lis1 is an initiation factor for dynein-driven organelle transport.the molecular motor cytoplasmic dynein is responsible for most minus-end-directed, microtubule-based transport in eukaryotic cells. it is especially important in neurons, where defects in microtubule-based motility have been linked to neurological diseases. for example, lissencephaly is caused by mutations in the dynein-associated protein lis1. in this paper, using the long, highly polarized hyphae of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, we show that three morphologically and functionall ...201222711696
stabilizing the heterologously expressed uric acid-xanthine transporter uapa from the lower eukaryote aspergillus nidulans.despite detailed genetic and mutagenic analysis and a recent high-resolution structure of a bacterial member of the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family, understanding of the mechanism of action of eukaryotic nats is limited. preliminary studies successfully expressed and purified wild-type uapa to high homogeneity; however, the protein was extremely unstable, degrading almost completely after 48 h at 4°c. in an attempt to increase uapa stability we generated a number of single point mu ...201322694048
morphogenetic and developmental functions of the aspergillus nidulans homologues of the yeast bud site selection proteins bud4 and axl2.the yeast bud site selection system represents a paradigm for understanding how fungal cells regulate the formation of a polarity axis. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, bud4 and axl2 are components of the axial bud site marker. to address the possibility that these proteins regulate cellular morphogenesis in filamentous fungi, we have characterized homologues of bud4 and axl2 in aspergillus nidulans. our results show that bud4 is involved in septum formation in both hyphae and developing conidiophor ...201222651396
searching for gold beyond mitosis: mining intracellular membrane traffic in aspergillus nidulans.the genetically tractable filamentous ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans has been successfully exploited to gain major insight into the eukaryotic cell cycle. more recently, its amenability to in vivo multidimensional microscopy has fueled a potentially gilded second age of a. nidulans cell biology studies. this review specifically deals with studies on intracellular membrane traffic in a. nidulans. the cellular logistics are subordinated to the needs imposed by the polarized mode of growth ...201222645705
proteome analysis of the farnesol-induced stress response in aspergillus nidulans--the role of a putative dehydrin.the isoprenoid alcohol farnesol represents a quorum-sensing molecule in pathogenic yeasts, but was also shown to inhibit the growth of many filamentous fungi. in order to gain a deeper insight into the antifungal activity of farnesol, we performed 2d-differential gel electrophoretic analysis (2d-dige) of aspergillus nidulans exposed to farnesol. we observed an increased abundance of antioxidative enzymes and proteins involved in protein folding and the ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation. a s ...201222634043
cryptic peroxisomal targeting via alternative splicing and stop codon read-through in fungi.peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles important for the metabolism of long-chain fatty acids. here we show that in numerous fungal species, several core enzymes of glycolysis, including glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gapdh) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (pgk), reside in both the cytoplasm and peroxisomes. we detected in these enzymes cryptic type 1 peroxisomal targeting signals (pts1), which are activated by post-transcriptional processes. notably, the molecular mechanisms that genera ...201222622582
an efficient method for transient gene expression in monocots applied to modify the brachypodium distachyon cell wall.agrobacterium-mediated transformation is widely used to produce insertions into plant genomes. there are a number of well-developed agrobacterium-mediated transformation methods for dicotyledonous plants, but there are few for monocotyledonous plants.201222589326
fungal s-adenosylmethionine synthetase and the control of development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans carries a single gene for the s-adenosylmethionine (sam) synthetase sasa, whereas many other organisms possess multiple sam synthetases. the conserved enzyme catalyzes the reaction of methionine and atp to the ubiquitous methyl group donor sam. sam is the main methyl group donor for methyltransferases to modify dna, rna, protein, metabolites, or phospholipid target substrates. we show here that the single a. nidulans sam synthetase encoding gene sasa i ...201222561085
correlation of mycelial growth rate with other phenotypic characters in evolved genotypes of aspergillus nidulans.fungal populations can adapt to their environment by the generation and fixation of spontaneous beneficial mutations. in this study we examined whether adaptation, measured as an increased mycelial growth rate, has correlated responses in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans with several other metric characters that could be important fitness components (colony forming units, germination speed, and biomass formation). studying 60 populations that had evolved over 800 generations by experi ...201222559923
the echinocandin b producer fungus aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 does not possess innate resistance against its lipopeptide antimycotic.aspergillus nidulans var. roseus atcc 58397 is an echinocandin b (ecb) producer ascomycete with great industrial importance. as demonstrated by ecb/caspofungin sensitivity assays, a. nidulans var. roseus does not possess any inherent resistance to echinocandins, and its tolerance to these lipopeptide antimycotics are even lower than those of the non-producer a. nidulans fgsc a4 strain. under ecb producing conditions or ecb exposures, a. nidulans var. roseus induced its ecb tolerance via up-regul ...201222555909
mrna 3' tagging is induced by nonsense-mediated decay and promotes ribosome dissociation.for a range of eukaryote transcripts, the initiation of degradation is coincident with the addition of a short pyrimidine tag at the 3' end. previously, cytoplasmic mrna tagging has been observed for human and fungal transcripts. we now report that arabidopsis thaliana mrna is subject to 3' tagging with u and c nucleotides, as in aspergillus nidulans. mutations that disrupt tagging, including a. nidulans cuta and a newly characterized gene, cutb, retard transcript degradation. importantly, nonse ...201222547684
involvement of a natural fusion of a cytochrome p450 and a hydrolase in mycophenolic acid biosynthesis.mycophenolic acid (mpa) is a fungal secondary metabolite and the active component in several immunosuppressive pharmaceuticals. the gene cluster coding for the mpa biosynthetic pathway has recently been discovered in penicillium brevicompactum, demonstrating that the first step is catalyzed by mpac, a polyketide synthase producing 5-methylorsellinic acid (5-moa). however, the biochemical role of the enzymes encoded by the remaining genes in the mpa gene cluster is still unknown. based on bioinfo ...201222544261
