TitleAbstractYear(sorted descending)
teleost ftz-f1 homolog and its splicing variant determine the expression of the salmon gonadotropin iibeta subunit gene.steroidogenic factor 1, a member of the fushi tarazu factor 1 (ftz-f1) subfamily of nuclear receptors, is a key regulator in mammalian reproduction. from an embryonic complementary dna library, the zebrafish homolog of ftz-f1 (zff1a) and an alternatively spliced variant (zff1b) were isolated. zff1b represented a c-terminally truncated version of zff1a. whole mount in situ hybridization and reverse transcriptase-pcr analysis revealed that both zff1a and b transcripts were present in the developin ...19979178748
cloning of the rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) mx2 and mx3 cdnas and characterization of trout mx protein expression in salmon cells.two rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) mx cdnas were cloned by using race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) pcr and were designated rbtmx2 and rbtmx3. the deduced rbtmx2 and rbtmx3 proteins were 636 and 623 amino acids in length with molecular masses of 72 and 70.8 kda, respectively. these proteins, along with the previously described rbtmx1 protein (g. d. trobridge and j. a. leong, j. interferon cytokine res. 15:691-702, 1995), have between 88.7 and 96.6% identity at the amino acid level. all ...19979188599
plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon.plasmacytoid leukemia is a common disease of seawater pen-reared chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in british columbia, canada, but has also been detected in wild salmon, in freshwater-reared salmon in united states, and in salmon from netpens in chile. the disease can be transmitted under laboratory conditions, and is associated with a retrovirus, the salmon leukemia virus. however, the proliferating plasmablasts are often infected with the microsporean enterocytozoon salmonis, which ma ...19979209333
immunization with bacterial antigens: yersiniosis.yersinia ruckeri causes salmonid fish diseases called yersiniosis or enteric redmouth disease (erm). isolates include several serological varieties and disease outbreaks are frequently associated with stress or poor environmental factors. as a result, it is difficult to define clearly the significant virulence factors and pathogenic mechanisms of the bacterium, which introduces uncertainties about the appropriate formulation of bacterins for immunization. an enteric redmouth bacterin was the fir ...19979270840
molecular speciation of fish sperm phospholipids: large amounts of dipolyunsaturated phosphatidylserine.the molecular species compositions of the main diacyl phosphoglyceride classes and ether-linked subclasses from sperm of three species of fish, sea bass dicentrarchus labrax, atlantic salmon salmo salar and chinook salmon onchorhynchus tsawytscha, were determined. the phospholipids from sperm were highly unsaturated, dipolyunsaturated fatty acid (dipufa) molecular species comprised 64.6 to 71.8% of phosphatidylserine (ps), 10.1 to 17.4% of phosphatidylethanolamine (pe), and 3.3 to 10.1% of phosp ...19979358435
induction of chinook salmon growth hormone promoter activity by the adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (camp)-dependent pathway involves two camp-response elements with the cgtca motif and the pituitary-specific transcription factor this study, the functional role of two camp-response elements (cre) in the promoter of the chinook salmon gh gene and their interactions with the transcription factor pit-1 in regulating gh gene expression were examined. a chimeric construct of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) reporter gene with the cre-containing gh promoter ( was transiently transfected into primary cultures of rainbow trout pituitary cells. the expression of cat activity was stimulated by an adenylate cy ...19968612514
visceral mycosis in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) due to sporobolomyces chinook salmon fry from a cold-water hatchery were presented live for euthanasia and necropsy. gross lesions were emaciation in 90% of the fry and ascites and increased cutaneous pigmentation in the remaining 10%. a cause for the emaciation was not determined. histologically, the fry with ascites and increased pigmentation had visceral mycosis with aerocystitis, myositis, peritonitis, and dermatitis. sporobolomyces salmonicolor, a rare human pathogen, was isolated and identified in ...19968801720
antigenic characterization of the salmonid pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis, the etiological agent of salmonid rickettsial septicemia, was purified from infected immortal chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) embryo cells by a combination of differential and percoll density gradient centrifugation. immune sera from rabbits immunized with purified whole cells of p. salmonis reacted with four protein antigens and two carbohydrate antigens with relative molecular sizes of 65, 60, 54, 51, 16, and approximately 11 kda, respectively. the carbohydr ...19968945567
semiautomated multilocus genotyping of pacific salmon (oncorhnychus spp.) using microsatellites.we report the development of a semiautomated multilocus genotyping system for pacific salmon using four-color fluorescent detection of microsatellites. an initial screening of microsatellites was conducted on five species of pacific salmon (oncorhynchus spp.) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar) using 35 primer pairs developed from six species of salmonid. the number of loci that amplified varied by species from 11 (chum salmon) to 22 (chinook salmon). we then tested co-amplification of microsatell ...19968983195
the use of recombinant gilthead sea bream (sparus aurata) growth hormone for radioiodination and standard preparation in radioimmunoassay.a gilthead sea bream growth hormone (sbgh) obtained by cloning and expression of sbgh cdna was used to develop a sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (ria). iodination of recombinant sbgh (rsbgh) was performed by the classical chloramine-t method. specific antiserum, raised in rabbits, was added in a final dilution of 1/36,000. the minimum detectable dose was 30 pg, and the midrange of the assay (ed50) was 275 pg. intra- and inter-assay coefficients of variation (cv) were 3.3 and 5.8% at ed50 ...19957669108
transmission of loma salmonae (microsporea) to chinook salmon in sea water.transmission studies were conducted to determine if loma salmonae was transmissible in sea water. transmission of l. salmonae to chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) held in sea water was achieved by exposing fish to macerated, infected gill tissue. fish were exposed in seawater in a flow-through aquarium, and the infection was detected as soon as 5 wk after exposure. heavily infected fish exhibited numerous xenomas in the branchial arteries, central venous sinusoids, and within the blood c ...19957728735
