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isolation and characterization of the aspergillus nidulans eglc gene encoding a putative beta-1,3-endoglucanase.the aspergillus nidulans eglc gene, which encodes a putative beta-1,3-endoglucanase, was isolated from a chromosome-specific library by using an expressed sequence tag, esd0113. the eglc open reading frame encodes a 465 amino acid polypeptide, of which the amino acid sequence showed 46% similarity to that of saccharomyces cerevisiae beta-1,3-endoglucanase. the eglc transcript level at the early stages of asexual and sexual developments was dependent on the presence of the nsdd gene that encodes ...200515950156
evolution of beta-lactam biosynthesis genes and recruitment of trans-acting factors.penicillins and cephalosporins belong chemically to the group of beta-lactam antibiotics. the formation of hydrophobic penicillins has been reported in fungi only, notably penicillium chrysogenum and emericella nidulans, whereas the hydrophilic cephalosporins are produced by both fungi, e.g., acremonium chrysogenum (cephalosporin c), and bacteria. the producing bacteria include gram-negatives and gram-positives, e.g. lysobacter lactamdurans (cephabacins) and streptomyces clavuligerus (cephamycin ...200515950251
aspergillus cyclooxygenase-like enzymes are associated with prostaglandin production and virulence.oxylipins comprise a family of oxygenated fatty acid-derived signaling molecules that initiate critical biological activities in animals, plants, and fungi. mammalian oxylipins, including the prostaglandins (pgs), mediate many immune and inflammation responses in animals. pg production by pathogenic microbes is theorized to play a role in pathogenesis. we have genetically characterized three aspergillus genes, ppoa, ppob, and ppoc, encoding fatty acid oxygenases similar in sequence to specific m ...200516040966
what the aspergillus genomes have told us.the sequencing and annotation of the genomes of the first strains of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus oryzae, and aspergillus fumigatus will be seen in retrospect as a transformational event in aspergillus biology. with this event the entire genetic composition of a. nidulans, the sexual experimental model organism of the genus aspergillus, a. oryzae, the food biotechnology organism which is the product of centuries of cultivation, and a. fumigatus, the most common causative agent of invasive a ...200516110785
virulence comparisons of aspergillus nidulans mutants are confounded by the inflammatory response of p47phox-/- mice.while investigating the requirement for phagosomal alkalinization in the host defense against pulmonary aspergillosis, we observed high morbidity of p47(phox)(-/-) mice infected with ph-insensitive aspergillus nidulans mutants despite a paucity of fungal growth. fatal infection also resulted from a normally avirulent p-aminobenzoate auxotroph. this demonstrates that p47(phox)(-/-) murine immunity contributes significantly to a. nidulans lethality. these data have wider implications for microbial ...200516041040
lysine is catabolized to 2-aminoadipic acid in penicillium chrysogenum by an omega-aminotransferase and to saccharopine by a lysine 2-ketoglutarate reductase. characterization of the omega-aminotransferase.the biosynthesis and catabolism of lysine in penicillium chrysogenum is of great interest because these pathways provide 2-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of the tripeptide delta-l-2-aminoadipyl-l-cysteinyl-d-valine that is an intermediate in penicillin biosynthesis. in vivo conversion of labelled l-lysine into two different intermediates was demonstrated by hplc analysis of the intracellular amino acid pool. l-lysine is catabolized to 2-aminoadipic acid by an omega-aminotransferase and to sacchar ...200516049680
growth control and polarization.filamentous fungi and yeasts both undergo polar growth. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, where the mechanisms for polar growth are well-understood, polarity requires three steps: establishment of cortical markers specifying the site of bud emergence; relaying the bud site information via the cdc42 rho gtpase module; and recruitment of the morphogenetic machinery needed to remodel the cell surface to the specified site. comparison of the genomes of aspergillus fumigatus, a. nidulans and a. oryzae wit ...200516110788
identification and molecular cloning of a gene encoding phospholipase a2 (plaa) from aspergillus nidulans.the plaa gene encoding a protein that contains the cytosolic phospholipase a(2) (cpla(2)) motif is cloned for the first time from the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans. the translated 837 amino acid protein product of plaa comprises conserved lipase regions that are present in most mammalian cpla(2) homologs. high expression of plaa was observed in glucose-lactose medium by northern blot analyses. deletion mutants of plaa grew and formed conidia similar to the wild-type strain, but showed ...200516051517
regulation of secondary metabolism in filamentous fungi.fungal secondary metabolites are of intense interest to humankind due to their pharmaceutical (antibiotics) and/or toxic (mycotoxins) properties. in the past decade, tremendous progress has been made in understanding the genes that are associated with production of various fungal secondary metabolites. moreover, the regulatory mechanisms controlling biosynthesis of diverse groups of secondary metabolites have been unveiled. in this review, we present the current understanding of the genetic regu ...200516078891
the csnd/csne signalosome genes are involved in the aspergillus nidulans dna damage response.the signalosome (csn) is a conserved multiprotein complex involved in regulation of eukaryotic development and is also required to activate ribonucleotide reductase for dna synthesis. in aspergillus nidulans, csnd/csne are key regulators of sexual development. here, we investigated whether the csnd/csne genes are involved in the dna damage response in this fungus. the growth of the csnd/csne deletion mutants was reduced by subinhibitory concentrations of hydroxyurea, camptothecin, 4-nitroquinoli ...200516079239
expression of asexual developmental regulator gene abaa is affected in the double mutants of classes i and ii chitin synthase genes, chsc and chsa, of aspergillus nidulans.the chsa and chsc encode classes ii and i chitin synthases, respectively, of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the deltachsa deltachsc double mutants (deltaac mutants) show defects in asexual development: a striking reduction in the number of conidiophores and aberrant conidiophore morphology. here, we examined the involvement of regulatory genes for asexual development (brla, abaa, and meda) in the conidiation defects of the deltaac mutants. spatial expression patterns of brla, abaa, ...200516082523
aspergillus nidulans uvsbatr and scaanbs1 genes show genetic interactions during recovery from replication stress and dna damage.the atm/atr kinases and the mre11 (mre11-rad50-nbs1) protein complex are central players in the cellular dna damage response. here we characterize possible interactions between aspergillus nidulans uvsb(atr) and the mre11 complex (scaa(nbs1)). we demonstrate that there is an epistatic relationship between uvsb(atr), the homolog of the atr/mec1 gene, and scaa(nbs1), the homolog of the nbs1/xrs2 gene, for both repair and checkpoint functions and that correct scaa(nbs1) expression during recovery f ...200516002650