γ-heptalactone is an endogenously produced quorum-sensing molecule regulating growth and secondary metabolite production by aspergillus nidulans.microbes monitor their population density through a mechanism termed quorum sensing. it is believed that quorum-sensing molecules diffuse from the microbial cells and circulate in the surrounding environment as a function of cell density. when these molecules reach a threshold concentration, the gene expression of the entire population is altered in a coordinated manner. this work provides evidence that aspergillus nidulans produces at least one small diffusible molecule during its growth cycle ...201222543352
α-glucosylated 6-gingerol: chemoenzymatic synthesis using α-glucosidase from halomonas sp. h11, and its physical properties.6-gingerol [(s)-5-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)decan-3-one] is a biologically active compound and is abundant in the rhizomes of ginger (zingiber officinale). it has some beneficial functions in healthcare, but its use is limited because of its insolubility in water and its heat-instability. to improve these physical properties, the glucosylation of 6-gingerol was investigated using α-glucosidases (ec. from aspergillus niger, aspergillus nidulans abpu1, acremonium strictum, hal ...201222537860
deletion of the ustilago maydis ortholog of the aspergillus sporulation regulator meda affects mating and virulence through pheromone response.mating of compatible haploid cells of ustilago maydis is essential for infection and disease development in the host. for mating and subsequent filamentous growth and pathogenicity, the transcription factor, prf1 is necessary. prf1 is in turn regulated by the camp and mapk pathways and other regulators like rop1 and hap1. here we describe the identification of another putative prf1 regulator, med1, the ortholog of the aspergillus nidulans medusa (meda) transcription factor and show that it is re ...201222537792
conserved and essential transcription factors for cellulase gene expression in ascomycete fungi.rational engineering of filamentous fungi for improved cellulase production is hampered by our incomplete knowledge of transcriptional regulatory networks. we therefore used the model filamentous fungus neurospora crassa to search for uncharacterized transcription factors associated with cellulose deconstruction. a screen of a n. crassa transcription factor deletion collection identified two uncharacterized zinc binuclear cluster transcription factors (clr-1 and clr-2) that were required for gro ...201222532664
illuminating the diversity of aromatic polyketide synthases in aspergillus nidulans.genome sequencing has revealed that fungi have the ability to synthesize many more natural products (nps) than are currently known, but methods for obtaining suitable expression of nps have been inadequate. we have developed a successful strategy that bypasses normal regulatory mechanisms. by efficient gene targeting, we have replaced, en masse, the promoters of nonreducing polyketide synthase (nr-pks) genes, key genes in np biosynthetic pathways, and other genes necessary for nr-pks product for ...201222510154
identification and characterization of a novel diterpene gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites are a rich source of medically useful compounds due to their pharmaceutical and toxic properties. sequencing of fungal genomes has revealed numerous secondary metabolite gene clusters, yet products of many of these biosynthetic pathways are unknown since the expression of the clustered genes usually remains silent in normal laboratory conditions. therefore, to discover new metabolites, it is important to find ways to induce the expression of genes in these otherwise ...201222506079
reprogramming of carbon metabolism by the transcriptional activators acuk and acum in aspergillus nidulans.the ability of fungi to use carbon sources metabolized via the tca cycle requires gluconeogenesis. in aspergillus nidulans the acuk and acum transcription factors regulate the expression of the gluconeogenic genes acuf, encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and acug, encoding fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase. expressed proteins containing the acuk/acum n-terminal dna-binding domains bind together in vitro to motifs containing repeats of cgg separated by seven bases (ccgn7ccg) and the functional ...201222500966
functional and phylogenetic analysis of the aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflq (orda) gene ortholog.within the aspergillus parasiticus and a. flavus aflatoxin (af) biosynthetic gene cluster the aflq (orda) and aflp (omta) genes encode respectively an oxidoreductase and methyltransferase. these genes are required for the final steps in the conversion of sterigmatocystin (st) to aflatoxin b(1) (afb(1)). aspergillus nidulans harbors a gene cluster that produces st, as the aflq and aflp orthologs are either non-functional or absent in the genome. aspergillus ochraceoroseus produces both af and st, ...201222495451
endosomal maturation by rab conversion in aspergillus nidulans is coupled to dynein-mediated basipetal movement.we exploit the ease with which highly motile early endosomes are distinguished from static late endosomes in order to study aspergillus nidulans endosomal traffic. rabs(rab7) mediates homotypic fusion of late endosomes/vacuoles in a homotypic fusion- and vacuole protein sorting/vps41-dependent manner. progression across the endocytic pathway involves endosomal maturation because the end products of the pathway in the absence of rabs(rab7) are minivacuoles that are competent in multivesicular bod ...201222456509
methods for identifying lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates.plate assays for lipoxygenase producing microorganisms on agar plates have been developed. both potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were effective for detecting soybean lipoxygenase activity on agar plates. a positive result was also achieved using the β-carotene bleaching method, but the sensitivity of this method was lower than the other two methods. the potassium iodide-starch and indamine dye formation methods were also applied for detecting lipoxygenase production by ...201222449314
fungal sensitivity to and enzymatic deglycosylation of ginsenosides.a ginseng pathogen, cylindrocarpon destructans, and five nonpathogens were tested for their sensitivity to a total ginsenoside fraction (t-gf), a protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppd-gf) and a protopanaxatriol-type ginsenoside fraction (ppt-gf) from the roots of panax ginseng c.a. meyer. the results showed that t-gf inhibited growth of the five ginseng nonpathogens, while it promoted growth of the ginseng pathogen c. destructans. ppt-gf and ppd-gf both inhibited the growth of the five ...201222449289
identification of a permease gene involved in lactose utilisation in aspergillus nidulans.lactose is intracellularly hydrolysed by aspergillus nidulans. classical mutation mapping data and the physical characteristics of the previously purified glycosyl hydrolase facilitated identification of the clustered, divergently transcribed intracellular β-galactosidase (bgad) and lactose permease (lacpa) genes. at the transcript level, bgad and lacpa were coordinately expressed in response to d-galactose, lactose or l-arabinose, while no transcription was detectable in the additional presence ...201222445777