a gene encoding chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) gonadotropin alpha subunit: gene structure and promoter analysis in primary pituitary cells.the cdna clones coding for the chinook salmon gonadotropin alpha (sgth alpha) subunit were isolated from a salmon pituitary cdna library. the full-sized cdna clone, sgth alpha-c2, was 678 bp in size and encoded a precursor polypeptide of 114 amino acids, including a signal peptide of 22 amino acids. the deduced mature sgth alpha subunit polypeptide is identical with the major alpha subunit of chum salmon gonadotropin. genomic clones coding for the sgth alpha subunit were isolated from a partial ...19957749461
biogeographic implications of cytochrome b sequences and allozymes in sockeye (oncorhynchus nerka).nucleotide sequence and restriction site analyses of the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna revealed three relatively common haplotypes among sockeye salmon (n = 80) from eight populations representing four major drainages from kamchatka (russia), alaska, and british columbia. macrogeographic variation in mtdna was compared to that of three variable allozyme loci assayed for a much larger number of fish (n = 779). sockeye from the fraser river drainage of british columbia were distinct from ...19957751598
the genetic diversity and epizootiology of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus.infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) is a rhabdovirus which causes a serious disease in salmonid fish. the t1 ribonuclease fingerprinting method was used to compare the rna genomes of 26 isolates of ihnv recovered from sockeye salmon (oncorhynchus nerka), chinook salmon (o. tshawytscha), and steelhead trout (o. mykiss) throughout the enzootic portion of western north america. most of the isolates analyzed in this study were from a single year (1987) to limit time of isolation as a sour ...19957762287
characterization of a rainbow trout mx gene.a full-length cdna clone of a rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) mx gene was obtained using race (rapid amplification of cdna ends) polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplification of rna extracted from poly (i).(c)-induced rainbow trout gonad cells (rtg-2). mx was previously identified in rainbow trout by staeheli et al. by hybridization with a partial perch genomic mx probe to induced rainbow trout mrna. the 2.5 kb rainbow trout cdna clone contains an open reading frame of 1863 nt (nucleotides) ...19958528941
interspecies comparisons of lens phospholipids.the purpose of this study was to compare and contrast quantitative crystalline lens phospholipid profiles among human, pig, rabbit, rat mouse, dog, lamb, guinea pig, beef, calf, chinook salmon, and golden roach. lenses were extracted using chloroform-methanol. the extracts were prepared for phospholipid 31p nmr quantitative analysis using an nmr analytical reagent specifically designed for this purpose. lens phospholipid profiles vary among vertebrate species. thirteen different phospholipids [p ...19958549159
molecular epizootiology and evolution of the glycoprotein and non-virion protein genes of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, a fish rhabdovirus.infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) causes a highly lethal, economically important disease of salmon and trout. the virus is enzootic throughout western north america, and has been spread to asia and europe. the nucleotide sequences of the glycoprotein (g) and non-virion (nv) genes of 12 diverse ihnv isolates were determined in order to examine the molecular epizootiology of ihn, the primary structure and conservation of nv, and the evolution of the virus. the g and nv genes and their ...19958578856
several splicing variants of isl-1 like genes in the chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) encode truncated transcription factors containing a complete lim domain.several novel cdna clones have been isolated from a chinook salmon pituitary cdna library. sequence analysis of these clones indicates that they are closely related to the rat lim domain homeobox gene, isl-1. due to differential splicing, several of the clones encode truncated polypeptides containing a complete copy of the lim domain without the homeodomain and c-terminal activation domain. the roles of these truncated polypeptides are discussed.19957873614
effect of the microsporidian enterocytozoon salmonis on the immune response of chinook salmon.the protozoan parasite enterocytozoon salmonis is an intranuclear microsporidian of salmonid mononuclear leukocytes. experimental infections were initiated in chinook salmon to determine the effects of parasitism on selected host immune functions. the humoral antibody response to dinitrophenylated-keyhole limpet hemocyanin and the in vitro blastogenic responses of isolated mononuclear leukocytes to mitogens (concanavalin a, lipopolysaccharide and phytohemagglutinin-p) were evaluated. the humoral ...19958578694
developmental regulation of growth hormone binding in the gilthead sea bream, sparus aurata.the occurrence of growth hormone (gh) binding was investigated in the gilthead sea bream larva, sparus aurata, using recombinant trout ghii (rtgh) as a tracer. gh binding was detected in all the specimens examined (5, 17, 27 and 40 days after hatching). at 40 days after hatching, we observed a concentration of gh binding in the head region. specific binding was dependent on protein membrane concentration and scatchard plots showed a single class of high affinity and low capacity binding sites. s ...19948193580
the detection of fish pathogenvibrio anguillarum in water and fish using a species-specific dna probe combined with membrane filtration.the marine bacteriumvibrio anguillarum causes disease in fish worldwide and is particularly devastating in aquaculture. little is known about the ecology ofv. anguillarum in the environment and how this may relate to the pathogenicity of this organism. combining membrane filtration and a species-specific dna probe, culturablev. anguillarum cells were detected in water from three habitats and in chinook salmon (onchorynchus tshawytscha) tissue samples. results show that different marine habitats ...199424186556
antisomatostatin-induced growth acceleration in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).since somatostatin (srif) inhibits the release of growth hormone (gh), its immunoneutralization may provide an alternative to gh therapy as a means of enhancing somatic growth in fish. the present study examined the feasibility of accelerating growth in juvenile chinook salmon by means of antisrif administration. yearling salmon of nicola river stock (bc, canada) were injected intraperitoneally every 5 days, for a total of 40 days, with either srif (1 μg g-1 body wt.), antisrif (soma-10, 1 μg g( ...199424198208