differential expression of the chse gene encoding a chitin synthase of aspergillus nidulans in response to developmental status and growth conditions.expression of chse encoding one of the five chitin synthases of aspergillus nidulans was analyzed. expression of chse was moderate in conidiophores, but somewhat weaker in vegetative mycelia. during sexual development, chse was expressed strongly in young cleistothecia and hülle cells, but little in mature sexual structures. deletion of chse caused a significant decrease in the chitin content of the cell wall during early sexual development. expression of chse was increased by substituting gluco ...200516006063
the pkab gene encoding the secondary protein kinase a catalytic subunit has a synthetic lethal interaction with pkaa and plays overlapping and opposite roles in aspergillus nidulans.filamentous fungal genomes contain two distantly related cyclic amp-dependent protein kinase a catalytic subunits (pkas), but only one pka is found to play a principal role. in aspergillus nidulans, pkaa is the primary pka that positively functions in vegetative growth and spore germination but negatively controls asexual sporulation and production of the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin. in this report, we present the identification and characterization of pkab, encoding the secondary pka in a. nidul ...200516087751
dynamic association of topoisomerase ii to the mitotic chromosomes in live cells of aspergillus nidulans.dna topoisomerase ii (topo ii) is an essential enzyme that catalyzes topological changes of dna and consists of a major member of mitotic chromosomes. to investigate the dynamic localization of topo ii in nuclei, we engineered the strain of aspergillus nidulans expressing topo ii fused with green fluorescent protein (gfp). time-lapse microscopy revealed that the distribution of topo ii-gfp in nuclei varied depending on the cell cycle. in interphase, topo ii-gfp distributed evenly in the nucleopl ...200516009350
the flug-brla pathway contributes to the initialisation of autolysis in submerged aspergillus nidulans cultures.the flug gene proved to be essential in the initialisation of autolysis in aspergillus nidulans (teleomorph emericella nidulans) cultures, while a loss-of-function mutation in only one out of the flbb-e genes had only minor effects on autolysis. in contrast to its important role in sporulation, brla regulated only some, but not all, elements of the autolytic process. the tightly coupled autolytic events (chitinase and proteinase production, hyphal fragmentation, disorganisation of pellets, autol ...200516121561
a microtubule associated protein (hnudc) binds to the extracellular domain of thrombopoietin receptor (mpl).human nudc (hnudc) was initially characterized as a nuclear migration protein based on the similarity of its c-terminus to that of fungal nudc from aspergillus nidulans. however, hnudc is a 331 amino acid protein whereas fungal nudc is 198 amino acids in length. the extra n-terminal portion of hnudc has no known function or homology to other proteins. in this study, we report the binding of hnudc to the extracellular domain of the thrombopoietin receptor (mpl) as detected by the yeast two-hybrid ...200516088917
autoregulated, bidirectional and multicistronic gas-inducible mammalian as well as lentiviral expression vectors.we present a novel set of autoregulated, bidirectional and multicistronic mammalian as well as lentiviral expression vectors which enable transgene expression fine-tuning by gaseous acetaldehyde. the acetaldehyde-inducible regulation (air) technology capitalizes on aspergillus nidulans components evolved to convert ethanol into metabolic energy. air is based on functional interaction of the fungal transactivator alcr and alcr-specific chimeric promoters (p(air)) which drive desired transgene exp ...200516026881
cloning and functional characterization of two bacterial members of the nat/ncs2 family in escherichia coli.the coding potential of the genome of e. coli k-12 includes ygfo and yice, two members of the evolutionarily conserved nat/ncs2 transporter family that are highly homologous to each other (45% residue identity) and closely related to uapa of aspergillus nidulans, a most extensively studied microbial member of this family. ygfo and yice were cloned from the genome, over-expressed extrachromosomally and assayed for uptake of [(3)h]xanthine and other nucleobases, in e. coli k-12, under conditions o ...200516096267
arrestin-related proteins mediate ph signaling in fungi.metazoan arrestins bind to seven-transmembrane (7tm) receptors to regulate function. aspergillus nidulans palf, a protein involved in the fungal ambient ph signaling pathway, contains arrestin n-terminal and c-terminal domains and binds strongly to two different regions within the c-terminal cytoplasmic tail of the 7tm, putative ph sensor palh. upon exposure to alkaline ambient ph, palf is phosphorylated and, like mammalian beta-arrestins, ubiquitinated in a signal-dependent and 7tm protein-depe ...200516099830
comparative substrate recognition by bacterial and fungal purine transporters of the nat/ncs2 family.we compared the interactions of purines and purine analogues with representative fungal and bacterial members of the widespread nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) family. these are: uapa, a well-studied xanthine-uric acid transporter of a. nidulans, xut1, a novel transporter from c. albicans, described for the first time in this work, and ygfo, a recently characterized xanthine transporter from e. coli. using transport inhibition experiments with 64 different purines and purine-related analo ...200516096268
the ccaat-binding complex of eukaryotes: evolution of a second nls in the hapb subunit of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans despite functional conservation at the molecular level between yeast, a.nidulans and human.the heterotrimeric ccaat-binding complex is evolutionarily conserved in eukaryotic organisms, including fungi, plants and mammals. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, the corresponding complex was designated ancf (a.nidulans ccaat-binding factor). ancf consists of the subunits hapb, hapc and hape. all three subunits are necessary for dna binding. hapb contains two putative nuclear localisation signal sequences (nlss) designated nls1 and nls2. previously, it was shown that only nls2 w ...200516098534
cloning and functional analysis of the orotidine-5'-phosphate decarboxylase gene (pbrura3) of the pathogenic fungus paracoccidioides brasiliensis.a genomic clone encoding the paracoccidioides brasiliensis orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase gene (pbrura3) was isolated by screening a subgenomic plasmid dna library of this fungus, using a pcr amplification product of the gene as a probe. sequence analysis revealed that the gene contains an open reading frame of 855 bp with a single intron (162 bp), and encodes a putative 285 amino acids polypeptide of estimated molecular weight 31.1 kda and isoelectric point 6.5. the deduced amino acid se ...200516034822
aspergillus nidulans swok encodes an rna binding protein that is important for cell polarity.the aspergillus nidulans swok1 mutant is defective in polarity maintenance when grown at restrictive temperature (38 degrees c). upon germination, the mutant extends a primary germ tube that swells to an enlarged, non-uniform cell with pronounced wall thickenings. the mutant is fully restored to wild-type growth when transformed with a plasmid containing the an5802.2 orf as designated in the broad institute a. nidulans sequence database. genetic mapping places swok in the same region of chromoso ...200516098776
