malaria surveillance-response strategies in different transmission zones of the people's republic of china: preparing for climate change.a sound understanding of malaria transmission patterns in the people's republic of china (p.r. china) is crucial for designing effective surveillance-response strategies that can guide the national malaria elimination programme (nmep). using an established biology-driven model, it is expected that one may design and refine appropriate surveillance-response strategies for different transmission zones, which, in turn, assist the nmep in the ongoing implementation period (2010-2020) and, potentiall ...201223256579
dispersal range of anopheles sinensis in yongcheng city, china by mark-release-recapture methods.studying the dispersal range of anopheles sinensis is of major importance for understanding the transition from malaria control to elimination. however, no data are available regarding the dispersal range of an. sinensis in china. the aim of the present study was to study the dispersal range of an. sinensis and provide the scientific basis for the development of effective control measures for malaria elimination in china.201223226489
frontiers of parasitology research in the people's republic of china: infection, diagnosis, protection and surveillance.control and eventual elimination of human parasitic diseases in the people's republic of china (p.r. china) requires novel approaches, particularly in the areas of diagnostics, mathematical modelling, monitoring, evaluation, surveillance and public health response. a comprehensive effort, involving the collaboration of 188 scientists (>85% from p.r. china) from 48 different institutions and universities (80% from p.r. china), covers this collection of 29 articles published in parasites & vectors ...201223036110
change in rainfall drives malaria re-emergence in anhui province, china.malaria is re-emerging in anhui province, china after a decade long' low level of endemicity. the number of human cases has increased rapidly since 2000 and reached its peak in 2006. that year, the malaria cases accounted for 54.5% of total cases in mainland china. however, the spatial and temporal patterns of human cases and factors underlying the re-emergence remain unclear. we established a database containing 20 years' (1990-2009) records of monthly reported malaria cases and meteorological ...201222928015
vector capacity of anopheles sinensis in malaria outbreak areas of central china.both falciparum and vivax malaria were historically prevalent in china with high incidence. with the control efforts, the annual incidence in the whole country has reduced to 0.0001% except in some areas in the southern borders after 2000. despite this, the re-emergence or outbreak of malaria was unavoidable in central china during 2005-2007. in order to understand the role of the vector in the transmission of malaria during the outbreak period, the vector capacity of an. sinensis in huanghuai v ...201222776520
spatial correlation between malaria cases and water-bodies in anopheles sinensis dominated areas of huang-huai plain, china.malaria re-emerged in the huang-huai plain of central china during 2006-2008, dominated with anopheles sinensis as a vector. however, there is no information on strategies based on multi-factor analysis to effectively control the re-emergence of malaria in these areas. previous experience indicates some relationship between the distribution of water bodies and malaria cases, but more detailed data are not available and in-depth studies have not been conducted up to now. the objective of this stu ...201222650153
genetic variation of aldolase from korean isolates of plasmodium vivax and its usefulness in serodiagnosis.the malaria aldolase is widely used as rapid diagnostic test (rdt), but the efficacy in aspect of its serological effectiveness in diagnosis is not known. the genetic variation of korean isolates was analysed and recombinant aldolase was evaluated as a serological antigen in plasmodium vivax malaria.201222569198
population structure and transmission dynamics of plasmodium vivax in the republic of korea based on microsatellite dna order to control malaria, it is important to understand the genetic structure of the parasites in each endemic area. plasmodium vivax is widely distributed in the tropical to temperate regions of asia and south america, but effective strategies for its elimination have yet to be designed. in south korea, for example, indigenous vivax malaria was eliminated by the late 1970s, but re-emerged from 1993. we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of transmission of p. vivax in so ...201222509416
first report on co-occurrence knockdown resistance mutations and susceptibility to beta-cypermethrin in anopheles sinensis from jiangsu province, china.the increasing prevalence of insecticide resistance in anopheles sinensis, a major vector of malaria in jiangsu province in eastern china, threatens to compromise the successful use of insecticides in malaria control strategies. it is therefore vital to understand the insecticide resistance status of an. sinensis in the region. this study examined the nucleotide diversity of the para-sodium channel and knockdown resistance (kdr) in five field populations of adult an. sinensis mosquitoes collecte ...201222272229