a radioimmunoassay for oncorhynchid growth hormone targeted to the physiological range.this study describes the development of an oncorhynchid growth hormone (gh) radioimmunoassay using recombinant chum salmon gh (rsgh) and a rabbit antiserum (tjk-1) raised against this recombinant material. the assay was designed to measure the wide range of circulating immunoreactive gh (irgh) levels in pacific salmonids, resulting in a standard curve capable of accurately determining plasma levels of irgh from 0.5 to 250 ng/ml without dilution. the assay ed50 and ed90 values averaged 13.1 and 0 ...19947882179
in vitro growth of the bacterial kidney disease organism renibacterium salmoninarum on a nonserum, noncharcoal-based "homospecies-metabolite" medium.laboratory and field trials were conducted to evaluate in vitro growth of renibacterium salmoninarum in media without serum or charcoal. growth of this bacterium, the cause of bacterial kidney disease (bkd) in salmonids, is accelerated by addition of a growth enhancing "metabolite" of unknown composition to kdm2 medium, the medium commonly used for isolation of r. salmoninarum. kdm2 medium supplemented with greater than 1% (v/v) metabolite enhanced growth even without addition of either serum or ...19947933282
the chinook salmon gonadotropin ii beta subunit gene contains a strong minimal promoter with a proximal negative element.the salmon pituitary expresses two distinct gonadotropins, gonadotropin i (gthi) and gonadotropin ii (gthii). these two hormones are synthesized in distinct pituitary cells and secreted at different stages during the reproductive cycle. to study the transcriptional regulation of the hormone-specific beta-subunit of gthii (sgthii beta) gene, approximately 3.5 kilobases of the 5'-flanking region was characterized and sequenced. the pituitary specificity of sgthii beta was examined by analyzing sgt ...19947935492
differential recruitment of steroid hormone response elements may dictate the expression of the pituitary gonadotropin ii beta subunit gene during salmon maturation.the role of testosterone (t) and 17 beta-estradiol (e2) in the control of chinook salmon gonadotropin ii beta subunit (sgthii beta) gene was examined. both e2 and t specifically stimulated gthii beta gene expression in cultured juvenile rainbow trout pituitary cells. 5'-flanking regions of the sgthii beta gene linked to the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) expression vector were transfected into these pituitary cells, and cultures were treated with steroid hormones. estrogen-stimulated ca ...19947935493
zinc and dna binding properties of a novel lim homeodomain protein isl-2.lim homeodomain proteins are a family of recently characterized proteins which contain, in addition to a homeodomain, two tandem repeats of conserved cys-his motifs termed as lim domains. we have recently isolated several clones from a chinook salmon pituitary cdna library that encode two novel lim homeodomain proteins, isl-2 and isl-3, which are structurally related to rat isl-1. in the present study, we used the salmon isl-2 to determine the role of lim domains in dna binding. several glutathi ...19947999775
enhancement of proliferation in cultures of chinook salmon embryo cells by interactions between inosine and bovine sera.the influence of inosine on dna synthesis by chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) was investigated because previously cell number was shown to increase from six- to thirtyfold if inosine was added to the basal medium (l-15) supplemented with either dialyzed fetal bovine serum (dfbs), calf serum (cs), or dcs. relative to l-15, 3h-thymidine incorporation was inhibited by these sera alone but elevated in nondialyzed (intact) fbs. inosine at 10 microm stimulated 3h-thymidine incorporation from ten ...19948077278
one of two growth hormone genes in coho salmon is sex-linked.salmonid fishes have two growth hormone genes resulting from their polyploid ancestry. we used the polymerase chain reaction to examine genetic variation in the third intron (c) of both of these genes in coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch). a polymorphism in the length of intron c in gh-1 is due to a variable number of copies of a 31-nt repeat that is absent from gh-1 of the closely related chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). thus, this tandem repeat ...19948127856
growth of fish cell lines in glutamine-free media.the glutamine requirement for the in vitro proliferation of fish cells was investigated with cell lines from four different species and three tissues: goldfish skin (gfsk-s1), chinook salmon embryo (chse-214), and rainbow trout liver (rtl-w1) and spleen (rtsp-w1). with a supplement of fetal bovine serum, the basal medium, leibovitz's l-15, without glutamine supported the proliferation of all four cell lines as well, or nearly as well, as l-15 with 2 mm glutamine. this was true over short term as ...19947766144
multimedia environmental monitoring: 50 years at hanford.environmental monitoring has been an ongoing activity on the u.s. department of energy's hanford site in southeastern washington for almost 50 years. objectives are to detect and assess potential impacts of site operations on air, surface and ground waters, foodstuffs, fish, wildlife, soil and vegetation. data from monitoring effects are used to calculate the overall radiological dose to humans working onsite or residing in nearby communities. in 1989, measured hanford site perimeter concentrati ...199324220840
chinook salmon embryo (chse-sp) cells for fish virus research. 19938320177
a gene encoding chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) prolactin: gene structure and potential cis-acting regulatory elements.a full-length chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) prolactin (prl) gene, the first genomic clone of a teleost prolactin, was isolated and fully sequenced. the chinook prl genomic sequence spans 6.4 kb, including 2.4 kb of 5' flanking sequence, 3.0 kb representing the five exons and four introns of the complete prl gene, and 0.9 kb of 3' flanking sequence. the transcriptional start site of the prl gene was mapped through the agreement of both primer extension and s1 nuclease protection assa ...19921308811
phylogenetic specificity of prolactin gene expression with conservation of pit-1 mammals, the pituitary pou homeodomain protein, pit-1, binds to proximal and distal 5'-flanking sequences of the prl gene that dictate tissue-specific expression. these dna sequences are highly conserved among mammals but are dramatically different from prl 5' sequences in the teleost species, oncorhynchus tschawytscha (chinook salmon). to analyze the molecular basis for pituitary-specific gene expression in a distantly related vertebrate, we transfected cat reporter gene constructs containin ...19921350055
