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the albumins of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and brown trout (salmo trutta) appear to lack a propeptide.plasma samples from two members of the salmonidae family, the chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and brown trout (salmo trutta), were examined. albumin, initially identified as the predominant anionic palmitate-binding band on agarose gel electrophoresis of plasma, was purified from both species by deae-ion exchange chromatography. albumin has a plasma concentration of approximately 15 mg/ml in both species. like other fish species, neither trout nor salmon albumin binds nickel; a charact ...19989473297
comparison of the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test, the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and the polymerase chain reaction to detect renibacterium salmoninarum in salmonid ovarian fluid.ovarian fluid samples from naturally infected chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were examined for the presence of renibacterium salmoninarum by the membrane-filtration fluorescent antibody test (mf-fat), an antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr). on the basis of the mf-fat, 64% (66/103) samples contained detectable levels of r. salmoninarum cells. among the positive fish, the r. salmoninarum concentrations ranged from 25 ce ...19989526862
lack of restriction of growth for aquareovirus in mammalian cells.the striped bass (sbr) virus, a member of the recently described aquareoviruses, infected, caused cytopathic effects (cpe), and replicated in mammalian cells. the virus caused cpe in all 7 of the mammalian cell lines investigated. sbr virus functioned best at lower temperatures and it is these lower temperatures that appeared to be restricting factors for growth of some mammalian cells. at 22 degrees c the sbr virus grew to similar titers in both chinook salmon embryo (chse) cells and in mammali ...19989572557
a multigeneration study to ascertain the toxicological effects of great lakes salmon fed to rats: study overview and design.fish from the great lakes can be contaminated with a plethora of industrial, agricultural, and environmental chemicals. these chemicals have been associated with reproductive and other toxicological effects in fish and fish-eating birds found in the great lakes basin. to obtain more insight into this association, several laboratory studies have been undertaken wherein fish have been incorporated into the experimental diets to determine the effect of their ingestion upon the test animals. in addi ...19989618329
dietary and tissue residue analysis and contaminant intake estimations in rats consuming diets composed of great lakes salmon: a multigeneration study.to further characterize the toxicological risk associated with chemical contaminants in great lakes fish, a multigeneration rat reproduction study was designed. mature chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tsawytscha), collected during the fall 1991 spawning runs from sydenham river, lake huron, and credit river, lake ontario, were filleted, lyophilized, and incorporated into standard rat diets at 25% (w/w) or 100% (w/w) of the normal protein compliment [casein, 20% (w/w)]. this resulted in diets compose ...19989618330
the toxicological effects following the ingestion of chinook salmon from the great lakes by sprague-dawley rats during a two-generation feeding-reproduction study.a two-generation reproduction-feeding study was undertaken with sprague-dawley rats to ascertain the effects of ingesting chinook salmon fillets caught in the credit river, which empties into lake ontario (lo), or in the owen sound region of lake huron (lh). rats (30/sex/group) were randomly assigned to groups whose dietary protein consisted of casein and/or lyophilized salmon [group 1: 20% casein (controls); group 2: 15% casein + 5% lo salmon (lo-5%); group 3: 20% lo salmon (lo-20%); group 4: 1 ...19989618331
effects of great lakes fish consumption on the immune system of sprague-dawley rats investigated during a two-generation reproductive study.the effects of great lakes fish on food consumption, body and organ weights, and hematological parameters were investigated in the first- (f1) and second- (f2) generation sprague-dawley rats assigned to immunological studies. the parent- (f0) generation rats were fed either a control diet or diets containing 5 or 20% lyophilized chinook salmon from credit river (lake ontario, lo) or owen sound (lake huron, lh). the f1 and f2 pups were exposed to the fish diet in utero, through the dam's milk to ...19989618332
effects of great lakes fish consumption on the immune system of sprague-dawley rats investigated during a two-generation reproductive study.the effects of great lakes fish contaminants on several quantitative and functional aspects of the immune system were investigated in the first (f1) and second (f2) generations of sprague-dawley rats. the f0 rats were fed either a control diet or diets containing 5 or 20% lyophilized chinook salmon from the credit river of lake ontario (lo) and owen sound point of lake huron (lh). the f1 and f2 pups were exposed to fish in utero, through the dam's milk to 21 days old, and through the dam's respe ...19989618333
neurobehavioral effects of chronic ingestion of great lakes chinook salmon.cross-generational chronic feeding of either a 5 or a 20% lyophilized lake huron (lh) or lake ontario (lo) chinook salmon diet to rats caused no observable effects on many behavioral dimensions including activity, exploration, sensorimotor function, and stereotypy. as assessed by the morris water maze and the radial arm maze, there was no diet-induced impairment of spatial learning or long-term memory. there was no evidence that the fish diets caused an exaggerated response to food reward reduct ...19989618334
microsomal enzyme activity, glutathione s-transferase-placental form expression, cell proliferation, and vitamin a stores in livers of rats consuming great lakes salmon.male and female sprague-dawley rats were fed diets incorporating lyophilized chinook salmon obtained from lake ontario and lake huron. after 70 days, females were bred and the progeny (f1) were reared on the same fish-based diets as the adults (f0). after 78-133 days on the diets, males and females of both generations were sacrificed and hepatic microsomal enzyme activities determined, along with glutathione s-transferase-placental form (gstp) expression and hepatic cellular proliferation. hepat ...19989618336
the health canada great lakes multigeneration study--summary and regulatory considerations.the health canada multigeneration study was initiated to determine the consequences in rodents consuming diets containing lake ontario (lo) or lake huron (lh) chinook salmon over successive generations. following lyophilization, the contaminant levels in the salmon used in the formulation of the diets for this study exceeded a number of tolerances or guidelines established for contaminants in commercial fish and seafood products (pcbs, dioxin, mirex, chlordanes, mercury). consumption of the fish ...19989618337
virulence and antigenic characteristics of a cultured rickettsiales-like organism isolated from farmed atlantic salmon salmo salar in eastern canada.the present study describes culture, virulence and antigenic characteristics of a rickettsiales-like organism (rlo) associated with mortality in farmed atlantic salmon in eastern canada. clinical disease was reproduced in naive atlantic salmon parr by intraperitoneal i.p. inoculation with kidney homogenate from naturally infected fish. pure cultures of rlo were isolated into chinook salmon embryo (chse) cells from kidney of experimentally infected fish. the rlo caused cytopathic effect in cultur ...19989653456
