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ren1 is required for development of microconidia and macroconidia, but not of chlamydospores, in the plant pathogenic fungus fusarium oxysporum.the filamentous fungus fusarium oxysporum is a soil-borne facultative parasite that causes economically important losses in a wide variety of crops. f. oxysporum exhibits filamentous growth on agar media and undergoes asexual development producing three kinds of spores: microconidia, macroconidia, and chlamydospores. ellipsoidal microconidia and falcate macroconidia are formed from phialides by basipetal division; globose chlamydospores with thick walls are formed acrogenously from hyphae or by ...200415020411
synthesis and antifungal properties of compounds which target the alpha-aminoadipate pathway.fungi synthesize lysine via the alpha-aminoadipate pathway, which is not found in plants or animals. this pathway has been proposed as a target for antifungal agents, but until now no reports have appeared to test this proposal. hampering studies on the susceptibility of filamentous fungi such as those of the clinically important genus aspergillus is the fact that growth quantitation is notoriously difficult. we have used the recently-reported xtt-based method of biomass quantitation to measure ...200415025175
crea-mediated carbon catabolite repression of beta-galactosidase formation in aspergillus nidulans is growth rate dependent.carbon catabolite repression by the crea-transcriptional repressor is widespread in filamentous fungi, but the mechanism by which glucose triggers carbon catabolite repression is still poorly understood. we investigated the hypothesis that the growth rate on glucose may control crea-dependent carbon catabolite repression by using glucose-limited chemostat cultures and the intracellular beta-galactosidase activity of aspergillus nidulans, which is repressed by glucose, as a model system. chemosta ...200415158274
altering a gene involved in nuclear distribution increases the repeat-induced point mutation process in the fungus podospora anserina.repeat-induced point mutation (rip) is a homology-dependent gene-silencing mechanism that introduces c:g-to-t:a transitions in duplicated dna segments. cis-duplicated sequences can also be affected by another mechanism called premeiotic recombination (pr). both are active over the sexual cycle of some filamentous fungi, e.g., neurospora crassa and podospora anserina. during the sexual cycle, several developmental steps require precise nuclear movement and positioning, but connections between rip ...200415166143
nek2a interacts with mad1 and possibly functions as a novel integrator of the spindle checkpoint signaling.chromosome segregation in mitosis is orchestrated by protein kinase signaling cascades. a biochemical cascade named spindle checkpoint ensures the spatial and temporal order of chromosome segregation during mitosis. here we report that spindle checkpoint protein mad1 interacts with nek2a, a human orthologue of the aspergillus nidulans nima kinase. mad1 interacts with nek2a in vitro and in vivo via a leucine zipper-containing domain located at the c terminus of mad1. like mad1, nek2a is localized ...200414978040
a putative g protein-coupled receptor negatively controls sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) are key components of heterotrimeric g protein-mediated signalling pathways that detect environmental signals and confer rapid cellular responses. to broaden our understanding of signalling mechanisms in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, intensive analyses of the aspergillus nidulans genome have been carried out and nine genes (gpra approximately gpri) that are predicted to encode seven transmembrane spanning gpcrs have been identified. six of nine ...200414982628
structure of the 'open' form of aspergillus nidulans 3-dehydroquinate synthase at 1.7 a resolution from crystals grown following enzyme turnover.crystallization of aspergillus nidulans 3-dehydroquinate synthase (dhqs), following turnover of the enzyme by addition of the substrate dahp, gave a new crystal form (form j). although the crystals have dimensions of only 50 x 20 x 5 micro m, they are well ordered, diffracting to 1.7 a. the space group is c222(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 90.0, b = 103.7, c = 177.4 a. structure determination and refinement to r = 0.19 (r(free) = 0.25) shows the dhqs is in the 'open' form with the substrate ...200415103156
screening for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents by using a mitotic-arrest mutant of aspergillus nidulans and novel action of phenylalanine derivatives accompanying tubulin loss.the microtubule, which is one of the major targets of anthelmintics, anticancer drugs, and fungicides, is composed mainly of alpha- and beta-tubulins. we focused on a unique characteristic of an aspergillus nidulans bena33 mutant to screen for microtubule-disrupting antifungal agents. this mutant, which has a beta-tubulin with a mutation of a single amino acid, undergoes mitotic arrest due to the formation of hyperstable microtubules at 37 degrees c. the heat sensitivity of the mutant is remedie ...200415105129
prp8 intein in fungal pathogens: target for potential antifungal drugs.inteins are self-splicing intervening sequences in proteins, and inteins of pathogenic organisms can be attractive drug targets. here, we report an intein in important fungal pathogens including aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, histoplasma capsulatum, and different serotypes of cryptococcus neoformans. this intein is inside the extremely conserved and functionally essential prp8 protein, and it varies in size from 170 aa in c. neoformans to 819 aa in a. fumigatus, which is caused by ...200415304322
unusual transcription regulation of the niad gene under anaerobic conditions supporting fungal ammonia fermentation.the niad gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans encodes an assimilatory nitrate reductase and exogenous ammonium represses its expression. under anoxic conditions, however, a. nidulans expressed niad even in the presence of ammonium and used the gene product for dissimilatory nitrate reduction (ammonia fermentation). this transcription regulation mechanism under anaerobiosis is critical for the fungus to ferment ammonium.200415118339
differential expression of the chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, chsa, chsb, and chsc, in response to developmental status and environmental factors.to understand the role of the chitin synthase genes of aspergillus nidulans, we analyzed the expression of chsa, chsb, and chsc both by northern blotting and by a vital reporter system with sgfp encoding a modified version of green fluorescent protein, sgfp. chsa was expressed specifically during asexual differentiation, but not during either vegetative growth or sexual differentiation. the expression of chsb was ubiquitous throughout the fungal body and relatively independent of the change in d ...200415121085
nitrate reductase activity is required for nitrate uptake into fungal but not plant cells.the ability to transport net nitrate was conferred upon transformant cells of the non-nitrate-assimilating yeast pichia pastoris after the introduction of two genes, one encoding nitrate reductase and the other nitrate transport. it was observed that cells of this lower eukaryote transformed with the nitrate transporter gene alone failed to display net nitrate transport despite having the ability to produce the protein. in addition, loss-of-function nitrate reductase mutants isolated from severa ...200415123642