dietary arginine requirement of young rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).1. two growth trials were conducted with young rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) to determine the dietary arginine requirement under conditions of rapid weight gain at 15 degrees c. 2. the growth requirement does not exceed 4.2 g arginine/16 g dietary nitrogen and, thus, is much lower than the value of 6.0 g arginine/16 g dietary nitrogen presently listed by the nrc for chinook salmon and widely applied to all salmonids. 3. comparison of the present results with the arginine requirement of the ...19921351818
infectious pancreatic necrosis virus internalization and endocytic organelles in chse-214 cells.the early events that take place during the internalization of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) into chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) were analyzed ultrastructurally. endocytic tracers were employed in order to characterize the organization of endocytic organelles in chse-214 cells, as well its relation to the ipnv penetration. results demonstrate that ipnv appear internalized within vesicular compartments which are located peripherally in chse-214 cells. despite the high rate o ...19921358463
effect of purine supplementation on the growth of salmonid cell lines in different mammalian sera.the chinook salmon embryo cell line, chse-214, grew well in fetal bovine serum (fbs) but poorly in dialyzed (d) fbs. purines restored most but not all growth-promoting activity to dfbs, which suggests that purines account for a large portion of the dialyzable fraction's growth-promoting activity. chse-214 died in newborn calf serum (ncs) but grew slightly in dncs, which suggests that the dialyzable fraction of ncs contains a toxic component(s). little or no proliferation occurred in calf serum ( ...19921368400
[cloning and sequence analysis of salmon growth hormone cdna].cdna clones encoding chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tschawytscha, growth hormone (sgh) have been isolated from a cdna library prepared from chinook salmon pituitary gland poly(a)+ rna. synthetic oligodeoxynucleotide mixtures based on amino acid residues 1-7 of sgh and 166-172 of sgh were used as hybridization probes to select recombinant plasmids carrying the sgh coding sequence. the complete nucleotide sequence of sgh cdna has been determined. the cdna sequence codes for a polypeptide of 210 amin ...19921466911
nucleocapsid gene sequence of a north american isolate of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus, a fish rhabdovirus.viral haemorrhagic septicaemia is the most important viral disease of trout in europe. the causative agent, viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv), a member of the lyssavirus genus of the rhabdoviridae family, was formerly believed to be confined to portions of the european continent; however in 1988, vhsv was isolated from adult chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho (o. kisutch) salmon returning to two hatcheries in the northwestern part of the state of washington, u.s.a. initial fea ...19921634868
histochemical and immunocytochemical identification of the pituitary cell types in three sciaenid fishes: atlantic croaker (micropogonias undulatus), spotted seatrout (cynoscion nebulosus), and red drum (sciaenops ocellatus).the adenohypophysial cell types in three species of sciaenid teleosts were identified using a combination of classical histochemical techniques and immunocytochemistry with antisera raised against piscine and human pituitary hormones. in general greater specificity for the different cell types was observed with antisera to the piscine pituitary hormones than with antisera raised against the human hormones. the distribution of the cell types did not differ significantly among the three species, a ...19911667000
radioimmunoassay for salmon pancreatic somatostatin-25.a specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay (ria) for the measurement of plasma levels of somatostatin-25 (ss-25) in salmon was developed using antisera raised against coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) ss-25. somatostatin-25 was iodinated by the chloramine-t method and repurified on sephadex g-25. the ria was performed using a double antibody (goat anti-rabbit gammaglobulin as second antibody) method under disequilibrium conditions. plasma from several salmonids (coho, chinook, rainbow trout, bro ...19911676008
[cloning preprolactin cdna from pacific salmon in escherichia coli].prolactin coding mrna was shown to be a prevalent part of chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) pituitary poly(a)-rna during the spawning period. clone lambda gtprk12 was selected from the pituitary cdna library by means of hybridization with the prolactin probe, and a nucleotide sequence of the insertion was determined and compared to the prolactin coding sequences from rainbow trout and pacific chinook salmon, which had been published earlier. the sequences compared exhibited a significant homology. ...19911719371
location and characterization of growth hormone binding sites in the central nervous system of a teleost fish (oncorhynchus mykiss).the binding of 125i-chinook salmon growth hormone (125i-sgh) to rainbow trout brain membranes was studied. specific binding was detected on telencephalon, thalamus-midbrain, cerebellum-medulla and hypothalamus. in all brain regions, specific binding was dependent on membrane protein concentration, being linear in the range of 250-2500 micrograms of membrane proteins (derived from 30-300 mg wet weight tissue). scatchard analysis evidenced a single class of high affinity (8.2 +/- 0.3-10 +/- 0.5 x ...19911842346
enterocytozoon salmonis n. sp.: an intranuclear microsporidium from salmonid fish.the developmental stages of a recently described microsporidian from the nucleus of hematopoietic cells of salmonid fish were found to be unique among the microsporida. all observed stages, including meronts, sporonts, and spores were in direct contact with the host cell nucleus (principally hematopoietic cells) of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). there is no parasitophorous vacuole and sporogony does not involve formation of a pansporoblastic membrane as with other members of the subo ...19911880764
presence of specific growth hormone binding sites in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) tissues: characterization of the hepatic receptor.the present work outlines the presence of specific binding for chinook salmon growth hormone (sgh) in different tissue preparations of rainbow trout. optimal incubation conditions (ph, tris, mgcl2) were determined. specific binding was very sensitive to salt concentration during incubation. the specific binding reached a plateau after 15 and 25 hr of incubation at 12 and 4 degrees. at 20 degrees, specific and nonspecific binding were not stable. specific binding dissociation was slower than asso ...19912026319