transient and multivariate system for transformation of a fungal plant pathogen, rosellinia necatrix, using autonomously replicating vectors.rosellinia necatrix is a fungus that infects a wide range of host plants and ruins a variety of commercially important crops. dna fragments can be introduced into r. necatrix using conventional protoplast-peg transformation and genome-integrating vectors; however, transformation efficiency with this strategy is quite low. therefore, to establish a more effective transformation system for the studies of r. necatrix, an autonomously replicating vector was constructed using ama1 sequences derived f ...201222388868
improved biomass saccharification by trichoderma reesei through heterologous expression of laca gene from trametes sp. ah28-2.the trametes sp. ah28-2 laccase gene laca fused to cellobiohydrolase i signal peptide coding sequence was heterologously expressed in t. reesei. the laca cdna was under the control of the aspergillus nidulans glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase promoter. native page analysis indicated that two transformants, l8 and l38, were able to secrete recombinant laccase a, and their laccase activities corresponding to abts oxidation reached 3.62 iuml(-1) and 1.50 iuml(-1) respectively. most of the ch ...201222387233
pali domain proteins of saccharomyces cerevisiae and candida albicans.the rim9/pali groups of proteins are members of the sur7 family, all of which contain a signal sequence and a block of three potential trans-membrane helices. multi-protein sequence comparisons among fungi suggest that there are two classes of rim9/pali proteins; longer proteins like pali that contain a sur7 domain and a c-terminal extension, and shorter proteins like rim9 that contain essentially only the sur7 domain. we have examined possible roles of the longer, pali-like proteins of both sac ...201222381911
physiological characterization of recombinant saccharomyces cerevisiae expressing the aspergillus nidulans phosphoketolase pathway: validation of activity through 13c-based metabolic flux analysis.several bacterial species and filamentous fungi utilize the phosphoketolase pathway (phk) for glucose dissimilation as an alternative to the embden-meyerhof-parnas pathway. in aspergillus nidulans, the utilization of this metabolic pathway leads to increased carbon flow towards acetate and acetyl coa. in the first step of the phk, the pentose phosphate pathway intermediate xylulose-5-phosphate is converted into acetylphosphate and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate through the action of xylulose-5-phosp ...201222367611
the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 tail is necessary and sufficient to recognize modified microtubules.posttranslational microtubule modifications (ptms) are numerous; however, the biochemical and cell biological roles of those modifications remain mostly an enigma. the aspergillus nidulans kinesin-3 unca uses preferably modified microtubules (mts) as tracks for vesicle transportation. here, we show that a positively charged region in the tail of unca (amino acids 1316 to 1402) is necessary for the recognition of modified mts. chimeric proteins composed of the kinesin-1 motor domain and the unca ...201222363525
the functions of myosin ii and myosin v homologs in tip growth and septation in aspergillus nidulans.because of the industrial and medical importance of members of the fungal genus aspergillus, there is considerable interest in the functions of cytoskeletal components in growth and secretion in these organisms. we have analyzed the genome of aspergillus nidulans and found that there are two previously unstudied myosin genes, a myosin ii homolog, myob (product = myob) and a myosin v homolog, myoe (product = myoe). deletions of either cause significant growth defects. myob localizes in strings th ...201222359575
l-rhamnose induction of aspergillus nidulans α-l-rhamnosidase genes is glucose repressed via a crea-independent mechanism acting at the level of inducer uptake.little is known about the structure and regulation of fungal α-l-rhamnosidase genes despite increasing interest in the biotechnological potential of the enzymes that they encode. whilst the paradigmatic filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans growing on l-rhamnose produces an α-l-rhamnosidase suitable for oenological applications, at least eight genes encoding putative α-l-rhamnosidases have been found in its genome. in the current work we have identified the gene (rhae) encoding the former acti ...201222353731
effects of sterigmatocystin on tnf-α, il-6 and il-12 expression in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells and peritoneal macrophages in vivo.sterigmatocystin (st) is a toxic metabolite mainly produced by the fungi aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus versicolor. st is considered a potent carcinogen, mutagen and teratogen. however, over the past few years, it has been demonstrated that it is less acutely toxic to rodents in vivo. in this study, we evaluated the putative effects of st on the expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (tnf-α), interleukin (il)-6 and il-12 at mrna levels in murine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (mpbmcs) a ...201222344519
an ordered pathway for the assembly of fungal escrt-containing ambient ph signalling complexes at the plasma membrane.the fungal pal/rim signalling pathway, which regulates gene expression in response to environmental ph involves, in addition to dedicated proteins, several components of escrt complexes, which suggested that ph signalling proteins assemble on endosomal platforms. in aspergillus nidulans, dedicated pal proteins include the plasma membrane receptor palh and its coupled arrestin, palf, which becomes ubiquitylated in alkaline ph conditions, and three potentially endosomal escrt-iii associates, inclu ...201222344261
the cop9 signalosome counteracts the accumulation of cullin scf ubiquitin e3 ring ligases during fungal development.defects in the cop9 signalosome (csn) impair multicellular development, including embryonic plant or animal death or a block in sexual development of the fungus aspergillus nidulans. csn deneddylates cullin-ring ligases (crls), which are activated by covalent linkage to ubiquitin-like nedd8. deneddylation allows crl disassembly for subsequent reassembly. an attractive hypothesis is a consecutive order of crls for development, which demands repeated cycles of neddylation and deneddylation for rea ...201222329854
the role of flotillin floa and stomatin stoa in the maintenance of apical sterol-rich membrane domains and polarity in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.apical sterol-rich plasma membrane domains (srds), which can be viewed using the sterol-binding fluorescent dye filipin, are gaining attention for their important roles in polarized growth of filamentous fungi. the microdomain scaffolding protein flotillin/reggie and related stomatin were thought to be good candidates involved in the formation of srds. here, we show that the flotillin/reggie orthologue floa tagged with gfp localized as stable dots along the plasma membrane except hyphal tips. de ...201222329814