comparative evaluation of light-trap catches, electric motor mosquito catches and human biting catches of anopheles in the three gorges reservoir.the mosquito sampling efficiency of light-trap catches and electric motor mosquito catches were compared with that of human biting catches in the three gorges reservoir. there was consistency in the sampling efficiency between light-trap catches and human biting catches for anopheles sinensis (r = 0.82, p<0.01) and light-trap catches were 1.52 (1.35-1.71) times that of human biting catches regardless of mosquito density (r = 0.33, p>0.01), while the correlation between electric motor mosquito ca ...201222235256
meteorological factors-based spatio-temporal mapping and predicting malaria in central china.despite significant reductions in the overall burden of malaria in the 20th century, this disease still represents a significant public health problem in china, especially in central areas. understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria is essential in the planning and implementing of effective control measures. in this study, normalized meteorological factors were incorporated in spatio-temporal models. seven models were established in winbugs software by using bayesian hierarchical ...021896823
population structure of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in china: two gene pools inferred by microsatellites.anopheles sinensis is a competent malaria vector in china. an understanding of vector population structure is important to the vector-based malaria control programs. however, there is no adequate data of a. sinensis population genetics available yet.201121799796
analysis of vivax malaria cases in gangwon-do (province), korea in the year 2000.a total of 827 malaria cases were reported in the gangwon-do in the year 2000. there were 18.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. there were 283 cases among civilians and 544 cases among the military. 90.6% of cases were reported in cheorwon--(531), hwacheon--(152), and goseong--(66) gun (county), which bordered the demilitarized zone (dmz). a distinct feature pertaining to the malaria cases in gangwon-do is that the number of cases has increased about two times over the last year. the mean time fro ...011775330
incidence patterns of vivax malaria in civilians residing in a high-risk county of kyonggi-do (province), republic of korea.the characteristics of vivax malaria epidemics along the demilitarized zone (dmz) in the republic of korea has been established by the early surveillance data. to further characterize the epidemic, data of civilian patients microscopically diagnosed with malaria from 1995 through 2000 were analyzed in yonchon-gun (county). malaria incidence was greater in male civilians > 30 years of age (p < 0.05). the annual parasite index was significantly higher in those living in the administrative areas (m ...011775329
comparative study on longevity of anopheles sinensis in malarious and non-malarious areas in outbreak of vivax malaria has been occurring in northern part of kyonggi-do and north-western part of kangwon-do, where are located near the demilitarized zone, since 1993. for understanding of epidemiological features of malaria, the probability of daily survival of anopheles sinensis, the vector species of malaria was compared in malarious and non-malarious areas in july-august, 2000. total 915 females collected at three locations in malarious areas were dissected for ovaries, and 64.6% of ...011138320
unstable vivax malaria in korea.korean vivax malaria had been prevalent for longtime throughout the country with low endemicity. as a result of the korean war (1950-1953), malaria became epidemic. in 1959-1969 when the national malaria eradication service (nmes) was implemented, malaria rates declined, with low endemicity in the south-west and south plain areas and high endemic foci in north kyongsangbuk-do (province) and north and east kyonggi-do. nmes activities greatly contributed in accelerating the control and later eradi ...011002647
current status of vivax malaria among civilians in korea.a result of national malaria surveillance in korean civilians was described. since a case of indigenous vivax malaria was detected in 1993, a total of 2,198 cases was confirmed by blood smear up to 1997. of them, 1,548 cases were soldiers serving in the demilitarized zone (dmz), while 650 cases were civilians. number of civilian cases was 3 in 1994, 19 in 1995, 71 in 1996, and 557 in 1997. of them, 239 were ex-soldiers who discharged after military service in the prevalent areas such as paju, yo ...09868889
enhanced toxicity of binary mixtures of bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis and three essential oil major constituents to wild anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) and aedes albopictus (diptera: culicidae).an assessment was made of the toxicity of 12 insecticides and three essential oils as well as bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (bti) alone or in combination with the oil major constituents (e)-anethole (an), (e) -cinnamaldehyde (ca), and eugenol (eu; 1:1 ratio) to third instars of bamboo forest-collected aedes albopictus (skuse) and rice paddy field-collected anopheles sinensis wiedemann. an. sinensis larvae were resistant to various groups of the tested insecticides. based on 24-h lc50 ...201425118412
