TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
adaptative and developmental responses to stress in aspergillus nidulan.development in the ascomycete a. nidulans is principally determined by environmental signals. adaptability to oxidative stimuli can derive in changes of growth patterns and /or the activation of sexual or asexual reproductive cycles but this model fungus might also respond to high osmotic or salt concentrations, the redox state, the availability and quantity of carbon or nitrogen sources and the degree or quality of illumination. since each cell within the colony follows a single morphogenetic p ...201021190514
horizontal transfer of a large and highly toxic secondary metabolic gene cluster between fungi.genes involved in intermediary and secondary metabolism in fungi are frequently physically linked or clustered. for example, in aspergillus nidulans the entire pathway for the production of sterigmatocystin (st), a highly toxic secondary metabolite and a precursor to the aflatoxins (af), is located in a ∼54 kb, 23 gene cluster. we discovered that a complete st gene cluster in podospora anserina was horizontally transferred from aspergillus. phylogenetic analysis shows that most podospora cluster ...201021194949
the l279p mutation of nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) influences its chaperone activity and lissencephaly protein 1 (lis1) stability.lis1, a gene mutated in classical lissencephaly, plays essential roles in cytoplasmic dynein regulation, mitosis and cell migration. however, the regulation of lis1 (lissencephaly protein 1) protein remains largely unknown. genetic studies in aspergillus nidulans have uncovered that the nud (nuclear distribution) pathway is involved in the regulation of cytoplasmic dynein complex and a temperature-sensitive mutation in the nudc gene (l146p) greatly reduces the protein levels of nudf, an aspergil ...201020675372
a comparative study of activity and apparent inhibition of fungal β-glucosidases.β-glucosidases (bgs) from aspergillus fumigates, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, chaetomium globosum, emericella nidulans, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa, and penicillium brasilianum were purified to homogeneity, and analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry with respect to their hydrolytic activity and its sensitivity to glucose (product) using cellobiose as substrate. global non-linear regression of several reactions, with or without added glucose, to a product inhibition equa ...201020677177
gamma-tubulin regulates the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome during interphase.a cold-sensitive gamma-tubulin allele of aspergillus nidulans, mipad159, causes defects in mitotic and cell cycle regulation at restrictive temperatures that are apparently independent of microtubule nucleation defects. time-lapse microscopy of fluorescently tagged mitotic regulatory proteins reveals that cyclin b, cyclin-dependent kinase 1, and the ancdc14 phosphatase fail to accumulate in a subset of nuclei at restrictive temperatures. these nuclei are permanently removed from the cell cycle, ...201020679430
aspergillus nidulans alpha-galactosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 36 catalyses the formation of alpha-galacto-oligosaccharides by transglycosylation.the alpha-galactosidase from aspergillus nidulans (aglc) belongs to a phylogenetic cluster containing eukaryotic alpha-galactosidases and alpha-galacto-oligosaccharide synthases of glycoside hydrolase family 36 (gh36). the recombinant aglc, produced in high yield (0.65 g.l(-1) culture) as his-tag fusion in escherichia coli, catalysed efficient transglycosylation with alpha-(1-->6) regioselectivity from 40 mm 4-nitrophenol alpha-d-galactopyranoside, melibiose or raffinose, resulting in a 37-74% y ...201020681989
evolutionary genetics: desperate times call for more sex.a new study has found that strains of the fungus aspergillus nidulans produce more of their spores sexually in environments where they are less fit, resembling a hypothesized transitional stage in the evolution of sex.201020692611
eisosome organization in the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans.eisosomes are subcortical organelles implicated in endocytosis and have hitherto been described only in saccharomyces cerevisiae. they comprise two homologue proteins, pil1 and lsp1, which colocalize with the transmembrane protein sur7. these proteins are universally conserved in the ascomycetes. we identify in aspergillus nidulans (and in all members of the subphylum pezizomycotina) two homologues of pil1/lsp1, pila and pilb, originating from a duplication independent from that extant in the su ...201020693301
endocytic machinery protein slab is dispensable for polarity establishment but necessary for polarity maintenance in hyphal tip cells of aspergillus nidulans.the aspergillus nidulans endocytic internalization protein slab is essential, in agreement with the key role in apical extension attributed to endocytosis. we constructed, by gene replacement, a nitrate-inducible, ammonium-repressible slab1 allele for conditional slab expression. video microscopy showed that repressed slab1 cells are able to establish but unable to maintain a stable polarity axis, arresting growth with budding-yeast-like morphology shortly after initially normal germ tube emerge ...201020693304
inadvertent gene silencing of argininosuccinate synthase (bcass1) in botrytis cinerea by the plob1 vector system.for several years, researchers working on the plant pathogen botrytis cinerea and a number of other related fungi have routinely used the plob1 vector system, based on hygromycin resistance, under the control of the aspergillus nidulans olic promoter and what was reported to be the beta-tubulin (tuba) terminator. recently, it has been demonstrated that this vector contains a 446-bp portion of the b. cinerea argininosuccinate synthase gene (bcass1) rather than the tuba terminator. as argininosucc ...201020696000
induction of cell wall thickening by the antifungal compound dihydromaltophilin disrupts fungal growth and is mediated by sphingolipid biosynthesis.dihydromaltophilin (heat-stable antifungal factor [hsaf]) is an antifungal metabolite produced in lysobacter enzymogenes biocontrol strain c3. this compound induces cell wall thickening in aspergillus nidulans. here we show that the cell wall thickening is a general response to hsaf in diverse fungal species. in the a. nidulans model, the thickened cell wall negatively affects hyphal growth. growth of hsaf-pre-treated hyphae failed to resume at hyphal tips with thick cell wall and the actin cabl ...200921462551
[recent advances in the study of amorpha-4,11-diene synthase and its metabolic engineering].amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) can convert farnesyl pyrophosphate (fpp) to amorpha-4, 11-diene, a precursor of artemisinin. ads plays an important role in the biosynthesis of artemisinin. this review summarizes the molecular biology and metabolic engineering study of ads in recent years. the genomic dna and its cdna sequences of amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase were cloned from artemisia annua l. the cdna encoding amorpha-4, 11-diene synthase contains a 1 641 bp open reading frame coding for 546 ...200921351463
mononucleotide repeats represent an important source of polymorphic microsatellite markers in aspergillus fungi, microsatellites occur less frequently throughout the genome and tend to be less polymorphic compared with other organisms. most studies that develop microsatellites for fungi focus on dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats, and thus mononucleotide repeats, which are much more abundant in fungal genomes, may represent an overlooked resource. this study examined the relative probabilities of polymorphism in mononucleotide, dinucleotide and trinucleotide repeats in aspergillus nidulans. a ...200921564695