novel polyketide synthase from nectria haematococca.we identified a polyketide synthase (pks) gene, pksn, from a strain of nectria haematococca by complementing a mutant unable to synthesize a red perithecial pigment. pksn encodes a 2,106-amino-acid polypeptide with conserved motifs characteristic of type i pks enzymatic domains: beta-ketoacyl synthase, acyltransferase, duplicated acyl carrier proteins, and thioesterase. the pksn product groups with the aspergillus nidulans wa-type pkss involved in conidial pigmentation and melanin, bikaverin, an ...200415128560
fungal metabolic model for type i 3-methylglutaconic aciduria.aspergillus nidulans catabolizes leu to acetyl-coa and acetoacetate through a pathway homologous to that used by humans. fungal hlya encodes a bifunctional polypeptide comprising the last two enzymes in this pathway, 3-methylglutaconyl-coa hydratase and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coa lyase. hlya transcription is specifically induced by leu. a delta hlya mutation removing the complete 3-methylglutaconyl-coa hydratase c-terminal domain prevents growth on leu but not on lactose or other amino acids ...200415181004
the neurospora crassa cfp promoter drives a carbon source-dependent expression of transgenes in filamentous fungi.the objective of the present study was to determine the potential of promoter sequences from the cfp gene of neurospora crassa to drive the expression of transgenes in filamentous fungi.200415139917
the effect of crea in glucose and xylose catabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the catabolism of glucose and xylose was studied in a wild type and crea deleted (carbon catabolite de-repressed) strain of aspergillus nidulans. both strains were cultivated in bioreactors with either glucose or xylose as the sole carbon source, or in the presence of both sugars. in the cultivations on single carbon sources, it was demonstrated that xylose acted as a carbon catabolite repressor (xylose cultivations), while the enzymes in the xylose utilisation pathway were also subject to repre ...200412920487
aspergillus nidulans rhoa is involved in polar growth, branching, and cell wall synthesis.growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans begins when the conidium breaks dormancy and grows isotropically. eventually a germ tube emerges and the axis of growth remains fixed in the primary hypha while new growth axes are established basally to form secondary germ tubes and lateral branches. rho1 is a rho family gtpase that has been shown to be involved in polarity establishment and cell wall deposition in saccharomyces cerevisiae. a gene predicted to encode a rho1 homolog was clone ...200414643255
the azga purine transporter of aspergillus nidulans. characterization of a protein belonging to a new phylogenetic cluster.the azga gene of aspergillus nidulans encodes a hypoxanthine-adenine-guanine transporter. it has been cloned by a novel transposon methodology. the null phenotype of azga was defined by a number of mutations, including a large deletion. in mycelia, the azga gene is, like other genes of purine catabolism, induced by uric acid and repressed by ammonium. its transcription depends on the pathway-specific uay zinc binuclear cluster protein and the broad domain area gata factor. azga is not closely re ...200414597637
fungal metabolic model for 3-methylcrotonyl-coa carboxylase deficiency.aspergillus nidulans is able to use leu as the sole carbon source through a metabolic pathway leading to acetyl-coa and acetoacetate that is homologous to that used by humans. mcca and mccb, the genes encoding the subunits of 3-methylcrotonyl-coa carboxylase, are clustered with ivda encoding isovaleryl-coa dehydrogenase, a third gene of the leu catabolic pathway, on the left arm of chromosome iii. their transcription is induced by leu and other hydrophobic amino acids and repressed by glucose. p ...200414612443
the alternative d-galactose degrading pathway of aspergillus nidulans proceeds via l-sorbose.the catabolism of d-galactose in yeast depends on the enzymes of the leloir pathway. in contrast, aspergillus nidulans mutants in galactokinase ( gale) can still grow on d-galactose in the presence of ammonium-but not nitrate-ions as nitrogen source. a. nidulans gale mutants transiently accumulate high (400 mm) intracellular concentrations of galactitol, indicating that the alternative d-galactose degrading pathway may proceed via this intermediate. the enzyme degrading galactitol was identified ...200414624333
the lis1-related protein nudf of aspergillus nidulans and its interaction partner nude bind directly to specific subunits of dynein and dynactin and to alpha- and gamma-tubulin. 200414712821
ammonium-induced internalisation of uapc, the general purine permease from aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans uapc protein is a high-affinity, moderate-capacity, uric acid-xanthine transporter, which also displays a low transport capacity for hypoxanthine, adenine, and guanine. it has been previously shown that a functional uapc-gfp fusion protein localises at the plasma membrane. here, we demonstrate that ammonium, a preferred nitrogen source, dramatically changes the subcellular distribution of uapc. after addition of ammonium, uapc-gfp is removed from the plasma membrane and ...200414643258
aspergillus nidulans hypa regulates morphogenesis through the secretion pathway.aspergillus nidulans hypa encodes a predicted 1474 amino acid, 161.9 kda cytoplasmic peptide. strains with hypa1 and hypa6 alleles are wild type at 28 degrees c but have wide, slow-growing hyphae and thick walls at 42 degrees c. hypa1 and hypa6 have identical genetic lesions. hypa1 and hypa6 restrictive phenotypes have statistically similar morphometry, and strains with either allele can conidiate at 42 degrees c. hypa deletion strains require osmotic support and have aberrant morphology, but pr ...200414643261
nuclear import of yeast gcn4p requires karyopherins srp1p and kap95p.the yeast transcription factor gcn4p contains two stretches of amino acid residues, nls1 and nls2, which are independently able to relocate the cytoplasmic protein chorismate mutase into the nucleus. only nls2 is conserved among fungi. a truncated version of cpca (the counterpart of gcn4p in aspergillus nidulans), which lacks the conserved nls, accumulates in the cytoplasm instead of the nucleus. nuclear uptake mediated by the nls1 of gcn4p is impaired by defects in genes for several different k ...200414648200
mate transposable elements in aspergillus nidulans: evidence of repeat-induced point mutation.the sequences of five mate transposable elements were retrieved from the aspergillus nidulans genome sequence. these elements are 6.1 kb in length and are characterized by 9-10 bp target site duplications, paired approximately 40 bp palindromes close to each end, and in the unmutated elements, 57 clustered spe-motifs (rwctagwy) scattered through their length. short open reading frames have no known homology. two of the mate elements have numerous c --> t transitions on both dna strands relative ...200414761791
the pot1+ homologue in aspergillus nidulans is required for ordering mitotic events.orderly progression through mitosis is essential to reduce segregation errors in the cell's genetic material. we have used a cytological screen to identify a mutant that progresses through mitosis aberrantly and have cloned the complementing gene, nimu, which encodes a protein related to pot1 and other telomere end-binding proteins. we show that loss of nimu function leads to premature mitotic spindle elongation, premature mitotic exit, errors in chromosome segregation, and failure to delay mito ...200414657278