differential expression of silent polyketide biosynthesis gene clusters in chemostat cultures of aspergillus nidulans.the genome of the fungal model organism aspergillus nidulans harbors nearly 30 polyketide synthase genes, yet the majority of these genes remain silent in the absence of particular stimuli. in this study, environmental conditions such as low specific microbial growth rate as well as nitrate, orthophosphate and glucose limitations were simulated under a continuous cultivation regime to induce the expression of silent polyketide synthase genes. in addition to offline and online bioprocess paramete ...201222306112
the gata factors area and areb together with the co-repressor nmra, negatively regulate arginine catabolism in aspergillus nidulans in response to nitrogen and carbon source.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans can utilize arginine both as a nitrogen and carbon source. analysis of area and areb single and double mutants has shown that the two gata transcription factors area and areb negatively regulate the expression of arginine catabolism genes agaa and otaa under nitrogen repressing conditions. area is necessary for the ammonium repression of agaa and otaa under carbon repressing conditions, while areb is involved under carbon-limiting conditions. the abili ...201222300944
reengineering an azaphilone biosynthesis pathway in aspergillus nidulans to create lipoxygenase inhibitors.sclerotiorin, an azaphilone polyketide, is a bioactive natural product known to inhibit 15-lipoxygenase and many other biological targets. to readily access sclerotiorin and analogs, we developed a 2-3 step semisynthetic route to produce a variety of azaphilones starting from an advanced, putative azaphilone intermediate (5) overproduced by an engineered strain of aspergillus nidulans. the inhibitory activities of the semisynthetic azaphilones against 15-lipoxygenase were evaluated with several ...201222296232
an aspergillus nidulans bzip response pathway hardwired for defensive secondary metabolism operates through aflr.the eukaryotic bzip transcription factors are critical players in organismal response to environmental challenges. in fungi, the production of secondary metabolites (sms) is hypothesized as one of the responses to environmental insults, e.g. attack by fungivorous insects, yet little data to support this hypothesis exists. here we establish a mechanism of bzip regulation of sms through rsma, a recently discovered yap-like bzip protein. rsma greatly increases sm production by binding to two sites ...201222283524
functional analysis of fara transcription factor in the regulation of the genes encoding lipolytic enzymes and hydrophobic surface binding protein for the degradation of biodegradable plastics in aspergillus oryzae.fara is a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcription factor which upregulates genes required for growth on fatty acids in filamentous fungi like aspergillus nidulans. fara is also highly similar to the cutinase transcription factor ctf1α of fusarium solani which binds to the cutinase gene promoter in this plant pathogen. this study determines whether fara transcriptional factor also works in the regulation of genes responsible for the production of cutinase for the degradation of a biodegradable plastic, pol ...201222280964
signaling the induction of sporulation involves the interaction of two secondary metabolites in aspergillus nidulans.when growing aspergillus nidulans hyphae encounter the atmosphere, they initiate a morphogenetic program leading to the production of spores. mutants that are defective in the flug gene fail to undergo sporulation because they lack an endogenous diffusible factor that purportedly accumulates on aerial hyphae, thus signaling the initiation of development. in this study, the defect could be reversed by adding culture extracts from a wild-type strain onto a mutant colony. moreover, a bioassay-guide ...201222234162
genetics of polyketide metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.secondary metabolites are small molecules that show large structural diversity and a broad range of bioactivities. some metabolites are attractive as drugs or pigments while others act as harmful mycotoxins. filamentous fungi have the capacity to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites including polyketides. the majority of genes required for production of these metabolites are mostly organized in gene clusters, which often are silent or barely expressed under laboratory conditions, making ...201224957370
meab-dependent nutrition sensing regulates autolysis in carbon starved aspergillus nidulans cultures.carbon starvation induced autolysis is an active process of self-digestion and is under complex regulation in aspergillus nidulans. in this study we investigated how autolysis depends on the composition of the culture medium, especially on the presence of yeast extract. we demonstrated that the rate of autolytic cell wall degradation as well as the extracellular chitinase and proteinase productions significantly decreased in the presence of this nutrient. the effect of yeast extract on carbon st ...201023100816
cytological characterization of an aspergillus nidulans mutant from a strain with chromosomic duplication.a development mutant, named v103, was obtained spontaneously from the a strain of a. nidulans. the a strain contains a duplicated segment of chromosome i that has undergone translocation to chromosome ii (i ii). it is mitotically unstable and generates phenotypically deteriorated types, some with enhanced stability. the deteriorated variants of a. nidulans show abnormal development, exhibiting slower colony growth, variations in colony pigmentation and changes in conidiophore structure. the alte ...201024031489
mechanism of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis regulation by ph in aspergillus nidulans.external ph constitutes one of the most important environmental factors that control growth, metabolism and differentiation in microorganisms, including fungi. we have analyzed the effect of external ph on sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans. it was observed in repeated experiments that alkaline ph, in opposition to acid ph, increased sterigmatocystin production and the transcript levels of aflr, the master gene that regulates expression of the sterigmatocystin cluster in a. ni ...200924031444
molecular genetics of emericella nidulans sexual development.many aspergilli that belongs to ascomycetes have sexuality. in a homothallic or self-fertile fungus, a number of fruiting bodies or cleistothecia are formed in a thallus grown from a single haploid conidia or ascospores. genome-sequencing project revealed that two mating genes (mat) encoding the regulatory proteins that are necessary for controlling partner recognition in heterothallic fungi were conserved in most aspergilli. the mat gene products in some self-fertile species were not required f ...200923983529
mechanism to combat cobalt toxicity in cobalt resistant mutants of aspergillus nidulans.characteristics of fungal species tolerant to high levels of metals in natural environment can be amplified by isolation and selection of resistant mutants. step-by-step culturing led to identification of highly stable co-resistant (co(r)) mutants of a. nidulans. based on two distinct morphological features, co-resistant mutants were categorized as co(r)i and co(r)ii. the two mutants varied in their growth behavior and colony morphology that were reflected in supplemented as well as unsupplement ...200723100687
