PMID(sorted descending)
discovery of mcra, a master regulator of aspergillus secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are extremely important in medicine and agriculture, but regulation of their biosynthesis is incompletely understood. we have developed a genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans for negative regulators of fungal sm gene clusters and we have used this screen to isolate mutations that upregulate transcription of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene required for nidulanin a biosynthesis. several of these mutations are allelic and we have identified the mutant ...201727775185
fungal sex: the ascomycota.this article provides an overview of sexual reproduction in the ascomycetes, a phylum of fungi that is named after the specialized sacs or "asci" that hold the sexual spores. they have therefore also been referred to as the sac fungi due to these characteristic structures that typically contain four to eight ascospores. ascomycetes are morphologically diverse and include single-celled yeasts, filamentous fungi, and more complex cup fungi. the sexual cycles of many species, including those of the ...201627763253
clathrin localization and dynamics in aspergillus nidulans.cell growth necessitates extensive membrane remodeling events including vesicle fusion or fission, processes that are regulated by coat proteins. the hyphal cells of filamentous fungi concentrate both exocytosis and endocytosis at the apex. this investigation focuses on clathrin in aspergillus nidulans, with the aim of understanding its role in membrane remodeling in growing hyphae. we examined clathrin heavy chain (clah-gfp) which localized to three distinct subcellular structures: late golgi ( ...201727741567
cryptic purine transporters in aspergillus nidulans reveal the role of specific residues in the evolution of specificity in the ncs1 family.ncs1 proteins are h(+) or na(+) symporters responsible for the uptake of purines, pyrimidines or related metabolites in bacteria, fungi and some plants. fungal ncs1 are classified into two evolutionary and structurally distinct subfamilies, known as fur- and fcy-like transporters. these subfamilies have expanded and functionally diversified by gene duplications. the fur subfamily of the model fungus aspergillus nidulans includes both major and cryptic transporters specific for uracil, 5-fluorour ...201727741561
design and synthesis of purine analogues as highly specific ligands for fcyb, a ubiquitous fungal nucleobase the course of our study on fungal purine transporters, a number of new 3-deazapurine analogues have been rationally designed, based on the interaction of purine substrates with the aspergillus nidulans fcyb carrier, and synthesized following an effective synthetic procedure. certain derivatives have been found to specifically inhibit fcyb-mediated [(3)h]-adenine uptake. molecular simulations have been performed, suggesting that all active compounds interact with fcyb through the formation of ...201627720327
identification and characterization of putative xylose and cellobiose transporters in aspergillus nidulans.the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels (second-generation biofuel production) is an environmentally friendlier alternative to petroleum-based energy sources. enzymatic deconstruction of lignocellulose, catalyzed by filamentous fungi such as aspergillus nidulans, releases a mixture of mono- and polysaccharides, including hexose (glucose) and pentose (xylose) sugars, cellodextrins (cellobiose), and xylooligosaccharides (xylobiose). these sugars can subsequently be fermented by yeast ...201627708711
antimutagenicity and antigenotoxicity of aloe arborescens miller and aloe barbadensis miller in aspergillus nidulans and wistar rats.medicinal plants such as aloe arborescens miller and aloe barbadensis miller are used by the general population to treat various diseases. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the antimutagenicity of these two species using a methg1 system in aspergillus nidulans and the comet assay in rats. the animals were treated with the plants at concentrations of 360 and 720 mg/kg body weight (1 and 2, respectively) by gavage for 14 days, followed by the administration of etoposide on treatment ...201627706687
a plastic vegetative growth threshold governs reproductive capacity in aspergillus nidulans.ontogenetic phases separating growth from reproduction are a common feature of cellular life. long recognized for flowering plants and animals, early literature suggests this life-history component may also be prevalent among multicellular fungi. we establish the basis of developmental competence-the capacity to respond to induction of asexual development-in the filamentous saprotroph aspergillus nidulans, describing environmental influences, including genotype-by-environment interactions among ...201627672092
a mitotic nuclear envelope tether for gle1 also impacts nuclear and nucleolar architecture.during aspergillus nidulans mitosis peripheral nuclear pore complex (npc) proteins (nups) disperse from the core npc structure. unexpectedly, one predicted peripheral nup, gle1, remains at the mitotic ne via an unknown mechanism. gle1 affinity purification identified mtga ( m: itotic t: ether for g: le1), which tethers gle1 to the ne during mitosis, but not during interphase when gle1 is at npcs. mtga is the ortholog of the schizosaccharomyces pombe telomere-anchoring inner nuclear membrane prot ...201627630260
d-galactose catabolism in penicillium chrysogenum: expression analysis of the structural genes of the leloir this study, we analyzed the expression of the structural genes encoding the five enzymes comprising the leloir pathway of d-galactose catabolism in the industrial cell factory penicillium chrysogenum on various carbon sources. the genome of p. chrysogenum contains a putative galactokinase gene at the annotated locus pc13g10140, the product of which shows strong structural similarity to yeast galactokinase that was expressed on lactose and d-galactose only. the expression profile of the galact ...201627630054
plant defensins nad1 and nad2 induce different stress response pathways in fungi.nicotiana alata defensins 1 and 2 (nad1 and nad2) are plant defensins from the ornamental tobacco that have antifungal activity against a variety of fungal pathogens. some plant defensins interact with fungal cell wall o-glycosylated proteins. therefore, we investigated if this was the case for nad1 and nad2, by assessing the sensitivity of the three aspergillus nidulans (an) o-mannosyltransferase (pmt) knockout (ko) mutants (an∆pmta, an∆pmtb, and an∆pmtc). an∆pmta was resistant to both defensin ...201627598152
the creb deubiquitinating enzyme does not directly target the crea repressor protein in aspergillus nidulans.ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathways are now recognized as key components of gene regulatory mechanisms in eukaryotes. the major transcriptional repressor for carbon catabolite repression in aspergillus nidulans is crea, and mutational analysis led to the suggestion that a regulatory ubiquitination/deubiquitination pathway is involved. a key unanswered question is if and how this pathway, comprising creb (deubiquitinating enzyme) and hula (ubiquitin ligase) and other proteins, is involved in ...201627589970