mechanism of sterigmatocystin biosynthesis regulation by ph in aspergillus nidulans.external ph constitutes one of the most important environmental factors that control growth, metabolism and differentiation in microorganisms, including fungi. we have analyzed the effect of external ph on sterigmatocystin biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans. it was observed in repeated experiments that alkaline ph, in opposition to acid ph, increased sterigmatocystin production and the transcript levels of aflr, the master gene that regulates expression of the sterigmatocystin cluster in a. ni ...200924031444
molecular genetics of emericella nidulans sexual development.many aspergilli that belongs to ascomycetes have sexuality. in a homothallic or self-fertile fungus, a number of fruiting bodies or cleistothecia are formed in a thallus grown from a single haploid conidia or ascospores. genome-sequencing project revealed that two mating genes (mat) encoding the regulatory proteins that are necessary for controlling partner recognition in heterothallic fungi were conserved in most aspergilli. the mat gene products in some self-fertile species were not required f ...200923983529
asexual sporulation signalling regulates autolysis of aspergillus nidulans via modulating the chitinase chib production.elucidation of the regulation of chib production in aspergillus nidulans.200919486415
proteomic analysis of aspergillus nidulans cultured under hypoxic conditions.the fungus aspergillus nidulans reduces nitrate to ammonium and simultaneously oxidizes ethanol to acetate to generate atp under hypoxic conditions in a mechanism called ammonia fermentation (takasaki, k. et al.. j. biol. chem. 2004, 279, 12414-12420). to elucidate the mechanism, the fungus was cultured under normoxic and hypoxic (ammonia fermenting) conditions, intracellular proteins were resolved by 2-de, and 332 protein spots were identified using maldi ms after tryptic digestion. alcohol and ...200919053082
analysis of all protein phosphatase genes in aspergillus nidulans identifies a new mitotic regulator, fcp1.reversible protein phosphorylation is an important regulatory mechanism of cell cycle control in which protein phosphatases counteract the activities of protein kinases. in aspergillus nidulans, 28 protein phosphatase catalytic subunit genes were identified. systematic deletion analysis identified four essential phosphatases and four required for normal growth. conditional alleles of these were generated using the alca promoter. the deleted phosphatase strain collection and regulatable versions ...200919181872
rapid screening and isolation of a fungus for sitosterol to androstenedione biotransformation.androstenedione (ad) is a steroid intermediate used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of several important anabolic drugs. an important route for producing ad is by the microbial transformation of sterols. microbes capable of efficiently transforming sterols to ad are few and newer strains need to be isolated. conventional procedures for screening and isolation are time consuming. a new procedure was used for screening and isolation of fungal microorganisms capable of biotransfor ...200919189060
a gene cluster containing two fungal polyketide synthases encodes the biosynthetic pathway for a polyketide, asperfuranone, in aspergillus nidulans.the genome sequencing of aspergillus species including a. nidulans reveals that the products of many of the secondary metabolism pathways in these fungi have not been elucidated. our examination of the 27 polyketide synthases (pks) in a. nidulans revealed that one highly reduced pks (hr-pks, an1034.3) and one nonreduced pks (nr-pks, an1036.3) are located next to each other in the genome. since no known a. nidulans secondary metabolites could be produced by two pks enzymes, we hypothesized that t ...200919199437
inducer-dependent nuclear localization of a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator, amyr, in aspergillus nidulans.amyr is a zn(ii)(2)cys(6) transcriptional activator that regulates expression of the amylolytic genes in aspergillus species. subcellular localization studies of gfp-fused amyr in a. nidulans revealed that the fusion protein preferentially localized to the nucleus in response to isomaltose, the physiological inducer of the amylolytic genes. the c-terminal domains of amyr, designated mh3 (residues 419-496) and mh4 (residues 516-542), were essential for sensing the inducing stimulus and regulating ...200919202286
mutations in genes encoding sorting nexins alter production of intracellular and extracellular proteases in aspergillus nidulans.xprg, a putative p53-like transcriptional activator, regulates production of extracellular proteases in response to nutrient limitation and may also have a role in programmed cell death. to identify genes that may be involved in the xprg regulatory pathway, xprg2 revertants were isolated and shown to carry mutations in genes which we have named soga-c (suppressors of xprg). the translocation breakpoint in the soga1 mutant was localized to a homolog of saccharomyces cerevisiae vps5 and mapping da ...200919204378
expression of a gfp gene in penicillium nordicum under control of the promoter of the ochratoxin a polyketide synthase gene.a gfp reporter gene strain of penicillium nordicum was constructed in order to be able to study the influence of environmental parameters on ochratoxin a biosynthesis. to introduce the gfp gene an agrobacterium tumefaciens mediated transformation system (atmt) for p. nordicum was established resulting in a transformation efficiency of about 60 transformants per microg of dna. the selection principle was based on the hygromycin b resistance gene located on the ti-dna fragment of the binary vector ...200919525025
aspergillus fumigatus induces immunoglobulin e-independent mast cell degranulation.pulmonary colonization by aspergillus fumigatus in chronic lung disease is associated with progressive decline in lung function even in the absence of specific allergic response. we hypothesized that a. fumigatus contributes to this decline by inducing pulmonary mast cell degranulation even in the absence of antigen-specific immunoglobulin e (ige). therefore, we investigated whether a. fumigatus can induce mast cell degranulation independently of ige.200919527167
functional analysis and subcellular localization of two geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from penicillium paxilli.the filamentous fungus penicillium paxilli contains two distinct geranylgeranyl diphosphate (ggpp) synthases, ggsa and ggsb (paxg). paxg and its homologues in neotyphodium lolii and fusarium fujikuroi are associated with diterpene secondary metabolite gene clusters. the genomes of other filamentous fungi including aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae and fusarium graminearum also contain two or more copies of ggpp synthase genes, although the diterpe ...200919529962
effect of ozone on spore germination, spore production and biomass production in two aspergillus species.the ability of ozone gas to reduce food spoilage is relatively well documented, but the developmental effects of the gas on food spoilage fungi are not well known. in this study two model aspergilli, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus ochraceus were used to study the effects of ozone on spore germination, sporulation and biomass production. these effects were examined under three levels of ozone; two high level ozone exposures (200 and 300 micromol mol(-1)) and one low level exposure (0.2 micr ...200919533409