[experimental observation of toxic effect of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis against aedes, culex and anopheles larvae].to evaluate the toxic effect of bacillus thuringiensis var. israelensis (bti) wettable powder against aedes, culex and anopheles larvae.201424800571
susceptibility of five species members of the korean hyrcanus group to brugia malayi, and hybridization between b. malayi-susceptible and -refractory anopheles sinensis strains.five species members of the korean hyrcanus group: anopheles pullus, anopheles sinensis, anopheles kleini, anopheles belenrae, and anopheles lesteri were tested for susceptibility to brugia malayi. they were allowed to feed artificially on blood containing b. malayi microfilariae and dissected 14 days after feeding. the susceptibility rates were 60%, 65%, 90%, 100% and 100% in an. pullus, an. sinensis, an. kleini, an. belenrae, and an. lesteri, respectively. as determined by levels of susceptibi ...201424974643
bioactivities of a new pyrrolidine alkaloid from the root barks of orixa japonica.a new pyrrolidine alkaloid named (z)-3-(4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-1-methylpyrrolidin-2-one was isolated from the ethanol extract of the root barks of orixa japonica. the structure of the new alkaloid was elucidated on the basis of nmr and ms analysis. the compound exhibited larvicidal activity against the fourth instar larvae of aedes aegypti (lc50 = 232.09 μg/ml), anopheles sinensis (lc50 = 49.91 μg/ml), and culex pipiens pallens (lc50 = 161.10 μg/ml). the new alkaloid also poss ...201627918451
detection of quang binh virus from mosquitoes in china.flaviviruses present a wide range of genetic diversity and exhibit diverse host relationships. mosquito-borne flaviviruses have recently been isolated and characterized worldwide. yunnan province of china is one of the richest areas of species diversity and is the center of multi-species evolution in mainland asia, which supports the circulation of numerous arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). in a screening program of arboviruses, mosquitoes were collected during the mosquito activity season ...201424342141
presence of entomobirnaviruses in chinese mosquitoes in the absence of dengue virus co-infection.birnaviruses, including the genus entomobirnavirus, are socio-economically important viruses. currently, only drosophila x virus has been formally assigned to the genus entomobirnavirus, but two more viruses were recently isolated, espirito santo virus (esv) and culex y virus. the host mosquito has been reported to carry many viruses, but seldom entomobirnaviruses. to discover potential pathogens in mosquitoes, we exploited small-rnas high-throughput sequencing of three mosquito species caught i ...201323175239
[investigation on mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses in dehong prefecture, yunnan province, 2007 and 2010].to investigate the distribution patterns of mosquito and mosquito-borne viruses in dehong prefecture, yunnan province, china.201425059361
distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne viruses along the china-myanmar border in yunnan province.a total of 54,673 mosquitoes were collected at 11 sites located near the china-myanmar border in the western part of yunnan province during july and august 2007. there were 29 species in 4 genera identified from the collections, including 12 species of culex, 12 species of anopheles, 3 species of aedes, and 2 species of armigeres. culex tritaeniorhynchus giles (67.9%, 37,119/54,673) and anopheles sinensis wiedemann (25.9%, 14,170/54,673) were the most abundant species in this investigation. viru ...201222627302
isolation of japanese encephalitis virus and a novel insect-specific flavivirus from mosquitoes collected in a cowshed in japan.cattle do not generally appear to develop severe viremia when infected with japanese encephalitis virus (jev), and they can be infected without showing clinical signs. however, two cattle in japan recently died from jev infection. in this study, we investigated the presence of different species of mosquitoes and flavivirus in a cowshed in the southwest region of japan. in this cowshed, the two most common species of mosquitoes collected were culex tritaeniorhynchus (including culex pseudovishnui ...201526085283
[genotype i japanese encephalitis virus is the main genotype in mosquito in fujian province].to grasp the infection rate and genotypes of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in mosquito in fujian province.201223002538
genetic diversity and population structure of the primary malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in china inferred by cox1 gene.anopheles sinensis is a primary vector for plasmodium vivax malaria in most regions of china. a comprehensive understanding of genetic variation and structure of the mosquito would be of benefit to the vector control and in a further attempt to contribute to malaria elimination in china. however, there is only inadequate population genetic data pertaining to an. sinensis currently.201728183358