role of the spindle-pole-body protein apsb and the cortex protein apsa in microtubule organization and nuclear migration in aspergillus nidulans.nuclear migration and positioning in aspergillus nidulans depend on microtubules, the microtubule-dependent motor protein dynein, and auxiliary proteins, two of which are apsa and apsb. in apsa and apsb mutants nuclei are clustered and show various kinds of nuclear navigation defects, although nuclear migration itself is still possible. we studied the role of several components involved in nuclear migration through in vivo fluorescence microscopy using fluorescent-protein tagging. because apsa l ...200516105883
the snpa, a temperature-sensitive suppressor of npga1, encodes the eukaryotic translation release factor, erf1, in aspergillus nidulans.the npga1 mutation causes defects in the outer layer of the cell wall resulting in a colorless colony. in this study, a temperature-sensitive suppressor of npga1 named snpa was isolated by uv mutagenesis. the suppressing mutant showed pleiotropic phenotypes in cellular structure and developmental processes when incubated at a temperature of 37 degrees c or above. at 37 degrees c, multiple germ tubes emerged from germinating conidia. moreover, at 42 degrees c conidia germination was delayed more ...200516125337
benznidazole-induced genotoxicity in diploid cells of aspergillus nidulans.genotoxic effects of benznidazole were studied by the induction of homozygosis of genes previously present in heterozygous. ut448//a757 diploid strain was used in the benznidazole's recombinagenesis test. although toxic effects on growth of colonies were not observed, 75 and 100 microm benznidazole induced an increasing of mitotic recombination events in diploid strain. results were related to the induction of chromosomal breaks by the antiparasitic drug.200516113877
[possible sources of aspergilla infection in a hematological hospital].to investigate spread, species spectrum, quantity of aspergilla spores in the air of a hematological hospital.200516116914
rnase p cleaves transient structures in some riboswitches.rnase p from escherichia coli cleaves the coenzyme b12 riboswitch from e. coli and a similar one from bacillus subtilis. the cleavage sites do not occur in any recognizable structure, as judged from theoretical schemes that have been drawn for these 5' utrs. however, it is possible to draw a scheme that is a good representation of the e. coli cleavage site for rnase p and for the cleavage site in b. subtilis. these data indicate that transient structures are important in rnase p cleavage and in ...200516061811
genetic analysis of the tor pathway in aspergillus nidulans.we identified five genes encoding components of the tor signaling pathway within aspergillus nidulans. unlike the situation in saccharomyces cerevisiae, there is only a single tor kinase, as in plant and animal systems, and mutant phenotypes suggest that the tor pathway plays only a minor role in regulating nitrogen metabolism.200516151253
a two-step protocol for efficient deletion of genes in the filamentous ascomycete podospora anserina.deletion of genes in podospora anserina via conventional methods is an inefficient and time-consuming process since homologous recombination occurs normally only at low frequency (about 1%). to improve the efficiency of replacement, we adopted the two-step protocol developed for aspergillus nidulans (chaveroche et al. in nucleic acids res 28:e97, 2000). as a prerequisite, a vector was generated containing a blasticidin resistance cassette for selection in the escherichia coli host strain ks272 ( ...200516160832
alkaline ph-induced up-regulation of the afp gene encoding the antifungal protein (afp) of aspergillus giganteus is not mediated by the transcription factor pacc: possible involvement of calcineurin.the afp gene encoding the antifungal protein (afp) of aspergillus giganteus has a prototypical alkaline gene expression pattern, which suggests that the gene might be under the control of the ambient ph-dependent zinc-finger transcription factor pacc. this notion is corroborated by the presence in the upstream region of afp of two putative pacc binding sites, afpp1 and afpp2, which are specifically recognised by the pacc protein of a. nidulans in vitro. however, in this report we provide several ...200516133167
generation and phenotypic characterization of aspergillus nidulans methylisocitrate lyase deletion mutants: methylisocitrate inhibits growth and conidiation.propionate is a very abundant carbon source in soil, and many microorganisms are able to use this as the sole carbon source. nevertheless, propionate not only serves as a carbon source for filamentous fungi but also acts as a preservative when added to glucose containing media. to solve this contradiction between carbon source and preservative effect, propionate metabolism of aspergillus nidulans was studied and revealed the methylcitrate cycle as the responsible pathway. methylisocitrate lyase ...200516151139
characterization of the oat1 gene of penicillium chrysogenum encoding an omega-aminotransferase: induction by l-lysine, l-ornithine and l-arginine and repression by ammonium.the penicillium chrysogenum oat1 gene, which encodes a class iii omega-aminotransferase, was cloned and characterized. this enzyme converts lysine into 2-aminoadipic semialdehyde, and plays an important role in the biosynthesis of 2-aminoadipic acid, a precursor of penicillin and other beta-lactam antibiotics. the enzyme is related to ornithine-5-aminotransferases and to the lysine-6-aminotransferases encoded by the lat genes found in bacterial cephamycin gene clusters. expression of oat1 is ind ...200516163487
nuclear translocation of the heterotrimeric ccaat binding factor of aspergillus oryzae is dependent on two redundant localising signals in a single subunit.the ccaat-binding complex in the aspergillus species, also known as the hap complex, consists of at least three subunits, namely hapb, hapc and hape. each hap subunit contains an evolutionary conserved core domain. recently, we have found that the hapc and hape subunits do not carry a nuclear localisation signal. furthermore, when in complex with hapb, they are transported into the nucleus via a 'piggy back mechanism' in a. nidulans. to extend our findings to other filamentous fungi, we examined ...200516163515
synthesis of penicillium chrysogenum acetyl-coa:isopenicillin n acyltransferase in hansenula polymorpha: first step towards the introduction of a new metabolic pathway.the enzyme acetyl-coa:isopenicillin n acyltransferase (iat) is a peroxisomal enzyme that mediates the final step of penicillin biosynthesis in the filamentous fungi penicillium chrysogenum and aspergillus nidulans. however, the precise role of peroxisomes in penicillin biosynthesis is still not clear. to be able to use the power of yeast genetics to solve the function of peroxisomes in penicillin biosynthesis, we introduced iat in the yeast hansenula polymorpha. to this purpose, the p. chrysogen ...200516169289
nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes in the genome of fusarium graminearum, causative agent of wheat head blight.fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) are responsible for the biosynthesis of numerous metabolites which serve as virulence factors in several plant-pathogen interactions. the aim of our work was to investigate the diversity of these genes in a fusarium graminearum sequence database using bioinformatic techniques. our search identified 15 nrps sequences, among which two were found to be closely related to peptide synthetases of various fungi taking part in ferrichrome biosynthesis. ano ...200516196211