chromatin rearrangements in the prnd-prnb bidirectional promoter: dependence on transcription factors.the prnd-prnb intergenic region regulates the divergent transcription of the genes encoding proline oxidase and the major proline transporter. eight nucleosomes are positioned in this region. upon induction, the positioning of these nucleosomes is lost. this process depends on the specific transcriptional activator prna but not on the general gata factor area. induction of prnb but not prnd can be elicited by amino acid starvation. a specific nucleosomal pattern in the prnb proximal region is as ...200414871945
high efficiency transformation of penicillium nalgiovense with integrative and autonomously replicating plasmids.penicillium nalgiovense is a filamentous fungus that is acquiring increasing biotechnological importance in the food industry due to its widespread use as starter culture for cured and fermented meat products. strains of p. nalgiovense can be improved by genetic modification to remove the production of penicillin and other potentially hazardous secondary metabolites, to improve its capacity to control the growth of undesirable fungi and bacteria on the meat product, and other factors that contri ...200414698104
insight into the genome of aspergillus fumigatus: analysis of a 922 kb region encompassing the nitrate assimilation gene cluster.aspergillus fumigatus is the most ubiquitous opportunistic filamentous fungal pathogen of human. as an initial step toward sequencing the entire genome of a. fumigatus, which is estimated to be approximately 30 mb in size, we have sequenced a 922 kb region, contained within 16 overlapping bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clones. fifty-four percent of the dna is predicted to be coding with 341 putative protein coding genes. functional classification of the proteins showed the presence of a h ...200414998527
identification of a novel gene hbrb required for polarised growth in aspergillus nidulans.we have cloned a novel gene, hbrb, by complementation of a temperature sensitive hyperbranching (hbr) mutant of aspergillus nidulans. the mutant, hbrb3, exhibits hyperseptation and shows a marked increase in hyphal branching at the restrictive temperature. a genomic library incorporating the ama1 sequence, which confers autonomous replication on the plasmid, was used to clone the gene. co-ordinate loss of the complementing plasmid and wild type phenotype was shown. the 847 amino acid predicted p ...200414998529
a sensitive predictor for potential gpi lipid modification sites in fungal protein sequences and its application to genome-wide studies for aspergillus nidulans, candida albicans, neurospora crassa, saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe.the fungal transamidase complex that executes glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) lipid anchoring of precursor proteins has overlapping but distinct sequence specificity compared with the animal system. therefore, a taxon-specific prediction tool for the recognition of the c-terminal signal in fungal sequences is necessary. we have collected a learning set of fungal precursor protein sequences from the literature and fungal proteomes. although the general four segment scheme of the recognition si ...200415003443
aspergillus niger msta encodes a high-affinity sugar/h+ symporter which is regulated in response to extracellular ph.a sugar-transporter-encoding gene, msta, which is a member of the major facilitator superfamily, has been cloned from a genomic dna library of the filamentous fungus aspergillus niger. to enable the functional characterization of msta, a full-length cdna was expressed in a saccharomyces cerevisiae strain deficient in hexose uptake. uptake experiments using 14c-labelled monosaccharides demonstrated that although able to transport d-fructose ( k(m), 4.5+/-1.0 mm), d-xylose ( k(m), 0.3+/-0.1 mm) an ...200414717659
the lipid body protein, ppoa, coordinates sexual and asexual sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.the coexistence of sexual and asexual reproductive cycles within the same individual is a striking phenomenon in numerous fungi. in the fungus aspergillus nidulans (teleomorph: emericella nidulans) endogenous oxylipins, called psi factor, serve as hormone-like signals that modulate the timing and balance between sexual and asexual spore development. here, we report the identification of a. nidulans ppoa, encoding a putative fatty acid dioxygenase, involved in the biosynthesis of the linoleic aci ...200414699095
fungal ammonia fermentation, a novel metabolic mechanism that couples the dissimilatory and assimilatory pathways of both nitrate and ethanol. role of acetyl coa synthetase in anaerobic atp synthesis.fungal ammonia fermentation is a novel dissimilatory metabolic mechanism that supplies energy under anoxic conditions. the fungus fusarium oxysporum reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp (zhou, z., takaya, n., nakamura, a., yamaguchi, m., takeo, k., and shoun, h. (2002) j. biol. chem. 277, 1892-1896). we identified the aspergillus nidulans genes involved in ammonia fermentation by analyzing fungal mutants. the results showed that assimilatory ...200414722082
disruption of the gene encoding the v-atpase subunit a results in inhibition of normal growth and abolished sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.the authors have previously reported on molecular responses of aspergillus nidulans to bacterial antifungal metabolites, e.g. bafilomycins and the related concanamycins. these compounds are known inhibitors of v-atpases and cause dramatic effects on mycelial growth and morphology. in neurospora crassa, studies have shown that disruption of the gene encoding subunit a of the v-atpase results in morphological changes and reduced growth similar to those observed after addition of concanamycin. this ...200414993324
cadre: the central aspergillus data repository.cadre is a public resource for housing and analysing genomic data extracted from species of aspergillus. it arose to enable maintenance of the complete annotated genomic sequence of aspergillus fumigatus and to provide tools for searching, analysing and visualizing features of fungal genomes. by implementing cadre using ensembl, a framework is in place for storing and comparing several genomes: the resource will thus expand by including other aspergillus genomes (such as aspergillus nidulans) as ...200414681443
enzyme reactions and genes in aflatoxin biosynthesis.aflatoxins are highly toxic and carcinogenic substances mainly produced by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus parasiticus. sterigmatocystin is a penultimate precursor of aflatoxins and also a toxic and carcinogenic substance produced by many species, including aspergillus nidulans. recently, the majority of the enzyme reactions involved in aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthesis have been clarified, and the genes encoding the enzymes have been isolated. most of the genes constitute a large gene ...200415022028
aspergillus fumigatus rasa and rasb regulate the timing and morphology of asexual development.expression of rasa plays an important role in conidial germination in aspergillus nidulans. conidial germination is required to initiate both infection and asexual development in the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus fumigatus. therefore, we sought to determine the requirements for ras proteins in conidial germination and asexual development of a. fumigatus. a second homolog, rasb, has been identified that characterizes a new subclass of ras genes. dominant active (da) and dominant negative (dn ...200414732259