characterization of the aspergillus ochraceoroseus aflatoxin/sterigmatocystin biosynthetic gene cluster.production of carcinogenic aflatoxins has been reported from members of aspergillus section flavi, aspergillus section nidulantes and a newly proposed aspergillus section ochraceorosei that consists of aspergillus ochraceoroseus and a. rambellii. unlike members of section flavi, a. ochraceoroseus and a. rambellii have been shown to accumulate both aflatoxin (af) and the aflatoxin precursor sterigmatocystin (st). alhough morphologically distinct from a. nidulans, molecular characterization of a. ...200919537208
restoration of net formation by gene therapy in cgd controls aspergillosis.chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) patients have impaired nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (nadph) oxidase function, resulting in poor antimicrobial activity of neutrophils, including the inability to generate neutrophil extracellular traps (nets). invasive aspergillosis is the leading cause of death in patients with cgd; it is unclear how neutrophils control aspergillus species in healthy persons. the aim of this study was to determine whether gene therapy restores net formation in ...200919541821
heterologous expression and characterization of cpi, ocpa, and novel serine-type carboxypeptidase ocpb from aspergillus the genome of aspergillus oryzae, 12 genes have been predicted to encode serine-type carboxypeptidases. however, the carboxypeptidase activities of the proteins encoded by these genes have not yet been confirmed experimentally. in this study, we have constructed three of these 12 genes overexpressing strains using aspergillus nidulans and characterized their overproduced recombinant proteins. of these three genes, one was previously named cpi; the other two have not been reported yet, and hen ...200919557408
riok3 interacts with caspase-10 and negatively regulates the nf-kappab signaling pathway.riok3 was initially characterized as a homolog of aspergillus nidulans sudd and showed down-regulation at the invasive front of malignant melanomas, but the molecular mechanism remains elusive. here, we report that overexpression of riok3 inhibits tnfalpha-induced nf-kappab activation, but down-regulation of endogenous riok3 expression by sirna potentiates it. a yeast two-hybrid experiment revealed that riok3 interacted with caspase-10, and further, a gst pull-down assay and endogenous coimmunop ...200919557502
molecular characterization of the niad and pyrg genes from penicillium camemberti, and their use as transformation markers.genetic manipulation of the filamentous fungus penicillium camemberti has been limited by a lack of suitable genetics tools for this fungus. in particular, there is no available homologous transformation system. in this study, the nitrate reductase (niad) and orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (pyrg) genes from penicillium camemberti were characterized, and their suitability as metabolic molecular markers for transformation was evaluated. the genes were amplified using pcr-related techniqu ...200919562269
elimination of marker genes from transformed filamentous fungi by unselected transient transfection with a cre-expressing plasmid.a convenient method to remove selectable markers from fungal transformants permits the markers to be used for sequential transformations, and should also reduce public concerns and regulatory impediments to applications involving environmental release of genetically modified fungi. we report a method for marker removal that requires no genetic selection. protoplasts from neotyphodium coenophialum,neotyphodium uncinatum and epichloë festucae transformants containing a hygromycin b phosphotransfer ...200919576996
characterization of nika histidine kinase and two response regulators with special reference to osmotic adaptation and asexual development in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans has many histidine-to-aspartate (his-asp) phosphorelay components, including 15 histidine kinases (hks), four response regulators (rrs), and a histidine-containing phosphotransfer intermediate (hpt). of these, nika (hk) is highly conserved in many filamentous fungi. it has been found that nika is responsible for the responses of filamentous fungi to fungicides such as iprodione and fludioxonil. two rrs, sska and srra, are also involved in the fungicide response, providing a ...200919584543
comprehensive genomic analysis of cell wall genes in aspergillus nidulans.knowledge of the mechanisms underlying cell wall biosynthesis in aspergillus spp. is of high relevance to medicine and food safety, and for biotechnological applications. the cell wall of aspergillus nidulans is composed of galactomannoproteins, 1,3-alpha-glucan, beta-glucans, and chitin. here, we present a comprehensive inventory of the cell wall-related genes in a. nidulans. this includes glycan-synthetic and glycan-processing enzymes, spore wall maturation enzymes, gpi-anchor processing enzym ...200919585695
decolourization and detoxification of pulp and paper mill effluent by emericella nidulans var. this study geno-toxicity analysis along with effluent treatment was taken up to evaluate the efficiency of biological treatment process for safe disposal of treated effluent. four fungi were isolated from sediments of pulp and paper mill in which pf4 reduced colour (30%) and lignin content (24%) of the effluent on 3rd day. the fungal strain was identified as emericella nidulans var. nidulans (anamorph: aspergillus nidulans) on the basis of rdna its1 and rdna its2 region sequences. the process ...200919586717
transcriptional profiling for aspergillusnidulans hoga mapk signaling pathway in response to fludioxonil and osmotic filamentous fungi, the his-asp phosphorelay signaling system and hog pathway are involved in the action of the fungicides, fludioxonil, and iprodione, as well as osmotic and oxidative stress responses. aspergillusnidulans response regulators (rrs), sska and srra, and histidine kinase (hk), nika, are involved in the growth inhibitory effects of these fungicides. to gain further insights into the molecular basis for these signaling systems, we performed dna microarray analyses of fludioxonil an ...200919596074
experimental evolution of resistance against a competing fungus in drosophila melanogaster.competition between microorganisms and arthropods has been shown to be an important ecological interaction determining animal development and spatial distribution patterns in saprophagous communities. in fruit-inhabiting drosophila, variation in insect developmental success is not only determined by species-specific effects of various noxious filamentous fungi but, as suggested by an earlier study, also by additive genetic variation in the ability to successfully withstand the negative impact of ...200919597847
biodiversity and evolution of primary carbon metabolism in aspergillus nidulans and other aspergillus spp.some of the aspergilli are reputed for their versatile and efficient catabolism of soluble carbon sources and related metabolites as well as raw polymeric materials. here, we present a detailed investigation of the genomic and evolutionary basis for this versatility, using seven aspergillus and one neosartorya genome sequences. we manually annotated about 155 genes per genome covering glycolysis, the pentose phosphate cycle, alternative routes of d-glucose metabolism, catabolism of d-galactose a ...200919610199