quality control and reference guidelines for clsi broth microdilution susceptibility method (m 38-a document) for amphotericin b, itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole.although standard conditions are available for testing the susceptibilities of filamentous fungi to antifungal agents by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi; formerly national committee for clinical laboratory standards) broth microdilution assay, quality control (qc) mic limits have not been established for any mold-agent combination. this multicenter (eight-center) study documented the reproducibility of tests for one isolate of paecilomyces variotii atcc mya-3630 and 11 othe ...200516207990
rna silencing in aspergillus nidulans is independent of rna-dependent rna polymerases.the versatility of rna-dependent rna polymerases (rdrps) in eukaryotic gene silencing is perhaps best illustrated in the kingdom fungi. biochemical and genetic studies of schizosaccharomyces pombe and neurospora crassa show that these types of enzymes are involved in a number of fundamental gene-silencing processes, including heterochromatin regulation and rna silencing in s. pombe and meiotic silencing and rna silencing in n. crassa. here we show that aspergillus nidulans, another model fungus, ...200515545645
a functional screen identifies lateral transfer of beta-glucuronidase (gus) from bacteria to fungi.lateral gene transfer (lgt) from prokaryotes to microbial eukaryotes is usually detected by chance through genome-sequencing projects. here, we explore a different, hypothesis-driven approach. we show that the fitness advantage associated with the transferred gene, typically invoked only in retrospect, can be used to design a functional screen capable of identifying postulated lgt cases. we hypothesized that beta-glucuronidase (gus) genes may be prone to lgt from bacteria to fungi (thought to la ...200515483318
sepbctf4 is required for the formation of dna-damage-induced uvscrad51 foci in aspergillus nidulans.sepb is an essential, conserved protein required for chromosomal dna metabolism in aspergillus nidulans. homologs of sepb include yeast ctf4p and human hand-1. molecular and bioinformatic characterization of these proteins suggests that they act as molecular scaffolds. furthermore, recent observations implicate the yeast family members in lagging-strand replication and the establishment of sister-chromatid cohesion. here, we demonstrate that sepb functions in the a. nidulans dna damage response. ...200515654119
the role of microtubules in rapid hyphal tip growth of aspergillus nidulans.the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans grows by polarized extension of hyphal tips. the actin cytoskeleton is essential for polarized growth, but the role of microtubules has been controversial. to define the role of microtubules in tip growth, we used time-lapse microscopy to measure tip growth rates in germlings of a. nidulans and in multinucleate hyphal tip cells, and we used a green fluorescent protein-alpha-tubulin fusion to observe the effects of the antimicrotubule agent benomyl. hyp ...200515548594
the zn(ii)2cys6 putative aspergillus nidulans transcription factor repressor of sexual development inhibits sexual development under low-carbon conditions and in submersed culture.here we have characterized the putative zn(ii)2cys6 transcription factor rosa from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. the rosa gene encodes a protein of 713 aa, which shares 38% sequence similarity to pro1 from sordaria macrospora. in contrast to pro1, which promotes the transition from protoperithecia to perithecia, rosa is a negative regulator of sexual development in a. nidulans. transcript levels of rosa were usually very low and were only transiently upregulated upon carbon starva ...200515520269
missense mutations that inactivate the aspergillus nidulans nrta gene encoding a high-affinity nitrate transporter.the transport of nitrate into prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells, of considerable interest to agriculture, ecology, and human health, is carried out by members of a distinct cluster of proteins within the major facilitator superfamily. to obtain structure/function information on this important class of nitrate permeases, a collection of chemically induced mutations in the nrta gene encoding a 12-transmembrane domain, high-affinity nitrate transporter from the eukaryote aspergillus nidulans was iso ...200515545642
metabolically independent and accurately adjustable aspergillus sp. expression system.filamentous fungi are well-established expression hosts often used to produce extracellular proteins of use in the food and pharmaceutical industries. the expression systems presently used in aspergillus species rely on either strong constitutive promoters, e.g., that for glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase, or inducible systems derived from metabolic pathways, e.g., glaa (glucoamylase) or alc (alcohol dehydrogenase). we describe for aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus niger a novel expres ...200515691916
attachment of a histidine tag to the minimal zinc finger protein of the aspergillus nidulans gene regulatory protein area causes a conformational change at the dna-binding site.histidine (his) tags are one of the most popular fusion tags for the isolation of proteins via metal affinity chromatography. the fusion tag is routinely left attached to the protein when carrying out experiments, with the assumption that the addition has no effect on structure or function. in the present study, we have prepared four proteins of the gene regulatory protein area from aspergillus nidulans for crystallization experiments: a 91-amino acid peptide encompassing the minimal dna-binding ...200515642465
the role of the kinesin motor kipa in microtubule organization and polarized growth of aspergillus nidulans.polarized growth in filamentous fungi requires the integrity of the microtubule (mt) cytoskeleton. we found that growing mts in aspergillus nidulans merge at the center of fast growing tips and discovered that a kinesin motor protein, kipa, related to tea2p of schizosaccharomyces pombe, is required for this process. in a deltakipa strain, mt plus ends reach the tip but show continuous lateral movement. hyphae lose directionality and grow in curves, apparently due to mislocalization of the vesicl ...200515563609
survey of simple sequence repeats in completed fungal genomes.the use of simple sequence repeats or microsatellites as genetic markers has become very popular because of their abundance and length variation between different individuals. ssrs are tandem repeat units of 1 to 6 base pairs that are found abundantly in many prokaryotic and eukaryotic genomes. this is the first study examining and comparing ssrs in completely sequenced fungal genomes. we analyzed and compared the occurrences, relative abundance, relative density, most common, and longest ssrs i ...200515563717
proper folding of the antifungal protein paf is required for optimal activity.the penicillium chrysogenumantifungal protein paf is secreted into the supernatant after elimination of a preprosequence. paf is actively internalized into the hyphae of sensitive molds and provokes growth retardation as well as changes in morphology. thus far, no information is available on the exact mode of action of paf, nor on the function of its prosequence in protein activity. therefore, we sought to investigate the effects of secreted paf as well as of intracellularly retained pro-paf and ...200515636746
nuclear envelope: nuclear pore complexity.a new study shows that the filamentous fungus, aspergillus nidulans, which has a closed mitosis, does not maintain a continuous permeability barrier during mitosis. this work challenges current views of the differences between closed and open mitosis and has implications for understanding mitotic specific changes in the nuclear pore complex and ran gtpase system in lower eukaryotes.200515649347