the albumin of the brown trout (salmo trutta) is a glycoprotein.the albumin from an atlantic salmonid, the brown trout (salmo trutta), is 1730 da higher in molecular mass than the albumin from a pacific salmonid, the chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), at 65230 da. digestion with neuraminidase revealed that purified brown trout albumin contained sialic acid while chinook salmon albumin did not. concanavalin a-sepharose affinity chromatography was used to purify a glycopeptide from a total tryptic digest of brown trout albumin. the mass of this glycope ...19989675251
reducing total aerobic counts and listeria monocytogenes on the surface of king salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).a trial industrial-scale fin-fish washing system was assessed for its effectiveness in removing bacteria associated with the skin of gilled and gutted king salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). exposure of the salmon to 200 ppm free chlorine at a turnover rate for the total volume of the wash solution of 2.25 cycles h-1 for 120 min resulted in decreases in the aerobic plate count (apc) recovered from the salmon ranging from 96.6 to 99.2%. in order to optimize the washing regime a laboratory-scale f ...19989678168
modes of transmission of loma salmonae (microsporidia).loma salmonae (putz, hoffman and dunbar, 1965) morrison and sprague, 1981 (microsporidia) causes prominent gill disease in pen-reared chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha in the pacific northwest. transmission of the parasite was examined by exposing pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. to infectious spores by various routes: per os, intraperitoneal, intramuscular, and intravascular injection, by cohabitation with infected fish, and by placement of spores directly on the gill. all exposure method ...19989722404
generation of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus from cloned cdna.we developed a reverse genetics system for infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv), a prototype virus of the birnaviridae family, with the use of plus-stranded rna transcripts derived from cloned cdna. full-length cdna clones of the ipnv genome that contained the entire coding and noncoding regions of rna segments a and b were constructed. segment a encodes a 106-kda precursor protein which is cleaved to yield mature vp2, nonstructural protease, and vp3 proteins, whereas segment b encodes th ...19989765436
efficacy of the fumagillin analog tnp-470 for nucleospora salmonis and loma salmonae infections in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.oral treatment with fumagillin is effective for controlling various microsporean and myxosporean infections in fish. we tested a synthetic analog of fumagillin, tnp-470 (takeda chemical industries), for its efficacy against 2 microsporean pathogens of salmon: loma salmonae and nucleospora salmonis. chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha were experimentally infected with either l. salmonae (per os) or n. salmonis (intraperitoneal, i.p., injection) and held in fresh water at 15 degrees c. fish we ...19989789978
pathogenicity of vibrio alginolyticus for cultured gilt-head sea bream (sparus aurata l.).the in vivo and in vitro pathogenic activities of whole cells and extracellular products of vibrio alginolyticus for cultured gilt-head sea bream were evaluated. the 50% lethal doses ranged from 5.4 x 10(4) to 1.0 x 10(6) cfu/g of body weight. the strains examined had the ability to adhere to skin, gill, and intestinal mucus of sea bream and to cultured cells of a chinook salmon embryo cell line. in addition, the in vitro ability of v. alginolyticus to adhere to mucus and skin cells of sea bream ...19989797276
expression of a novel piscine growth hormone gene results in growth enhancement in transgenic tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).several lines of transgenic g1 and g2 tilapia fish (oreochromis niloticus) have been produced following egg injection with gene constructs carrying growth hormone coding sequences of fish origin. using a construct in which an ocean pout antifreeze promoter drives a chinook salmon growth hormone gene, dramatic growth enhancement has been demonstrated, in which the mean weight of the 7 month old g2 transgenic fish is more than three fold that of their non transgenic siblings. somewhat surprisingly ...19989859224
development of a nested polymerase chain reaction for amplification of a sequence of the p57 gene of renibacterium salmoninarum that provides a highly sensitive method for detection of the bacterium in salmonid kidney.nucleic acid-based assays have shown promise for diagnosing renibacterium salmoninarum in tissues and body fluids of salmonids. development of a nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) method to detect a 320 bp dna segment of the gene encoding the p57 protein of r. salmoninarum is described. whereas a conventional pcr for a 383 bp segment of the p57 gene reliably detected 1000 r. salmoninarum cells per reaction in kidney tissue, the nested pcr detected as few as 10 r. salmoninarum per reaction in ...19989925428
evaluation of rainbow trout as a model for use in studies on pathogenesis of the branchial microsporidian loma salmonae.loma salmonae is an economically important gill microsporidian pathogen of pen-reared chinook and coho salmon. chinook and coho salmon are generally poorly suited for use in laboratory studies because of their high mortality rates when infected with l. salmonae and their high-level of susceptibility to other infectious diseases. using gill tissue from chinook salmon that contained mature xenomas laden with l. salmonae spores, we successfully transmitted the infection to rainbow trout. the infect ...199812456170
involvement of serine proteinase in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus capsid protein maturation and ns proteinase cleavage in chse-214 cells.an investigation of virus-specific protein maturation in infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) infected chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) was undertaken. the precursor protein (pvp2-1) of the major mature capsid protein (vp2) was processed sequentially from pvp2-1 to pvp2-2 and vp2. experiments using serine proteinase inhibitors showed that the maturation of the vp2 was blocked in the pvp2-1 post-translational cleavage steps. a protinin, a potent proteinase inhibitor, at 800 μg ml(-1) ...199821361976
major histocompatibility complex differentiation in sacramento river chinook salmon.the chinook salmon of the sacramento river, california, have been reduced to a fraction of their former abundance because of human impact and use of the river system. here we examine the genetic variation at a major histocompatibility complex class ii exon in the four sacramento chinook salmon runs. examination of the alleles found in these and other chinook salmon revealed nucleotide patterns consistent with selection for amino acid replacement at the putative antigen-binding sites. we found a ...199910049927
pcb congener patterns in rats consuming diets containing great lakes salmon: analysis of fish, diets, and adipose tissue.as part of a multidisciplinary toxicological investigation into great lakes contaminants, chinook salmon were collected from lake huron (lh) and lake ontario (lo) and incorporated (as lyophilized fillets) into standard rat diets as 20 or 100% of the protein complement (5 or 20%, w/w diet-lh5, lh20, lo5, and lo20 diets). final pcb concentrations in the experiment ranged from 3.15 ng/g in the control diet to 1080 ng/g in the high-dose (20%) lo diet, with maximal estimated daily consumption by the ...199910092435
different prevalences of renibacterium salmoninarum detected by elisa in alaskan chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha spawned from freshwater and seawater.soluble antigen of renibacterium salmoninarum (rs) was detected by a polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) at significantly higher prevalences in adult chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha that matured in freshwater than in the same cohort of fish spawned after maturation in seawater. the cumulative results were consistent during 4 yr of comparison at the little port walter hatchery on baranof island, alaska, usa. possible causes for this difference are discussed. maturation of ...199910092972