mcma-dependent and -independent regulatory systems governing expression of clrb-regulated cellulase and hemicellulase genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal cellulolytic and hemicellulolytic enzymes are promising tools for industrial hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass; however, the regulatory network underlying their production is not well understood. the recent discovery of the transcriptional activators clrb and mcma in aspergillus nidulans implied a novel regulatory mechanism driven by their interaction, experimental evidence for which was obtained from transcriptional and dna-binding analyses in this study. it was found that clrb was essent ...201627588830
isoindolone-containing meroperpenoids from the endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249.six isoindolone containing meroterpenoids, emericellolides a-c (1-3) and emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6), were isolated from a plant endophytic fungus emericella nidulans hdn12-249. emericellolides a-c (1-3) feature the unprecedented macrolide skeleton composed of an unusual l-glutamate fragment, an isoindolone unit, and a sesquiterpene moiety, while structures of emeriphenolicins e-g (4-6) with two farnesyl groups attached to one isoindolone unit are rare in isoindolone-derived meroterpenoids. these ...201627588428
lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases and other oxidative enzymes are abundantly secreted by aspergillus nidulans grown on different starches.starch is the second most abundant plant-derived biomass and a major feedstock in non-food industrial applications and first generation biofuel production. in contrast to lignocellulose, detailed insight into fungal degradation of starch is currently lacking. this study explores the secretomes of aspergillus nidulans grown on cereal starches from wheat and high-amylose (ha) maize, as well as legume starch from pea for 5 days.201627588040
fungi use the saka (hoga) pathway for phytochrome-dependent light signalling.stress-sensing in fungi depends on a signalling cascade comprised of a two-component phosphorylation relay plus a subsequent map kinase cascade to trigger gene expression. besides osmotic or oxidative stress, fungi sense many other environmental factors, one of which is light(1,2). light controls morphogenetic pathways but also the production of secondary metabolites such as penicillin. here we show that phytochrome-dependent light signalling in aspergillus nidulans involves the stress-sensing a ...201627572639
key role of laea and velvet complex proteins on expression of β-lactam and pr-toxin genes in penicillium chrysogenum: cross-talk regulation of secondary metabolite pathways.penicillium chrysogenum is an excellent model fungus to study the molecular mechanisms of control of expression of secondary metabolite genes. a key global regulator of the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites is the laea protein that interacts with other components of the velvet complex (vela, velb, velc, vosa). these components interact with laea and regulate expression of penicillin and pr-toxin biosynthetic genes in p. chrysogenum. both laea and vela are positive regulators of the penicilli ...201627565675
immobilization of lccc laccase from aspergillus nidulans on hard surfaces via fungal hydrophobins.fungal hydrophobins are small amphiphilic proteins that can be used for coatings on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces. through the formation of monolayers, they change the hydrophobicity of a given surface. especially, the class i hydrophobins are interesting for biotechnology, because their layers are stable at high temperatures and can only be removed with strong solvents. these proteins self-assemble into monolayers under physiological conditions and undergo conformational changes that sta ...201627565614
diminishing-returns epistasis among random beneficial mutations in a multicellular fungus.adaptive evolution ultimately is fuelled by mutations generating novel genetic variation. non-additivity of fitness effects of mutations (called epistasis) may affect the dynamics and repeatability of adaptation. however, understanding the importance and implications of epistasis is hampered by the observation of substantial variation in patterns of epistasis across empirical studies. interestingly, some recent studies report increasingly smaller benefits of beneficial mutations once genotypes b ...201627559062
molecular components of the neurospora crassa ph signaling pathway and their regulation by ph and the pac-3 transcription factor.environmental ph induces a stress response triggering a signaling pathway whose components have been identified and characterized in several fungi. neurospora crassa shares all six components of the aspergillus nidulans ph signaling pathway, and we investigate here their regulation during an alkaline ph stress response. we show that the n. crassa pal mutant strains, with the exception of δpal-9, which is the a. nidulans pali homolog, exhibit low conidiation and are unable to grow at alkaline ph. ...201627557053
linker flexibility facilitates module exchange in fungal hybrid pks-nrps engineering.polyketide synthases (pkss) and nonribosomal peptide synthetases (nrpss) each give rise to a vast array of complex bioactive molecules with further complexity added by the existence of natural pks-nrps fusions. rational genetic engineering for the production of natural product derivatives is desirable for the purpose of incorporating new functionalities into pre-existing molecules, or for optimization of known bioactivities. we sought to expand the range of natural product diversity by combining ...201627551732
kdmb, a jumonji histone h3 demethylase, regulates genome-wide h3k4 trimethylation and is required for normal induction of secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.histone posttranslational modifications (hptms) are involved in chromatin-based regulation of fungal secondary metabolite biosynthesis (smb) in which the corresponding genes-usually physically linked in co-regulated clusters-are silenced under optimal physiological conditions (nutrient-rich) but are activated when nutrients are limiting. the exact molecular mechanisms by which hptms influence silencing and activation, however, are still to be better understood. here we show by a combined approac ...201627548260
evaluation of biosynthetic pathway and engineered biosynthesis of alkaloids.varieties of alkaloids are known to be produced by various organisms, including bacteria, fungi and plants, as secondary metabolites that exhibit useful bioactivities. however, understanding of how those metabolites are biosynthesized still remains limited, because most of these compounds are isolated from plants and at a trace level of production. in this review, we focus on recent efforts in identifying the genes responsible for the biosynthesis of those nitrogen-containing natural products an ...201627548127