morphology and development in aspergillus nidulans: a complex other filamentous fungi, aspergillus nidulans forms a multitude of cell types that facilitate colonization and development. the molecular basis of cellular morphogenesis in a. nidulans is not well, we summarize results obtained from detailed annotation of the a. nidulans genome sequence for genes with predicted roles in morphogenesis, with primary focus on polarized growth, calcium signaling, and development. we draw three broad conclusions from our results. first, the compo ...200919610202
post-genomic insights into the plant polysaccharide degradation potential of aspergillus nidulans and comparison to aspergillus niger and aspergillus oryzae.the plant polysaccharide degradative potential of aspergillus nidulans was analysed in detail and compared to that of aspergillus niger and aspergillus oryzae using a combination of bioinformatics, physiology and transcriptomics. manual verification indicated that 28.4% of the a. nidulans orfs analysed in this study do not contain a secretion signal, of which 40% may be secreted through a non-classical method.while significant differences were found between the species in the numbers of orfs ass ...200919618505
[two-step synthesis of the full length aspergillus niger lipase gene lipa leads to high-level expression in pichia pastoris].aspergillus niger lipases are important biocatalysis widely used in industries for food processing and pharmaceutical preparation. high-level expression recombinants can lead to cost effective lipase large scale production. full length gene synthesis is an efficient measure to enhance the expression level of the gene. in order to reduce the non-specific binding between oligonucleotides and bases mutation caused by the complicate secondary structure of dna and excessive pcr amplification, a frequ ...200919621578
the spitzenkörper: a signalling hub for the control of fungal development?in aspergillus nidulans, asexual development culminates in the formation of a multicellular conidiophore that bears spores known as conidia. although several factors required for conidiophore formation have been characterized, the mechanisms underlying the transition from vegetative growth to development remain obscure. however, the recent characterization of two of these factors, flbb and flbe, provides important new insight. notably, these studies suggest that the spitzenkörper (i.e. apical bo ...200919627503
deletion and overexpression of the aspergillus nidulans gata factor areb reveals unexpected pleiotropy.the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor area is a key regulator of nitrogen metabolic gene expression. area contains a c-terminal gata zinc finger dna-binding domain and activates expression of genes necessary for nitrogen acquisition. previous studies identified areb as a potential negative regulator of nitrogen catabolism showing similarity with penicillium chrysogenum nreb and neurospora crassa asd4. the areb gene encodes multiple products containing an n-terminal gata zinc finger and a ...200919628561
partitioning the apical domain of the arabidopsis embryo requires the bobber1 nudc domain protein.the apical domain of the embryo is partitioned into distinct regions that will give rise to the cotyledons and the shoot apical meristem. in this article, we describe a novel screen to identify arabidopsis thaliana embryo arrest mutants that are defective in this partitioning, and we describe the phenotype of one such mutant, bobber1. bobber1 mutants arrest at the globular stage of development, they express the meristem-specific shootmeristemless gene throughout the top half of the embryo, and t ...200919648297
protein o-mannosyltransferases b and c support hyphal development and differentiation in aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans possesses three pmt genes encoding protein o-d-mannosyltransferases (pmt). previously, we reported that pmta, a member of the pmt2 subfamily, is involved in the proper maintenance of fungal morphology and formation of conidia (t. oka, t. hamaguchi, y. sameshima, m. goto, and k. furukawa, microbiology 150:1973-1982, 2004). in the present paper, we describe the characterization of the pmta paralogues pmtb and pmtc. pmtb and pmtc were classified as members of the pmt1 and pmt4 ...200919648468
identification of novel cell wall destabilizing antifungal compounds using a conditional aspergillus nidulans protein kinase c mutant.despite the need for novel drugs to combat fungal infections, antifungal drug discovery is currently limited by both the availability of suitable drug targets and assays to screen corresponding targets. the aim of this study was to screen a library of small chemical compounds to identify cell wall inhibitors using a conditional protein kinase c (pkc)-expressing strain of aspergillus nidulans. this mutant is specifically susceptible to cell wall damaging compounds under pkc-repressive growth cond ...200919648579
the bzip-type transcription factor flbb regulates distinct morphogenetic stages of colony formation in aspergillus nidulans.conidiophore formation in aspergillus nidulans involves a developmental programme in which vegetative hyphae give rise to an ordered succession of differentiated cells: foot cell, stalk, vesicle, metulae, phialides and conidia. the developmental transition requires factors that are expressed in vegetative hyphae that activate the expression of the main regulator of conidiation, brla. one such element is the bzip-type transcription factor flbb. we found that flbb(-) mutants show defective branchi ...200919656299
methylcitrate cycle activation during adaptation of fusarium solani and fusarium verticillioides to propionyl-coa-generating carbon sources.propionyl-coa is an inhibitor of both primary and secondary metabolism in aspergillus species and a functional methylcitrate cycle is essential for the efficient removal of this potentially toxic metabolite. although the genomes of most sequenced fungal species appear to contain genes coding for enzymes of the methylcitrate cycle, experimental confirmation of pathway activity in filamentous fungi has only been provided for aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus fumigatus. in this study we demonstr ...200919661181
a fungal phylogeny based on 82 complete genomes using the composition vector method.molecular phylogenetics and phylogenomics have greatly revised and enriched the fungal systematics in the last two decades. most of the analyses have been performed by comparing single or multiple orthologous gene regions. sequence alignment has always been an essential element in tree construction. these alignment-based methods (to be called the standard methods hereafter) need independent verification in order to put the fungal tree of life (tol) on a secure footing. the ever-increasing number ...200919664262
expressing a fusion protein with protease and chitinase activities increases the virulence of the insect pathogen beauveria bassiana.entomopathogenic fungi, such as beauveria bassiana and metarhizium anisopliae are being developed as alternatives to chemical insecticides. they infect insects by direct penetration of the cuticle using a combination of physical pressure and extracellular hydrolytic enzymes such as proteases and chitinases. previously we found that overexpression of a subtilisin-like protease (pr1a) or a chitinase (bbchit1) resulted in increased virulence of m. anisopliae and b. bassiana, respectively. in this s ...200919666027
intimate bacterial-fungal interaction triggers biosynthesis of archetypal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans.fungi produce numerous low molecular weight molecules endowed with a multitude of biological activities. however, mining the full-genome sequences of fungi indicates that their potential to produce secondary metabolites is greatly underestimated. because most of the biosynthesis gene clusters are silent under laboratory conditions, one of the major challenges is to understand the physiological conditions under which these genes are activated. thus, we cocultivated the important model fungus aspe ...200919666480