isolation of infectious salmon anemia virus (isav) from atlantic salmon in new brunswick, canada.infectious salmon anemia virus (isav) was isolated at a marine grow-out site in new brunswick, canada, from atlantic salmon salmo salar which experienced mortalities due to hemorrhagic kidney syndrome (hks). of 20 fish sampled in this study, 14 showed histologically various degrees of interstitial hemorrhaging, tubular epithelial degeneration and necrosis, and tubular casts in the posterior kidney, typical of hks. posterior kidney and spleen homogenates produced a cytopathic effect on chinook sa ...199910092976
successful aquatic animal disease emergency programmes.the authors provide examples of emergency programmes which have been successful in eradicating or controlling certain diseases of aquatic animals. the paper is divided into four parts. the first part describes the initial isolation of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia (vhs) virus in north america in the autumn of 1988 from feral adult chinook (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and coho salmon (o. kisutch) returning for spawning. the fish disease control policies at both state and federal levels in the unit ...199910190216
locomotor mechanics during early life history: effects of size and ontogeny on fast-start performance of salmonid fishesfast-start locomotor behavior is important for escaping from predators and for capturing prey. to examine the effects of size and other aspects of developmental morphology on fast-start performance, the kinematics of the fast-start escape behavior were studied through early post-hatching development in three salmonid species: chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), coho salmon (oncorhynchus kisutch) and brown trout (salmo trutta). these three species, while morphologically and developmentally ...199910229693
antigenic and functional characterization of p57 produced by renibacterium salmoninarum.renibacterium salmoninarum, the causative agent of bacterial kidney disease, produces large quantities of a 57-58 kda protein (p57) during growth in broth culture and during infection of salmonid fish. biological activities of secreted p57 include agglutination of salmonid leucocytes and rabbit erythrocytes. we define the location of epitopes on p57 recognized by agglutination-blocking monoclonal antibodies (mabs) 4c11, 4h8 and 4d3, and demonstrate that the majority of secreted p57 is a monomer ...199910439902
inter-laboratory comparison of cell lines for susceptibility to three viruses: vhsv, ihnv and ipnv.eleven european national reference laboratories participated in an inter-laboratory comparison of the susceptibility of 5 selected cell lines to 3 fish pathogenic viruses. the test included viral hemorrhagic septicaemia virus (vhsv); infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) and infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv), and the cell lines derived from bluegill fry (bf-2), chinook salmon embryo (chse-214), epithelioma papulosum cyprini (epc), fathead minnow (fhm) and rainbow trout gonad ( ...199910494498
infectious pancreatic necrosis virus induces apoptosis due to down-regulation of survival factor mcl-1 protein expression in a fish cell line.infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv), a member of the virus family birnaviridae, causes an acute, contagious disease in a number of economically important fish species. chse-214, a chinook salmon embryonic cell line, when infected by ipnv showed morphological and biochemical features of apoptosis, including an intense dna laddering pattern and blebbing of the plasma membrane, followed by formation of apoptotic bodies. the mcl-1 gene product proved to be a member of the bcl-2 gene family, ...199910509718
resistance to reinfection in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha to loma salmonae (microsporidia).chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha were experimentally infected per os with loma salmonae and held in flow-through seawater tanks at 12 to 14 degrees c. the fish exhibited 100% infection when first examined at 7 wk post initial exposure (p.e.), and by 20 wk p.e. they had completely recovered from gill infections. the recovered fish were then re-exposed the following week. all of these fish showed strong protection to new l. salmonae infections, while naïve fish exposed to the same inoculum ...199910546050
nonisotopic detection of loma salmonae (microspora) in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) gills by in situ hybridization.loma salmonae, a microsporidian parasite of salmonids of the genus oncorhynchus, is a significant cause of economic loss in pen-reared chinook salmon (o. tschawytscha). final stages of l. salmonae infections are easily recognized by the xenomas that form in the gills during sporogony. however, early prexenoma stages of infection (3 weeks or less after infection) are difficult to detect on histologic slides. an l. salmonae-specific single-stranded dna probe labeled with digoxigenin was used to de ...199910568444
denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge): a rapid and sensitive technique to screen nucleotide sequence variation in populations.we describe a rapid and sensitive method for the detection of nucleotide sequence variation that can be used for large-scale screening of population markers. denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (dgge) detects sequence variants of amplified fragments by the differences in their melting behavior. dgge detects most single-base substitutions when carried out on products amplified with a primer to which a gc clamp has been added. although dgge has been primarily used for the detection of limited ...199910572650
shedding of renibacterium salmoninarum by infected chinook salmon oncorhynchus tschawytscha.laboratory studies of the transmission and pathogenesis of renibacterium salmoninarum may describe more accurately what is occurring in the natural environment if test fish are infected by waterborne r. salmoninarum shed from infected fish. to quantify bacterial shedding by chinook salmon oncorhynchus tschawytscha at 13 degrees c in freshwater, groups of fish were injected intraperitoneally with r. salmoninarum at either 1.3 x 10(6) colony forming units (cfu) fish (-1) (high-dose injection group ...199910590930
position-independent expression of transgenes in zebrafish.the variability in expression patterns of transgenes, caused by the influence of neighboring chromatin, is called 'position effect'. border elements are dna sequences, which have the ability to alleviate position effects. the abilities of two types of border elements, scs/scs' from the d. melanogaster 87a7 heat shock locus and the a-element from the chicken lysozyme gene, to protect transgenes from position effects were quantified in developing zebrafish embryos. the transgenic construct used wa ...199910669943
the impact of rice pesticides on the aquatic ecosystems of the sacramento river and delta (california).since the early 1980s, when molinate was demonstrated to have killed carp in agricultural drains, an intensive research effort has been undertaken to assess the impact of rice pesticides on aquatic ecosystems in the sacramento river and delta. no impact has been found that can be clearly attributed to rice pesticides. however, the rice insecticides methyl parathion and carbofuran, and probably also bufencarb, reached levels in the river and delta that, based on laboratory bioassays, would have b ...19999921140
biochemical characterization of salmon pancreas disease virus.salmon pancreas disease virus (spdv) has been shown to cause severe economic losses in farmed atlantic salmon (salmo salar) and has been reported to occur in europe, scandinavia and the united states. this paper describes the biochemical characterization of spdv in terms of its rna and protein composition. spdv was purified by precipitation from infected chinook salmon embryo (chse-214) cell-culture supernatant and sucrose density-gradient centrifugation. fractions containing virus were identifi ...200010675419