nitrogen metabolism and growth enhancement in tomato plants challenged with trichoderma harzianum expressing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase amds gene.trichoderma is a fungal genus that includes species that are currently being used as biological control agents and/or as biofertilizers. in addition to the direct application of trichoderma spp. as biocontrol agents in plant protection, recent studies have focused on the beneficial responses exerted on plants, stimulating the growth, activating the defenses, and/or improving nutrient uptake. the amds gene, encoding an acetamidase of aspergillus, has been used as a selectable marker for the trans ...201627536277
botrytis cinerea can import and utilize nucleosides in salvage and catabolism and bcent functions as high affinity nucleoside transporter.nucleotide de novo synthesis is an essential pathway in nearly all organisms. transport processes as well as salvage and catabolism of nucleotides and pathway intermediates are required to balance nucleotide pools. we have analysed the genome of the fungal plant pathogen botrytis cinerea for genes involved in nucleotide metabolism and found a complete set of genes necessary for purine and pyrimidine uptake and salvage based on homology of the gene products to corresponding proteins from aspergil ...201627521624
mapping n-linked glycosylation of carbohydrate-active enzymes in the secretome of aspergillus nidulans grown on lignocellulose.the genus aspergillus includes microorganisms that naturally degrade lignocellulosic biomass, secreting large amounts of carbohydrate-active enzymes (cazymes) that characterize their saprophyte lifestyle. aspergillus has the capacity to perform post-translational modifications (ptm), which provides an additional advantage for the use of these organisms as a host for the production of heterologous proteins. in this study, the n-linked glycosylation of cazymes identified in the secretome of asperg ...201627508003
echinocandin b biosynthesis: a biosynthetic cluster from aspergillus nidulans nrrl 8112 and reassembly of the subclusters ecd and hty from aspergillus pachycristatus nrrl 11440 reveals a single coherent gene cluster.echinocandins are nonribosomal lipopeptides produced by ascommycete fungi. due to their strong inhibitory effect on fungal cell wall biosynthesis and lack of human toxicity, they have been developed to an important class of antifungal drugs. since 2012, the biosynthetic gene clusters of most of the main echinocandin variants have been characterized. especially the comparison of the clusters allows a deeper insight for the biosynthesis of these complex structures.201627502607
functional characterization of the aspergillus nidulans glucosylceramide pathway reveals that lcb δ8-desaturation and c9-methylation are relevant to filamentous growth, lipid raft localization and psd1 defensin activity.c8-desaturated and c9-methylated glucosylceramide (glccer) is a fungal-specific sphingolipid that plays an important role in the growth and virulence of many species. in this work, we investigated the contribution of aspergillus nidulans sphingolipid δ8-desaturase (sdea), sphingolipid c9-methyltransferases (smta/smtb) and glucosylceramide synthase (gcsa) to fungal phenotypes, sensitivity to psd1 defensin and galleria mellonella virulence. we showed that δsdea accumulated c8-saturated and unmethy ...201627479571
in vivo analysis of septin heteropolymer rods and higher-order structures in filamentous fungi.individual septins from separate phylogenetic groups assemble into heteropolymer rods with defined compositions. heteropolymer rods can in turn assemble into larger higher-order structures (hos). using a combination of immunoprecipitation and fluorescence microscopy in aspergillus nidulans wild-type and septin-mutant strains, we have shown that even when septin hos are not visible by fluorescence microscopy, heteropolymer rods can still be present and that a septin found largely in filamentous f ...201627473907
post-synthetic defucosylation of agp by aspergillus nidulans α-1,2-fucosidase expressed in arabidopsis apoplast induces compensatory upregulation of α-1,2-fucosyltransferases.cell walls are essential components of plant cells which perform a variety of important functions for the different cell types, tissues and organs of a plant. besides mechanical function providing cell shape, cell walls participate in intercellular communication, defense during plant-microbe interactions, and plant growth. the plant cell wall consists predominantly of polysaccharides with the addition of structural glycoproteins, phenolic esters, minerals, lignin, and associated enzymes. alterat ...201627448235
increased enzyme production under liquid culture conditions in the industrial fungus aspergillus oryzae by disruption of the genes encoding cell wall α-1,3-glucan synthase.under liquid culture conditions, the hyphae of filamentous fungi aggregate to form pellets, which reduces cell density and fermentation productivity. previously, we found that loss of α-1,3-glucan in the cell wall of the fungus aspergillus nidulans increased hyphal dispersion. therefore, here we constructed a mutant of the industrial fungus a. oryzae in which the three genes encoding α-1,3-glucan synthase were disrupted (tripleδ). although the hyphae of the tripleδ mutant were not fully disperse ...201627442340
rnaseq reveals hydrophobins that are involved in the adaptation of aspergillus nidulans to lignocellulose.sugarcane is one of the world's most profitable crops. waste steam-exploded sugarcane bagasse (seb) is a cheap, abundant, and renewable lignocellulosic feedstock for the next-generation biofuels. in nature, fungi seldom exist as planktonic cells, similar to those found in the nutrient-rich environment created within an industrial fermenter. instead, fungi predominantly form biofilms that allow them to thrive in hostile environments.201627437031
dissection of transporter function: from genetics to structure.transporters are transmembrane proteins mediating the selective uptake or efflux of solutes, metabolites, drugs, or ions across cellular membranes. despite their immense biological importance in cell nutrition, communication, signaling, and homeostasis, their study remains technically difficult mostly due to their lipid-embedded nature. the study of eukaryotic transporters presents additional complexity due to multiple subcellular control mechanisms that operate to ensure proper membrane traffic ...201627430403
heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite pathways in the aspergillus nidulans host system.heterologous expression of fungal secondary metabolite genes allows for the product formation of otherwise silent secondary metabolite biosynthesis pathways. it also allows facile expression of mutants or combinations of genes not found in nature. this capability makes model fungi an ideal platform for synthetic biology. in this chapter a detailed description is provided of how to heterologously express any fungal secondary metabolite gene(s) in a well-developed host strain of aspergillus nidula ...201627417927
a robust analytical pipeline for genome-wide identification of the genes regulated by a transcription factor: combinatorial analysis performed using gselex-seq and rna-seq.for identifying the genes that are regulated by a transcription factor (tf), we have established an analytical pipeline that combines genomic systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (gselex)-seq and rna-seq. here, selex was used to select dna fragments from an aspergillus nidulans genomic library that bound specifically to amyr, a tf from a. nidulans. high-throughput sequencing data were obtained for the dnas enriched through the selection, following which various in silico ana ...201627411092