characterisation of aspergillus niger prolyl aminopeptidase.we have cloned a gene (papa) that encodes a prolyl aminopeptidase from aspergillus niger. homologous genes are present in the genomes of the eurotiales a. nidulans, a. fumigatus and talaromyces emersonii, but the gene is not present in the genome of the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae. cell extracts of strains overexpressing the gene under the control of its own promoter showed a fourfold to sixfold increase in prolyl aminopeptidase activity, but no change in phenylalanine or leucine aminopeptida ...200515654623
a rapid method for promoter exchange in aspergillus nidulans using recombinant pcr.recombinant pcr has been used to generate linear fragments for promoter replacement by transformation in aspergillus nidulans. a cassette vector carrying the pyr-4 non-homologous selectable marker and conditional promoter pr-alca was constructed for use as a template for pcr, and is suitable for testing the function of essential genes. two genes involved in polar growth, cota and bema, were used to assess the system. efficient targeting was possible with both genes using approximately 500bp of f ...200515588991
the polo-like kinase plka is required for initiation and progression through mitosis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.polo-like kinases (plk) function during multiple stages of mitotic progression and in cytokinesis. we identified and cloned a plk homologue in aspergillus nidulans, plka, which is the first plk reported in a filamentous fungus and the largest member of the plk family to date. as plka was essential, the effects of overexpression and localization of protein in living cells were explored to determine plka function. overexpression of plka permitted hyphal formation, but blocked nuclear division in i ...200515659171
the aspergillus ph-responsive transcription factor pacc regulates virulence.the ability of a pathogen to adapt to the host environment is usually required for the initiation of disease. here we have investigated the importance of the aspergillus nidulans pacc-mediated ph response in the pathogenesis of pulmonary aspergillosis. using mutational analysis, we demonstrate that, in neutropenic mice, elimination of the a. nidulans ph-responsive transcription factor pacc, blocking the ambient ph signal transduction pathway or prevention of pacc proteolytic processing acutely a ...200515686555
efficient implementation of a generalized pair hidden markov model for comparative gene finding.the increased availability of genome sequences of closely related organisms has generated much interest in utilizing homology to improve the accuracy of gene prediction programs. generalized pair hidden markov models (gphmms) have been proposed as one means to address this need. however, all gphmm implementations currently available are either closed-source or the details of their operation are not fully described in the literature, leaving a significant hurdle for others wishing to advance the ...200515691859
doxycycline-regulated gene expression in the opportunistic fungal pathogen aspergillus fumigatus.although aspergillus fumigatus is an important human fungal pathogen there are few expression systems available to study the contribution of specific genes to the growth and virulence of this opportunistic mould. regulatable promoter systems based upon prokaryotic regulatory elements in the e. coli tetracycline-resistance operon have been successfully used to manipulate gene expression in several organisms, including mice, flies, plants, and yeast. however, the system has not yet been adapted fo ...200515649330
susceptibility of filamentous fungi to voriconazole tested by two microdilution methods.the growing number of fungal infections, coupled with emerging resistance to classical antifungal agents, has led to the development of new agents, among them voriconazole. susceptibility to voriconazole was tested by two microdilution techniques: the national committee for clinical laboratory standards reference method m38-a and a colorimetric method, sensititre yeastone. the study tested a total of 244 isolates: 223 aspergillus (136 aspergillus fumigatus, 37 a. niger, 26 a. terreus, 16 a. flav ...200515634979
csma, a class v chitin synthase with a myosin motor-like domain, is localized through direct interaction with the actin cytoskeleton in aspergillus nidulans.one of the essential features of fungal morphogenesis is the polarized synthesis of cell wall components such as chitin. the actin cytoskeleton provides the structural basis for cell polarity in aspergillus nidulans, as well as in most other eukaryotes. a class v chitin synthase, csma, which contains a myosin motor-like domain (mmd), is conserved among most filamentous fungi. the deltacsma null mutant showed remarkable abnormalities with respect to cell wall integrity and the establishment of po ...200515703213
assessment of elasticity and topography of aspergillus nidulans spores via atomic force microscopy.previous studies have described both surface morphology and adhesive properties of fungal spores, but little information is currently available on their mechanical properties. in this study, atomic force microscopy (afm) was used to investigate both surface topography and micromechanical properties of aspergillus nidulans spores. to assess the influence of proteins covering the spore surface, wild-type spores were compared with spores from isogenic roda(+) and roda(-) strains. tapping-mode afm i ...200515691953
development of aspergillus oryzae thia promoter as a tool for molecular biological studies.in filamentous fungi, the repertoire of promoters available for exogenous gene expression is limited. here, we report the development and application of the thiamine-regulatable thia promoter (pthia) in aspergillus oryzae as a tool for molecular biological studies. when pthia was used to express the enhanced green fluorescent protein (egfp) reporter, the fluorescence in the mycelia was either repressed or induced in the presence or absence of thiamine in the culture media, respectively. in addit ...200515727819
evolution of a large ribosomal rna multigene family in filamentous fungi: birth and death of a concerted evolution paradigm.in eukaryotes, the primary components of the ribosome are encoded by multicopy nuclear ribosomal rna (rrna) genes: 28/26s, 18s, 5.8s, and 5s. copies of these genes are typically localized within tandem arrays and homogenized within a genome. as a result, nuclear rrna gene families have become a paradigm of concerted evolution. in filamentous fungi of the subphylum pezizomycotina, 5s rrna genes exist as a large and dispersed multigene family, with between 50 and 100 copies per genome. to determin ...200515784739
fungal isolation and identification in 21 cases of guttural pouch mycosis in horses (1998-2002).this aetiological study of guttural pouch mycosis (gpm) in the horse was based on the retrospective study of 21 horses brought into the national veterinary school of lyon (france) between 1998 and 2002. biopsies were taken from the lesions caused by gpm during endoscopic examination. in 87% of the cases, direct examination gave positive results, whereas 43% of the cultures were found to be negative. the main fungi observed were aspergillus fumigatus (in three cases), a. versicolor (in two cases, ...200515848789