marine netpen farming leads to infections with some unusual parasites.marine netpen farming of salmonid fishes is a rapidly growing industry in several countries. with this relatively recent industry, new or unusual infections by parasitic pathogens have been observed. this is due to different hosts being reared in new geographic areas, or by indigenous species being reared in a different environmental condition, i.e. the marine netpen. examples of the former include kudoa thyrsites (myxozoa) and hemobaphes disphaerocephalus (copepoda) infections in atlantic salmo ...200010719125
role of motility in adherence to and invasion of a fish cell line by vibrio anguillarum.to understand further the role of the flagellum of vibrio anguillarum in virulence, invasive and adhesive properties of isogenic motility mutants were analyzed by using a chinook salmon embryo cell line. adhesion was unaffected but invasion of the cell line was significantly decreased in nonmotile or partially motile mutants, and the chemotactic mutant was hyperinvasive. these results suggest that active motility aids invasion by v. anguillarum, both in vivo and in vitro.200010735880
experimental and natural host specificity of loma salmonae (microsporidia).the microsporidian loma salmonae (putz, hoffman & dunbar, 1965) morrison & sprague, 1981 has caused significant gill disease in pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. host specificity of the parasite was examined experimentally by per os challenge of selected salmonids and non-salmonids with infective chinook salmon o. tshawytscha gill material. pink oncorhynchus gorbuscha and chum salmon o. keta, brown salmo trutta and brook trout salvelinus fontinalis, and chinook salmon (controls) were positive, wh ...200010782347
rna turnover and protein synthesis in fish cells.protein synthesis in fish has been previously correlated with rna content. the present study investigates whether protein and rna synthesis rates are similarly related. protein and rna synthesis rates were determined from 3h-phenylalanine and 3h-uridine incorporation, respectively, and expressed as % x day(-1) and half-lives, respectively. three fibroblast cell lines were used: bf-2, rtp, chse 214, which are derived from the bluegill, rainbow trout and chinook salmon, respectively. these cells c ...200010791573
comparison of extraction methods and assay validation for salmon insulin-like growth factor-i using commercially available components.insulin-like growth factor-binding proteins (igfbps) may interfere with accurate measurement of plasma igfs in radioimmunoassay (ria). although several simplified extraction methods for igfs have been developed, these methods are not always validated for differing physiological states, developmental stages, and animal species. for teleost fish, neither the necessity of plasma extraction nor the validity of extraction methods for igf ria is widely established. we systematically examined the valid ...200010882546
induction of mx protein by interferon and double-stranded rna in salmonid cells.mx protein is one of several antiviral proteins that are induced by the type i interferons (ifn), ifnalpha and beta, in mammals. in this work induction of a 76 kda mx protein by double-stranded rna (dsrna) or type i ifn-like activity in atlantic salmon macrophages, atlantic salmon fibroblast cells (as cells) and in chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) is reported. type i ifn-like activity was produced by the stimulation of atlantic salmon macrophages with the synthetic dsrna polyinosinic polyc ...200010994588
evolution of temporal isolation in the wild: genetic divergence in timing of migration and breeding by introduced chinook salmon populations.the timing of migration and breeding are key life-history traits; they are not only adaptations of populations to their environments, but can serve to increase reproductive isolation, facilitating further divergence among populations. as part of a study of divergence of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, populations, established in new zealand from a common source in the early 1900s, we tested the hypotheses that the timing of migration and breeding are under genetic control and that the ...200011005303
innate susceptibility differences in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha to loma salmonae (microsporidia).loma salmonae (putz, hoffman and dunbar, 1965) morrison & sprague, 1981 (microsporidia) is an important gill pathogen of pacific salmon oncorhynchus spp. in the pacific northwest. three strains of chinook salmon o. tshawytscha were infected in 2 trials with l. salmonae by feeding of macerated infected gill tissue or per os as a gill tissue slurry. intensity of infection was significantly higher in the northern stream (ns) strain as compared to the southern coastal (sc) and a hybrid (h) strain de ...200011129380
viability of loma salmonae (microsporidia) under laboratory conditions.the viability of the fish-infecting microsporidian loma salmonae morrison and sprague, 1981 was determined under laboratory conditions by polar filament extrusion and infectivity to chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha). extrusion rates of isolated spores decreased from 51.0% to 0.0% by 100 days after storage in fresh or sea water at 4 degrees c. spores stored up to 95 days in either solution infected 80.0-100.0% of exposed chinook, although no spores infected fish at 100 days in one trial. ...200011133113
characterization of a virus obtained from snakeheads ophicephalus striatus with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus) in the philippines.this is the first report of the isolation and characterization of a fish virus from the philippines. the virus was isolated using snakehead spleen cells (shs) from severely lesioned epizootic ulcerative syndrome (eus)-affected snakehead ophicephalus striatus from laguna de bay, in january 1991. the virus induced cytopathic effects (cpe) in shs cells yielding a titer of 3.02 x 10(6) tcid50 ml(-1) at 25 degrees c within 2 to 3 d. other susceptible cell lines included bluegill fry (bf-2), catfish s ...200011206734
mortality and kidney histopathology of chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha exposed to virulent and attenuated renibacterium salmoninarum strains.an isolate of renibacterium salmoninarum (strain mt 239) exhibiting reduced virulence in rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss was tested for its ability to cause bacterial kidney disease (bkd) in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha, a salmonid species more susceptible to bkd. juvenile chinook salmon were exposed to either 33209, the american type culture collection type strain of r. salmoninarum, or to mt 239, by an intraperitoneal injection of 1 x 10(3) or 1 x 10(6) bacteria fish(-1), or by a ...200011206735
phagocytosis of loma salmonae (microsporidia) spores in atlantic salmon (salmo salar), a resistant host, and chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha), a susceptible host.the in vitro phagocytosis of loma salmonae spores by macrophages of atlantic salmon and two strains of chinook salmon were investigated. opsonisation of l. salmonae with plasma factors increased uptake by head kidney macrophages. macrophages of atlantic salmon, which are resistant to the parasite, had a significantly higher phagocytic index (pi) than those of chinook salmon, a susceptible species. this may indicate a possible mechanism contributing to resistance in atlantic salmon or that l. sal ...200111271605