selective natural induction of laccases in pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral ph.laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. however, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. in this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of asper ...201627393835
a wdr gene is a conserved member of a chitin synthase gene cluster and influences the cell wall in aspergillus nidulans.wd40 repeat (wdr) proteins are pleiotropic molecular hubs. we identify a wdr gene that is a conserved genomic neighbor of a chitin synthase gene in ascomycetes. the wdr gene is unique to fungi and plants, and was called fungal plant wd (fpwd). fpwd is within a cell wall metabolism gene cluster in the ascomycetes (pezizomycotina) comprising chsd, a chs activator and a gh17 glucanase. the fpwd, an1556.2 locus was deleted in aspergillus nidulans strain saa.111 by gene replacement and only heterokar ...201627367684
negative regulation and developmental competence in aspergillus.asexual development (conidiation) in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans is governed by orchestrated gene expression. the three key negative regulators of conidiation sfga, vosa, and nsdd act at different control point in the developmental genetic cascade. here, we have revealed that nsdd is a key repressor affecting the quantity of asexual spores in aspergillus. moreover, nullifying both nsdd and vosa results in abundant formation of the development specific structure conidiophores even ...201627364479
light governs asexual differentiation in the grey mould fungus botrytis cinerea via the putative transcription factor bcltf2.botrytis cinerea is a plant pathogenic fungus known for its utilization of light as environmental cue to regulate asexual differentiation: conidia are formed in the light, while sclerotia are formed in the dark. as no orthologues of known regulators of conidiation (e.g., aspergillus nidulans brla, neurospora crassa fl) exist in the leotiomycetes, we initiated a de novo approach to identify the functional counterpart in b. cinerea. the search revealed the light-responsive c2h2 transcription facto ...201627347834
recombinant expression of a gh12 β-glucanase carrying its own signal peptide from stachybotrys atra in yeast and filamentous fungi.the β-glucanase cel12a gene from stachybotrys atra has been cloned and heterologously expressed in aspergillus nidulans and saccharomyces cerevisiae. the recombinant strains constructed, contained the exonic sequence of cel12a including its own signal peptide coding sequence. sds-page and zymography revealed that recombinant cel12a has a molecular mass of 24 kda which agrees with that deduced from its amino acid sequence, indicating that it is expressed in the non-glycosylated active form. recom ...201627339304
contribution of molecular tools for the diagnosis and epidemiology of fungal chronic rhinosinusitis.chronic rhinosinusitis (crs) rank second at chronic inflammatory diseases in industrialized countries and are an important public health concern. diagnosis relies on a set of arguments including clinical signs, imaging, histopathologic and mycological analyses of sinus specimens, collected during nasal endoscopy. the sensitivity of fungal cultures is reported to be poor, even when direct examination is positive, thus the epidemiology of fungal chronic sinusitis is ill-known. this study evaluated ...201627335058
new aspercryptins, lipopeptide natural products, revealed by hdac inhibition in aspergillus nidulans.unlocking the biochemical stores of fungi is key for developing future pharmaceuticals. through reduced expression of a critical histone deacetylase in aspergillus nidulans, increases of up to 100-fold were observed in the levels of 15 new aspercryptins, recently described lipopeptides with two noncanonical amino acids derived from octanoic and dodecanoic acids. in addition to two nmr-verified structures, ms/ms networking helped uncover an additional 13 aspercryptins. the aspercryptins break the ...201627310134
proteolytic activation of both components of the cation stress-responsive slt pathway in aspergillus nidulans.tolerance of aspergillus nidulans to alkalinity and elevated cation concentrations requires both slta and sltb. transcription factor slta and the putative pseudokinase/protease signaling protein sltb comprise a regulatory pathway specific to filamentous fungi. in vivo, sltb is proteolytically cleaved into its two principal domains. mutational analysis defines a chymotrypsin-like serine protease domain that mediates sltb autoproteolysis and proteolytic cleavage of slta. the pseudokinase domain mi ...201627307585
ndel1 and reelin maintain postnatal ca1 hippocampus the integrity of laminar structures in the postnatal brain is maintained impacts neuronal functions. ndel1, the mammalian homolog of nude from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, is an atypical microtubule (mt)-associated protein that was initially investigated in the contexts of neurogenesis and neuronal migration. constitutive knock-out mice for ndel1 are embryonic lethal, thereby necessitating the creation a conditional knock-out to probe the roles of ndel1 in postnatal brains. h ...201627307241
status epilepticus stimulates ndel1 expression via the creb/cre pathway in the adult mouse brain.nuclear distribution element-like 1 (ndel1/nudel) is a mammalian homolog of the aspergillus nidulans nuclear distribution molecule nude. ndel1 plays a critical role in neuronal migration, neurite outgrowth and neuronal positioning during brain development; however within the adult central nervous system, limited information is available regarding ndel1 expression and functions. here, the goal was to examine inducible ndel1 expression in the adult mouse forebrain. immunolabeling revealed ndel1 wi ...201627298008
resistance gene-guided genome mining: serial promoter exchanges in aspergillus nidulans reveal the biosynthetic pathway for fellutamide b, a proteasome inhibitor.fungal genome projects are revealing thousands of cryptic secondary metabolism (sm) biosynthetic gene clusters that encode pathways that potentially produce valuable compounds. heterologous expression systems should allow these clusters to be expressed and their products obtained, but approaches are needed to identify the most valuable target clusters. the inp cluster of aspergillus nidulans contains a gene, inpe, that encodes a proteasome subunit, leading us to hypothesize that the inp cluster ...201627294372
mutational analysis of the aspergillus ambient ph receptor palh underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds.the pal/rim ambient ph signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. the aspergillus nidulans 7-tmd receptor palh senses alkaline ph, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin palf. ubiquitinated palf triggers downstream signalling events. the mechanism(s) by which palh transduces the alkaline ph signal to palf is poorly understood. we show that palh is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian gpcrs, although palh phosp ...201627279148