aspergillus nidulans protein o-mannosyltransferases play roles in cell wall integrity and developmental patterning.protein o-mannosyltransferases (pmts) initiate o-mannosyl glycan biosynthesis from ser and thr residues of target proteins. fungal pmts are divided into three subfamilies, pmt1, -2, and -4. aspergillus nidulans possesses a single representative of each pmt subfamily, pmta (subfamily 2), pmtb (subfamily 1), and pmtc (subfamily 4). in this work, we show that single deltapmt mutants are viable and have unique phenotypes and that the deltapmta deltapmtb double mutant is the only viable double mutant ...200919666781
modelling and mutational evidence identify the substrate binding site and functional elements in apc amino acid transporters.the amino acid-polyamine-organocation (apc) superfamily is the main family of amino acid transporters found in all domains of life and one of the largest families of secondary transporters. here, using a sensitive homology threading approach and modelling we show that the predicted structure of apc members is extremely similar to the crystal structures of several prokaryotic transporters belonging to evolutionary distinct protein families with different substrate specificities. all of these prot ...200919670073
aspergillus nidulans genes encoding reverse transsulfuration enzymes belong to homocysteine regulon.homocysteine is an intermediate in methionine synthesis in aspergillus nidulans, but it can also be converted to cysteine by the reverse transsulfuration pathway involving cystathionine beta-synthase (cbs) and cystathionine gamma-lyase (cgl). because homocysteine is toxic to the cell at high concentrations, this pathway also functions as a means of removal of its excess. we found that the transcription of the meca and mecb genes encoding cbs and cgl was upregulated by excess of homocysteine as w ...200919685245
heterologous production of non-ribosomal peptide lld-acv in saccharomyces cerevisiae.non-ribosomal peptides (nrps) are a diverse family of secondary metabolites with a broad range of biological activities. we started to develop an eukaryotic microbial platform based on the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae for heterologous production of nrps using delta-(l-alpha-aminoadipyl)-l-cysteinyl-d-valine (acv) as a model nrp. the penicillium chrysogenum gene pcbab encoding acv synthetase was expressed in s. cerevisiae from a high-copy plasmid together with phosphopantetheinyl transferase (p ...200919686863
patterns of susceptibility of aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the transplant-associated infection surveillance network.we analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the transplant-associated infection surveillance network (transnet) and examined the relationship between mic and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m38-a2 broth dilution method for amphotericin b (amb), itraconazole (itr), voric ...200919692558
organization and dynamics of the aspergillus nidulans golgi during apical extension and mitosis.aspergillus nidulans hyphae grow exclusively by apical extension. golgi equivalents (ges) labeled with mrfp-tagged ph(osbp) domain form a markedly polarized, dynamic network of ring-shaped and fenestrated cisternae that remains intact during "closed" mitosis. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges advance associated with the growing apex where secretion predominates but do not undergo long-distance movement toward the tip that could account for their polarization. mrfp-ph(osbp) ges overlap with the trans-golgi resid ...200919692566
transcriptional upregulation of four genes of the lysine biosynthetic pathway by homocitrate accumulation in penicillium chrysogenum: homocitrate as a sensor of lysine-pathway distress.the lysine biosynthetic pathway has to supply large amounts of alpha-aminoadipic acid for penicillin biosynthesis in penicillium chrysogenum. in this study, we have characterized the p. chrysogenum l2 mutant, a lysine auxotroph that shows highly increased expression of several lysine biosynthesis genes (lys1, lys2, lys3, lys7). the l2 mutant was found to be deficient in homoaconitase activity since it was complemented by the aspergillus nidulans lysf gene. we have cloned a gene (named lys3) that ...200919696106
the transcription factor homolog ctf1 regulates {beta}-oxidation in candida albicans.carbon starvation is one of the many stresses to which microbial pathogens are subjected while in the host. pathways necessary for the utilization of alternative carbon sources, such as gluconeogenesis, the glyoxylate cycle, and beta-oxidation of fatty acids, have been shown to be required for full virulence in several systems, including the fungal pathogen candida albicans. we have investigated the regulatory network governing alternative carbon metabolism in this organism through characterizat ...200919700635
a novel hybrid dual-channel catalytic-biological sensor system for assessment of fruit quality.the release of volatile ethylene and acetaldehyde characterizes the metabolic state and quality of fruit. we have designed and implemented a hybrid dual-channel catalytic-biological sensor system, which is able to quantify both volatiles in situ. this sensor system consists of a mammalian cell line engineered for constitutive expression of an aspergillus nidulans-derived biosensor which triggers quantitative reporter gene expression in the presence of volatile acetaldehyde. ethylene, oxidized to ...200919297727
re-characterisation of saccharomyces cerevisiae ach1p: fungal coa-transferases are involved in acetic acid detoxification.saccharomyces cerevisiae and neurospora crassa mutants defective in the so-called acetyl-coa hydrolases ach1p and acu-8, respectively, display a severe growth defect on acetate, which is most strongly pronounced under acidic conditions. acetyl-coa hydrolysis is an energy wasting process and therefore denoted as a biochemical conundrum. acetyl-coa hydrolases show high sequence identity to the coa-transferase coat from aspergillus nidulans. therefore, we extensively re-characterised the yeast enzy ...200919298859
characterization of oxylipins and dioxygenase genes in the asexual fungus aspergillus niger.aspergillus niger is an ascomycetous fungus that is known to reproduce through asexual spores, only. interestingly, recent genome analysis of a. niger has revealed the presence of a full complement of functional genes related to sexual reproduction 1. an example of such genes are the dioxygenase genes which in aspergillus nidulans, have been shown to be connected to oxylipin production and regulation of both sexual and asexual sporulation 234. nevertheless, the presence of sex related genes alon ...200919309517
importin alpha is an essential nuclear import carrier adaptor required for proper sexual and asexual development and secondary metabolism in aspergillus eukaryotes, the principal nuclear import pathway is driven by the importin alpha/beta1 heterodimer. kapa, the aspergillus nidulans importin alpha, is an essential protein. we generated a conditional allele, kapa31, mimicking the srp1-31 allele in saccharomyces cerevisiae. kapa31 carries a ser111phe amino acid substitution which, at the restrictive temperature of 42 degrees c, reduces nuclear import of cargos containing classical nuclear-localization-sequences, cnls. using kapa31, we have demo ...200919318129