endothelial lesions associated with gas bubble disease in fish.two groups of healthy chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were experimentally exposed to gas supersaturated groundwater. gross lesions consistent with gas bubble disease (gbd) developed. vascular lesions associated with intravascular gas bubbles were examined with light and scanning electron microscopy. dermal blood vessels containing gas bubbles were severely dilated. additionally, the gas bubbles were spatially associated with endothelial lesions ranging from cellular degeneration to exf ...19912061432
comparison of representative strains of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus by serological neutralization and cross-protection assays.infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) is a pathogen of young salmon and trout. viral epizootics among these fish in private and public rearing facilities have been a problem in the northwestern united states from california to alaska, and an ihnv vaccine has been sought by the aquaculture experts. since an ihnv vaccine must be designed to immunize against all viral serotypes, an analysis of ihnv serotypes was made. a large number of viruses from widely separated geographic locations and ...199116348480
development and validation of a highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) growth hormone.this study describes the development of a highly specific and very sensitive radioimmunoassay for salmonid growth hormone. antiserum raised against chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh2, which did not recognize 125i-sprl and 125i-sgth (at 1:1000 initial dilution), was able to inhibit growth when injected into rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss). 125i-sgh2, used as tracer, was not recognized by anti-sgth or by anti-sprl. mammalian gh and acth and salmonid gth, tsh, and prl did not cross-react in ...19911879675
the development of a noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for oncorhynchid growth hormone using monoclonal antibodies.the development of a sensitive and specific two-site, or sandwich, noncompetitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for oncorhynchid growth hormone (gh) using monoclonal antibodies (mcas) is reported. the mcas were generated by the fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from mice that had been immunized with chum salmon (oncorhynchus keta) recombinant gh. the mcas specifically recognized the gh-secreting acidophils in the proximal pars distalis of immature male rainbow trout (oncorhyn ...19911879674
comparison of three species of dietary fish: effects on serum concentrations of low-density-lipoprotein cholesterol and apolipoprotein in normotriglyceridemic information is available comparing the effect of different species of fish on serum low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol (ldl-c) and apolipoprotein b (apo b) concentrations. we fed 21 normotriglyceridemic males diets containing different species of fish (200 g dover sole, chinook salmon, or sablefish) for 18 d in a three-period crossover design. concentrations of apo b and ldl-c rose on the salmon and sablefish diets compared with the sole diet (p = 0.02 for apo b, 0.08 for ldl-c). these ...19911907090
comparison of three species of fish consumed as part of a western diet: effects on platelet fatty acids and function, hemostasis, and production of thromboxane.this study examined the effect of the consumption of moderate amounts of three species of fish on platelet fatty acid profile (pfa), bleeding time (bt), platelet aggregation, and ex vivo production of thromboxane b2 (txb2). twenty-three healthy, young men consumed 200 g/d of dover sole. chinook salmon, and sablefish for 18 d in a three-way crossover design as part of a western diet. salmon and sablefish compared with sole caused significant increases in the eicosapentaenoic acid content of the p ...19911858697
fish cell lines: establishment and characterization of three new cell lines from grass carp (ctenopharyngodon idella).three new cell lines were established from tissues of the grass carp, ctenopharyngodon idella. derived from the fin, snout, and swim bladder of two apparently healthy diploid fry, these cell lines have been designated gcf, gcs-2, and gcsb, respectively. the cells grew at temperatures between 24 degrees and 36 degrees c with optimal growth at 32 degrees c and have been subcultured more than 50 times since their initiation in august 1986. two of the lines remained diploid or pseudodiploid after 38 ...19902108122
helminth parasites from north pacific anadromous chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, established in new zealand.the following marine species of parasites are reported from the gastrointestinal tract of pre-spawning chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, taken in the rakaia river, new zealand: the digeneans derogenes varicus, lecithocladium seriolellae, parahemiurus sp., and tubulovesicula angusticauda; and a tetraphyllidean metacestode, possibly of the genus phyllobothrium. a small larval nematode tentatively assigned to the genus contracaceum was found in the intestine and may be either of marine or f ...19902299520
experimental transmission of a plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.a plasmacytoid leukemia of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, has recently been recognized in seawater netpens in british columbia, canada. the disease has occurred at several sites and has caused high mortality. plasmacytoid leukemia is characterized by a generalized invasion of visceral tissues and the orbit of the eye by plasmacytoid cells. the disease was experimentally transmitted to healthy chinook salmon by i.p. injection of kidney tissue homogenates, but transmission with a cell-f ...19902386969
metabolic changes in coho and chinook salmon resulting from acute insufficiency in pancreatic hormones.acute deficiency in pancreatic peptides (insulin, somatostatin-25, glucagon, and glucagon-like peptide) was invoked for 9-12 hr in coho, oncorhynchus kisutch, and chinook, o. tshawytscha, salmon by administration of specific antisera raised against purified salmon hormones. insulin-deficient fish were hyperglycemic, had diminished glycogen content in the liver (plisetskaya et al., '88a, elevated liver triacylglycerol lipase activity, and higher concentration of plasma triiodothyronine (t3) compa ...19892566643
metabolic effects of salmon glucagon and glucagon-like peptide in coho and chinook salmon.different doses of glucagon and glucagon-like peptide (glp) isolated from coho salmon, oncorhynchus kisutch were tested in vivo and in vitro on juvenile coho and chinook (o. tshawytscha) salmon. results obtained suggest an involvement of these peptides in the regulation of plasma glucose, plasma fatty acids, liver glycogen, and the hepatic enzymes: glycogen phosphorylase, pyruvate kinase, triacylglycerol lipase, and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase. metabolic effects were more enhanced in summe ...19892651208