western analysis of histone modifications (aspergillus nidulans).western blotting allows for the specific detection of proteins and/or modifications of proteins by an antibody of interest. this protocol utilizes a crude nuclei extraction protocol for aspergillus nidulans to enrich for histones and other nuclear proteins prior to gel electrophoresis. post translational modifications of histones may then be easily detected. after electrophoresis, the selected antibodies are used to detect and quantify levels of the modifications of interest.201327275003
comparative genomic and transcriptomic analyses of the fuzhuan brick tea-fermentation fungus aspergillus cristatus.aspergillus cristatus is the dominant fungus involved in the fermentation of chinese fuzhuan brick tea. aspergillus cristatus is a homothallic fungus that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation when cultured in hypotonic medium. the asexual stage is induced by a high salt concentration, which completely inhibits sexual development. the taxon is therefore appropriate for investigating the mechanisms of asexual and sexual reproduction in fungi. in this study, de novo genome sequencin ...201627267057
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
dynamics of actin cables in polarized growth of the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans.highly polarized growth of filamentous fungi requires a continuous supply of proteins and lipids to the hyphal tip. this transport is managed by vesicle trafficking via the actin and microtubule cytoskeletons and their associated motor proteins. particularly, actin cables originating from the hyphal tip are essential for hyphal growth. although, specific marker proteins have been developed to visualize actin cables in filamentous fungi, the exact organization and dynamics of actin cables has rem ...201627242709
characterization and biotechnological application of recombinant xylanases from aspergillus nidulans.two xylanases from aspergillus nidulans, xlnb and xlnc, were expressed in pichia pastoris, purified and characterized. xlnb and xlnc achieved maximal activities at 60°c and ph 7.5 and at 50°c and ph 6.0, respectively. xlnb showed to be very thermostable by maintaining 50% of its original activity after 49h incubated at 50°c. xlnb had its highest activity against wheat arabinoxylan while xlnc had the best activity against beechwood xylan. both enzymes were completely inhibited by sds and hgcl2. x ...201627235731
gln3 is a main regulator of nitrogen assimilation in candida glabrata.after candida albicans, the yeast candida glabrata ranks second as an aetiological agent of candidaemia and is the most frequently encountered non-candida albicans species in patients with invasive candidiasis. transcriptome analysis in c. albicans, c. glabrata and cryptoccocus neoformans has revealed that, when engulfed by macrophages, these yeasts upregulate genes involved in nutrient acquisition, including nitrogen transporters such as the general amino acid permease gap1, the dicarboxylic am ...201627222014
rmta, a putative arginine methyltransferase, regulates secondary metabolism and development in aspergillus flavus.aspergillus flavus colonizes numerous oil seed crops such as corn, peanuts, treenuts and cotton worldwide, contaminating them with aflatoxin and other harmful potent toxins. in the phylogenetically related model fungus aspergillus nidulans, the methyltransferase, rmta, has been described to be involved in epigenetics regulation through histone modification. epigenetics regulation affects a variety of cellular processes, including morphogenesis and secondary metabolism. our study shows that delet ...201627213959
co-cultivation of aspergillus nidulans recombinant strains produces an enzymatic cocktail as alternative to alkaline sugarcane bagasse pretreatment.plant materials represent a strategic energy source because they can give rise to sustainable biofuels through the fermentation of their carbohydrates. a clear example of a plant-derived biofuel resource is the sugar cane bagasse exhibiting 60-80% of fermentable sugars in its composition. however, the current methods of plant bioconversion employ severe and harmful chemical/physical pretreatments raising biofuel cost production and environmental degradation. replacing these methods with co-culti ...201627199917
the flippase dnfb is cargo of fimbrin-associated endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans, and likely recycles through the late golgi. 201727195062
spectroscopic evidence for the two c-h-cleaving intermediates of aspergillus nidulans isopenicillin n synthase.the enzyme isopenicillin n synthase (ipns) installs the β-lactam and thiazolidine rings of the penicillin core into the linear tripeptide l-δ-aminoadipoyl-l-cys-d-val (acv) on the pathways to a number of important antibacterial drugs. a classic set of enzymological and crystallographic studies by baldwin and co-workers established that this overall four-electron oxidation occurs by a sequence of two oxidative cyclizations, with the β-lactam ring being installed first and the thiazolidine ring se ...201627193226
new natural products isolated from metarhizium robertsii arsef 23 by chemical screening and identification of the gene cluster through engineered biosynthesis in aspergillus nidulans rapidly identify novel natural products and their associated biosynthetic genes from underutilized and genetically difficult-to-manipulate microbes, we developed a method that uses (1) chemical screening to isolate novel microbial secondary metabolites, (2) bioinformatic analyses to identify a potential biosynthetic gene cluster and (3) heterologous expression of the genes in a convenient host to confirm the identity of the gene cluster and the proposed biosynthetic mechanism. the chemical sc ...201627189118
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
stereospecific capillary electrophoresis assays using pentapeptide substrates for the study of aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a and mutant enzymes.stereospecific capillary electrophoresis-based methods for the analysis of methionine sulfoxide [met(o)]-containing pentapeptides were developed in order to investigate the reduction of met(o)-containing peptide substrates by recombinant aspergillus nidulans methionine sulfoxide reductase a (msra) as well as enzymes carrying mutations in position glu99 and asp134. the separation of the diastereomers of the n-acetylated, c-terminally 2,4-dinitrophenyl (dnp)-labeled pentapeptides ac-lys-phe-met(o) ...201627145186
decreased cell wall galactosaminogalactan in aspergillus nidulans mediates dysregulated inflammation in the chronic granulomatous disease host.invasive aspergillosis is a major threat to patients suffering from impaired neutrophil function, with aspergillus fumigatus being the most common species causing this life-threatening condition. patients with chronic granulomatous disease (cgd) not only develop infections with a. fumigatus, but also exhibit a unique susceptibility to infection with the normally nonpathogenic species aspergillus nidulans. in this study, we compared the inflammatory cytokine response of peripheral blood mononucle ...201627142572