genes of the thymidine salvage pathway: thymine-7-hydroxylase from a rhodotorula glutinis cdna library and iso-orotate decarboxylase from neurospora crassa.genes for two enzymes in the thymidine salvage pathway, thymine-7-hydroxylase (thase; official name thymine dioxygenase) and iso-orotate decarboxylase (idcase) have been isolated from fungal sources. thase was isolated from a rhodotorula glutinis cdna library using a degenerate oligonucleotide based on the published amino acid sequence. the coding sequence was transferred to an escherichia coli expression system, from which recombinant thase activity was measured using 14c-labeled thymine. the t ...200515794921
a gene (pks2) encoding a putative 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from glarea lozoyensis.a gene that encodes for a polyketide synthase (pks) was cloned from the fungus glarea lozoyensis and characterized. the gene (pks2) consists of four exons interrupted by three introns of 51, 59, and 65 bp, which are clustered at the 5' end. its predicted product is a 1791-amino-acid protein containing five catalytic motifs typical of fungal pkss, including a beta-ketosynthase, an acyltransferase, a dehydratase, a beta-ketoacyl reductase, and an acyl carrier region. the gene is transcribed from a ...200515800788
determination of the essentiality of the eight cysteine residues of the nrta protein for high-affinity nitrate transport and the generation of a functional cysteine-less transporter.all eight cysteine residues, c90, c94, c143, c147, c219, c325, c367, and c431, present in transmembrane domains of the aspergillus nidulans nrta nitrate transporter protein were altered individually by site-specific mutagenesis. the results indicate that six residues, c90, c147, c219, c325, c367, and c431, are not required for nitrate transport. although alterations of c94 and c143 are less well tolerated, these residues are not mandatory and their possible role is discussed. a series of constru ...200515807540
patterns of nucleosomal organization in the alc regulon of aspergillus nidulans: roles of the alcr transcriptional activator and the crea global repressor.we have studied the chromatin organization of three promoters of the alc regulon of aspergillus nidulans. no positioned nucleosomes are seen in the alda (aldehyde dehydrogenase) promoter under any physiological condition tested by us. in the alca (alcohol dehydrogenase i) and alcr (coding for the pathway-specific transcription factor) promoters, a pattern of positioned nucleosomes is seen under non-induced and non-induced repressed conditions. while each of these promoters shows a specific patte ...200515813742
co-cultivation of antifungal lactobacillus plantarum milab 393 and aspergillus nidulans, evaluation of effects on fungal growth and protein expression.the fungal inhibitory effects of strain lactobacillus plantarum milab 393, producing broad-spectrum antifungal compounds, were evaluated. a co-cultivation method was set up to monitor effects on fungal growth and protein expression of growing aspergillus nidulans with l. plantarum milab 393. the effects of inhibitory metabolites produced by l. plantarum milab 393, cyclo(l-phe-l-pro), lactic acid and 3-phenyllactic acid, were also investigated by addition of pure compounds to the growth medium of ...200515869970
protein production and secretion in an aspergillus nidulans mutant impaired in glycosylation.o-glycosylation has been considered a limiting factor in protein secretion in filamentous fungi. overexpression of the yeast dpm1 gene encoding dolichylphosphate mannose synthase (dpms) in an aspergillus nidulans mutant (bwb26a) deficient in o-glycosylation caused an increase in the number of secretory vesicles and changes in protein secretion. however, the secretory proteins, primarily o-mannosylated glucoamylase and n-glycosylated invertase, were mainly trapped in the periplasmic space. differ ...200515827617
tobacco smoke as inducer for gas phase-controlled transgene expression in mammalian cells and mice.capitalizing on components evolved to metabolize ethanol in aspergillus nidulans, we previously designed the first molecular gas-gene expression interface using gaseous acetaldehyde as the major inducer. this fungus-derived acetaldehyde-inducible gene regulation (air) system operated perfectly and enabled precise and reversible transgene expression dosing in a variety of mammalian cells. we now validate the use of mainstream cigarette smoke typically containing acetaldehyde at regulation-effecti ...200515841470
discovery of a novel superfamily of type iii polyketide synthases in aspergillus oryzae.identification of genes encoding type iii polyketide synthase (pks) superfamily members in the industrially useful filamentous fungus, aspergillus oryzae, revealed that their distribution is not specific to plants or bacteria. among other aspergilli (aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus), a. oryzae was unique in possessing four chalcone synthase (chs)-like genes (csya, csyb, csyc, and csyd). expression of csya, csyb, and csyd genes was confirmed by rt-pcr. comparative genome analyses r ...200515845386
aspergillus nidulans hog pathway is activated only by two-component signalling pathway in response to osmotic stress.genome sequencing analyses revealed that aspergillus nidulans has orthologous genes to all those of the high-osmolarity glycerol (hog) response mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) pathway of saccharomyces cerevisiae. a. nidulans mutant strains lacking sska, sskb, pbsb, or hoga, encoding proteins orthologous to the yeast ssk1p response regulator, ssk2p/ssk22p mapkkks, pbs2p mapkk and hog1p mapk, respectively, showed growth inhibition under high osmolarity, and hoga mapk in these mutants was n ...200515882418
chlorhexidine digluconate induces mitotic recombination in diploid cells of aspergillus nidulans.chlorhexidine digluconate (1,1'-hexamethylene-bis[(5-p-clorophenyl)-biguanide]) is a bisbiguanidine antiseptic, used to decrease plaque formation and to control periodontal diseases. the determination of the frequency of mitotic crossing-over constitutes a very important method for detecting carcinogenic agents.200515888104
class i and class ii chitin synthases are involved in septum formation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.the class ii and class i chitin synthases of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans are encoded by chsa and chsc, respectively. previously, we presented several lines of evidence suggesting that chsa and chsc have overlapping functions in maintaining cell wall integrity. in order to determine the functions of these chitin synthases, we employed electron and fluorescence microscopy and investigated in detail the cell wall of a deltachsa deltachsc double mutant (deltaac mutant) along with the ...200515947204
the dynamic behaviour of microtubules and their contributions to hyphal tip growth in aspergillus nidulans.creating and maintaining cell polarity are complex processes that are not fully understood. fungal hyphal tip growth is a highly polarized and dynamic process involving both f-actin and microtubules (mts), but the behaviour and roles of the latter are unclear. to address this issue, mt dynamics and subunit distribution were analysed in a strain of aspergillus nidulans expressing gfp-alpha-tubulin. apical mts are the most dynamic, the bulk of which move tipwards from multiple subapical spindle po ...200515870464
antisense inhibition of xylitol dehydrogenase gene, xdh1 from trichoderma reesei.to inhibit xylitol dehydrogenase (xdh) in trichoderma reesei by antisense inhibition strategy and construct novel strains capable of accumulating xylitol.200515892737