a field evaluation of an indirect fluorescent antibody-based broodstock screening test used to control the vertical transmission of renibacterium salmoninarium in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).ovarian fluid samples from erythromycin treated and untreated spawning three year old chinook salmon were screened independently by two laboratories for the presence of renibacterium salmoninarum using the indirect fluorescent antibody technique (ifat). agreement between the results of the two laboratories could be explained by chance when r. salmoninarum cell numbers as low as one per sample were considered sufficient to represent a positive result. if a positive result was considered to be the ...19892686828
prevalence of larval anisakis simplex in pen-reared and wild-caught salmon (salmonidae) from puget sound, washington.the abundance of parasites of public health significance in pen-reared salmon and wild-caught salmon was compared. two hundred eighty-seven salmon from puget sound, washington, were examined for third-stage larvae of anisakis simplex. of these fish, 237 atlantic salmon (salmo salar), coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook salmon (o. tshawytscha) were reared in commercial salmon pens and 50 sockeye salmon (o. nerka) were caught during their spawning migration. all wild-caught salmon were ...19892761015
stress alters immune function and disease resistance in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).we examined the effects of acute stress on the immune system and disease resistance of juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in laboratory and clinical trials. immune function, as measured by the ability of lymphocytes from the anterior kidney to generate specific antibody-producing cells (apc) in vitro, was depressed 4 h after stress, when plasma cortisol levels were highest. at the same time, resistance to the fish pathogen, vibrio anguillarum, was also depressed. compared with co ...19892918264
purification of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh for receptor study.a method for the purification of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gh, which retains its biological activity, is described. the biological activity was investigated with an established radioreceptor assay using liver membranes from pregnant rabbits and bovine gh as standard and labelled hormone. the enrichment of the preparation was checked with electrophoresis (sds-page). extraction and further steps were carried out using low molarity alkaline buffer (ph 8-10, m = 100 mm). three chroma ...198924221778
molecular cloning and expression of salmon prolactin cdna.prolactin was purified from chum salmon pituitaries. it was resolved into two variants by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. a cdna library was prepared from pacific chinook salmon pituitaries. salmon prolactin gene was screened using a synthetic oligonucleotide based on partial protein sequence. a positive clone (prl-10) was identified and sequenced. it is a full-size clone containing 1.1 kb and coding for a preprolactin of 211 amino acids. a modified prolactin plasmid (prl-1 ...19883349998
preliminary evaluation of praziquantel against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).praziquantel at dosages of 10, 20 or 100 mg/kg of body weight was evaluated against metacercariae of nanophyetus salmincola in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). ten salmon were used in each of four treated groups and 10 salmon were nontreated controls. three wk after treatment, viability of metacercariae was determined by histologic evaluation, and by feeding the salmon to coyotes and subsequently determining the numbers of trematode eggs/g of feces and numbers of n. salmincola recovere ...19883411713
adhesion of aeromonas salmonicida strains associated with net electrostatic charges of host tissue cells.the adhesion of aeromonas salmonicida, the pathogenic bacterium of fish furunculosis in salmon and trout, to the surface of host tissue cells was investigated with two fish tissue culture cell lines (rtg-2 cells from rainbow trout, salmo gairdneri, and chse-214 cells from chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and four a. salmonicida strains. bacterial cells of pathogenic strains were highly adhesive to rtg-2 and chse-214 cells and were negatively charged in the net electrostatic charges, as ...19873818093
vibrio anguillarum antigen stimulates mitogenesis and polyclonal activation of salmonid antigen preparation of vibrio anguillarum, a salmonid pathogen, acts as a potent in vitro mitogenic stimulator of splenic and pronephric (anterior kidney) lymphocytes from coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch), chinook salmon (o. tshawytscha) and rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri). this antigen (va) is comparable in its mitogenic activity to concanavalin a (con a), escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (lps), and phytohemagglutinin (pha). va gives peak mitogenic responses in coho five days after init ...19873315760
comparative ultrastructure of the zona radiata from eggs of six species of salmonids.the zona radiata from unactivated and activated eggs from chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), chum salmon (o. kisutch), pink salmon (o. gorbuscha), brown trout (salmo trutta), rainbow trout (s. gairdneri) and lake trout (salvelinus namaycush) were examined using scanning and transmission microscopy. the zona radiata in all species examined consisted of an outer adhesive coating, a thin densely staining zona radiata externa with pore canal plugs and a thick, fibrous zona radiata interna wi ...19873690632
heavy metal-induced gene expression in fish and fish cell lines.two isoforms of metallothionein (mt) have been isolated from rainbow trout livers following cdcl2 injections. these mts have been identified by standard procedures and appear to be similar to mammalian mts. total rna from such induced livers was shown to contain high levels of mt-mrna activity when translated in cell free systems. this activity was demonstrated to be in the 8 to 10s region of a sucrose gradient. the rna fractions also showed homology to a mouse mt-i cdna probe. the exposure of r ...19863709434
heat-shock gene expression in animal embryonic systems.we have examined the expression of heat shock or stress genes in fish, echinoderm, amphibian, and mammalian embryonic systems. in a chinook salmon embryo cell line, elevation of the incubation temperature or exposure to metal ions (e.g., cadmium and zinc) induced a set of heat-shock proteins hsps. transcriptional inhibitor, in vitro translation, and northern hybridization studies suggest that fish hsp synthesis is regulated at the transcriptional level. the synthesis of hsps during early develop ...19863828897
an epizootic in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) caused by a sorbitol-positive serovar 2 strain of yersinia ruckeri.enteric redmouth disease is described in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) at a state hatchery in sand ridge, illinois. biochemical, isoenzyme, and serological data indicated that the epizootic was caused by a sorbitol-fermenting serovar 2 strain of yersinia ruckeri. in laboratory experiments the isolate was pathogenic for both brook trout (salvelinus fontinalis) and atlantic salmon (salmo salar).19863503134