a reassessment of the artificial infection of three predominant mosquito species with plasmodium vivax in shandong province, china.under certain ecological circumstances, pathogens are able to rapidly adapt to new vectors. the great capacity of plasmodium spp. to adapt to new anopheline mosquito vectors on different continents and the continuous ecological changes attributed to humans might promote their adaptation to culicine vectors, which are known to infect humans. based on our current knowledge, it is difficult to predict whether such adaptations will occur. this study was aimed to determine the infection susceptibilit ...201727681543
vector competence of anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) from the republic of korea to vivax malaria-infected blood from patients from total, 1,300 each of anopheles kleini rueda and anopheles sinensis wiedemann sensu stricto (s.s.) females (colonized from the republic of korea) and anopheles dirus peyton & harrison (thai strain) were allowed to feed on blood from thai malaria patients naturally infected with plasmodium vivax the overall oocyst infection rates for an. dirus, an. kleini, and an. sinensis s.s. were 77.4, 46.1, and 45.9%, respectively. the mean number of oocysts was significantly higher for an. dirus (82.7) com ...201627493248
epidemiological characteristics of malaria in ningbo city, china 2000-2011.the objective of this study was to explore the trend and the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in ningbo from 2000 through 2011 and provide scientific evidence for the prevention and control. using the retrospective study, data relating to malaria epidemics during 2000-2011 in ningbo were collected through the questionnaires of the cases and other important surveillance data. adult mosquitoes were collected using cdc light traps baited with co2. results showed that plasmodium vivax was ...201323959492
larvicidal activity of magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate constituents and related compounds and liquid formulations towards two susceptible and two wild mosquito species.anopheles sinensis, aedes aegypti and aedes albopictus and culex pipiens pallens mosquitoes transmit malaria, dengue fever and west nile virus diseases respectively. this study was conducted to determine the toxicity of 17 constituents from magnolia denudata seed hydrodistillate (md-shd) and four experimental md-shd liquid formulations (10-50 mg l(-1) liquid) to third-instar larvae from insecticide-susceptible cx. p. pallens and ae. aegypti as well as wild ae. albopictus and an. sinensis.201626085316
larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of artemisia annua (asterales: asteraceae) against aedes aegypti, anopheles sinensis, and culex quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).this study focuses on the larvicidal, oviposition, and ovicidal effects of a crude extract of artemisia annua against aedes aegypti, anopheles sinensis, and culex quinquefasciatus. dried cells of artemisia annua from cell suspension cultures were extracted using hexane. the extract showed moderate larvicidal effects against mosquitoes. at 24-h post treatment, the lc50 values for anopheles sinensis, aedes aegypti, and culex quinquefasciatus were recorded as 244.55, 276.14, and 374.99 ppm, respect ...201323835922
cloning and sequence analysis of mosquito defensin clone the defensin genes from the chinese main mosquito vectors and conduct sequnce analysis.200212297467
identification of larvicidal constituents of the  essential oil of echinops grijsii roots against the  three species of mosquitoes.the screening of chinese medicinal herbs for insecticidal principles showed that the essential oil of echinops grijsii hance roots possessed significant larvicidal activity against mosquitoes. the essential oil was extracted via hydrodistillation and its constituents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) analysis. gc-ms analyses revealed the presence of 31 components, with 5-(3-buten-1-yn-1-yl)-2,2'-bithiophene (5-bbt, 27.63%), αterthienyl (α-t, 14.95%),1,8-cineole (5.5 ...201728134799
[cloning and sequencing of cytochrome c oxidase ii(coii) gene of three species of mosquitoes].to determine and compare the complete sequence of coii gene from anopheles sinensis, aedes albopictus and culex quinquefasciatus and to identify the molecular homology among these mosquitoes.200112571993
molecular divergence of the mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase ii gene in three mosquitoes.the cytochrome oxidase ii (coii) genes in the mitochondrial dna of 3 mosquito species (anopheles sinensis, aedes albopictus, and culex quinquefasciatus) were amplified and sequenced. both the gene order and direction of transcription were identical to those of other species of anopheles, aedes, and culex. the polymerase chain reaction-amplified fragments in these mosquitoes were approximately 700 base pairs and the nucleotide sequences exhibited more than 82% similarity, whereas amino acids were ...200212542187
three-dimensional structures of the tracheal systems of anopheles sinensis and aedes togoi pupae.mosquitoes act as a vector for the transmission of disease. the world health organization has recommended strict control of mosquito larvae because of their "few, fixed, and findable" features. the respiratory system of mosquito larvae and pupae in the water has a weak point. as aquatic organisms, mosquito larvae and pupae inhale atmosphere oxygen. however, the mosquito pupae have a non-feeding stage, unlike the larvae. therefore, detailed study on the tracheal system of mosquito pupae is helpfu ...201728287649
