has the complementary mating type, by l ...200211929216
immunological differences between inducible and constitutive xanthine dehydrogenases in aspergillus nidulans. 197011945540
mutants of aspergillus nidulans lacking malate synthase. 197111945599
mutants of aspergillus nidulans lacking pyruvate carboxylase. 197211946370
differential transcription of t(4)-dna by dna-dependent rna-polymerase of e. coli and a. nidulans. 196911946973
the role of isocitrate lyase in aspergillus nidulans. 197011947479
interactions defining the specificity between fungal xylanases and the xylanase-inhibiting protein xip-i from wheat.we previously reported on the xylanase-inhibiting protein i (xip-i) from wheat [mclauchlan, garcia-conesa, williamson, roza, ravestein and maat (1999), biochem. j. 338, 441-446]. in the present study, we show that xip-i inhibits family-10 and -11 fungal xylanases. the k(i) values for fungal xylanases ranged from 3.4 to 610 nm, but bacterial family-10 and -11 xylanases were not inhibited. unlike many glycosidase inhibitors, xip-i was not a slow-binding inhibitor of the aspergillus niger xylanase. ...200211955286
aspergillus nidulans sod(vi)c1 mutation causes defects in cell wall biogenesis and protein secretion.growth at the restrictive temperature (42 degrees c) of aspergillus nidulans b120, carrying the conditional-lethal mutation sod(vi)c1, was partially improved by the addition of 1.0 m sorbitol to the medium. the mutant grown at 42 degrees c, with osmotic stabilizer, showed abnormal hyphal morphology, a decrease in beta-1,3-glucan synthase activity as well as cell wall sugar content, but an increase in chitin synthase activity and n-acetyl-glucosamine content. the mutation also affected the secret ...200211959445
cytoplasmic dynein intermediate chain and heavy chain are dependent upon each other for microtubule end localization in aspergillus nidulans.the multisubunit microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein, targets to various subcellular locations in eukaryotic cells for various functions. the cytoplasmic dynein heavy chain (hc) contains the microtubule binding and atp binding sites for motor function, whereas the intermediate chain (ic) is implicated in the in vivo targeting of the hc. concerning any targeting event, it is not known whether the ic has to form a complex with the hc for targeting or whether the ic can target to a site independe ...200211972777
nitrate and the gata factor area are necessary for in vivo binding of nira, the pathway-specific transcriptional activator of aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, the genes coding for nitrate reductase (niad) and nitrite reductase (niia), are transcribed divergently from a common promoter region of 1200 basepairs. we have previously characterized the relevant cis-acting elements for the two synergistically acting transcriptional activators nira and area. we have further shown that area is constitutively bound to a central cluster of four gata sites, and is involved in opening the chromatin structure over the promoter region thus m ...200211972792
prna, a zn2cys6 activator with a unique dna recognition mode, requires inducer for in vivo binding.the prna transcriptional activator of aspergillus nidulans binds as a dimer to ccgg-n-ccgg inverted repeats and to ccgg-6/7n-ccgg direct repeats. the binding specificity of the prna zn cluster differs from that of the gal4p/ppr1p/uay/put3p group of proteins. chimeras with uay, a protein that strictly recognizes a cgg-6n-ccg motif, show that the recognition of the direct repeats necessitates the prna dimerization and linker elements, but the recognition of the ccgg-n-ccgg inverted repeats depends ...200211972793
a novel abc transporter gene, pmr5, is involved in multidrug resistance in the phytopathogenic fungus penicillium digitatum.we have cloned a novel abc transporter gene pmr5 from the phytopathogenic fungus penicillium digitatum by rt-pcr using degenerate primers. the deduced amino acid sequence of pmr5 showed 37% identity to pmr1 from the same fungus, 71% identity to atrb from aspergillus nidulans, and 65% identity to bcatrb from botrytis cinerea. disruption mutants for pmr5 were generated in two independent p. digitatum strains and their phenotypes were characterized. these mutants displayed increased sensitivity to ...200211976961
cloning of a prolidase gene from aspergillus nidulans and characterisation of its product.using est sequence information available from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans as a starting point, we have cloned the prolidase-encoding gene, designated pepp. introduction of multiple copies of this gene into the a. nidulansgenome leads to overexpression of an intracellular prolidase activity. prolidase was subsequently purified and characterised from an overexpressing strain. the enzyme activity is dependent on manganese as a cofactor, is specific for dipeptides and hydrolyses only ...200211976965