characterization of a hypoxia-inducible factor (hif-1alpha ) from rainbow trout. accumulation of protein occurs at normal venous oxygen tension.the mammalian hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (hif-1) is a heterodimeric transcription factor that controls the induction of several genes involved in glycolysis, erythropoiesis, and angiogenesis when cells are exposed to hypoxic conditions. until now, the expression and function of hif-1alpha have not been studied in fish, which experience wide fluctuations of oxygen tensions in their natural environment. using electrophoretic mobility shift assay, we have ascertained that a hypoxia-inducible factor ...200111278461
the road to extinction is paved with good intentions: negative association of fish hatcheries with threatened salmon.hatchery programmes for supplementing depleted populations of fish are undergoing a worldwide expansion and have provoked concern about their ramifications for populations of wild fish. in particular, pacific salmon are artificially propagated in enormous numbers in order to compensate for numerous human insults to their populations, yet the ecological impacts of this massive hatchery effort are poorly understood. here we test the hypothesis that massive numbers of hatchery-raised chinook salmon ...200111375103
cortisol modulates hsp90 mrna expression in primary cultures of trout hepatocytes.the objective of the present study was to understand the role of cortisol in the cellular stress response process in fish. specifically, our studies addressed whether cortisol exposure modified heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) mrna expression in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) hepatocytes maintained in primary culture. we also subjected these hepatocytes to heat shock (hs) in order to examine the role of cortisol on hs-induced hsp90 mrna expression. a cdna fragment of 500 bp was cloned from tro ...200111399505
characterisation of isav proteins from cell culture.the characterisation of 2 infectious salmon anemia virus (isav) proteins is described. proteins were harvested from isav-infected chinook salmon embryo (chse)-214 cell culture by continuous elution denaturing gel electrophoresis, enabling the harvest of specific molecular weight fractions. through the use of a polyclonal antiserum to isav, it was possible to identify a potentially autolytic major antigen of 72 kda and a glycosylated protein of approximately 38 kda which varied in size depending ...200111411640
localization of the initial developmental stages of loma salmonae in rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss).the intracellular microsporidian parasite loma salmonae affects salmonids of the genus oncorhynchus and is a significant cause of economic losses in pen-reared chinook salmon (o. tshawytscha) in british columbia. loma salmonae infection is easily recognized by the xenomas that form in the gills, but early stages of infection are difficult to detect in histologic sections. in situ hybridization (ish), using an l. salmonae-specific digoxigenin-labeled single-stranded dna probe, was used to detect ...200111572561
production and characterisation of monoclonal antibodies to salmon pancreas disease virus.six mouse monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific to salmon pancreas disease virus (spdv) were produced following immunisation with purified virus preparations. these mabs and 2 mabs resulting from an earlier investigation were characterised. none of the mabs possessed virus neutralising activity but all reacted with 4 geographically different spdv isolates as determined by indirect immunofluorescence. three mabs produced positive immunostaining with western blots of spdv proteins. the 4h1 mab rea ...200111678224
evidence for a carrier state of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.in british columbia, canada, infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) is prevalent in wild sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka and has caused disease in seawater net-pen reared atlantic salmon salmo salar. in this study, chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha experimentally exposed to an isolate of ihnv found in british columbia became carriers of the virus. when atlantic salmon were cohabited with these virus-exposed chinook salmon, ihnv was isolated from the atlantic salmon. identificatio ...200111710551
evolution of chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) populations in new zealand: pattern, rate, and process.chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, from the sacramento river, california, usa were introduced to new zealand between 1901 and 1907, and colonized most of their present-day range within about 10 years. the new zealand populations now vary in phenotypic traits typically used to differentiate salmon populations within their natural range: growth in freshwater and at sea, age at maturity, dates of return to fresh water and reproduction, morphology, and reproductive allocation. this paper revi ...200111838785
chromosome painting supports lack of homology among sex chromosomes in oncorhynchus, salmo, and salvelinus (salmonidae).the sex chromosome pair has been identified previously as the largest submetacentric pair in the genome in several species of the genus salvelinus (eastern trouts and chars) including s. namaycush (lake trout) and as a large subtelocentric/acrocentric pair in several species of the genus oncorhynchus (pacific trouts and salmon). sex chromosomes have not been identified in salmo (atlantic salmon and brown trout). two paint probes, one specific for the short arm (yp) and the other for the long arm ...200111841160
characterization of rainbow trout cell lines using microsatellite dna profiling.ten microsatellite loci (omy27du,omy325(a3)uog, omyfgt5tuf,omyfgt14tuf, omyfgt15tuf,omyfgt23tuf, omy77du,ssa20.19nuig, ots1bml, andone18asc) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction to create genetic profiles for nine cell lines (rtg-2, rth-149,rtl-w1,rtgill-w1, rts-11, rts-34st, rtp-2, rtp-91e and rtp-91f) from rainbow trout(oncorhynchus mykiss) and one cell line (chse-214) from chinook salmon (o. tschawytscha). a cell line (phl) from anon-salmonid, the pacific herring (clupea harengu ...200119002917
preliminary examination of contaminant loadings in farmed salmon, wild salmon and commercial salmon feed.this pilot study examined five commercial salmon feeds, four farmed salmon (one atlantic, three chinooks) and four wild salmon (one chinook, one chum, two sockeyes) from the pacific coast for pcbs (112 congeners), polybrominated diphenylethers (pbdes - 41 congeners), 25 organochlorine pesticides (ops), 20 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs), and methyl and inorganic mercury. the farmed salmon showed consistently higher levels of pcbs, pbdes, ops (except toxaphene) than the wild salmon. the m ...200211999769
xenoma formation during microsporidial gill disease of salmonids caused by loma salmonae is affected by host species (oncorhynchus tshawytscha, o. kisutch, o. mykiss) but not by salinity.host species and salinity often affect the development of disease in aquatic species. eighty chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha, 80 coho salmon o. kisutch and 80 rainbow trout o. mykiss were infected with loma salmonae. forty of each species were reared in seawater and 40 in freshwater. the mean number of xenomas per gill filament was 8 to 33 times greater in chinook salmon than in rainbow trout (rbt). coho salmon had a mean xenoma intensity intermediate to that of chinook salmon and rbt. i ...200212005234
a new bacilliform fathead minnow rhabdovirus that produces syncytia in tissue culture.a pathogenic bacilliform virus 130-180 nm in length and 31-47 nm in diameter was isolated from moribund fathead minnows (pimephales promelas) exhibiting hemorrhages in their eyes and skin. a cytopathic effect of multifocal syncytia was observed in the epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line after a 48 h incubation at 20 degrees c. a similar cytopathic effect was also observed in other cell lines tested, but not in bluegill fry, koi fin, or chinook salmon embryo cells. the filterable agent was in ...200212021863