use of erythromycin in reducing vertical transmission of bacterial kidney disease.studies were conducted in 1980-1982 to determine uptake and retention of erythromycin when eggs of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were water hardened for 1 hr in 2 ppm of the antibiotic as a means of preventing vertical transmission of bacterial kidney disease (bkd). although eggs absorbed up to 1 ppm during water hardening, they retained the drug less than 24 hr. injection of adult female chinook salmon with 11 mg of erythromycin/kg of body weight to prevent prespawning mortality fro ...19863509648
molecular cloning and sequencing of salmon gonadotropin beta subunit.gonadotropin (gth) was purified from the pituitaries of the pacific chinook salmon using a combination of stepwise ethanol precipitation and concanavalin-a affinity chromatography. the alpha and beta subunits were dissociated and fractionated by c-18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with a 0.1% trifluoroacetic acid/acetonitrile gradient. an enriched cdna library was screened for the beta-gth gene(s) using two synthetic oligonucleotides based on partial protein data. a positiv ...19862428617
antiviral activity and its mechanism of guanine 7-n-oxide on dna and rna viruses derived from salmonid.guanine 7-n-oxide produced by streptomyces sp. was found to inhibit in vitro the replication of herpes virus (oncorhynchus masou virus, omv), rhabdo virus (infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus, ihnv) and a bi-segmented double-strand virus (infectious pancreatic necrosis virus, ipnv) derived from salmonids with ic50 values of about 10 micrograms/ml, 20 micrograms/ml and 32 micrograms/ml, respectively. the agent was not toxic for the host cells (chinook salmon embryo, chse-214) at the ic50 conc ...19853841124
pkx, the causative agent of proliferative kidney disease (pkd) in pacific salmonid fishes and its affinities with the myxozoa.proliferative kidney disease (pkd), caused by an unclassified protozoan (pkx), is reported from pacific salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum) and o. kisutch (walbaum), and steelhead trout, salmo gairdneri richardson, held at the mad river hatchery in california, usa. the cumulative mortality attributed to the disease was 95, 13, and 18% respectively. the mortalities were greatest at mean water temperatures of 12-14 degrees c during july 1983. the ultrastructure of the pkx organism and its a ...19854009511
development and validation of a salmon prolactin radioimmunoassay.a highly specific radioimmunoassay (ria) for the measurement of prolactin (prl) in the plasma and pituitary of salmonid fishes was developed using a rabbit antiserum to chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) prl. the prls purified from chinook salmon and chum salmon (o. keta) pituitaries showed exactly the same competitive inhibition curves in the ria, regardless of iodination of either hormone. the displacement curves for pituitary extracts and plasma from several salmonids, including chum, ...19854018564
detection of infection and susceptibility of different pacific salmon stocks (oncorhynchus spp.) to the haemoflagellate cryptobia salmositica.the haematocrit centrifugation technique, modified by keeping the haematocrit tubes cold (between 1 and 10 c), was sensitive for detecting light infections of cryptobia salmositica (as few as 75 flagellates per ml of blood). in wet mount preparations, infections lighter than 7.5 x 10(3) flagellates per ml of blood could not be detected consistently. different pacific salmon stocks from british columbia demonstrated differences in susceptibility to c. salmositica in experimental studies using lab ...19846470889
purification and biological characterization of chinook salmon prolactin.prolactin from chinook salmon pituitaries was purified by acid acetone extraction, saline precipitation, chromatofocusing, and gel filtration. this procedure allowed us to recover highly purified prolactin as demonstrated by the presence of a single nh2-terminal amino acid and a single band in sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. chinook salmon prolactin appeared to be a basic protein of 22,500 molecular weight. throughout the purification, prolactin bioactivity was followed by radiorecep ...19846714651
bioassay for salmon prolactin using hypophysectomized fundulus heteroclitus.a bioassay for salmon prolactin (prl) is described. this assay which is based on the sodium-retaining action of prl in the hypophysectomized killifish, fundulus heteroclitus, has proved to be rapid, sensitive (250 pg prl per gram of fish), and specific. the procedure has been used to characterize the biological activity of a highly purified prl from the pituitaries of the chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tschawytscha, and a similar prl isolated (by acid buffer polyacrylamide disc gel electrophoresis ...19846714653
persistent infection with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus mediated by defective-interfering (di) virus particles in a cell line showing strong interference but little di replication.the characteristics of chinook salmon embryo cells persistently infected with infectious pancreatic necrosis virus were consistent with defective-interfering (di) particle-mediated persistence. all the cells were infected and were slowly releasing virus, but they could be cured of virus in the presence of antiserum. immunofluorescence showed that the amount of virus antigen in persistently infected cells was low. this fact, coupled with the observation that few di particles were released by thes ...19827061991
isolation and characterization of edwardsiella tarda from fall chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).a new bacterial pathogen of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) was isolated from fish in oregon's rogue river. the bacteria are biochemically and serologically related to strains of edwardsiella tarda. initially isolated from chinook salmon, the bacteria were also pathogenic for steelhead and rainbow trout (salmo gairdneri), and channel catfish (ictalurus punctatus). the 50% lethal doses for chinook salmon, steelhead trout, and channel catfish injected intraperitoneally and maintained in ...19827103490
effect of ribavirin on the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus in fish cell cultures.ribavirin (1-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-1,2,4-triazole-3-carboxamide) at concentrations of 10 microgram/ml or more, inhibited the replication of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) in both chinook salmon embryo (chse-214) and rainbow trout gonad (rtg-2) cells. the drug was most effective when added just before or within 8 h p.i. incorporation studies with radioactive precursors demonstrated that ribavirin suppressed cellular dna and rna synthesis within 2 to 3 h after addition of the drug. the ...19807365468