gamma-tubulin plays an essential role in the coordination of mitotic events.recent data from multiple organisms indicate that gamma-tubulin has essential, but incompletely defined, functions in addition to nucleating microtubule assembly. to investigate these functions, we examined the phenotype of mipad159, a cold-sensitive allele of the gamma-tubulin gene of aspergillus nidulans. immunofluorescence microscopy of synchronized material revealed that at a restrictive temperature mipad159 does not inhibit mitotic spindle formation. anaphase a was inhibited in many nuclei, ...200414668489
ethylene modulates development and toxin biosynthesis in aspergillus possibly via an ethylene sensor-mediated signaling pathway.ethylene, a biologically active natural compound, inhibited aflatoxin accumulation by aspergillus parasiticus on a solid growth medium in a dose-dependent manner at concentrations of 0.1 to 150 ppm. the activity of the nor-1 promoter (an early aflatoxin gene) was reduced to nondetectable levels by similar quantities of ethylene, suggesting that the inhibitory effect on toxin synthesis occurred, at least in part, at the level of transcription. the inhibitory effect of ethylene on aflatoxin accumu ...200415035355
negative selection using thymidine kinase increases the efficiency of recovery of transformants with targeted genes in the filamentous fungus leptosphaeria maculans.a vector system was constructed that is designed to decrease the number of transformants required to be screened when looking for gene disruption events in filamentous fungi. this vector was used to mutate two genes, an atp-binding cassette transporter ( lmabct4) and a two-component histidine kinase gene ( lmhk1) in the ascomycete leptosphaeria maculans. the system uses the thymidine kinase gene from the herpes simplex virus as a negative selectable marker. thymidine kinase expression is regulat ...200414749893
the early impact of genetics on our understanding of cell cycle regulation in aspergillus nidulans.the application of genetic analysis was crucial to the rapid progress that has been made in cell cycle research. ron morris, one of the first to apply genetics to cell cycle research, developed aspergillus nidulans into an important model system for the analysis of many aspects of cell biology. within the area of cell cycle research, ron's laboratory is noted for development of novel cell biological and molecular genetic approaches as well as seminal insights regarding the regulation of mitosis, ...200414998523
in vivo levels of s-adenosylmethionine modulate c:g to t:a mutations associated with repeat-induced point mutation in neurospora crassa.in neurospora crassa, the mutagenic process termed repeat-induced point mutation (rip) inactivates duplicated dna sequences during the sexual cycle by the introduction of c:g to t:a transition mutations. in this work, we have used a collection of n. crassa strains exhibiting a wide range of cellular levels of s-adenosylmethionine (adomet), the universal donor of methyl groups, to explore whether frequencies of rip are dependent on the cellular levels of this metabolite. mutant strains met-7 and ...200415063139
activation of caspase-like activity and poly (adp-ribose) polymerase degradation during sporulation in aspergillus nidulans.mycelium vacuolization, protein degradation, and as the final stage autolysis, often accompanies developmental changes in fungi and similarities between autolysis and apoptosis have previously been suggested. caspases are the key executors of apoptosis and in this study caspase-like activities were detected in protein extracts from aspergillus nidulans during sporulation. this was shown by hydrolysis of the fluorescent devd- and ietd-afc peptide substrates specific for caspase 3- and 8-like acti ...200414761796
nuclear migration and positioning in filamentous fungi.genetic analyses of nuclear distribution mutants have indicated that functions of the microtubule motor, cytoplasmic dynein, and its regulators are important for nuclear positioning in filamentous fungi. here we review these studies and also present the need to further dissect how dynein and its associated microtubule cytoskeleton are involved mechanistically in nuclear positioning in the multinucleated hyphae.200414998524
identification and characterization of a nitrate transporter gene in neurospora crassa.the neurospora crassa genome database was searched for sequence similarity to crna, a nitrate transporter in aspergillus nidulans. a 3.9-kb fragment (contig 3.416, subsequence 183190-187090) was cloned by pcr. the gene coding for this nitrate transporter was termed nit-10. the nit-10 gene specifies a predicted polypeptide containing 541 amino acids with a molecular mass of 57 kda. in contrast to crna, which is clustered together with niad, encoding nitrate reductase, and niia, encoding nitrite r ...200415068336
tubulins in aspergillus nidulans.the discovery and characterization of the tubulin superfamily in aspergillus nidulans is described. remarkably, the genes that encode alpha-, beta-, and gamma-tubulins were all identified first in a. nidulans. there are two alpha-tubulin genes, tuba and tubb, two beta-tubulin genes, bena and tubc, and one gamma-tubulin gene, mipa. hyphal tubulin is encoded mainly by the essential genes tuba and bena. tubc is expressed during conidiation and tubb is required for the sexual cycle. promoter swappin ...200414998525
aspergillus nidulans as a model system to characterize the dna damage response in eukaryotes.interest in dna repair in aspergillus nidulans had mainly grown out of studies of three different biological processes, namely mitotic recombination, inducible responses to detrimental environmental changes, and genetic control of the cell cycle. ron morris started the investigation of the genetic control of the cell cycle by screening hundreds of cell cycle temperature sensitive aspergillus mutants. the sequencing and innovative analysis of these genes revealed not only several components of th ...200414998526
a putative high affinity hexose transporter, hxta, of aspergillus nidulans is induced in vegetative hyphae upon starvation and in ascogenous hyphae during cleistothecium formation.fungi employ different carbohydrate uptake systems to adapt to certain environmental conditions and to different carbon source concentrations. the hydrolysis of polymeric carbohydrates and the subsequent uptake of monomeric forms may also play a role in development. aspergillus nidulans accumulates cell wall components during vegetative growth and degrades them during sexual development. we have identified the hxta (high affinity hexose transporter) gene in a differential library, which was enri ...200414732261
molecular cloning and functional characterization of avab, a gene encoding vam6p/vps39p-like protein in aspergillus nidulans.it has been demonstrated that saccharomyces cerevisiae vam6p/vps39p plays a critical role in the tethering steps of vacuolar membrane fusion by facilitating guanine nucleotide exchange on small guanosine triphosphatase (gtpase) vam4p/ypt7p. we report here the identification and characterization of a novel protein in aspergillus nidulans, avab, that exhibits similarity to vam6p/vps39p and plays a critical role in vacuolar morphogenesis in a. nidulans. avab is comprised of 1058 amino acids with am ...200415019743