a single ala139-to-glu substitution in the renibacterium salmoninarum virulence-associated protein p57 results in antigenic variation and is associated with enhanced p57 binding to chinook salmon leukocytes.the gram-positive bacterium renibacterium salmoninarum produces relatively large amounts of a 57-kda protein (p57) implicated in the pathogenesis of salmonid bacterial kidney disease. antigenic variation in p57 was identified by using monoclonal antibody 4c11, which exhibited severely decreased binding to r. salmoninarum strain 684 p57 and bound robustly to the p57 proteins of seven other r. salmoninarum strains. this difference in binding was not due to alterations in p57 synthesis, secretion, ...200212147498
an antiviral state induced in chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214) by transfection with the double-stranded rna poly i:c.type i interferons (ifn alpha and beta) convert vertebrate cells into an antiviral state by inducing expression of proteins that inhibit virus replication. in humans and mice, mx proteins constitute one family of interferon-induced antiviral proteins. mx genes have recently been cloned from atlantic salmon and rainbow trout. moreover, double-stranded rna (dsrna) and type i ifn-like activity have been shown to induce mx protein in salmonid cells. chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214 cells) have ...200212458743
the metabolic barrier of the lower intestinal tract of salmon to the oral delivery of protein and peptide drugs.oral delivery of peptide and protein drugs has potential advantages for the aquaculture industry. the bioavailability of proteins and peptides from the intestinal tract is very low. this can be attributed in part to the proteolytic activities of the intestine. bovine serum albumin (bsa), human (hlhrh) and salmon (slhrh) luteinizing-hormone releasing hormones were used to evaluate the proteolytic activity of anterior, middle and posterior sections of the quinnat salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) ...200212480315
production of transgenic medaka with increased resistance to bacterial pathogens.cecropins, first identified in silk moth (hyalophora cecropia), are a group of antimicrobial peptides with bactericidal activity against a broad spectrum of bacteria. in this study we investigated whether (1) this group of antimicrobial peptides could exhibit bactericidal activity toward known fish bacterial pathogens and (2) expression of cecropin transgenes in transgenic medaka (oryzias latipas) could result in increasing resistance of the transgenic fish to infection by fish bacterial pathoge ...200214961264
toxicity evaluation of new antifouling compounds using suspension-cultured fish cells.a simple, rapid toxicity test was developed using the suspension-cultured fish cell line chse-sp derived from chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha embryos in order to assess the toxicity of new marine antifouling compounds. the compounds tested were copper pyrithione, diuron, irgarol 1051, kh101, sea-nine 211, and zinc pyrithione, all of which have been nominated in japan as possible replacements for organotin compounds. the in vitro acute toxicity (24-h ec50) of the six compounds to these fi ...200211999777
lateral line pore diameters correlate with the development of gas bubble trauma signs in several columbia river fishes.gas bubble trauma (gbt) caused by gas supersaturation of river water continues to be a problem in the columbia river basin. a common indicator of gbt is the percent of the lateral line occluded with gas bubbles; however, this effect has never been examined in relation to lateral line morphology. the effects of 115, 125 and 130% total dissolved gas levels were evaluated on five fish species common to the upper columbia river. trunk lateral line pore diameters differed significantly (p<0.0001) amo ...200312781831
the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of the chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.the complete sequence of the mitochondrial genome of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha, has been determined. the circular genome consisting of 16,644 base pairs encodes thirteen proteins, the 12s and 16s ribosomal rnas, and 22 transfer rnas. these genes are ordered in the same way as most other vertebrates. the nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the ribosomal rnas and the thirteen protein-coding genes were compared with those of other salmonids such as oncorhynchus mykiss, salmo salar ...200314513717
an alternative efficient procedure for purification of the obligate intracellular fish bacterial pathogen piscirickettsia salmonis.piscirickettsia salmonis is an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen of salmonid fish and the etiological agent of the aggressive disease salmonid rickettsial syndrome. today, this disease, also known as piscirickettsiosis, is the cause of high mortality in net pen-reared salmonids in southern chile. although the bacteria can be grown in tissue culture cells, genetic analysis of the organism has been hindered because of the difficulty in obtaining p. salmonis dna free from contaminating host ...200314532090
immunocompetence of juvenile chinook salmon against listonella anguillarum following dietary exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.juvenile chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha) were fed a mixture of 14 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (pah) compounds that reflected the pah composition of salmon stomach contents in an urban estuary of puget sound, washington (usa). following a 28-d dietary exposure, a standardized listonella anguillarum challenge model was used to determine whether pah exposure (16, 64, and 252 mg/kg wet wt feed) causes reduced disease resistance under the conditions examined in this study. to assess in ...200314713040
immunocompetence of juvenile chinook salmon against listonella anguillarum following dietary exposure to aroclor 1254.controlled laboratory challenges with pathogenic listonella (formerly vibrio) anguillarum bacteria were used to examine potential effects of dietary exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs) on the growth and immunocompetence of juvenile puget sound (wa, usa) chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tschawytscha). salmon were fed four levels of the pcb congener mixture aroclor 1254 for 28 d to bracket likely exposure to pcbs in the lower duwamish waterway near seattle, washington, usa. fish were transfer ...200312558159
transduction of cultured fish cells with recombinant baculoviruses.five fish cell lines were tested for their ability to be transduced by ac-calacz, a recombinant baculovirus that is capable of expressing a beta-galactosidase reporter gene from the cag promoter (consisting of a cytomegalovirus enhancer element, a chicken actin promoter and rabbit beta-globin termination sequences). to (tilapia ovary), epc (carp), chh-1 (chum salmon heart fibroblast) and chse-214 (chinook salmon embryo) cells were transducible, as demonstrated by an in situ beta-galactosidase as ...200312692282
distribution, prevalence and severity of parvicapsula minibicornis infections among anadromous salmonids in the fraser river, british columbia, canada.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and microscopic examination of stained kidney sections were used to diagnose infections with the myxozoan parasite parvicapsula minibicornis in maturing fraser river salmon. in 2 series of collections, the parasite was detected in 109 of 406 migrating sockeye salmon oncorhynchus nerka belonging to early stuart, early summer and summer run-timing groups, mainly upper fraser river stocks. however, the parasite was detected neither in fish at sea nor once they had mi ...200312718470