development and characterization of nickel accumulating mutants of aspergillus nidulans.stable mutants of aspergillus nidulans, resistant to 1 mm ni were developed by step-by-step repeated culturing of the fungus on the medium containing increasing concentrations of nickel chloride. characterization of mutants could differentiate them into two categories ni(r) i and ni(r) ii. each category of mutants exhibited alterations in growth, conidial germination and melanin secretion both in ni-free and ni-containing media. ni(r) ii mutants were little slow in growth with sparse mycelia and ...200723100672
detection of unknown toxic mycotoxins inaspergillus nidulans using a structure-activity approach.mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of filamentous fungi that can cause various acute and chronic toxic effects in humans. previous work by büngeret al. exhibited that the cytotoxicityof aspergillus nidulans, one of the most frequent toxigenic moulds in composting plants, could not be explained by its content of identified mycotoxins. the presence of additional mycotoxins or other toxic prinpiples was assumed, which may be detected by a structure-activity hplc-diode array detector m ...200623605709
occurrence of fungal species and mycotoxins from decayed sugarcane (saccharrum officinarum) in egypt.seventy-three fungal species belonging to forty-three genera were isolated from 40 samples of saccharrum officinarum (collected from naage-hamadi canal in qena governorate, egypt). aspergillus, trichoderma, mucor and pythium were the most common genera on the two isolation media. the dominant species of aspergillus were a. niger, a. flavus, a. ustus, a. terreus and a. wentii. some species were dominant on 40 g/l sucrose such as aspergillus niger, a. flavus, emericella nidulans, trichoderma virid ...200524049478
phytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis.the volatile constituents ofartemisia princeps var.orientalis (wormwood) were investigated for phytotoxic and antimicrobial activities. the germination and radicle elongation of receptor plants were inhibited by volatile substances emitted from wormwood leaf and effects were concentration-dependent. essential oil of the plant extracted by karlsruker's apparatus suppressed seed germination and seedling elongation of the receptor plants at a threshold concentration of 4.8μl/100 ml.escherichia coli ...199324248725
isolation and characterization of β-glucosidases from aspergillus nidulans mutant usdb 1183.two extracellular β-glucosidases (cellobiase, ec, i and ii, from aspergillus nidulans usdb 1183 were purified to homogeneity with molecular weights of 240,000 and 78,000, respectively. both hydrolysed laminaribiose, β-gentiobiose, cellobiose, p-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, phenyl-β-l-glucoside, o-nitrophenyl-β-l-glucoside, salicin and methyl-β-l-glucoside but not α-linked disaccharides. both were competitively inhibited by glucose and non-competitively (mixed) inhibited by glucono-1,5-la ...199324420198
expression of fungal genes involved in penicllin biosynthesis.carbon catabolite repression and ph regulation are regulatory circuits with a wide domain of action in the plectomycetes. penicillin biosynthesis is one of the pathways which are under their control. the conclusions obtained so far, which are based on studies of the genetic and molecular regulation of the penicillin pathway of aspergillus nidulans, would have been much harder to produce using an organism such as penicillium chrysogenum (the industrial penicillin producer). however, a. nidulans a ...199324420113
effect of citrate on radial growth and conidiation of the mould aspergillus nidulans.a mutation of the ctsa locus of aspergillus nidulans affects both the radial growth and conidiation of the mould when grown in the presence of citrate. the ctsa locus was allocated to linkage group iv but it recombines freely with inob2 and pyroa4 (which are also in linkage group iv). it is recessive in heterozygous diploids. a possible role for this gene in maintaining membrane integrity is discussed.199124425277
electrofusion of protoplasts from celery (apium graveolens l.) with protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.a method was developed for electrofusion of higher-plant protoplasts from celery and protoplasts from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. initially, methods for the fusion of protoplasts from ecch species were determined individually and, subsequently, electrical parameters for fusion between the species were determined. pronase-e treatment and the presence of calcium ions markedly increased celery protoplast stability under the electrical conditions required and increased fusion freque ...198924212750
a mitochondrial reading frame which may code for a second form of atpase subunit 9 in aspergillus nidulans.the nucleotide sequence of a 74 codon reading frame from the aspergillus nidulans mitochondrial genome is presented. the derived amino acid sequence displays typical features of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (dccd) binding proteins and is 84% homologous with a mitochondrial reading frame that potentially encodes an atpase subunit 9 polypeptide in neurospora crassa. however, in a. nidulans, as in n. crassa, there is strong biochemical and genetic evidence that this subunit is in fact nuclearly-encoded ...198424177948
regulation of two alcohol dehydrogenases in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans there are two alcohol dehydrogenases. in the presence of ethanol, alcohol dehydrogenase i (ahh i) is induced and alcohol dehydrogenase ii (adh ii) is repressed. adh i and adh ii have molecular weights of 39,000 and 36,000 respectively. at least adh i is under the control of alcr, a transacting regulatory gene that is adjacent to alca (the structural gene for adh i, pateman et al. 1983). mutations in the alcr regulatory gene result in non inducibility of adh i specific mrn ...198424177792
suppressible alleles in a wide domain regulatory gene in aspergillus nidulans.the area gene of aspergillus nidulans is a one of the better studied eukaryotic wide domain regulatory genes, necessary for the expression of most structural genes involved in the utilization of a wide variety of nitrogen sources (arst and cove 1973; arst 1983). here we report the isolation and properties of area alleles suppressible by translational suppressors (roberts et al. 1979). thus we show formally that the area gene specifies a protein rather than an rna product and we show that it is p ...198424177791
transcription of the rrna gene cluster in aspergillus nidulanss.transcription of rdna in aspergillus nidulans was examined by hybridizing labeled cloned rdna fragments to blots of rna gels. one processing pathway was found.198324173152
nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans: a farewell to tama?previous work has established that nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is mediated by the positive acting regulatory gene area. pateman and kinghorn (1977) proposed that the gene tama plays an equally important regulatory role in nitrogen metabolite repression as the result of work with "tama(r)-50," an "allele" leading to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium, and "tama(d)-1," an "allele" leading to nitrogen metabolite derepression. both "tama(r)-50" and " ...198224186552