selection arena in aspergillus nidulans.the selection arena hypothesis states that overproduction of zygotes--a widespread phenomenon in animals and plants--can be explained as a mechanism of progeny choice. as a similar mechanism, the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus nidulans may overproduce dikaryotic fruit initials, hereafter called dikaryons. then, progeny choice might involve selection on which of these dikaryons will thrive to produce thousands of zygotes. these zygotes each produce eight sexual spores which together fill up one ...200414732264
the aspergillus nidulans amds gene as a marker for the identification of multicopy t-dna integration events in agrobacterium-mediated transformation of aspergillus awamori.the aspergillus nidulans amds selection marker was used for the identification of multicopy t-dna insertions in agrobacterium-mediated transformation of asp. awamori. the selection of transformants on agar plates containing acetamide as sole nitrogen source and hygromycin resulted in a six-fold decrease in the transformation frequency, compared with the transformation frequency obtained after hygromycin selection alone. however, it was found that 47% of the transformants obtained after hygromyci ...200415045526
use of expressed sequence tag analysis and cdna microarrays of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the use of microarrays in the analysis of gene expression is becoming widespread for many organisms, including yeast. however, although the genomes of a number of filamentous fungi have been fully or partially sequenced, microarray analysis is still in its infancy in these organisms. here, we describe the construction and validation of microarrays for the fungus aspergillus nidulans using pcr products from a 4092 est conidial germination library. an experiment was designed to validate these arra ...200414732266
novel effect of voriconazole on conidiation of aspergillus species.our previous studies of aspergillus fumigatus showed that colonies that grew in the presence of voriconazole (vcz) were characteristically white without pigmentation. we therefore investigated the effect of various triazoles on conidiation and pigmentation in four commonly isolated aspergillus species and the results were compared with those obtained for polyene and echinocandin classes of antifungal drugs. aspergillus cultures were grown on sabouraud dextrose agar containing subinhibitory conce ...200414732317
nek8, a nima family kinase member, is overexpressed in primary human breast tumors.the family of human nek (nima related kinase) kinases currently contains 11 members. we have identified nek8 as a new member of the nek kinase family. for many of the nek family members, primary tumor expression data and function have been limited. however, all of the nek family proteins share considerable homology with the never in mitosis, gene a (nima) kinase from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. nima, as well as its most closely related human ortholog, nek2, are required for g(2) ...200415019993
osteomyelitis due to aspergillus spp. in patients with chronic granulomatous disease: comparison of aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) is a rare inherited disorder of nadph oxidase in which phagocytes fail to generate reactive antimicrobial oxidants. invasive fungal infections are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in cgd patients, with aspergillus spp. being the most frequent fungal pathogens. we reviewed the reported cases of osteomyelitis in cgd patients due to aspergillus nidulans and compared them with those due to aspergillus fumigatus.200414732328
meab is a component of the methylmalonyl-coa mutase complex required for protection of the enzyme from inactivation.adenosylcobalamin-dependent methylmalonyl-coa mutase catalyzes the interconversion of methylmalonyl-coa and succinyl-coa. in humans, deficiencies in the mutase lead to methylmalonic aciduria, a rare disease that is fatal in the first year of life. such inherited deficiencies can result from mutations in the mutase structural gene or from mutations that impair the acquisition of cobalamins. recently, a human gene of unknown function, mmaa, has been implicated in methylmalonic aciduria (dobson, c. ...200414734568
synthesis and biological evaluations of sulfa derivatives bearing heterocyclic moieties.some new sulfa derivatives bearing a heterocyclic moieties fural, pyrimidinone, thiazolidinone, benzimidazole and 1,2,4-triazinone and the related compounds 2-19 have been synthesized from treatment of sulfa drugs with thioisocyanate, acid chlorides, 3-chloro-1,2,4-triazines, aldehydes, esters and/or 2-methylbenzoxazole followed by ring closure reactions. structures of the products have been deduced from their elemental analysis and spectral data. significant antimicrobial activities were observ ...200415881802
the fungal stre-element-binding protein seb1 is involved but not essential for glycerol dehydrogenase (gld1) gene expression and glycerol accumulation in trichoderma atroviride during osmotic stress.fungi counteract extracellular osmotic pressure by producing intracellular polyols to prevent loss of water. in yeast osmotic signaling involves a map-kinase pathway culminating at the stre-binding transcription factors msn2/4. we investigated the role of a putative stre-binding orthologue of trichoderma atroviride, seb1, in osmotic stress signaling. t. atroviride, subjected to osmotic stress (10% glucose or glycerol, 1m kcl or nacl), responds by raising its intracellular glycerol level. in cont ...200415531216
plasmid vectors for protein production, gene expression and molecular manipulations in aspergillus niger.we constructed three sets of plasmids for use in aspergillus niger. these plasmids were assembled using various combinations of a series of modular dna cassettes that included a selectable marker, pyrg, derived from aspergillus nidulans; two promoter regions for directing protein expression; a cassette derived from the ama1 replicator sequence to support autonomous replication; and a reporter gene based on the a. niger laca gene. one set included integrating and autonomously replicating plasmids ...200415848224
[optimization of t-dna insertional mutagenesis and analysis of mutants of magnaporthe grisea].the rice blast fungus magnaporthe grisea causes one of the most destructive diseases of rice around the world. significant progresses have been made recently in genomics studies of the fungus, opening new era of the functional genomics which requires to generate a large scale of gene knockout mutants. it has been demonstrated that t-dna insertional mutagenesis is a powerful tool of functional genomics not only for plants but also for fungi. in this paper, we optimized the conditions for t-dna in ...200315969057
alternative reproduction pathway in aspergillus nidulans.recombinant haploid segregants were recovered in filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans (eidam) g. winter directly from the heterokaryons instead of diploid segregants (process described earlier as parameiosis). in spite of the reproductive complexity of a. nidulans, parameiosis has only now been observed in this fungus. since parameiosis was characterized by the occurrence of genetic recombination inside heterokaryotic hyphae, master strains (uvs+) and uvs mutants with high rate of both mitoti ...200314976715