chiral discrimination by hplc and ce and antifungal activity of racemic fenticonazole and its enantiomers.fenticonazole is a chiral antifungal agent, used in therapy as the racemic mixture. the investigation on the chirality of fenticonazole is reported in this study. rac-fenticonazole was resolved by hplc and by capillary electrophoresis (ce). the chiral stationary phase (csp), used in hplc, was daicel od-h, a commercial phase, which allowed the separate collection of the two enantiomers. the chiral selectors used for ce were some cyclodextrin derivatives. the analysis time required from ce was abo ...200211984761
gal80 confers specificity on hat complex interactions with activators.several yeast transcription activators have been shown to interact with and recruit histone acetyltransferase complexes to promoters in chromatin. the promiscuity of activator/hat interactions suggests that additional factors temporally regulate these interactions in response to signaling pathways. in this study, we demonstrate that the negative regulator, gal80, blocks interactions between the saga and nua4 hat complexes and the gal4 activator. by contrast, gal80 did not inhibit saga and nua4 i ...200211986320
characteristics of physiological inducers of the ethanol utilization (alc) pathway in aspergillus nidulans.the ethanol utilization (alc) pathway in aspergillus nidulans is one of the strongest expressed gene systems in filamentous fungi. the pathway-specific activator alcr requires the presence of an inducing compound to activate transcription of genes under its control. we have demonstrated recently that acetaldehyde is the sole physiological inducer of ethanol catabolism. in the present study we show that compounds with catabolism related to that of ethanol, i.e. primary alcohols, primary monoamine ...200211988072
repression of chsb expression reveals the functional importance of class iv chitin synthase gene chsd in hyphal growth and conidiation of aspergillus nidulans.the functions of two previously identified chitin synthase genes in aspergillus nidulans, chsb and chsd, were analysed. first, a conditional chsb mutant was constructed in which the expression of chsb is under the control of a repressible promoter, the alca promoter, of a. nidulans. under repressing conditions, the mutant grew slowly and produced highly branched hyphae, supporting the idea that chsb is involved in normal hyphal growth. the involvement of chsb in conidiation was also demonstrated ...200211988507
a novel mechanism for protein-assisted group i intron splicing.previously it was shown that the aspergillus nidulans (a.n.) mitochondrial cob intron maturase, i-anii, facilitates splicing of the cob intron in vitro. in this study, we apply kinetic analysis of binding and splicing along with rna deletion analysis to gain insight into the mechanism of i-anii facilitated splicing. our results are consistent with i-anii and a.n. cob pre-rna forming a specific but labile encounter complex that is resolved into the native, splicing-competent complex. significantl ...200211991637
a basic helix-loop-helix protein with similarity to the fungal morphological regulators, phd1p, efg1p and stua, controls conidiation but not dimorphic growth in penicillium marneffei.members of the apses protein group are basic helix-loop-helix (bhlh) proteins that regulate processes such as mating, asexual sporulation and dimorphic growth in fungi. penicillium marneffei is a human pathogen and is the only member of its genus to display a dimorphic growth transition. at 25 degrees c, p. marneffei grows with a filamentous morphology and produces asexual spores from multicellular con-idiophores. at 37 degrees c, the filamentous morphology is replaced by yeast cells that reprod ...200211994146
refined molecular hinge between allosteric and catalytic domain determines allosteric regulation and stability of fungal chorismate mutase.the yeast chorismate mutase is regulated by tyrosine as feedback inhibitor and tryptophan as crosspathway activator. the monomer consists of a catalytic and a regulatory domain covalently linked by the loop l220s (212-226), which functions as a molecular hinge. two monomers form the active dimeric enzyme stabilized by hydrophobic interactions in the vicinity of loop l220s. the role of loop l220s and its environment for enzyme regulation, dimerization, and stability was analyzed. substitution of ...200211997452