a single mutation leads to loss of glutamine synthetase and relief of ammonium repression in aspergillus.glutamine synthetase activity in the ascomycete fungus aspergillus nidulans is regulated by nitrogen source. the lowest activities are obtained when the fungus is grown on l-glutamine, and the highest activities when grown on l-glutamate + arabinose. glutamine auxotrophs of the fungus have been isolated, and one of these mutant strains, glna-1, has been shown to lack the enzyme glutamine synthetase. the mutation is recessive, and is located on the right arm of chromosome ii. in addition to aboli ...198224186546
domain-wide, locus-specific suppression of nitrogen metabolite repressed mutations in aspergillus nidulans.previous work has shown that loss of function mutations (designated are a(r)) in area, a positive acting regulatory gene mediating nitrogen metabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans, lead to inability to utilise nitrogen sources other than ammonium. this work establishes the existence of a gene designated areb where mutations can suppress area(r) mutations in a locus-specific manner for expression of apparently all of the genes under area control. areb mutations are partially dominant in dip ...198224186375
genetic map of mitochondrial dna in podospora order to develop an eukaryotic vector with the podospora plasmid, further characterization is required of the mitochondrial dna into which this plasmid is integrated, a physical map (restriction sites) of the podospora chondriome (size 95 kb) has been completed. as prerequisite for the establishment of a genetic (functional) map, 70% of the chondriome was cloned in e. coli vectors. using mitochondrial genes from saccharomyces cerevisiae, six structural genes were located on the podospora chon ...198224186230
cloning and analysis of recombinant plasmids containing genes for aspergillus nidulans 5 s rrna.genes coding for 5s rrna were found to be dispersed in the aspergillus nidulans genome. three different recombinant plasmids hybridizing to 5s rrna were isolated and their restriction enzyme maps were established.198124185988
mutations to constitutivity and derepression are separate and separable in a regulatory gene of aspergillus nidulans.previous work has shown that expression of the structural genes for the enzymes of nitrate and nitrite assimilation in aspergillus nidulans requires the products of two positively acting regulatory genes - nira, mediating induction, and area, mediating nitrogen metabolite repression. here we show that, in addition to previously described mutations in nira leading to constitutivity, other mutations can be selected in nira leading to nitrogen metabolite derepression. these constitutivity and depre ...198124185869
high frequency transfer of species specific mitochondrial dna sequences between members of the aspergillaceae.the mitochondrial genome of aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus is approximately 20% larger than that of the closely related species aspergillus nidulans (eidam) winter. restriction enzyme mapping and electron microscopy has revealed that the size difference is due to the presence of six inserted sequences in the former. with the exception of a small number of species specific restriction sites and the six insertions/deletions, the two mitochondrial genomes appear identical. protoplast fusion ...198124190134
gene roles in the prn cluster of aspergillus nidulans.the roles of the four genes of the prn gene cluster involved in l-proline catabolism in aspergillus nidulans have been investigated. prnd and prnc encode, respectively, proline exidase and δ(i)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate (p5c) dehydrogenase. prnb is almost certainly the structural gene for the proline-inducible major proline permease. the prna product has no structural role in these activities but is a positive acting regulatory molecule necessary for the expression of prnd, prnc and, to a lesser e ...198124189952
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
hisb as novel selection marker for gene targeting approaches in aspergillus niger.for aspergillus niger, a broad set of auxotrophic and dominant resistance markers is available. however, only few offer targeted modification of a gene of interest into or at a genomic locus of choice, which hampers functional genomics studies. we thus aimed to extend the available set by generating a histidine auxotrophic strain with a characterized hisb locus for targeted gene integration and deletion in a. niger.201728274204
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
identification and functional analysis of two golgi-localized udp-galactofuranose transporters with overlapping functions in aspergillus niger.galactofuranose (galf)-containing glycoconjugates are present in numerous microbes, including filamentous fungi where they are important for morphology, virulence and maintaining cell wall integrity. the incorporation of galf-residues into galactomannan, galactomannoproteins and glycolipids is carried out by golgi-localized galf transferases. the nucleotide sugar donor used by these transferases (udp-galf) is produced in the cytoplasm and has to be transported to the lumen of the golgi by a dedi ...201526526354
molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a ghf 43 xylanase from aspergillus niger in escherichia coli.a new xylanase gene (xyn43a) from aspergillus niger xz-3s was cloned and expressed in escherichia coli bl21-codonplus (de3)-ril. the coding region of the gene was separated by only one intron 86 bp in length. it encoded 318 amino acid residues of a protein with a calculated molecular weight (mw) of 33.47 kda plus a signal peptide of 19 amino acids. the amino acid sequence of the xyn43a gene showed 77.56% amino acid identity to a. nidulans xylanase, and the phylogenetic tree analysis revealed tha ...201425742974
expression of the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase gene in penicillium nalgiovense.the glucose oxidase gene (god) from aspergillus niger was expressed in penicillium nalgiovense under control of the latter's homologous transcription signals. the god protein was synthesized in an active form, leading to increased glucose oxidase activity. the expression vector was introduced into p. nalgiovense along with a selectable plasmid carrying the dominant amds marker gene of a. nidulans.199524414658
functional analysis of abp1p-interacting proteins involved in endocytosis of the mcc component in aspergillus oryzae.we have investigated the functions of three endocytosis-related proteins in the filamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae. yeast two-hybrid screening using the endocytic marker protein aoabp1 (a.oryzae homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae abp1p) as a bait identified four interacting proteins named aip (aoabp1 interacting proteins). in mature hyphae, egfp (enhanced green fluorescent protein) fused to aips colocalized with aoabp1 at the hyphal tip region and the plasma membrane, suggesting that aips fu ...201323597630
interactions between naturally occurring antifungal agents.pairwise interactions between four antifungal compounds were studied. the β-1,3-glucan synthase inhibitor echinocandin b (ecb) showed synergistic effect with the cell wall hydrolase chib chitinase and enga β-1,3-glucanase on saccharomyces cerevisiae, candida albicans, aspergillus rugulosus and a. fumigatus. the antifungal protein of penicillium chrysogenum (paf) did not influence the antifungal activity of chib or enga, but showed antagonistic effect with ecb on a. nidulans, a. rugulosus and a. ...201324275596