[seasonal prevalence and behaviour of aedes togoi].ecological studies of aedes togoi, the vector of malayan filariasis, were carried out at tolsando, yosu and sokcho area in 1991. the adult population of aedes togoi was continuously appeared from the first week of april to the end of november showing the highest density in july. the larvae of aedes togoi were found at rock pools from march to december in sokcho area and the density was highest in july and august, whereas in the southern coastal area (yosu), the larvae were found throughout the y ...19957735782
[dna probe for identification of sibling species of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus].genomic dna libraries of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus were constructed. the positive clones suitable for discrimination sibling species of an. sinensis and an. anthropophagus were screened and a clone from an. sinensis dna library was selected and the insert dna was used as a dna probe to test dot blot of genomic dna from an. sinensis and an. anthropophagus. the results showed that the dna probe hybridized with all stages of an. sinensis dna, but had very weak hybridization si ...19921303333
[restriction fragment length differences (rflds) of genomic dna from different geographical strains of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus].total dna was extracted from three geographical strains of anopheles sinensis and two geographical strains of anopheles anthropophagus and digested respectively with three restriction endonucleases (bgl ii, hae iii and pst i). the restriction fragment length differences (rflds) of repetitive dna detected after agarose gel electrophoretic separation and ethidium bromide staining were compared among the above-mentioned geographical strains of both an. sinensis and an. anthropohagus. the results in ...19901982859
[comparative studies on several biochemical indices of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis].proteins, sugars and esterase isoenzymes of an. anthropophagus and an. sinensis were compared by ief and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. the results show that there are some differences in the electrophoretic patterns between an. anthropophagus and an. sinensis. the glycoprotein, lipid protein, glycolipidprotein, protein, polysaccharide and esterase isoenzymes showed 10, 0, 6, 14, 2 and 13 bands in an. anthropophagus; 10, 1, 5, 16, 3 and 15 in an. sinensis. there exist 234 and 240 polypepti ...19892633890
scanning electron microscopy of antennal sensilla of the eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.antennal sensilla were first investigated in the eight medically and veterinary important anopheles mosquito species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (= anopheles lesteri), anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles pursati, and anopheles sinensis) of the hyrcanus group in thailand, using scanning electron microscopy (sem). four types of sensilla, including sensilla chaetica (large and small), sensilla trichodea (sharp- and blunt-tipp ...201727752768
scanning electron microscopy of anopheles hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) eggs in thailand and an ultrastructural key for species identification.the eggs of anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae, anopheles peditaeniatus, anopheles pursati, and anopheles sinensis are described with the aid of scanning electron micrographs. comparisons of the egg structure among the eight species showed that the eggs differed with respect to the following characteristics: the deck-complete (an. argyropus, an. nigerrimus, an. paraliae, an. peditaeniatus, and an. sinensis); variable (complete, s ...201424337511
dna barcoding for the identification of eight species members of the thai hyrcanus group and investigation of their stenogamous behavior.eight species members of the thai hyrcanus group were identified based on the intact morphology and molecular analysis (coi barcoding, 658 bp) of f1-progenies. five iso-female lines of each species were pooled in order to establish stock colonies. a stenogamous colony of each species was investigated by making 200 and 300 newly emerged adult females and males co-habit in a 30 cm cubic cage for one week. after ovipositon, the spermathecae of females were examined for sperms. the results revealed ...201324161242
molecular taxonomy of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group from thailand and indonesia.during studies of malaria vectors in indonesia and thailand, several specimens identified by field staff as members of the anopheles barbirostris group (diptera: culicidae) were found to belong to the anopheles hyrcanus group, as shown by marked differences in the size of the nuclear rdna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) between the barbirostris (~1500 bp) and hyrcanus (~600 bp) groups. identification of the species concerned required a more detailed study of its2 sequences and subunit ...201121198713
the relationship between wing length, blood meal volume, and fecundity for seven colonies of anopheles species housed at the armed forces research institute of medical sciences, bangkok, thailand.established colonies of anopheles campestris, anopheles cracens, anopheles dirus, anopheles kleini, anopheles minimus, anopheles sawadwongporni, and anopheles sinensis are maintained at the armed forces research institute of medical sciences (afrims). females were provided blood meals on human blood containing citrate as an anticoagulant using an artificial membrane feeder. the mean wing length, used as an estimate of body size, for each species was compared to blood-feeding duration (time), blo ...201526433074