the sonb(nup98) nucleoporin interacts with the nima kinase in aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans nima kinase is essential for mitotic entry. at restrictive temperature, temperature-sensitive nima alleles arrest in g2, before accumulation of nima in the nucleus. we performed a screen for extragenic suppressors of the nima1 allele and isolated two cold-sensitive son (suppressor of nima1) mutants. the sona1 mutant encoded a nucleoporin that is a homolog of yeast gle2/rae1. we have now cloned sonb, a second nucleoporin genetically interacting with nima. sonb is essentia ...200314668365
apical growth and mitosis are independent processes in aspergillus nidulans.it is well established that cytoplasmic microtubules are depolymerized during nuclear division and reassembled as mitotic microtubules. mounting evidence showing that cytoplasmic microtubules were also involved in apical growth of fungal hyphae posed the question of whether apical growth became disrupted during nuclear division. we conducted simultaneous observations of mitosis (fluorescence microscopy) and apical growth (phase-contrast microscopy) in single hyphae of aspergillus nidulans to det ...200314714210
transinhibition and voltage-gating in a fungal nitrate transporter.we have applied enzyme kinetic analysis to electrophysiological steady-state data of zhou et al. (zhou, j.j., trueman, l.j., boorer, k.j., theodoulou, f.l., forde, b.g., miller, a.j. 2000. a high-affinity fungal nitrate carrier with two transport mechanisms. j. biol. chem. 275:39894-9) and to new current-voltage-time records from xenopus oocytes with functionally expressed nrta (crna) 2h+-no3- symporter from emericella (aspergillus) nidulans. zhou et al. stressed two michaelis-menten (mm) mechan ...200314692450
the phoa and phob cyclin-dependent kinases perform an essential function in aspergillus nidulans.unlike pho85 of saccharomyces cerevisiae, the highly related phoa cyclin-dependent kinase (cdk) of aspergillus nidulans plays no role in regulation of enzymes involved in phosphorous acquisition but instead modulates differentiation in response to environmental conditions, including limited phosphorous. like pho85, aspergillus phoa is a nonessential gene. however, we find that expression of dominant-negative phoa inhibits growth, suggesting it may have an essential but redundant function. suppor ...200314668368
swohp, a nucleoside diphosphate kinase, is essential in aspergillus nidulans.the temperature-sensitive swoh1 mutant of aspergillus nidulans was previously identified in a screen for mutants with defects in polar growth. in the present work, we found that the swoh1 mutant swelled, lysed, and did not produce conidia during extended incubation at the restrictive temperature. when shifted from the permissive to the restrictive temperature, swoh1 showed the temperature-sensitive swelling phenotype only after 8 h at the higher temperature. the swoh gene was mapped to chromosom ...200314665452
the expression of sterigmatocystin and penicillin genes in aspergillus nidulans is controlled by vea, a gene required for sexual development.secondary metabolism is commonly associated with morphological development in microorganisms, including fungi. we found that vea, a gene previously shown to control the aspergillus nidulans sexual/asexual developmental ratio in response to light, also controls secondary metabolism. specifically, vea regulates the expression of genes implicated in the synthesis of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin and the antibiotic penicillin. vea is necessary for the expression of the transcription factor aflr, wh ...200314665453
suppressor mutations bypass the requirement of flug for asexual sporulation and sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans.asexual sporulation (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans requires the early developmental activator flug. loss of flug results in the blockage of both conidiation and production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (st). to investigate molecular mechanisms of flug-dependent developmental activation, 40 suppressors of flug (sfgs) that conidiate without flug have been isolated and characterized. genetic analyses showed that an individual suppression is caused by a single secon ...200314668366
pka, ras and rgs protein interactions regulate activity of aflr, a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor in aspergillus nidulans.sterigmatocystin (st) is a carcinogenic polyketide produced by several filamentous fungi including aspergillus nidulans. expression of st biosynthetic genes (stc genes) requires activity of a zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor, aflr. aflr is transcriptionally and post-transcriptionally regulated by a g-protein/camp/protein kinase a (pkaa) signaling pathway involving flba, an rgs (regulator of g-protein signaling) protein. prior genetic data showed that flba transcriptional regulation of aflr was p ...200314668367
reactive oxygen species generated by microbial nadph oxidase noxa regulate sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.nadph oxidases (nox) have been characterized as higher eukaryotic enzymes used deliberately to produce reactive oxygen species (ros). the recent discovery of new functional members of the nox family in plants and animals has led to the recognition of the increasing importance of ros as signals involved in regulation of diverse cellular processes such as defence, growth and signalling. here, we address the role of nadph oxidase-generated ros in the biology of the filamentous fungus aspergillus ni ...200314622412
compatible solutes protect against chaotrope (ethanol)-induced, nonosmotic water stress.water stress is one of the major stresses experienced by cellular systems and can take a number of distinct forms. in response to turgor-related osmotic stress, cells produce compatible solutes that are macromolecule protectants and also counteract the outflow of water from stressed cells. in this report we show that the germination of conidia of aspergillus nidulans, a sensitive indicator of water stress, in the presence of ethanol is correlated with the intracellular concentration of the compa ...200314660346
regulation of cell cycle progression by calcium/calmodulin-dependent pathways.many hormones, growth factors, and cytokines regulate proliferation of their target cells. perhaps the most universal signaling cascades required for proliferative responses are those initiated by transient rises in intracellular calcium (ca(2+)). the major intracellular receptor for ca(2+) is calmodulin (cam). cam is a small protein that contains four ef-hand ca(2+) binding sites and is highly conserved among eukaryotes. in all organisms in which the cam gene has been deleted, it is essential. ...200314671000
identification of proteins that interact with the central coiled-coil region of the human protein kinase nek1.nek protein kinases are evolutionarily conserved kinases structurally related to the aspergillus nidulans mitotic regulator nima. at least nine members of the nek family in vertebrates have been described to date, but for most of them the interacting protein partners are unknown. the pleiotropic deleterious effects and the formation of kidney cysts caused by nek1 mutation in mice emphasize its involvement in the regulation of diverse cellular processes and in the etiology of polycystic kidney di ...200314690447
sub-families of alpha/beta barrel enzymes: a new adenine deaminase family.no gene coding for an adenine deaminase has been described in eukaryotes. however, physiological and genetical evidence indicates that adenine deaminases are present in the ascomycetes. we have cloned and characterised the genes coding for the adenine deaminases of aspergillus nidulans, saccharomyces cerevisiae and schizosaccharomyces pombe. the a.nidulans gene was expressed in escherichia coli and the purified enzyme shows adenine but not adenosine deaminase activity. the open reading frames co ...200314643670