deletion analysis of the promoter of aspergillus oryzae gene encoding heat shock protein order to find a promoter that could be influenced by temperature shift, we explored and isolated an aspergillus oryzae gene expressed at high temperatures (37-42 degrees c) by the cdna subtraction method. of the 96 cdna clones isolated from the subtraction library, one cdna clone showed 73% identity with aspergillus nidulans heat shock protein 30 (hsp30). based on this, we designated the isolated gene hsp30 of a. oryzae. a. oryzae hsp30 was weakly expressed at 30 degrees c, but strongly at 40 ...200919332290
functional characterization of the aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductases (msra and msrb).proteins are subject to modification by reactive oxygen species (ros), and oxidation of specific amino acid residues can impair their biological function, leading to an alteration in cellular homeostasis. sulfur-containing amino acids as methionine are the most vulnerable to oxidation by ros, resulting in the formation of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)] residues. this modification can be repaired by methionine sulfoxide reductases (msr). two distinct classes of these enzymes, msra and msrb, which ...200919373970
improved tryprostatin b production by heterologous gene expression in aspergillus nidulans.tryprostatin b, a prenylated diketopiperazine with anti-tubulin activity, has been overproduced in fungal culture by expression of genes of the fumitremorgin cluster from aspergillus fumigatus in the naïve host aspergillus nidulans using the alca promoter. the products of the expressed genes catalyse the first two steps of fumitremorgin biosynthesis, namely the formation of brevianamide f and its conversion to tryprostatin b. yields of tryprostatin b were up to 250 mg/l, a significant improvemen ...200919373974
fvve1 regulates biosynthesis of the mycotoxins fumonisins and fusarins in fusarium verticillioides.the vea gene positively regulates sterigmatocystin production in aspergillus nidulans and aflatoxin production in aspergillus parasiticus and aspergillus flavus . whether vea homologues have a role in regulating secondary metabolism in other fungal genera is unknown. in this study, we examined the role of the vea homologue, fvve1, on the production of two mycotoxin families, fumonisins and fusarins, in the important corn pathogen fusarium verticillioides . we found that fvve1 deletion completely ...200919382792
timely septation requires snad-dependent spindle pole body localization of the septation initiation network components in the filamentous fungus aspergillus the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, cytokinesis/septation is triggered by the septation initiation network (sin), which first appears at the spindle pole body (spb) during mitosis. the coiled-coil protein snad is associated with the spb and is required for timely septation and conidiation. we have determined that snad acted as a scaffold protein that is required for the localization of the sin proteins of sidb and moba to the spb. another scaffold protein sepk, whose localization at ...200919386763
atan1p-an extracellular tannase from the dimorphic yeast arxula adeninivorans: molecular cloning of the atan1 gene and characterization of the recombinant enzyme.the tannase-encoding arxula adeninivorans gene atan1 was isolated from genomic dna by pcr, using as primers oligonucleotide sequences derived from peptides obtained after tryptic digestion of the purified tannase protein. the gene harbours an orf of 1764 bp, encoding a 587-amino acid protein, preceded by an n-terminal secretion sequence comprising 28 residues. the deduced amino acid sequence was similar to those of tannases from aspergillus oryzae (50% identity), a. niger (48%) and putative tann ...200919387973
class iii chitin synthase chsb of aspergillus nidulans localizes at the sites of polarized cell wall synthesis and is required for conidial development.class iii chitin synthases play important roles in tip growth and conidiation in many filamentous fungi. however, little is known about their functions in those processes. to address these issues, we characterized the deletion mutant of a class iii chitin synthase-encoding gene of aspergillus nidulans, chsb, and investigated chsb localization in the hyphae and conidiophores. multilayered cell walls and intrahyphal hyphae were observed in the hyphae of the chsb deletion mutant, and wavy septa wer ...200919411617
distinct roles for vea and laea in development and pathogenesis of aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus, a mycotoxigenic filamentous fungus, colonizes several important agricultural crops, such as maize and peanuts. two proteins, vea and laea, known to form a nuclear complex in aspergillus nidulans have been found to positively regulate developmental processes in several aspergillus species. here, an examination of near-isogenic a. flavus mutants differing in copy number of vea and laea alleles (0, 1, or at least 2 each) revealed critical roles for vea and laea in a. flavus deve ...200919411623
the nsdc gene encoding a putative c2h2-type transcription factor is a key activator of sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.the formation of the aspergillus nidulans fruiting body is affected by a number of genetic and environmental factors. here, the nsdc (never in sexual development) gene-encoding a putative transcription factor carrying a novel type of zinc-finger dna-binding domain consisting of two c(2)h(2)'s and a c(2)hc motif that are highly conserved in most fungi but not in plants or animals-was investigated. two distinct transcripts of 2.6 and 3.0 kb were generated from nsdc. the 2.6-kb mrna accumulated dif ...200919416940
pepj is a new extracellular proteinase of aspergillus nidulans.under carbon starvation, aspergillus nidulans released a metallo-proteinase with activities comparable to those of prta, the major extracellular serine proteinase of the fungus. the relative molar mass of the enzyme was 19 kda as determined with both denaturing and renaturing sds page, while its isoelectric point and ph and temperature optima were 8.6, 5.5 and 65 degrees c, respectively. the enzyme was stable at ph 3.5-10.5 and was still active at 95 degrees c in the presence of azocasein substr ...200919418246
myosin motor-like domain of the class vi chitin synthase csmb is essential to its functions in aspergillus nidulans.chitin is one of the major cell wall components of ascomycete filamentous fungi, and chitin synthesis plays important roles in the morphogenesis of hyphae. in the aspergillus nidulans genome, there are two genes, csma and csmb, that encode a myosin motor-like domain (mmd) at their n-termini and a chitin synthase domain (csd) at their c-termini. in our previous studies, we found that the mmd of csma was required for its functionality, and that csma and csmb had certain overlapping functions essen ...200919420702
the aspergillus nidulans pigp gene encodes a subunit of gpi-n-acetylglucosaminyltransferase which influences filamentation and protein secretion.glycosylphosphatidylinositol (gpi) anchoring is the main mechanism allowing proper localization of secretory proteins in cell membranes. we have isolated an aspergillus nidulans homolog of the human pig-p gene, which encodes a subunit of acetylglucosaminyltransferase (gpi-gnt)-an enzyme involved in the synthesis of gpi anchors. a. nidulans pigp mutants have significantly decreased gpi synthesis. on solid media they show strong growth retardation (the "button" phenotype) while in liquid minimal m ...200919421754