transformation of aspergillus sp. and trichoderma reesei using the pyrithiamine resistance gene (ptra) of aspergillus oryzae.a pyrithiamine (pt) resistance gene (ptra) was cloned from a pt resistant mutant of aspergillus oryzae and was useful as a dominant selectable marker for transformation of all a. oryzae wild type strain as well as a. nidulans. for further study, we examined whether or not ptra could be used as the transformation marker in other species of filamentous fungi. two types of plasmid, which contain ptra as a selectable marker, were constructed, and the transformation experiments were done with them. o ...200211999416
the distinctiveness of atp:citrate lyase from aspergillus nidulans.atp:citrate lyase (acl), an important enzyme in lipid synthesis, has been purified from aspergillus nidulans to a specific activity of 19.6 micromol min(-1) mg(-1), almost twice that of any other purified acl and shown to be distinct from any previously purified acl. the enzyme is a 371+/-31 kda hexamer of 3 alpha, 3 beta proteins, unlike the 4 alpha tetramer found in rats or yeasts. the molecular weights of the alpha and beta protein subunits were determined by sds-page to be 70 and 55 kda. acl ...200212009400
method for measuring postantifungal effect in aspergillus in vitro method for determination of postantifungal effect (pafe) in molds was developed by using three isolates each of aspergillus fumigatus, a. flavus, a. terreus, a. nidulans, and a. ustus. mics of amphotericin b and itraconazole were determined by using national committee for clinical laboratory standards guidelines (m38-p). the inoculum was prepared in rpmi 1640 broth buffered with mops (morpholinepropanesulfonic acid) at ph 7.0, and conidia were exposed to amphotericin b and itraconazo ...200212019115
transformation system of beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae using nitrate reductase gene of aspergillus heterologous transformation system for entomopathogenic fungi b. bassiana and m. anisopliae was developed based on the use of a. nidulans nitrate reductase gene (niad). b. bassiana and m. anisopliae niad stable mutants were selected by treatment of protoplast with ethane methane sulphonate (ems) and regenerated on chlorate medium. the cloned gene was capable of transforming b. bassiana and m. anisopliae at a frequency of 5.8 to 20 transformants per microg of dna. most of them were mitotically ...200112019757
characterization of the aspergillus nidulans 14-3-3 homologue, arta.the 14-3-3 family of proteins function as small adaptors that facilitate a diverse array of cellular processes by mediating specific protein interactions. one such process is the dna damage checkpoint, where these proteins prevent inappropriate activation of cyclin-dependent kinases. the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans possesses a highly conserved 14-3-3 homologue (arta) that may function in an analogous manner to prevent septum formation. however, instead of blocking septation, over-exp ...200212023078
components of the saga histone acetyltransferase complex are required for repressed transcription of arg1 in rich medium.transcriptional regulation of the saccharomyces cerevisiae arg1 gene is controlled by positive and negative elements. the transactivator gcn4p is required for activation in minimal medium, while arginine repression requires the argr/mcm1 regulatory complex, which binds to two upstream arginine control elements. we have found that the coordinated regulation of arg1 requires components of the saga chromatin-remodeling complex. using gcn5 deletion strains and a gcn5 protein carrying the e173q mutat ...200212024017
promoter elements in the aflatoxin pathway polyketide synthase gene.pksa catalyzes the formation of the polyketide backbone necessary for aflatoxin biosynthesis. based on reporter assays and sequence comparisons of the nor1-pksa intergenic region in different aflatoxin-producing aspergillus species, cis-acting elements for the aflatoxin pathway-specific regulatory protein, aflr, and the global-acting regulatory proteins brla and pacc are involved in pksa promoter activity.200212031498
isolation of genes encoding novel transcription factors which interact with the hap complex from aspergillus species.the saccharomyces cerevisiae ccaat-binding factor is composed of four subunits hap2p, hap3p, hap4p and hap5p. three subunits, hap2/3/5p, are required for dna-binding and hap4p is involved in transcriptional activation. although homologues of hap2/3/5p (in the case of aspergillus nidulans; hapb/c/e, respectively) were found in many eukaryotes, no hap4p homologues have been found except for the other yeast, kluyveromyces lactis. with the lexa-hap2, -hapb, -hapc, or -hape fusion gene, we evaluated ...200212031499
Displaying items 2701 - 2800 of 5149