growth of fish cell lines on microcarriers.microcarrier beads were evaluated as substrates for the propagation of five anchorage-dependent fish cell lines. growth of rainbow trout gonad (rtg-2) and atlantic salmon cells was limited on microcarriers maintained in suspension. however, stationary microcarriers were suitable substrates for the growth of rtg-2, as, chinook salmon embryo (chse-214), and fathead minnow cells. cell yields ranged from 2 x 10 to 2.9 x 10 cells per ml, representing 7- to 10-fold increases over the initial cell conc ...198016345513
infectious pancreatic necrosis virus persistently infects chinook salmon embryo cells independent of interferon. 1979442542
high-performance liquid chromatographic analysis of oxytetracycline in chinook salmon following administration of medicated feed.a high-performance liquid chromatographic assay was developed to detect oxytetracycline (otc) in chinook salmon muscle tissue. a solid-phase extraction protocol was used to recover otc and the internal standard, epitetracycline hydrochloride, from the salmon tissue samples. otc was analyzed using a mobile phase of methanol-0.02 m phosphate buffer, ph 2.25 (60:190), an ultraviolet detection wavelength of 365 nm and 250 mm x 4.6 mm i.d. ultrasphere ods column. a linear calibration curve (r2 = 0.99 ...19781818082
glochidiosis of salmonid fishes. i. comparative susceptibility to experimental infection with margaritifera margaritifera (l.) (pelecypoda: margaritanidae).this is the first report on the susceptibility of salmonid fishes to infection with the glochidia of the freshwater mussel margaritifera margaritifera using known numbers of parasites under controlled conditions. the relative susceptibility of six species of salmonid fish, 20 to 80 mm in total length, to glochidiosis was determined by exposing fish individually to different numbers of parasites and plotting mortalities against these exposure levels at 70 days postexposure and also against the nu ...1977886411
binding proteins from fish sera and intrinsic factor compared in vitamin b12 radioassay.we compare serum proteins from rainbow trout, chinook salmon, coho salmon, and oyster toadfish with intrinsic factor as binding proteins in a simplified radioassay for b12. regression analysis of b12 values, determined in 21 serum samples, shows good correlation (r greater than .975) between results for the fish sera and intrinsic factor. the accuracy of the five assays, as evaluated by analytical recovery of b12 added to pooled human serum, ranges from 90 to 110%. intra-assay precision ranges f ...1977912869
gene duplication in salmonid fishes: evidence for duplicated but catalytically equivalent a4 lactate dehydrogenases.skeletal muscle tissues from many species of salmonid fish are known to exhibit a set of three of five isozymes for a4-type lactate dehydrogenase (l-lactate: nad oxidoreductase, e.c., but the genetic basis for this isozyme system has not previously been assessed. this isozyme system was purified to homogeneity from salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and shown to be composed of two polypeptides. aalpha and abeta, in binomial tetrameric combinations. amino acid analysis revealed that aalp ...1977921740
failure of vaccines to protect salmon from vibriosis enzootic in puget sound, washington.juvenile chinook salmon in fresh water were vaccinated either orally or parenterally with heat- or formalin-killed bacterins prepared with vibrio anguillarum. subsequent exposure to naturally occuring vibriosis in the marine waters of puget sound (washington state) indicated that no protection resulted. it was demonstrated, however, that protection could be achieved with the passive transfer of immune serum.1976937795
in situ morphology of nitrifying-like bacteria in aquaculture systems.the in situ microbiota from several aquaculture facilities with active nitrification was examined by transmission electron microscopy of thin sections for the presence of bacteria that contained intracytoplasmic membranes characteristic of the nitrifying bacteria. colonies of bacteria with the cellular morphology of a species of nitrosomonas were found to be present in both the culture water and in the biological filter slime of a freshwater chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) culture syst ...1976938036
antibodies to reduced s-carboxymethylated alpha subunit of bovine luteinizing hormone and their application to study of the purification of gonadotropin from salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) pituitary glands. 1976992329
comparative membrane microviscosity of fish and mammalian rhabdoviruses studied by fluorescence depolarization.the microviscosity of the hydrophobic region of the membrane of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus was determined using fluorescence depolarization analysis of the probe 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene and was found to be much lower at 37 c than that of another rhabdovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus. however, the microviscosity of this fish virus at 18 c, the temperature at which it was grown, corresponded to the microviscosity of vesicular stomatitis virus at 37 c. data obtained with the fi ...1976181597
nocardiosis in chinook salmon. 19744826119
preparation of gonadotropin from salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) pituitary glands. 19725034765
purification and some properties of an acid deoxyribonuclease from testes of chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha. 19714323005
an epizootic of vibriosis in chinook salmon. 19695816102
the spermiation of goldfish (carassius auratus) as a bioassay for salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) gonadotropin. 19685659183
myxobolus insidiosus sp. n., a myxosporidian from the musculature of oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum). 196314084203
a comparative study of the causative agent of a mycobacterial disease of salmonoid fishes. 2. a description of the histopathology of the disease in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and a comparison of the staining characteristics of the fish disease with leprosy and human tuberculosis. 196014430463
the visual systems of euryhaline fishes.1. the retinas of all marine fishes so far examined except the labridae, and of all terrestrial vertebrates contain the rhodopsin system alone; those of fresh water fishes the porphyropsin system alone. in the present paper the visual systems of a number of euryhaline fishes are examined-fishes capable of existence in a wide range of salinities, though usually restricted in spawning either to the sea (catadromous) or to fresh water (anadromous). 2. the retinas of the anadromous salmonids (brook ...194119873269
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