new applications for known drugs: human glycogen synthase kinase 3 inhibitors as modulators of aspergillus fumigatus growth.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is one of the most severe forms of fungi infection. ia disease is mainly due to aspergillus fumigatus, an air-borne opportunistic pathogen. mortality rate caused by ia is still very high (50-95%), because of difficulty in early diagnostics and reduced antifungal treatment options, thus new and efficient drugs are necessary. the aim of this work is, using aspergillus nidulans as non-pathogen model, to develop efficient drugs to treat ia. the recent discovered role of g ...201627131621
production of 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids from hempseed oil hydrolyzate by recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing ppoc from aspergillus nidulans.the first and second preferred substrates of recombinant escherichia coli cells expressing 10r-dioxygenase (ppoc) from aspergillus nidulans and the purified enzyme were linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid, respectively. ppoc in cells showed higher thermal and reaction stabilities compared to purified ppoc. thus, 10r-hydroxy unsaturated fatty acids were produced from linoleic acid, α-linolenic acid, and hempseed oil hydrolyzate containing linoleic acid and α-linolenic acid as substrates by whole r ...201627129531
diversity, molecular phylogeny and fingerprint profiles of airborne aspergillus species using random amplified polymorphic the present study, diversity and phylogenetic relationship of aspergillus species isolated from tehran air was studied using random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-polymerase chain reaction (rapd-pcr). thirty-eight aspergillus isolates belonging to 12 species i.e. a. niger (28.94 %, 11 isolates), a. flavus (18.42 %, 7 isolates), a. tubingensis (13.15 %, 5 isolates), a. japonicus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), a. ochraceus (10.52 %, 4 isolates), and 2.63 %, 1 isolate from each a. nidulans, a. amstelo ...201627116962
engineering aspergillus nidulans for heterologous ent-kaurene and gamma-terpinene production.terpenes are a large and varied group of natural products with a wide array of bioactivities and applications. the chemical production of industrially relevant terpenes can be expensive and time-consuming due to the structural complexity of these compounds. here, we studied aspergillus nidulans as a heterologous host for monoterpene and diterpene production. previously, we identified a novel diterpene gene cluster in a. nidulans and showed that overexpression of the cluster-specific transcriptio ...201627098256
the first case of fungal endophthalmitis caused by emericella nidulans after cataract surgery.emericella nidulans is a species that has only rarely been implicated in human disease after cataract surgery. here, we report the first postoperative case in the literature, as far as we know. the patient was a 50-year-old patient presented with mild anterior uveitis one week after cataract surgery, and hypopion developed over the next two days. first microbiological evaluation and the results of direct microscopy and cultures of the anterior chamber and vitreous samples were found to be negati ...201627091580
structure of eukaryotic purine/h(+) symporter uapa suggests a role for homodimerization in transport activity.the uric acid/xanthine h(+) symporter, uapa, is a high-affinity purine transporter from the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans. here we present the crystal structure of a genetically stabilized version of uapa (uapa-g411vδ1-11) in complex with xanthine. uapa is formed from two domains, a core domain and a gate domain, similar to the previously solved uracil transporter uraa, which belongs to the same family. the structure shows uapa in an inward-facing conformation with xanthine bound to re ...201627088252
a family of aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases in aspergillus nidulans is differentially regulated by multiple substrates and at least one is active on cellulose and xyloglucan.fungal genomes contain multiple genes encoding aa9 lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (lpmos), a recently discovered class of enzymes known to be active on cellulose and expressed when grown on biomass. because of extensive genetic and biochemical data already available, aspergillus nidulans offers an excellent model system to study the need for multiple aa9 lpmos and their activity during oxidative degradation of biomass. we provide the first report on regulation of the entire family of aa9 lp ...201627075737
transcriptomic and metabolomic profiling of ionic liquid stimuli unveils enhanced secondary metabolism in aspergillus nidulans.the inherent potential of filamentous fungi, especially of ascomycota, for producing diverse bioactive metabolites remains largely silent under standard laboratory culture conditions. innumerable strategies have been described to trigger their production, one of the simplest being manipulation of the growth media composition. supplementing media with ionic liquids surprisingly enhanced the diversity of extracellular metabolites generated by penicillia. this finding led us to evaluate the impact ...201627072538
multiple effects of a commercial roundup® formulation on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans at low doses: evidence of an unexpected impact on energetic metabolism.soil microorganisms are highly exposed to glyphosate-based herbicides (gbh), especially to roundup® which is widely used worldwide. however, studies on the effects of gbh formulations on specific non-rhizosphere soil microbial species are scarce. we evaluated the toxicity of a commercial formulation of roundup® (r450), containing 450 g/l of glyphosate (gly), on the soil filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, an experimental model microorganism. the median lethal dose (ld50) on solid media was ...201627068896
palmitoylation of the cysteine residue in the dhhc motif of a palmitoyl transferase mediates ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus.finely tuned changes in cytosolic free calcium ([ca2+]c) mediate numerous intracellular functions resulting in the activation or inactivation of a series of target proteins. palmitoylation is a reversible post-translational modification involved in membrane protein trafficking between membranes and in their functional modulation. however, studies on the relationship between palmitoylation and calcium signaling have been limited. here, we demonstrate that the yeast palmitoyl transferase scakr1p h ...201627058039
the adenylate-forming enzymes afea and tmpb are involved in aspergillus nidulans self-communication during asexual development.aspergillus nidulans asexual sporulation (conidiation) is triggered by different environmental signals and involves the differentiation of specialized structures called conidiophores. the elimination of genes flba-e, flug, and tmpa results in a fluffy phenotype characterized by delayed conidiophore development and decreased expression of the conidiation essential gene brla. while flba-e encode regulatory proteins, flug and tmpa encode enzymes involved in the biosynthesis of independent signals n ...201627047469