antifungal protein paf severely affects the integrity of the plasma membrane of aspergillus nidulans and induces an apoptosis-like phenotype.the small, basic, and cysteine-rich antifungal protein paf is abundantly secreted into the supernatant by the beta-lactam producer penicillium chrysogenum. paf inhibits the growth of various important plant and zoopathogenic filamentous fungi. previous studies revealed the active internalization of the antifungal protein and the induction of multifactorial detrimental effects, which finally resulted in morphological changes and growth inhibition in target fungi. in the present study, we offer de ...200515917545
antioxidant activity of the melanin pigment extracted from aspergillus nidulans.melanins are pigments of high molecular weight formed by oxidative polymerization of phenolic or indolic compounds. a number of fungi, including aspergillus nidulans, produce pigments related or identical to melanin, which are located on cell walls or exist as extracellular polymers. the aim of the present study was to assess the antioxidant activity of synthetic melanin and of the pigment extracted from the mycelium and culture medium after growth of the highly melanized strain (mel1) from a. n ...200515930763
the aspergillus nidulans sldi(rad50) gene interacts with bime(apc1), a homologue of an anaphase-promoting complex subunit.the mre11-rad50-nbs1 protein complex has emerged as a central component in the human cellular dna damage response, and recent observations suggest that these proteins are at least partially responsible for the linking of dna damage detection to dna repair and cell cycle checkpoint functions. we have identified aspergillus nidulans sldi1444d mutant in a screen for dynein synthetic lethals. the sldi(rad50) gene was cloned by complementation of the sporulation deficiency phenotype of this mutant. a ...200515948962
cytoplasmic dynein's mitotic spindle pole localization requires a functional anaphase-promoting complex, gamma-tubulin, and nudf/lis1 in aspergillus nidulans.in aspergillus nidulans, cytoplasmic dynein and nudf/lis1 are found at the spindle poles during mitosis, but they seem to be targeted to this location via different mechanisms. the spindle pole localization of cytoplasmic dynein requires the function of the anaphase-promoting complex (apc), whereas that of nudf does not. moreover, although nudf's localization to the spindle poles does not require a fully functional dynein motor, the function of nudf is important for cytoplasmic dynein's targetin ...200515930134
a short-term test adapted to detect the genotoxic effects of environmental volatile pollutants (benzene fumes) using the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.with the recent focus on environmental problems, increasing awareness of the harmful effects of industrial and agricultural pollution has created a demand for progressively more sophisticated pollutant and toxicity detection methods. using aspergillus nidulans strains this work presents a new short term-test that, most importantly, enables the rapid and inexpensive detection of volatile pollutants that induce genotoxic/carcinogenic effects in animals. the main aim is to contribute to environment ...200515931421
abundant respirable ergot alkaloids from the common airborne fungus aspergillus fumigatus.ergot alkaloids are mycotoxins that interact with several monoamine receptors, negatively affecting cardiovascular, nervous, reproductive, and immune systems of exposed humans and animals. aspergillus fumigatus, a common airborne fungus and opportunistic human pathogen, can produce ergot alkaloids in broth culture. the objectives of this study were to determine if a. fumigatus accumulates ergot alkaloids in a respirable form in or on its conidia, to quantify ergot alkaloids associated with conid ...200515933008
changes in bacterial and fungal ocular flora of clinically normal horses following experimental application of topical antimicrobial or antimicrobial-corticosteroid ophthalmic preparations.to determine effects of topical antimicrobial and antimicrobial-corticosteroid preparations on the ocular flora of horses. animals: 40 horses.200515934607
three putative oxylipin biosynthetic genes integrate sexual and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.oxylipins called psi factors have been shown to alter the ratio of asexual to sexual sporulation in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. analysis of the a. nidulans genome has led to the identification of three fatty acid oxygenases (ppoa, ppob and ppoc) predicted to produce psi factors. here, it is reported that deletion of ppob (deltappob) reduced production of the oleic-acid-derived oxylipin psibbeta and increased the ratio of asexual to sexual spore development. generation of the tri ...200515941990
elastic properties of the cell wall of aspergillus nidulans studied with atomic force microscopy.currently, little is known about the mechanical properties of filamentous fungal hyphae. to study this topic, atomic force microscopy (afm) was used to measure cell wall mechanical properties of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans. wild type and a mutant strain (deltacsma), lacking one of the chitin synthase genes, were grown in shake flasks. hyphae were immobilized on polylysine-coated coverslips and afm force--displacement curves were collected. when grown in complete medium, wild-type hypha ...200515903268
multiple roles of a heterotrimeric g-protein gamma-subunit in governing growth and development of aspergillus nidulans.vegetative growth signaling in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is primarily mediated by the heterotrimeric g-protein composed of fada (g alpha), sfad (g beta), and a presumed g gamma. analysis of the a. nidulans genome identified a single gene named gpga encoding a putative g gamma-subunit. the predicted gpga protein consists of 90 amino acids showing 72% similarity with yeast ste18p. deletion (delta) of gpga resulted in restricted vegetative growth and lowered asexual sporulation. m ...200515944346
the heterotrimeric g-protein ganb(alpha)-sfad(beta)-gpga(gamma) is a carbon source sensor involved in early camp-dependent germination in aspergillus nidulans.the role of heterotrimeric g-proteins in camp-dependent germination of conidia was investigated in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. we demonstrate that the g alpha-subunit ganb mediates a rapid and transient activation of camp synthesis in response to glucose during the early period of germination. moreover, deletion of individual g-protein subunits resulted in defective trehalose mobilization and altered germination kinetics, indicating that ganb(alpha)-sfad(beta)-gpga(gamma) co ...200515944355
the nucleobase-ascorbate transporter (nat) signature motif in uapa defines the function of the purine translocation pathway.uapa, a member of the nat/ncs2 family, is a high affinity, high capacity, uric acid-xanthine/h+ symporter of aspergillus nidulans. we have previously presented evidence showing that a highly conserved signature motif ([q/e/p]408-n-x-g-x-x-x-x-t-[r/k/g])417 is involved in uapa function. here, we present a systematic mutational analysis of conserved residues in or close to the signature motif of uapa. we show that even the most conservative substitutions of residues q408, n409 and g411 modify the ...200515953615
development of a modified positive selection medium that allows to isolate aspergillus oryzae strains cured of the integrated niad-based plasmid.the nitrate reductase gene (niad) is the most frequently utilized as a selectable marker for homologous integration at the niad locus of aspergillus oryzae. in this study we developed a method for curing of the niad-based plasmid integrated on the a. oryzae genome. positive selection using a modified chlorate medium containing leucine as a nitrogen source enabled efficient isolation of the strains deficient in nitrate assimilation from the niad(+) transformant. pcr analysis of the strains confir ...200516377911