aspergillus mulundensis sp. nov., a new species for the fungus producing the antifungal echinocandin lipopeptides, mulundocandins.the invalidly published name aspergillus sydowii var. mulundensis was proposed for a strain of aspergillus that produced new echinocandin metabolites designated as the mulundocadins. reinvestigation of this strain (y-30462=dsmz 5745) using phylogenetic, morphological, and metabolic data indicated that it is a distinct and novel species of aspergillus sect. nidulantes. the taxonomic novelty, aspergillus mulundensis, is introduced for this historically important echinocandin-producing strain. the ...201626464011
fungal artificial chromosomes for mining of the fungal secondary metabolome.with thousands of fungal genomes being sequenced, each genome containing up to 70 secondary metabolite (sm) clusters 30-80 kb in size, breakthrough techniques are needed to characterize this sm wealth.201525925221
expression, purification, crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction analysis of aspergillus terreus endo-β-1,4-glucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12.endoglucanases are important enzymes that are involved in the modification and degradation of cellulose. filamentous fungi such as aspergillus terreus are effective biomass degraders in nature owing to their capacity to produce an enzymatic arsenal of glycoside hydrolases, including endoglucanase from glycoside hydrolase family 12 (gh12). the a. terreus gh12 endoglucanase was cloned and overexpressed in a. nidulans, purified and crystallized. a single crystal was obtained from a solution consist ...201424637772
a genomics based discovery of secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus.secondary metabolites (sms) produced by aspergillus have been extensively studied for their crucial roles in human health, medicine and industrial production. however, the resulting information is almost exclusively derived from a few model organisms, including a. nidulans and a. fumigatus, but little is known about rare pathogens. in this study, we performed a genomics based discovery of sm biosynthetic gene clusters in aspergillus ustus, a rare human pathogen. a total of 52 gene clusters were ...201525706180
disinfection efficacy of chlorine and peracetic acid alone or in combination against aspergillus spp. and candida albicans in drinking water.the aim of the present study was to evaluate the fungicidal activity of chlorine and peracetic acid in drinking water against various pathogenic aspergillus spp. and candida albicans strains. a. nidulans exhibited the greatest resistance, requiring 10 ppm of chlorine for 30 min contact time for a complete inactivation. under the same experimental conditions, peracetic acid was even less fungicidal. in this case, a. niger proved to be the most resistant species (50 ppm for 60 min for complete ina ...201222361698
cloning, expression and directed mutagenesis of the genes for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase.the dominant natural form of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco) is composed of large (l) 55-kda and small (s) 15-kda subunits. this enzyme (as the l8s8 form) is widely distributed among oxygenic photosynthetic species and among chemosynthetic bacteria. another form lacking small subunits is found as an l2 dimer in rhodospirillum rubrum or an l oligomer of uncertain aggregation state from rhodopseudomonas spharoides. the present article reviews two basically different appro ...198824425168
binding, uptake and expression of foreign dna by cyanobacteria and isolated etioplasts.discoveries of the uptake and expression of various escherichia coli plasmids by the cyanobacterium anacystis nidulans and isolated cumber etioplasts are reviewed. in particular, the binding and uptake of nick-translated (32)p-labeled plasmids and the expression of genes in the native plasmids are considered.permeaplasts of a. nidulans 6301 and isolated edta-washed cucumber etioplasts exhibit binding and uptake of dna that is unaffected by uncouplers of photophosphorylation or by dissipators of ...198824425366
in vitro interactions of amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride and valproic acid sodium salt with antifungal agents against filamentous fungal species causing central nervous system infection.the mortality rates of fungal infections that affect the central nervous system are high in consequence of the absence of effective antifungal drugs with good penetration across the blood-brain barrier and the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier. in the present work in vitro antifungal activities of three good penetrating non-antifungal drugs (amantadine hydrochloride, r-(-)-deprenyl hydrochloride, valproic acid sodium salt) and their combinations with three antifungal agents (amphotericin b, itra ...201223134606
proteomics of survival structures of fungal pathogens.fungal pathogens are causal agents of numerous human, animal, and plant diseases. they employ various infection modes to overcome host defense systems. infection mechanisms of different fungi have been subjected to many comprehensive studies. these investigations have been facilitated by the development of various '-omics' techniques, and proteomics has one of the leading roles in this regard. fungal conidia and sclerotia could be considered the most important structures for pathogenesis as thei ...201626777984
the white collar complex is involved in sexual development of fusarium graminearum.sexual spores (ascospores) of fusarium graminearum, a homothallic ascomycetous fungus, are believed to be the primary inocula for epidemics of the diseases caused by this species in cereal crops. based on the light requirement for the formation of fruiting bodies (perithecia) of f. graminearum under laboratory conditions, we explored whether photoreceptors play an important role in sexual development. here, we evaluated the roles of three genes encoding putative photoreceptors [a phytochrome gen ...201525785736
sporulation: how to survive on planet earth (and beyond).sporulation is a strategy widely utilized by a wide variety of organisms to adapt to changes in their individual environmental niches and survive in time and/or space until they encounter conditions acceptable for vegetative growth. the spores produced by bacteria have been the subjects of extensive studies, and several systems such as bacillus subtilis have provided ample opportunities to understand the molecular basis of spore biogenesis and germination. in contrast, the spores of other microb ...201728421279
in vitro activity of the novel antifungal compound f901318 against difficult-to-treat aspergillus isolates.f901318 is a new antifungal agent with a novel mechanism of action with activity against aspergillus species. we investigated the in vitro activity of f901318 against a collection of aspergillus isolates.201728605488
proteomics as a tool to identify new targets against aspergillus and scedosporium in the context of cystic fibrosis.cystic fibrosis (cf) is a genetic disorder that increases the risk of suffering microbial, including fungal, infections. in this paper, proteomics-based information was collated relating to secreted and cell wall proteins with potential medical applications from the most common filamentous fungi in cf, i.e., aspergillus and scedosporium/lomentospora species. among the aspergillus fumigatus secreted allergens, β-1,3-endoglucanase, the alkaline protease 1 (alp1/oryzin), asp f 2, asp f 13/15, chiti ...201728484941