enhancement of echinocandin b production by a uv- and microwave-induced mutant of aspergillus nidulans with precursor- and biotin-supplying strategy.echinocandin b belongs to lipopeptide antifungal antibiotic bearing five types of direct precursor amino acids including proline, ornithine, tyrosine, threonine, and leucine. the objective of this study is to screen over-producing mutant in order to improve echinocandin b production; a stable mutant aspergillus nidulans zjb12073, which can use fructose as optimal carbon source instead of expensive mannitol, was selected from thousand isolates after several cycles of uv and microwave irradiation ...201627039401
development and validation of a custom microarray for global transcriptome profiling of the fungus aspergillus nidulans.transcriptome profiling is a powerful tool for identifying gene networks from whole genome expression analysis in many living species. here is described the first extensively characterized platform using agilent microarray technology for transcriptome analysis in the filamentous fungus aspergillus (emericella) nidulans. we developed and validated a reliable gene expression microarray in 8 × 15 k format, with predictive and experimental data establishing its specificity and sensitivity. either on ...201627038308
calcineurin and calcium channel ccha coordinate the salt stress response by regulating cytoplasmic ca2+ homeostasis in aspergillus nidulans.the eukaryotic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein phosphatase calcineurin is crucial for the environmental adaption of fungi. however, the mechanism of coordinate regulation of the response to salt stress by calcineurin and the high-affinity calcium channel ccha in fungi is not well understood. here we show that the deletion of ccha suppresses the hyphal growth defects caused by the loss of calcineurin under salt stress in aspergillus nidulans additionally, the hypersensitivity of the δcnaa st ...201627037124
structural divergence of the group i intron binding surface in fungal mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases that function in rna splicing.the mitochondrial tyrosyl-trna synthetases (mttyrrss) of pezizomycotina fungi, a subphylum that includes many pathogenic species, are bifunctional proteins that both charge mitochondrial trna(tyr) and act as splicing cofactors for autocatalytic group i introns. previous studies showed that one of these proteins, neurospora crassa cyt-18, binds group i introns by using both its n-terminal catalytic and c-terminal anticodon binding domains and that the catalytic domain uses a newly evolved group i ...201627036943
rtfa, a putative rna-pol ii transcription elongation factor gene, is necessary for normal morphological and chemical development in aspergillus flavus.the filamentous fungus aspergillus flavus is an agriculturally important opportunistic plant pathogen that produces potent carcinogenic compounds called aflatoxins. we identified the a. flavus rtfa gene, the ortholog of rtf1 in saccharomyces cerevisiae and rtfa in aspergillus nidulans. interestingly, rtfa has multiple cellular roles in this mycotoxin-producing fungus. in this study, we show that rtfa regulates conidiation. the rtfa deletion mutant presented smaller conidiophores with significant ...201627020290
diverse regulation of the crea carbon catabolite repressor in aspergillus nidulans.carbon catabolite repression (ccr) is a process that selects the energetically most favorable carbon source in an environment. ccr represses the use of less favorable carbon sources when a better source is available. glucose is the preferential carbon source for most microorganisms because it is rapidly metabolized, generating quick energy for growth. in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans, ccr is mediated by the transcription factor crea, a c2h2 finger domain dna-binding protein. the ai ...201627017621
accelerated nucleation of hydroxyapatite using an engineered hydrophobin fusion protein.calcium phosphate mineralization is of particular interest in dental repair. a biomimetic approach using proteins or peptides is a highly promising way to reconstruct eroded teeth. in this study, the screening of several proteins is described for their binding and nucleating activities toward hydroxyapatite. out of 27 tested candidates, only two hydrophobin fusion proteins showed binding abilities to hydroxyapatite in a mouthwash formulation and an increased nucleation in artificial saliva. usin ...201627010648
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
development of a candida glabrata dominant nutritional transformation marker utilizing the aspergillus nidulans acetamidase gene (amds).the gene encoding aspergillus nidulans acetamidase (amds) was placed under control of candida albicans act1 promoter and terminator sequences and then cloned into a plasmid containing c. glabrata ars10,cen8 or ars10+cen8 sequences. all plasmids transformed c. glabrata wild-type cells to acetamide+, with the ars-only containing plasmid transforming cells at the highest frequencies (>1.0 × 10(4) transformants μg(-1)). plasmids were rapidly lost under non-selective conditions with the frequency dep ...201626975388
fungal quorum sensing molecules: role in fungal morphogenesis and pathogenicity.when microorganisms live together in high numbers, they need to communicate with each other. to achieve cell-cell communication, microorganisms secrete molecules called quorum-sensing molecules (qsms) that control their biological activities and behaviors. fungi secrete qsms such as farnesol, tyrosol, phenylethanol, and tryptophol. the role of qsms in fungi has been widely studied in both yeasts and filamentous fungi, for example in candida albicans, c. dubliniensis, aspergillus niger, a. nidula ...201626972663
subcellular compartmentalization and trafficking of the biosynthetic machinery for fungal by melanin depends on its subcellular location. although most filamentous fungi synthesize melanin via a polyketide synthase pathway, where and how melanin biosynthesis occurs and how it is deposited as extracellular granules remain elusive. using a forward genetic screen in the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus, we find that mutations in an endosomal sorting nexin abolish melanin cell-wall deposition. we find that all enzymes involved in the early steps of melanin biosynthesis are recru ...201626972005
thiamine synthesis regulates the fermentation mechanisms in the fungus aspergillus nidulans.thiamine pyrophosphate (tpp) is a critical cofactor and its biosynthesis is under the control of tpp availability. here we disrupted a predicted thia gene of the fungus aspergillus nidulans and demonstrated that it is essential for synthesizing cellular thiamine. the thiamine riboswitch is a post-transcriptional mechanism for tpp to repress gene expression and it is located on a. nidulans thia pre-messenger rna. the thia riboswitch was not fully derepressed under thiamine-limited conditions, and ...201626967817
involvement of an srf-mads protein mcma in regulation of extracellular enzyme production and asexual/sexual development in aspergillus nidulans.srf-mads proteins are transcription factors conserved among eukaryotes that regulate a variety of cellular functions; however, their physiological roles are still not well understood in filamentous fungi. effects of a mutation in mcma gene that encodes the sole srf-mads protein in the fungus aspergillus nidulans were examined by rna sequencing. sequencing data revealed that expression levels of cellulase genes were significantly decreased by the mutation as reported previously. however, expressi ...201626967516