genomics reveals traces of fungal phenylpropanoid-flavonoid metabolic pathway in the f ilamentous fungus aspergillus oryzae.fungal secondary metabolites constitute a wide variety of compounds which either play a vital role in agricultural, pharmaceutical and industrial contexts, or have devastating effects on agriculture, animal and human affairs by virtue of their toxigenicity. owing to their beneficial and deleterious characteristics, these complex compounds and the genes responsible for their synthesis have been the subjects of extensive investigation by microbiologists and pharmacologists. a majority of the funga ...200516410762
screening of growth- or development-related genes by using genomic library with inducible promoter in aspergillus nidulans.using the genomic library constructed at the downstream of the niia promoter, which induces the over-expression of an inserted dna fragment, we have attempted to screen the genes affecting growth or development by over-expression. the wild-type strain was transformed using the ama-niia(p) library and cultured on 1.2 m sorbitol media, in which asexual sporulation is induced, but sexual development is repressed. over 100,000 strains transformed to pyrg(+) were analyzed with regard to any changes i ...200516410769
glass-fiber disks provide suitable medium to study polyol production and gene expression in eurotium rubrum.eurotium species often dominate the fungal population in stored grain and are responsible for spoilage. in this study we tested the usefulness of glass fiber disks to aid the analysis of growth, polyol content and gene expression in e. rubrum in response to various water activities. growth measurements based on ergosterol content and conidial production indicated that e. rubrum grew as well at 0.86 aw as 0.98 aw. the rate of growth was considerably reduced at 0.83 aw and 0.78 aw. in contrast, un ...200516457343
genome sequencing and analysis of aspergillus oryzae.the genome of aspergillus oryzae, a fungus important for the production of traditional fermented foods and beverages in japan, has been sequenced. the ability to secrete large amounts of proteins and the development of a transformation system have facilitated the use of a. oryzae in modern biotechnology. although both a. oryzae and aspergillus flavus belong to the section flavi of the subgenus circumdati of aspergillus, a. oryzae, unlike a. flavus, does not produce aflatoxin, and its long histor ...200516372010
increased mesquite gum formation in nodal explants cultures after treatment with a microbial biomass preparation.prosopis laevigata nodal explants cultures were established in murashige and skoog medium. simultaneously these cultures were subjected to stress with biotic elicitors and an environmental factor (temperature increase to promote heat stress) in order to promote and increase exuded mesquite gum production. the biotic elicitors were: aspergillus nidulans and pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes both used in concentrations of 10, 20 and 30 mg, whereas the environmental condition was different incubation t ...200516198591
a mapk gene from dead sea fungus confers stress tolerance to lithium salt and freezing-thawing: prospects for saline agriculture.the dead sea is one of the most saline lakes on earth ( approximately 340 g/liter salinity) and is approximately 10 times saltier than the oceans. eurotium herbariorum, a common fungal species, was isolated from its water. ehhog gene, encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) that plays an essential role in the osmoregulatory pathway in yeast and many other eukaryotes, was isolated from e. herbariorum. the deduced amino acid sequences of ehhog indicated high similarity with homologous g ...200516365289
comparison of gene expression signatures of diamide, h2o2 and menadione exposed aspergillus nidulans cultures--linking genome-wide transcriptional changes to cellular physiology.in addition to their cytotoxic nature, reactive oxygen species (ros) are also signal molecules in diverse cellular processes in eukaryotic organisms. linking genome-wide transcriptional changes to cellular physiology in oxidative stress-exposed aspergillus nidulans cultures provides the opportunity to estimate the sizes of peroxide (o2(2-)), superoxide (o2*-) and glutathione/glutathione disulphide (gsh/gssg) redox imbalance responses.200516368011
sequencing of aspergillus nidulans and comparative analysis with a. fumigatus and a. oryzae.the aspergilli comprise a diverse group of filamentous fungi spanning over 200 million years of evolution. here we report the genome sequence of the model organism aspergillus nidulans, and a comparative study with aspergillus fumigatus, a serious human pathogen, and aspergillus oryzae, used in the production of sake, miso and soy sauce. our analysis of genome structure provided a quantitative evaluation of forces driving long-term eukaryotic genome evolution. it also led to an experimentally va ...200516372000
deletions of endocytic components vps28 and vps32 affect growth at alkaline ph and virulence through both rim101-dependent and rim101-independent pathways in candida albicans.ambient ph signaling involves a cascade of conserved rim or pal products in ascomycetous yeasts or filamentous fungi, respectively. recent evidences in the fungi aspergillus nidulans, saccharomyces cerevisiae, yarrowia lipolytica, and candida albicans suggested that components of endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (escrt) involved in endocytic trafficking were needed for signal transduction along the rim pathway. in this study, we confirm these findings with c. albicans and show ...200516299290
the aspergillus nidulans phytochrome fpha represses sexual development in red light.phytochrome photoreceptors sense red and far-red light through photointerconversion between two stable conformations, a process mediated by a linear tetrapyrrole chromophore. originally, phytochromes were thought to be confined to photosynthetic organisms including cyanobacteria, but they have been recently discovered in heterotrophic bacteria and fungi, where little is known about their functions. it was shown previously in the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus nidulans that asexual sporulation i ...200516243030
c21orf5, a new member of dopey family involved in morphogenesis, could participate in neurological alterations and mental retardation in down syndrome.availability of the human genome sequence promises important progress in the understanding of human pathologies, particularly for multifactorial diseases. among these, down syndrome (ds) is the most frequent genetic cause of mental retardation. a critical region of chromosome 21, the down syndrome chromosomal region-1 (dcr-1), is responsible for many features of the ds phenotype including mental retardation. we studied dcr-1 c21orf5 as a new candidate gene for ds considering its restricted expre ...200516303751
the appearances of autolytic and apoptotic markers are concomitant but differently regulated in carbon-starving aspergillus nidulans cultures.in ageing, carbon-depleted cultures of aspergillus nidulans strain fgsc 26 progressing apoptotic-type cell death was detected, characterised by increasing numbers of annexin v and tunel stained cells after protoplastation. dapi staining of autolysing mycelia revealed numerous nuclei with elongated, stick-like morphology, which was not observed in surviving hyphal fragments representing a cell population adapted to carbon starvation. apoptotic cell death was also progressing in aging cultures of ...200516165325
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