the cell end marker protein teac is involved in growth directionality and septation in aspergillus nidulans.polarized growth in filamentous fungi depends on the correct spatial organization of the microtubule (mt) and actin cytoskeleton. in schizosaccharomyces pombe it was shown that the mt cytoskeleton is required for the delivery of so-called cell end marker proteins, e.g., tea1 and tea4, to the cell poles. subsequently, these markers recruit several proteins required for polarized growth, e.g., a formin, which catalyzes actin cable formation. the latest results suggest that this machinery is conser ...200919429780
molecular characterization of stci esterase from aspergillus nidulans.aspergillus nidulans produces stci esterase, which is involved in the biosynthesis of sterigmatocystin, a precursor of aflatoxins. previous reports of this esterase in a. nidulans suggest that it is composed of 286 amino acid residues with a theoretical molecular mass of 31 kda. various conditions were evaluated to determine the optimal expression conditions for stci; the highest level was observed when a. nidulans was cultured in solid oat media. various esterases were expressed differentially ...200919440704
aspergillus nidulans as a biological system to detect the genotoxic effects of mercury fumes on eukaryotes.mercury (hg) pollution is one of the most serious environmental problems. due to public concern prompted by the symptoms displayed by people who consumed contaminated fish in minamata, japan in 1956, hg pollution has since been kept under constant surveillance. however, despite considerable accumulation of knowledge on the noxious effects of ingested or inhaled hg, especially for humans, there is virtually nothing known about the genotoxic effects of hg. because increased mitotic crossing over i ...200919440976
the important role of actinin-like protein (acna) in cytokinesis and apical dominance of hyphal cells in aspergillus nidulans.the actin cytoskeleton is involved in many processes in eukaryotic cells, including interaction with a wide variety of actin-binding proteins such as the actin-capping proteins, the actin filament nucleators and the actin cross-linking proteins. here, we report the identification and characterization of an actinin-like protein (acna) from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. not only did the depletion of acna by alca(p) promoter repression or the deletion of acna result in explicit abnor ...200919443549
physiological characterisation of acub deletion in aspergillus niger.the acub gene of aspergillus niger is an ortholog of facb in aspergillus nidulans. under carbon-repression conditions, facb is repressed, thereby preventing acetate metabolism when the repressing carbon source is present. even though facb is reported to be repressed directly by crea, it is believed that a basal level of facb activity exists under glucose-repressive conditions. in the present study, the effect of deletion of acub on the physiology of a. niger was assessed. differences in organic ...200919444441
chromatin-level regulation of biosynthetic gene clusters.loss-of-function aspergillus nidulans ccla, a bre2 ortholog involved in histone h3 lysine 4 methylation, activated the expression of cryptic secondary metabolite clusters in a. nidulans. one new cluster generated monodictyphenone, emodin and emodin derivatives, whereas a second encoded two anti-osteoporosis polyketides, f9775a and f9775b. modification of the chromatin landscape in fungal secondary metabolite clusters allows for a simple technological means to express silent fungal secondary meta ...200919448638
convergent evolution and orphan genes in the fur4p-like family and characterization of a general nucleoside transporter in aspergillus nidulans.the function of seven paralogues phylogenetically related to the saccharomyces cerevisiae fur4p together with a number of functionally related transporters present in aspergillus nidulans has been investigated. after deletion of the cognate genes we checked the incorporation of radiolabelled substrates, utilization of nitrogen sources, resistance to toxic analogues and supplementation of auxotrophies. fura and furd encode allantoin and uracil transporters respectively. no function was found for ...200919460095
molecular characterization of a fungal gene paralogue of the penicillin pende gene of penicillium chrysogenum.penicillium chrysogenum converts isopenicillin n (ipn) into hydrophobic penicillins by means of the peroxisomal ipn acyltransferase (iat), which is encoded by the pende gene. in silico analysis of the p. chrysogenum genome revealed the presence of a gene, pc13g09140, initially described as paralogue of the iat-encoding pende gene. we have termed this gene ial because it encodes a protein with high similarity to iat (ial for iat-like). we have conducted an investigation to characterize the ial ge ...200919470155
the vea gene is necessary for the negative regulation of the vea expression in aspergillus nidulans.the vea gene is one of the key genes in regulating sexual development of aspergillus nidulans. during the study on the vea gene, it was observed that the vea expression level is slightly higher in a vea1 mutant than in a wild type at 37 degrees c, suggesting that the wild type vea gene is necessary for the negative regulation of the vea expression. in the vea1 mutant, the vea expression was higher than in a wild type grown at 42 degrees c but equal at 30 degrees c. furthermore, in a vea deletion ...200919479257
physiological involvement in ph signaling of vps24-mediated recruitment of aspergillus palb cysteine protease to escrt-iii.activation of the aspergillus nidulans transcription factor pacc, which mediates ambient ph regulation of gene expression and is recruited to escrt-iii by the vps32-interacting scaffold pala, involves its ambient ph-dependent c-terminal proteolysis. this reaction is almost certainly catalyzed by the palb calpain-like protease. here we show that palb associates with membranes and interacts specifically and directly with escrt-iii vps24. the palb n-terminal mit domain and the vps24 c-terminal mim ...200919056728
purine utilization by klebsiella oxytoca m5al: genes for ring-oxidizing and -opening enzymes.the enterobacterium klebsiella oxytoca uses a variety of inorganic and organic nitrogen sources, including purines, nitrogen-rich compounds that are widespread in the biosphere. we have identified a 23-gene cluster that encodes the enzymes for utilizing purines as the sole nitrogen source. growth and complementation tests with insertion mutants, combined with sequence comparisons, reveal functions for the products of these genes. here, we report our characterization of 12 genes, one encoding gua ...200919060149
overexpression of the chitosanase gene in fusarium solani via agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated overexpress the chitosanase gene (csn) in f. solani, a vector based on pcambia 1300 was constructed. the csn gene, which is under control of the aspergillus nidulans gpda promoter and a. nidulans trpc terminator, was introduced back into the f. solani genome by agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation, and the herbicide-resistance gene bar from streptomyces hygroscopicus was used as the selection marker. transformants which showed a significant increase in chitosanase production (app ...200919093150
occurrence and relevance of filamentous fungi in respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis--a review.the colonization of airways by filamentous fungi and the development of respiratory infections require some predisposing factors as encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). indeed, the defective mucociliary clearance which characterizes the disease is associated with local immunological disorders. in addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use of corticosteroid treatments also facilitate fungal growth. an important fungal biota has been described in respiratory secreti ...200919107638