trend analysis reveals a recent reduction in mirex concentrations in coho (oncorhynchus kisutch) and chinook (o. tshawytscha) salmon from lake ontario.lake ontario, bordering both canada and the united states, is the only great lake with persistent, significant levels of mirex in its biota. some models suggested that it would take hundreds of years before mirex disappeared from the ecosystem. from 1977 to 1996 the mirex concentrations in coho and chinook salmon greater than 2 kg in weight exceeded the 0.1 mg/kg food and drug administration (fda) action level for mirex. to determine temporal trends in salmonine mirex levels, slopes and elevatio ...200312731833
purification of a 41-kda insulin-like growth factor binding protein from serum of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha.in salmon, at least three insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (igfbps) with molecular masses of 41, 28, and 22kda exist in serum. the 41-kda igfbp is up-regulated by growth hormone treatment and down-regulated by fasting, suggesting that it is a homolog of igfbp-3. we purified the 41-kda igfbp from chinook salmon serum by igf-i affinity chromatography followed by reversed-phase high pressure liquid chromatography. purified igfbp appeared as doublet bands on electrophoresis and was n-glyc ...200312765649
effects of sex steroids, sex, and sexual maturity on cortisol production: an in vitro comparison of chinook salmon and rainbow trout interrenals.sex steroids appear to be responsible for hyperactivation of the hypothalamus-pituitary-interrenal (hpi) axis that occurs in mature semelparous pacific salmon as a prelude to post-spawning (programmed) death. this study was undertaken to examine the direct effects of sex steroids on interrenal activity of semelparous (chinook salmon) and iteroparous (rainbow trout) salmonids using an in vitro incubation system. in addition, phenotypic sex differences in cortisol production by interrenals of sexu ...200312899856
sporadic neoplasms of farmed chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), from new zealand.eight separate neoplasms with five distinct morphologies are described in the present report. the spontaneous neoplasms were identified in farmed chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum), during processing. the masses were examined histologically and were classified as teratoma, rhabdosarcoma, biliary and renal cystadenomas, renal carcinoma and three leiomyomas. this represents one neoplasm detected for every 125000 fish processed during the sampling period.200312946008
development of an in situ hybridisation procedure for the detection of sole aquabirnavirus in infected fish cell cultures.an in situ hybridisation (ish) technique has been developed to detect sole aquabirnavirus in infected fish cell lines bluegill fibroblast (bf-2), epc, and chinook salmon embryo cells (chse-214). a 613 bp cdna probe for viral rna coding for a fragment of vp2 protein was generated by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) using infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) specific dna primers. infected cells were strongly labelled, and no non-specific reaction was observed in non- ...200414738979
development and application of a salmonid est database and cdna microarray: data mining and interspecific hybridization characteristics.we report 80,388 ests from 23 atlantic salmon (salmo salar) cdna libraries (61,819 ests), 6 rainbow trout (oncorhynchus mykiss) cdna libraries (14,544 ests), 2 chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) cdna libraries (1317 ests), 2 sockeye salmon (oncorhynchus nerka) cdna libraries (1243 ests), and 2 lake whitefish (coregonus clupeaformis) cdna libraries (1465 ests). the majority of these are 3' sequences, allowing discrimination between paralogs arising from a recent genome duplication in the s ...200414962987
detection and antigenic characterization of salmonid alphavirus isolates from sera obtained from farmed atlantic salmon, salmo salar l., and farmed rainbow trout, oncorhynchus mykiss (walbaum).a simple method of detecting the presence of the salmonid alphaviruses (savs), salmon pancreas disease virus (spdv) and sleeping disease virus (sdv), from serum samples is described. using a 96-well tissue-culture plate format, test sera are diluted in medium and added to chinook salmon embryo (chse-214) cells. after incubation for 3 days at 15 degrees c, plates are fixed and stained using a monoclonal antibody (mab)-based immunoperoxidase (ipx) detection system, and virus-infected cells are obs ...200415009240
efficacy of cellular vaccines and genetic adjuvants against bacterial kidney disease in chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha).dna adjuvants and whole bacterial cell vaccines against bacterial kidney disease (bkd) were tested in juvenile chinook salmon. whole cell vaccines of either a nonpathogenic arthrobacter spp. or an attenuated renibacterium salmoninarum strain provided limited prophylactic protection against acute intraperitoneal challenge with virulent r. salmoninarum, and the addition of either synthetic oligodeoxynucleotides or purified r. salmoninarum genomic dna as adjuvants did not increase protection. howev ...200415123289
characterization of atlantic halibut (hippoglossus hippoglossus) mx protein expression.mx proteins are antiviral gtpases that are induced by type i interferons in vertebrates. an atlantic halibut mx cdna (hhmx) was recently cloned. in this work, a polyclonal antiserum against hhmx protein was generated that detected a 71 kda protein in the nuclei of chinook salmon embryo cells transfected with the hhmx cdna. mx protein expression in organs of halibut was studied by immunoblot analysis after injection with the double-stranded rna poly i:c or infectious pancreatic necrosis virus. po ...200415236933
susceptibility of captive adult winter-run chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha to waterborne exposures with infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv).sexually mature female chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha with no prior history of exposure to infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv) were susceptible to experimental infection induced by additions of virus to the water. the resulting infections resembled those observed among naturally infected hatchery and wild populations of chinook salmon. virus was detected as early as 4 d post-exposure (p.e.) and subsequently in all virus-exposed fish that died or that were examined at 14 d p.e ...200415264717
18s ribosomal dna-based pcr identification of neoparamoeba pemaquidensis, the agent of amoebic gill disease in sea-farmed salmonids.neoparamoeba pemaquidensis is a parasomal amoeboid protozoan identified as the agent of amoebic gill disease (agd) in atlantic salmon salmo salar reared in sea-pens in tasmania, australia, and coho salmon oncorhynchus kisutch farmed on the west coast of the usa. outbreaks of agd caused by immunologically cross-reactive paramoebae have also been reported in sea-farmed salmonids in several other countries. complete 18s rdna sequences were determined for respective paramoebae isolated from infected ...200415352525
morphological characterization and notes on the life cycle of a newly discovered variant of loma salmonae (putz, hoffman & dunbar) from a natural infection of chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha (walbaum).two variants of loma salmonae occur in net-pen reared chinook salmon, oncorhynchus tshawytscha. the typical variant (oa) has a host specificity for salmonids of the genus oncorhynchus whereas the atypical variant (sv) has a host specificity for brook trout, salvelinus fontinalis, and in this study, the ultrastructure of the two are compared. in fish at 8 weeks post-exposure xenomas of the sv variant have a very high proportion of mature spores compared with other developmental stages, while in x ...200415482426