discrimination between gene expression patterns in the invasive margin and the tumour core of malignant melanomas.genes that determine the invasive capacity of the invasive front of malignant melanomas (mm) have not yet been systematically investigated in vivo. therefore, we combined laser pressure catapulting (lpc) microdissection with cdna microarray technology (dermarray, research genetics, representing about 5700 genes) to systematically analyse differences in gene expression profiles between the invasive margin and the tumour centre in nine cases of vertical growth phase mm. signal-to-noise statistical ...200314512792
overlap of nuclear localisation signal and specific dna-binding residues within the zinc finger domain of pacc.the transcription factor pacc, mediating regulation of gene expression by ambient ph in the genetically amenable fungus aspergillus nidulans, contains a three zinc finger dna-binding domain (zf-dbd) including a nuclear localisation signal (nls). we selected 38 novel mutations impairing pacc function, of which 21 missense mutations identify individual residues essential for zf-dbd structure/function. our functional analysis agrees with our previous conclusion that finger 1 does not bind dna and p ...200314636595
transformation of aspergillus aculeatus using the drug resistance gene of aspergillus oryzae and the pyrg gene of aspergillus nidulans.transformation systems for aspergillus aculeatus has been developed, based on the use of the pyrithiamine resistance gene of aspergillus oryzae and the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene (pyrg) of aspergillus nidulans. an a. aculeatus mutant which can be transformed effectively by the a. nidulans pyrg gene was isolated as a transformation host. this is the first report of transformation of a. aculeatus.200314730150
arsenate transport and reduction in the hyper-tolerant fungus aspergillus sp. p37.aspergillus sp. p37 is able to grow at arsenate concentrations of 0.2 m--more than 20-fold higher than that withstood by reference microorganisms such escherichia coli, saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans. this paper examines the transport of arsenate and phosphate and the reduction of arsenate in aspergillus sp. p37. these properties were compared with the corresponding properties of the archetype strain aspergillus nidulans ts1. both uptake and efflux of arsenate were inhibited b ...200314641588
intron requirement for afp gene expression in trichoderma viride.the 430 bp orf of the aspergillus giganteus antifungal protein (afp) gene, containing two small introns, was fused between the promoter and the terminator of the aspergillus nidulans trpc gene. the afp gene in this vector produced detectable levels of spliced mrna in trichoderma viride. in contrast, in the same vector configuration, its 285 bp intronless derivative showed no accumulation of mrna when transformed into t. viride. such expression results were confirmed at the protein level. this fa ...200314600221
a novel improved method for aspergillus nidulans transformation.we systematically investigated the efficiency of aspergillus nidulans transformation using protoplasts prepared from different stages of conidiospore germination and young mycelium. using standard integrative plasmids, increased transformation yields were obtained with protoplasts isolated from a specific stage coincident with germ tube emergence. this increase ranged, on the average, from two- to eightfold depending on different plasmids used. transformation efficiencies with a replicative plas ...200314607411
the serine/threonine kinase nek6 is required for cell cycle progression through mitosis.the aspergillus nidulans protein nima (never in mitosis, gene a) is a protein kinase required for the initiation of mitosis, whereas its inactivation is necessary for mitotic exit. here, we demonstrate that human nima-related kinase 6 (nek6) is required for mitotic progression of human cells. nek6 is phosphorylated and activated during m phase. inhibition of nek6 function by either overexpression of an inactive nek6 mutant or elimination of endogenous nek6 by sirna arrests cells in m phase and t ...200314563848
genetic transformation of monascus purpureus dsm1379.monascus purpureus was transformed into hygromycin b resistance with hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) fused to aspergillus nidulans trpc or a putative monascus purpureus gpd1 promoter by electroporation. among five strains, only m. purpureus dsm1397 was a competent recipient. normal growth and sporulation on media containing up to 500 mg hygromycin b l(-1) occurred up to five generations. upon transformation of the strain with the green fluorescent protein gene (sgfp) as a model gene and hp ...200314571974
cloning and expression analysis of the atp-binding cassette transporter gene mfabc1 and the alternative oxidase gene mfaox1 from monilinia fructicola.brown rot, caused by moniliniafructicola (g wint) honey, is a serious disease of peach in all commercial peach production areas in the usa, including south carolina where it has been primarily controlled by pre-harvest application of 14-alpha demethylation (dmi) fungicides for more than 15 years. recently, the qo fungicide azoxystrobin was registered for brown rot control and is currently being investigated for its potential as a dmi fungicide rotation partner because of its different mode of ac ...200314561072
the aspergillus nidulans swoc1 mutant shows defects in growth and development.previous work identified swoc1 as a single-gene mutant with defects in polarity establishment. in this study swoc1 was shown to have defects in endocytosis, compartmentation, nuclear distribution, and conidiation. temperature-shift experiments showed that the swoc1 mutant establishes multiple random sites of germ tube emergence. surprisingly, these experiments also showed that even a slight delay in polarity establishment causes defects in later vegetative growth and asexual reproduction. the sw ...200314573468
mutational analysis of the major proline transporter (prnb) of aspergillus nidulans.prnb, the l-proline transporter of aspergillus nidulans, belongs to the amino acid polyamine organocation (apc) transporter family conserved in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. in silico analysis and limited biochemical evidence suggest that apc transporters comprise 12 transmembrane segments (tms) connected with relatively short hydrophilic loops (l). however, very little is known on the structure-function relationships in apc transporters. this work makes use of the a. nidulans prnb transporter to ...200314578044
the aspergillus nidulans alca promoter drives tightly regulated conditional gene expression in aspergillus fumigatus permitting validation of essential genes in this human pathogen.aspergillus fumigatus causes invasive aspergillosis, a mycosis that is usually fatal in immunocompromised patients. functional genomics in this fungus will aid the discovery of novel antifungal drugs to treat invasive aspergillosis. however, there is still a need for appropriate molecular genetic tools to facilitate such functional studies. here, we describe the use of a conditional gene expression system allowing the identification of novel therapeutic targets through validation of essential ge ...200314516763