colonization and maintenance of anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis from the republic of korea.colonization of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group is required to facilitate a better understanding of their roles in the epidemiology, vector competence, transmission potential, and maintenance of vivax malaria in the republic of korea (rok). a total of 158 resting blood-fed wild caught anopheles species were collected on august 26, 2011 at tongilchon, near the demilitarized zone, in the rok and shipped on august 28, 2011 to the entomology department, armed forces research institute of med ...201424772671
distribution and larval habitats of anopheles species in northern gyeonggi province, republic of korea.a total of 180 larval collection sites (e.g., rice paddies, marshes, ground pools, ponds, stream margins, and irrigation and drainage ditches) was surveyed within a 2 km radius from warrior base training area, 5 km south of panmunjeom (joint security area, demilitarized zone), gyeonggi province, republic of korea (rok), from may through october, 2007 to characterize larval habitat distributions of members of the anopheles hyrcanus group (an. sinensis, an. lesteri, an. pullus, an. belenrae, an. k ...201121635650
preliminary observation on the gradient distribution of hibernating females of anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus in the republic of korea.hibernating females of the anopheles hyrcanus complex were collected at 4 different latitudes at the end of the hibernation period in march of 2005 and 2006, and species were confirmed by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) identification. at paju (37.8 degrees n; average temperature in december february = -3.5 degrees c) 74.6% of the females collected were an. pullus and 22.4% were an. sinensis. at seosan (36.8 degrees n; december-february average temperature = -1.0 degrees c) and buan (35.7 degree ...200818437825
population genetic structure of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) sensu stricto and evidence for possible introgression in the republic of korea.anopheles sinensis wiedemann sensu stricto (s.s.) is a dominant mosquito and considered a secondary malaria vector in the republic of korea (rok). despite the potential significance for malaria control, population genetics studies have been conducted using only mitochondrial dna (mtdna), and studies of the genetics of hybridization have never been attempted. in this study, 346 specimens from 23 localities were subject to experiments. among them, 305 an. sinensis s.s. specimens from 20 localities ...201526336253
short report: natural hybrid between anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis.while analyzing wild mosquitoes caught in paju, south korea, we identified one egg-laying hybrid female between anopheles kleini and anopheles sinensis. additional evidence was obtained by identifying several f(1) progeny and conducting self-crossing between them. sequencing of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 sequence suggested that the maternal origin of the female should be an. sinensis . additionally, observation of only two distinct genotypes of f(1) progeny (double band, hybrid ...200919996431
mosquitoes and other aquatic insects in fallow field biotopes and rice paddy fields.fallow field biotopes that develop from abandoned rice fields are man-made wetlands that provide new habitats for various aquatic animals. although consideration of such biotopes generally focuses on their positive aspects, this study evaluated the negative aspects of establishing fallow field biotopes with regard to mosquito breeding sites. to determine whether fallow field biotopes become breeding habitats for vector mosquitoes, we evaluated mosquito fauna in fallow field biotopes and adjacent ...201323167444
host feeding patterns of mosquitoes in a rural malaria-endemic region in hainan island, china.malaria is endemic in wangxia village of hainan island. in this area little is known about the host seeking behavior and feeding habit of mosquitoes. three sites representing the most common habitat types in the village were selected to study the host seeking behavior and feeding habit of mosquitoes. of the total 9 species belonging to 4 genera (armigeres, culex, aedes, and anopheles) collected in wangxia village, culex tritaeniorhynchus and cx. pipiens quinquefasciatus were the most commonly co ...201425843138
reproductive isolation between anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus in korea.anopheles sinensis and an. pullus, the 2 predominant anopheline mosquito species in korea, are major malaria vectors. their morphological similarity makes them difficult to distinguish, and their taxonomic relationship remains unclear. kanda and oguma produced fertile f1 an. sinensis x an. pullus hybrids, suggesting a conspecific relationship. however, our recent internal transcribed spacer 2 dna sequence comparison of these taxa revealed 32.9% divergence, suggesting that an. sinensis and an. pu ...200516033116