predictive modelling of post-onset xenoma growth during microsporidial gill disease (loma salmonae) of salmonids.loma salmonae, an obligate intracellular microsporidian parasite, is the causal agent of microsporidial gill disease of salmon (mgds), characterized by the production, growth and eventual rupture of spore-filled xenomas. mgds in farmed chinook salmon remains occult until xenoma rupture, at which time the infected fish respond with intense branchitis and high rates of mortality. the present study showed that in experimentally infected fish the rate of change of xenoma diameter could be modelled t ...200415511541
identification of a third msa gene in renibacterium salmoninarum and the associated virulence phenotype.renibacterium salmoninarum, a gram-positive diplococcobacillus, causes bacterial kidney disease, a condition that can result in extensive morbidity and mortality among stocks of fish. an immunodominant extracellular protein, called major soluble antigen (msa), is encoded by two identical genes, msa1 and msa2. we found evidence for a third msa gene, msa3, which appears to be a duplication of msa1. unlike msa1 and msa2, msa3 is not present in all isolates of r. salmoninarum. the presence of the ms ...200415528510
molecular characterization of birnaviruses isolated from wild marine fishes at the flemish cap (newfoundland).several isolates of aquatic birnaviruses were recovered from different species of wild fish caught in the flemish cap, a newfoundland fishery close to the atlantic coast of canada. the nucleotide sequence of a region of the ns gene was identical among the isolates and was most similar to the dry mills and west buxton reference strains of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv). phylogenetic analysis of the sequence of a region of the vp2 gene demonstrated that the isolates were most closely ...200415584405
odontoclasts in the chinook salmon differ from mammalian odontoclasts by exhibiting a great proportion of cells with high nuclei number.odontoclasts resorbing teeth are multinucleated cells. previously, the authors have investigated the distribution of number of nuclei per human odontoclast and showed that the mean number of nuclei per cell is 5.3, the median is 4, and 93.8% of cells have 10 or fewer nuclei. teleost odontoclasts have features similar to those of mammals; however, the distribution of number of nuclei per cell remains unknown. the present study aimed to examine the distribution of number of nuclei per odontoclast ...200415597190
development of pcr-based methods for detection of sphaerothecum destruens in fish tissues.single-round and nested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) tests were developed for amplification of a 434 bp fragment of the small subunit ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene from sphaerothecum destruens, previously known as the rosette agent, an intracellular parasite of salmonid fishes. both tests have successfully amplified s. destruens-specific dna from different isolates of s. destruens but not from related organisms. the limits of detection using the nested pcr test were 1 pg for purified s. destr ...200415609874
a deterministic model for the dynamics of furunculosis in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.studies were undertaken to determine the parameters of transmission of aeromonas salmonicida in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha, and to develop a deterministic model of the dynamics of experimental furunculosis. for determination of disease transmission coefficient (beta), disease-related mortality rate (alpha) and natural mortality rate (gamma), fish in 70 tanks (approximately 42 fish tank(-1)) were each exposed to a single infectious donor fish, 7 tanks were randomly selected daily and ...200415648831
determination of carotenoids and all-trans-retinol in fish eggs by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry.a novel method was developed for the combined determination of carotenoids and retinoids in fish eggs, which incorporates prior analyte isolation using liquid-liquid partitioning to minimize analyte degradation, and fraction analysis using high-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray (positive)-quadrupole mass spectrometry (lc-esi(+)-ms; sim or mrm modes). eggs from chinook salmon (oncorhynchus tshawytscha) were used as the model fish egg matrix. the methodology was assessed and validated ...200515664333
nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals: a review with new data for freshwater invertebrates.published data on nitrate (no3-) toxicity to freshwater and marine animals are reviewed. new data on nitrate toxicity to the freshwater invertebrates eulimnogammarus toletanus, echinogammarus echinosetosus and hydropsyche exocellata are also presented. the main toxic action of nitrate is due to the conversion of oxygen-carrying pigments to forms that are incapable of carrying oxygen. nitrate toxicity to aquatic animals increases with increasing nitrate concentrations and exposure times. in contr ...200515667845
molecular cloning and functional characterization of a high-affinity zinc importer (drzip1) from zebrafish (danio rerio).zinc is a vital micronutrient to all organisms and a potential toxicant to aquatic animals. it is therefore of importance to understand the mechanism of zinc regulation. in the present study, we molecularly cloned and functionally characterized a zinc transporter of the slc39a family [commonly referred to as the zip (zrt- and irt-related protein) family] from the gill of zebrafish (danio rerio) (drzip1). drzip1 protein was found to localize at the plasma membrane and to function as a zinc uptake ...200515683366
characteristics of inhibition of infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv) by normal rainbow trout oncorhynchus mykiss serum.we studied the characteristics of rainbow trout serum (rts) inhibitory activity against infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (ipnv). serum inhibition was related to the serum source and host cell in which the virus had been propagated. ipnv was more efficiently inhibited by rts in salmonid cell lines than in non-salmonid cell lines, with inhibition highest in rainbow trout gonad (rtg)-2 cells. the rts sensitivity of the virus was modified by the cell line through which the virus passed, with mul ...200515759799
a cohabitation challenge to compare the efficacies of vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (bkd) in chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha.the relative efficacies of 1 commercial and 5 experimental vaccines for bacterial kidney disease (bkd) were compared through a cohabitation waterborne challenge. groups of juvenile chinook salmon oncorhynchus tshawytscha were vaccinated with one of the following: (1) killed renibacterium salmoninarum atcc 33209 (rs 33209) cells; (2) killed rs 33209 cells which had been heated to 37 degrees c for 48 h, a process that destroys the p57 protein; (3) killed r. salmoninarum mt239 (rs mt239) cells; (4) ...200515819430
[omega-3 fatty acids in mood disorders].the etiology and treatment of mood disorders has not yet been elucidated. omega (omega)-3 fatty acids are essential fatty acids, which cannot be synthesized in the human body. eicosapentanoic acid (epa) and docosahexaenoic acid (dha) are representative omega-3 fatty acids which are found in fish (eg., mackerel, herring, chinook salmon) and vegetables (eg., flax, walnut, canola). the peripheral level of epa and dha decrease in patients with major depression, and epa is useful for its treatment. f ...200515828266
expression of endogenous and exogenous growth hormone (gh) messenger (m) rna in a gh-transgenic tilapia (oreochromis niloticus).we have previously produced transgenic fish from crosses between a wild-type female tilapia (oreochromis niloticus) and a g transgenic male. this line of growth-enhanced tilapia carries a single copy of a chinook salmon (s) growth hormone (gh) gene spliced to an ocean pout antifreeze promoter (opa-fpcsgh) co-ligated to a carp beta-actin/lacz reporter gene construct, integrated into the tilapia genome. because little is known about the expression sites of transgenes, we have characterised the gen ...200515865052
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