aspergillus flavus aswa, a gene homolog of aspergillus nidulans oefc, regulates sclerotial development and biosynthesis of sclerotium-associated secondary metabolites.aspergillus flavus aswa (afla_085170) is a gene encoding a zn(ii)2cys6 dna-binding domain and a transcriptional activation domain, duf3468. disruption of aswa yielded strains that made a truncated gene transcript and generated a fungus that produced a greatly increased number of sclerotia. these sclerotia were odd-shaped and non-pigmented (white) and different from oval and pigmented (dark brown to black) mature sclerotia. transcriptomic analysis of the δaswa strain grown on potato dextrose agar ...201728442441
evaluation of the in vitro activity of isavuconazole and comparator voriconazole against 2635 contemporary clinical candida and aspergillus isolates.the in vitro activity of isavuconazole was determined for 1677 candida and 958 aspergillus isolates from 2012 to 2014 with voriconazole as comparator.201728373148
coupling the pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by the expression of beta-xylosidases.thermochemical pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis are the areas contributing most to the operational costs of second generation ethanol in lignocellulosic biorefineries. the improvement of lignocellulosic enzyme cocktails has been significant in the recent years. although the needs for the reduction of the energy intensity and chemical consumption in the pretreatment step are well known, the reduction of the severity of the process strongly affects the enzymatic hydrolysis yield. to explore t ...201728710860
antifungal activity against filamentous fungi of ts1, a multifunctional toxin from tityus serrulatus scorpion venom.antimicrobial peptides (amps) are ubiquitous and multipotent components of the innate immune defense arsenal used by both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms. the search for new amps has increased in recent years, due to the growing development of microbial resistance to therapeutical drugs. in this work, we evaluate the effects of tityus serrulatus venom (tsv), its fractions and its major toxin ts1, a beta-neurotoxin, on fungi growth. the fractions were obtained by ion-exchange chromatography ...201728634472
the quinoline bromoquinol exhibits broad-spectrum antifungal activity and induces oxidative stress and apoptosis in aspergillus fumigatus.over the last 30 years, the number of invasive fungal infections among immunosuppressed patients has increased significantly, while the number of effective systemic antifungal drugs remains low. the aim of this study was to identify and characterize antifungal compounds that inhibit fungus-specific metabolic pathways not conserved in humans.201728475687
rtfa controls development, secondary metabolism, and virulence in aspergillus fumigatus.invasive aspergillosis by aspergillus fumigatus is a leading cause of infection-related mortality in immune-compromised patients. in order to discover potential genetic targets to control a. fumigatus infections we characterized rtfa, a gene encoding a putative rna polymerase ii transcription elongation factor-like protein. our recent work has shown that the rtfa ortholog in the model fungus aspergillus nidulans regulates morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. the present study on the opportuni ...201728453536
aspergillus nidulans baph is a rab11 effector that connects membranes in the spitzenkörper with basal autophagy.using affinity chromatography we identified the aspergillus nidulans f-bar-and-ph domain-containing protein baph as a rabe(rab11) effector. baph localizes to the spitzenkörper (spk) in an f-actin- and sec7-dependent manner, becoming cytosolic after inactivation of trs120 in trappii, the oligomeric gef for rabe(rab11) . therefore rabe(rab11) contributes to the recruitment of baph to secretory vesicles in vivo. baph has a close homologue, slma, which is related to yeast slm1p/slm2p, localizes to e ...201728857357
molecular cloning, structural modeling and production of recombinant aspergillus terreusl. asparaginase in escherichia coli.l-asparaginase (ec is an important medical enzyme that catalysis the hydrolysis of l-asparagine to aspartic acid and ammonium. for over four decades l. asparaginase utic agent for the treatment of a variety of lymphoproliferative disorders and lymphoma such as acute lymphoblastic leukemia. in the present study a. terreus full length l. asparaginase gene, 1179bp was optimized for expression in escherichia coli bl21 (de3) plyss. the full length a. terreusl. asparaginase gene encoding a pr ...201728851634
microtubule-organizing centers of aspergillus nidulans are anchored at septa by a disordered protein.microtubule-organizing centers (mtocs) are large, multi-subunit protein complexes. schizosaccharomyces pombe harbors mtocs at spindle pole bodies, transient mtocs in the division plane (emtocs) and nuclear-envelope associated mtocs in interphase cells (imtocs). in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans spbs and septum-associated mtocs were described. although comparable to s. pombe emtocs, a. nidulans smtocs are permanent septum-associated structures. the composition of smtocs is poorly und ...201728787538
transcriptome-based modeling reveals that oxidative stress induces modulation of the atfa-dependent signaling networks in aspergillus better understand the molecular functions of the master stress-response regulator atfa in aspergillus nidulans, transcriptomic analyses of the atfa null mutant and the appropriate control strains exposed to menadione sodium bisulfite- (msb-), t-butylhydroperoxide- and diamide-induced oxidative stresses were performed. several elements of oxidative stress response were differentially expressed. many of them, including the downregulation of the mitotic cell cycle, as the msb stress-specific upr ...201728770220
molecular basis for the unusual ring reconstruction in fungal meroterpenoid biogenesis.trt14 from aspergillus terreus is involved in unusual skeletal reconstruction during the biosynthesis of the fungal meroterpenoid terretonin. detailed in vitro characterization revealed that this novel multifunctional enzyme catalyzes not only the d-ring expansion via intramolecular methoxy rearrangement, but also the hydrolysis of the expanded d-ring. the x-ray crystal structures of trt14, in complex with substrate or product, and two trt14 homologs, aush and prhc from aspergillus nidulans and ...201728759016
boron tolerance in aspergillus nidulans is sustained by the slta pathway through the slc-family transporters sbta and sbtb.microbial cells interact with the environment by adapting to external changes. signal transduction pathways participate in both sensing and responding in the form of modification of gene expression patterns, enabling cell survival. the filamentous fungal-specific slta pathway regulates tolerance to alkalinity, elevated cation concentrations and, as shown in this work, also stress conditions induced by borates. growth of slta(-) mutants is inhibited by increasing millimolar concentrations of bori ...201728753996
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