emerging roles of nudc family: from molecular regulation to clinical implications.nuclear distribution gene c (nudc) was first found in aspergillus nidulans as an upstream regulator of nudf, whose mammalian homolog is lissencephaly 1 (lis1). nudc is conserved from fungi to mammals. vertebrate nudc has three homologs: nudc, nudc-like protein (nudcl), and nudc-like protein 2 (nudcl2). all members of the nudc family share a conserved p23 domain, which possesses chaperone activity both in conjunction with and independently of heat shock protein 90 (hsp90). our group and the other ...201626965524
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
distinct roles of myosins in aspergillus fumigatus hyphal growth and pathogenesis.myosins are a family of actin-based motor proteins found in many organisms and are categorized into classes based on their structures. class ii and v myosins are known to be important for critical cellular processes, including cytokinesis, endocytosis, exocytosis, and organelle trafficking, in the model fungi saccharomyces cerevisiae and aspergillus nidulans however, the roles of myosins in the growth and virulence of the pathogen aspergillus fumigatus are unknown. we constructed single- and dou ...201626953327
laser capture microdissection to identify septum-associated proteins in aspergillus spatially resolve genetic differences at the cellular level, the laser-capture microdissection technique was developed. with this method cells can be cut from tissues with a laser beam and analyzed for dna, rna or protein composition. here we adapted the technique to isolate septal microtubule-organizing center (mtoc)-associated proteins in aspergillus nidulans about 3000 septa were collected and subjected to peptide fingerprinting by mass-spectrometric analysis. we identified the microtubule ...201626951366
an efficient arabinoxylan-debranching α-l-arabinofuranosidase of family gh62 from aspergillus nidulans contains a secondary carbohydrate binding α-l-arabinofuranosidase of gh62 from aspergillus nidulans fgsc a4 (anabf62a-m2,3) has an unusually high activity towards wheat arabinoxylan (wax) (67 u/mg; k cat = 178/s, k m = 4.90 mg/ml) and arabinoxylooligosaccharides (axos) with degrees of polymerisation (dp) 3-5 (37-80 u/mg), but about 50 times lower activity for sugar beet arabinan and 4-nitrophenyl-α-l-arabinofuranoside. α-1,2- and α-1,3-linked arabinofuranoses are released from monosubstituted, but not from disubstituted, xylose in wa ...201626946172
regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by pal-pacc signaling in aspergillus nidulans.cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. as such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. ambient ph is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. in the present study, we demonstrate that several aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by pal-pacc-mediated ph ...201626946171
atp citrate lyase mediated cytosolic acetyl-coa biosynthesis increases mevalonate production in saccharomyces cerevisiae.with increasing concern about the environmental impact of a petroleum based economy, focus has shifted towards greener production strategies including metabolic engineering of microbes for the conversion of plant-based feedstocks to second generation biofuels and industrial chemicals. saccharomyces cerevisiae is an attractive host for this purpose as it has been extensively engineered for production of various fuels and chemicals. many of the target molecules are derived from the central metabol ...201626939608
characterization of a second physiologically relevant lactose permease gene (lacpb) in aspergillus aspergillus nidulans, uptake rather than hydrolysis is the rate-limiting step of lactose catabolism. deletion of the lactose permease a-encoding gene (lacpa) reduces the growth rate on lactose, while its overexpression enables faster growth than wild-type strains are capable of. we have identified a second physiologically relevant lactose transporter, lacpb. glycerol-grown mycelia from mutants deleted for lacpb appear to take up only minute amounts of lactose during the first 60 h after a med ...201626935851
the golgi apparatus: insights from filamentous fungi.cargo passage through the golgi, albeit an undoubtedly essential cellular function, is a mechanistically unresolved and much debated process. although the main molecular players are conserved, diversification of the golgi among different eukaryotic lineages is providing us with tools to resolve standing controversies. during the past decade the golgi apparatus of model filamentous fungi, mainly aspergillus nidulans, has been intensively studied. here an overview of the most important findings in ...201626932185
roles of aspergillus nidulans cdc42/rho gtpase regulators in hyphal morphogenesis and development.the rho-related family of gtpases are pivotal regulators of morphogenetic processes in diverse eukaryotic organisms. in the filamentous fungi two related members of this family, cdc42 and rac1, perform particularly important roles in the establishment and maintenance of hyphal polarity. the activity of these gtpases is tightly controlled by two sets of regulators: guanine nucleotide exchange factors (gefs) and gtpase-activating proteins (gaps). despite the importance of cdc42 and rac1 in polariz ...201626932184
a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein is involved in endocytosis in aspergillus nidulans.endocytosis is vital for hyphal tip growth in filamentous fungi and is involved in the tip localization of various membrane proteins. to investigate the function of a wiskott-aldrich syndrome protein (wasp) in endocytosis of filamentous fungi, we identified a wasp ortholog-encoding gene, wspa, in aspergillus nidulans and characterized it. the wspa product, wspa, localized to the tips of germ tubes during germination and actin rings in the subapical regions of mature hyphae. wspa is essential for ...201626927610
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
bsda(bsd2) -dependent vacuolar turnover of a misfolded version of the uapa transporter along the secretory pathway: prominent role of selective autophagy.transmembrane proteins translocate cotranslationally in the endoplasmic reticulum (er) membrane and traffic as vesicular cargoes, via the golgi, in their final membrane destination. misfolding in the er leads to protein degradation basically through the erad/proteasome system. here, we use a mutant version of the purine transporter uapa (δr481) to show that specific misfolded versions of plasma membrane cargoes undergo vacuolar turnover prior to localization in the plasma membrane. we show that ...201626917498
recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus).we report aspergillus delacroxii (formerly aspergillus nidulans var. echinulatus) causing recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis. the fungus was the sole agent detected during replacement of a mechanical aortic valve conduit due to abscess formation. despite extensive surgery and anti-fungal treatment, the patient had a cerebral hemorrhage 4 months post-surgery prompting a diagnosis of recurrent prosthetic valve endocarditis and fungemia.201526909244
a case of aspergillus nidulans causing white granule mycetoma. 201626900232
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