suppression of laccase 2 severely impairs cuticle tanning and pathogen resistance during the pupal metamorphosis of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae).phenol oxidases (pos) catalyze the oxidation of dopa and dopamine to melanin, which is crucial for cuticle formation and innate immune maintenance in insects. although, laccase 2, a member of the po family, has been reported to be a requirement for melanin-mediated cuticle tanning in the development stages of some insects, whether it participates in cuticle construction and other physiological processes during the metamorphosis of mosquito pupae is unclear.201728376914
erratum to: genetic diversity and population structure of the primary malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in china inferred by cox1 gene. 201728253892
sialotranscriptome sequencing and analysis of anopheles sinensis and comparison with psorophora albipes sialotranscriptome (diptera: culicidae).most of adult female mosquitoes secrete saliva to facilitate blood sucking, digestion and nutrition, and mosquito-borne disease prevention. the knowledge of classification and characteristics of sialotranscriptome genes are still quite limited. anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in china and southeast asian countries. in this study, the an. sinensis sialotranscriptome was sequenced using illumina sequencing technique with a total of 10 907 unigenes to be obtained and annotated in biolo ...201627996203
a neural network prediction of environmental determinants of anopheles sinensis knockdown resistance mutation to pyrethroids in china.selection pressure caused by long-term intensive use of insecticides is the key driving force in resistance development. additional parameters such as environmental conditions may affect both the mosquito response to insecticides and the selection of resistance mechanisms. in this context, we analyzed the environmental determinants of kdr prevalence in anopheles sinensis across china. we collected kdr frequency from 48 sites across central and southern china, together with key environmental fact ...201627860007
genome-wide identification and characterization of odorant-binding protein (obp) genes in the malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae).anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector. insect odorant-binding proteins (obps) may function in the reception of odorants in the olfactory system. the classification and characterization of the an. sinensis obp genes have not been systematically studied. in this study, 64 putative obp genes were identified at the whole-genome level of an. sinensis based on the comparison between obp conserved motifs, pbp_gobp, and phylogenetic analysis with an. gambiae obps. the characterization of an. sine ...201626970073
[genetic polymophism and evolution of srpn14 gene in anopheles sinensis (diptera : culicidae)].to identify and locate the serine protease inhibitor 14 (srpn14) gene of anopheles sinensis, and analyze its genetic polymorphism among populations as well as the selective pressure during evolution.201526672210
distribution and phylogenetic analysis of culex flavivirus in mosquitoes in china.culex flavivirus (cxfv) is an insect-specific virus of the genus flavivirus. cxfv strains have been isolated from cx. pipiens, cx. quinquefasciatus, and other cx. species in asia, africa, north america, central america and south america. cxfv was isolated for the first time in china in 2006. as this is a novel flavivirus, we explored the distribution and genetic characteristics of culex flavivirus in china. a total of 46,649 mosquitoes were collected in seven provinces between 2004 and 2012 and ...201526118548
[experimental observation on host preference of anopheles sinensis].to observe the host preference of anopheles sinensis captured by outdoor human or cattle baits.201425902680
[sequence analysis of ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer 2 of sympatric populations of anopheles sinensis of different feeding preferences].to investigate the existence of genetic divergence of sympatric populations of anopheles sinensis of different feeding preferences based on the rdna-its2 sequence differences.201425782250
[analysis of population genetic structure of anopheles sinensis based on mitochondrial dna cytochrome oxidase subunit i gene fragment].to study the population genetic variation, genetic diversity and phylogenesis of anopheles sinensis in china.201525736119
[surveillance of malaria in huai'an district, huai'an city, 2009-2013].to analyze the results of malaria surveillance in huai' an district in the recent 5 years, so as to provide the evidences for the establishment of suitable control strategy in the district.201425507757
measure post-bloodmeal dispersal of mosquitoes and duration of radioactivity by using the isotope ³²p.the radioactive isotope (32)p-labeled disodium phosphate (na₂h(32)po₄) was injected via the jugular vein into a cow kept in a shed in maozhuang village, cao township of shanxian county, china. over the following 5 d, mosquitoes feeding on the cow were captured at distances up to 400 m to determine dispersal distance. the duration of radioactivity in the cow and marked mosquitoes was 10 d. the results showed that after blood feeding, anopheles sinensis and culex tritaeniorhynchus temporarily rest ...201425502034