diversity of polyketide synthase gene sequences in aspergillus species.fungal polyketide synthases are responsible for the biosynthesis of several mycotoxins and other secondary metabolites. the aim of our work was to investigate the diversity of polyketide synthases in aspergillus species using two approaches: pcr amplification using oligonucleotide primers, and bioinformatics. ketosynthase domain probes amplified dna fragments of about 700 bp in each examined isolate. sequences of these domains were aligned and analyzed by phylogenetic methods. the ketosynthase d ...200314527661
multiple gata sites: protein binding and physiological relevance for the regulation of the proline transporter gene of aspergillus nidulans.in aspergillus nidulans, proline can serve both as a carbon and a nitrogen source. the transcription of the prnb gene, encoding the proline transporter, is efficiently repressed only by the simultaneous presence of ammonium and glucose. thus, repression of this gene demands the activation of the crea repressor and the inactivation of the positive-acting gata factor area. repression of all other prn structural genes results largely from inducer exclusion. in an area null mutation background, prnb ...200314507380
4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferase-encoding npga is essential for siderophore biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces two major siderophores: it excretes triacetylfusarinine c to capture iron and contains ferricrocin as an intracellular iron-storage compound. siderophore biosynthesis involves the enzymatic activity of nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrps). nrps contain 4'-phosphopantetheine as an essential prosthetic group, which is attached by 4'-phosphopantetheinyl transferases. a. nidulans appears to possess at least one gene, npga, encoding such an enzyme. using a strain carr ...200314508603
nitrogen metabolism and virulence of candida albicans require the gata-type transcriptional activator encoded by gat1.nitrogen acquisition and metabolism is central to microbial growth. a conserved family of zinc-finger containing transcriptional regulators known as gata-factors ensures efficient utilization of available nitrogen sources by fungi. gata factors activate expression of nitrogen catabolic pathways when preferred nitrogen sources are absent or limiting, a phenomenon known as nitrogen catabolite repression. gat1 of candida albicans encodes a gata-factor homologous to the area protein of aspergillus n ...200314617156
the kinesin family member bimc contains a second microtubule binding region attached to the n terminus of the motor domain.the kinesin family member bimc has a highly positively charged domain of approximately 70 amino acids at the n terminus of the motor domain. motor domain constructs of bimc were prepared with and without this extra domain to determine its influence. the level of microtubules needed for half saturation of the atpase of bimc motor domain constructs is reduced by approximately 7000-fold at low ionic strength upon addition of this extra n-terminal extension. although the change in microtubule affini ...200314530265
a novel extracellular multicopper oxidase from phanerochaete chrysosporium with ferroxidase activity.lignin degradation by the white rot basidiomycete phanerochaete chrysosporium involves various extracellular oxidative enzymes, including lignin peroxidase, manganese peroxidase, and a peroxide-generating enzyme, glyoxal oxidase. recent studies have suggested that laccases also may be produced by this fungus, but these conclusions have been controversial. we identified four sequences related to laccases and ferroxidases (fet3) in a search of the publicly available p. chrysosporium database. one ...200314532088
viability of dried vegetative cells or filaments, survivability and/or reproduction under water and light stress, and following heat and uv exposure in some blue-green and green algae.vegetative cells in dried, mucilagenous mass of gloeocapsa aeruginosa and aphanothece nidulans, reticulum of hydrodictyon reticulatum, mucilagenous mass of chroococcus minor, and filaments of oedogonium sp. and scytonema hofmanni died within 1/2, 1/2, 1/2, 1, 3 and 6 h, respectively, while dried vegetative filaments of phormidium foveolarum retained under similar storage conditions viability for 4 d. p. foveolarum tolerated 1 mol/l nacl. the resistance to desiccation in p. foveolarum exhibited s ...200314533482
characterization of phia, a gene essential for phialide development in aspergillus nidulans.we have previously identified genes and proteins involved in the fungal response to the streptomyces-produced antibiotics, bafilomycin b1 and concanamycin a, known inhibitors of v-atpases. using mrna differential display we identified an aspergillus nidulans gene with 30-fold up-regulated expression in the presence of bafilomycin. this gene, here denoted phia, and its gene product, were further characterized by targeted gene disruption and immunohistochemistry. phenotypically, the phia mutation ...200314599891
addendum to "the ph-induced glycosylation of secreted phosphatases is mediated in aspergillus nidulans by the regulatory gene pacc-dependent pathway" [fungal genet. biol. 39 (2003) 286-295]. 200314599896
the cop9 signalosome is an essential regulator of development in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the cop9 signalosome (csn) is a conserved multiprotein complex involved in regulation of eukaryotic development. the deduced amino acid sequences of two aspergillus nidulans genes, csnd and csne, show high identities to the fourth and fifth csn subunits of higher eukaryotes. the csnd transcript is abundant during vegetative growth as well as development and the corresponding protein accumulates in the nucleus. strains deleted for either csn gene are viable and show identical mutant phenotypes at ...200312864854
alternative oxidase expression in neurospora crassa.when electron flow through the cytochrome-mediated electron transport chain is blocked by inhibitors or mutations, the mitochondria of neurospora crassa contain a kcn-insensitive alternative oxidase, encoded by the aod-1 gene, that transfers electrons directly from the ubiquinone pool to oxygen. the mechanism by which the enzyme is induced is unknown. comparison of the sequence upstream of the n. crassa aod-1 gene with the corresponding region of gelasinospora spp. and aspergillus nidulans revea ...200312781676
glycosphingolipids of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans: characterization of gipcs with oligo-alpha-mannose-type glycans.aspergillus nidulans is a well-established nonpathogenic laboratory model for the opportunistic mycopathogen, a. fumigatus. some recent studies have focused on possible functional roles of glycosphingolipids (gsls) in these fungi. it has been demonstrated that biosynthesis of glycosylinositol phosphorylceramides (gipcs) is required for normal cell cycle progression and polarized growth in a. nidulans (cheng, j., t.-s. park, a. s. fischl, and x. s. ye. 2001. mol. cell biol. 21: 6198-6209); howeve ...200312923229
mitochondrial rnase p rnas in ascomycete fungi: lineage-specific variations in rna secondary structure.the rna subunit of mitochondrial rnase p (mtp-rna) is encoded by a mitochondrial gene (rnpb) in several ascomycete fungi and in the protists reclinomonas americana and nephroselmis olivacea. by searching for universally conserved structural elements, we have identified previously unknown rnpb genes in the mitochondrial dnas (mtdnas) of two fission yeasts, schizosaccharomyces pombe and schizosaccharomyces octosporus; in the budding yeast pichia canadensis; and in the archiascomycete taphrina defo ...200312923256
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