disruption of the nadph-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase affects the morphology of two industrial strains of penicillium morphological aspects of penicillium chrysogenum were found during physiological characterisation of two nadph-dependent glutamate dehydrogenase mutant strains. a morphological characterisation of the previously constructed strains, together with the two beta-lactam producing industrial recipient strains, was conducted. the reference strains showed a compact structure with highly branched hyphal elements whereas the morphology of the deltagdha strains consisting of long elongated hyphal elem ...200919167440
studies of the production of fungal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans by using systems biology tools.many filamentous fungi produce polyketide molecules with great significance as human pharmaceuticals; these molecules include the cholesterol-lowering compound lovastatin, which was originally isolated from aspergillus terreus. the chemical diversity and potential uses of these compounds are virtually unlimited, and it is thus of great interest to develop a well-described microbial production platform for polyketides. using genetic engineering tools available for the model organism aspergillus n ...200919168657
agta, the dicarboxylic amino acid transporter of aspergillus nidulans, is concertedly down-regulated by exquisite sensitivity to nitrogen metabolite repression and ammonium-elicited endocytosis.we identified agta, a gene that encodes the specific dicarboxylic amino acid transporter of aspergillus nidulans. the deletion of the gene resulted in loss of utilization of aspartate as a nitrogen source and of aspartate uptake, while not completely abolishing glutamate utilization. kinetic constants showed that agta is a high-affinity dicarboxylic amino acid transporter and are in agreement with those determined for a cognate transporter activity identified previously. the gene is extremely se ...200919168757
the glutathione system of aspergillus nidulans involves a fungus-specific glutathione s-transferase.the tripeptide glutathione is involved in cellular defense mechanisms for xenobiotics and reactive oxygen species. this study investigated glutathione-dependent mechanisms in the model organism aspergillus nidulans. a recombinant dimeric protein of a. nidulans glutathione reductase (gr) contained fad and reduced oxidized glutathione (gssg) using nadph as an electron donor. a deletion strain of the gr gene (glra) accumulated less intracellular reduced glutathione (gsh), indicating that the fungal ...200919171936
the protein kinase imeb is required for light-mediated inhibition of sexual development and for mycotoxin production in aspergillus nidulans.spore formation is a common process in the developmental cycle of fungi. in the yeast saccharomyces cerevisiae, ime2 is a key protein kinase for the meiotic cell cycle, which precedes ascospore formation. here, we analysed the ime2-related imeb gene of the filamentous ascomycete aspergillus nidulans. imeb deletion strains are retarded in growth and overproduce fertile sexual fruiting bodies in the presence of light, which normally represses sexual development. imeb mutants also display abnormal ...200919210625
nucleolar separation from chromosomes during aspergillus nidulans mitosis can occur without spindle the nucleolus is segregated during mitosis is poorly understood and occurs by very different mechanisms during closed and open mitosis. here we report a new mechanism of nucleolar segregation involving removal of the nucleolar-organizing regions (nors) from nucleoli during aspergillus nidulans mitosis. this involves a double nuclear envelope (ne) restriction which generates three ne-associated structures, two daughter nuclei (containing the nors), and the nucleolus. therefore, a remnant nucl ...200919211837
phenotypes of mutations in the 5'-utr of a limiting transcription factor in aspergillus nidulans can be accounted for by translational inhibition and leaky scanning.the uay gene encodes the transcriptional activator of purine catabolism genes in aspergillus nidulans. uay12 results in strongly defective growth on purines as nitrogen sources and in strongly diminished transcription of uay-regulated genes. this mutation introduces an atg codon 64 bp upstream of the uay atg, generating a 68-codon open reading frame (uorfa), overlapping with the uay orf. uay12 revertants fall into three categories: i. the majority eliminate the aberrant atg. the growth and trans ...200919221200
mlp1 acts as a mitotic scaffold to spatially regulate spindle assembly checkpoint proteins in aspergillus nidulans.during open mitosis several nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins have mitotic specific localizations and functions. we find that the aspergillus nidulans mlp1 npc protein has previously unrealized mitotic roles involving spatial regulation of spindle assembly checkpoint (sac) proteins. in interphase, an-mlp1 tethers the an-mad1 and an-mad2 sac proteins to npcs. during a normal mitosis, an-mlp1, an-mad1, and an-mad2 localize similarly on, and around, kinetochores until telophase when they transien ...200919225157
assessment of the core cryparin promoter from cryphonectria parasitica for heterologous expression in filamentous fungi.cryparin is an abundant cell-wall-associated hydrophobin of cryphonectria parasitica. although cryparin is encoded as a single copy gene, it is the most abundant protein produced by this fungus when grown in liquid culture. studies to characterize the transcriptional regulatory element(s) found that the fragment between nt -188 and the start codon was the minimal but sufficient promoter element for expression of the cryparin gene. to explore the possibility of using this small fragment as a mini ...200919238380
class iic alpha-mannosidase afams1 is required for morphogenesis and cellular function in aspergillus fumigatus.the mammalian er/cytosolic alpha-mannosidase (man2c1p), yeast vacuolar alpha-mannosidase (ams1p) and the aspergillus nidulans alpha-mannosidase are members of class iic subgroup, which is involved in oligosaccharide catabolism and n-glycan processing. unlike their mammalian counterparts, the yeast ams1p and a. nidulans class iic alpha-mannosidase are not essential for morphogenesis and cellular function. in this study, the afams1, a gene encoding a member of class iic alpha-mannosidases, was ide ...200919240271
a library-based method to rapidly analyse chromatin accessibility at multiple genomic regions.traditional chromatin analysis methods only test one locus at the time or use different templates for each locus, making a standardized analysis of large genomic regions or many co-regulated genes at different loci a difficult task. on the other hand, genome-wide high-resolution mapping of chromatin accessibility employing massive parallel sequencing platforms generates an extensive data set laborious to analyse and is a cost-intensive method, only applicable to the analysis of a limited set of ...200919251760
aspergillus: a primer for the novice.aspergillus is a genus of molds named after the morphological structure that bears asexual spores, the aspergillum, which resembles a liturgical device. this genus contains several species of positive or negative economic importance in industry, agriculture and medicine. the majority of aspergilli, including most species of economic importance, are known to reproduce only by asexual spores. genome projects have been completed for a. fumigatus, a. nidulans, a. niger and a. oryzae; several other s ...200919253144
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