[surveillance of malaria in huai'an district, huai'an city, 2009-2013].to analyze the results of malaria surveillance in huai' an district in the recent 5 years, so as to provide the evidences for the establishment of suitable control strategy in the district.201425434159
application of auto-regressive linear model in understanding the effect of climate on malaria vectors dynamics in the three gorges is important to understand the dynamics of malaria vectors in implementing malaria control strategies. six villages were selected from different sections in the three gorges reservoir for exploring the relationship between the climatic factors and its malaria vector density from 1997 to 2007 using the auto-regressive linear model regression method. the result indicated that both temperature and precipitation were better modeled as quadratic rather than linearly related to the density of anoph ...201425341817
influence of substrate color on oviposition behavior, egg hatchability, and substance of egg origin in the mosquito anopheles sinensis (wiedemann) (diptera: culicidae).understanding the factors that influence the choice of substrate for oviposition by the malaria mosquito is critical to efforts directed to the management of the disease and vector control measures aimed at modifications of larval habitat. the influence of black and white substrates on anopheles sinensis (wiedemann) (culicidae: anophelinae) female oviposition behavior and egg-hatching rate and the presence of substances associated with egg laying were studied. results from the no-choice tests sh ...201427193959
[resistance of anopheles sinensis to three common insecticides in hainan province].anopheles sinensis adults were collected by cow-baited trap in haikou city, sanya city, lingshui county, changjiang county and qiongzhong county of hainan province during 2011-2013. the mosquitoes were exposed to insecticide impregnated papers with discriminating concentrations of ddt (4%), deltamethrin (0.05%), and malathion (5%) using who standard assays. knockdown rate was recorded at 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 min, and kt50 values were calculated. mortality was recorded after 24 hours of ...201425065212
[identification of mammalian blood meals in anopheline mosquitoes from four counties of yunnan province by multiple pcr].from june to august 2012, the blood-sucking mosquitoes were captured around cattle-sheds and human houses in yuanjiang county, qiaojia county, yongshan county, and jinghong city of yunan province. blood samples from mosquitoes were collected on filter paper. multiplex pcr assay was used to detect the blood meal samples. among the 145 mosquitoes captured, 123 were anopheles sinensis (84.8%) and 22 a. minimus (15.2%). among the blood samples, corresponding bands were amplified in 134 samples. the ...201424822373
[taxonomic composition of metagenomic community in the larval gut of mosquito anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae)].to investigate the bacteria diversity in larval gut of field-collected anopheles sinensis.201324809191
[malaria surveillance in shanghai from 2005 to 2012].to understand the status of malaria prevalence in shanghai, so as to provide the evidence for evaluating and promoting malaria elimination.201424800562
[deltamethrin resistance, metabolic detoxification enzyme and kdr mutation in anopheles sinensis in region along huaihe river in anhui province].to understand the deltamethrin resistance level, gts and p450 metabolic detoxification enzyme activities, and mutations in the para-type sodium channel gene that confers knockdown resistance (kdr) in anopheles sinensis mosquitoes from malaria endemic areas along the huaihe river in anhui province, china.201324024445
[study on taqman-mgb real-time fluorescence quantitative pcr to detect gene mutation of kdr from anopheles sinensis].to establish a real-time fluorescence quantitative pcr to detect the kdr gene mutation in anopheles sinensis.201323894838
[changes of pyrethroid resistance and p450 monooxygenase activity with age in anopheles sinensis in huainan city, anhui province, china].to study the effect of mosquito age on the pyrethroid resistance and p450 monooxygenase activity in anopheles sinensis in huainan city, anhui province, china, as well as the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance.201323894836
[investigation on the sensitivity of anopheles sinensis to insecticide].to investigate the sensitivity of anopheles sinensis to ddt, cyfluthrin, malathion and deltamethrin.201223072164
first detection of multiple knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in voltage-gated sodium channel using three new genotyping methods in anopheles sinensis from guangxi province, investigate knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in anopheles sinensis (wiedemann, 1828), from guangxi province, southwest china, a segment of a sodium channel gene was sequenced and genotyped using three new genotyping assays. direct sequencing revealed the presence of ttg-to-tcg and tg-to-ttt mutations at allele position l1014, which led to l1014s and l1014f substitutions in a few individual and two novel substitutions of n1013s and l1014w in two d ...201223025181
[lymphatic filariasis in hubei province: from prevailing to elimination].lymphatic filariasis used to highly prevalent in 69 counties (cities) with 29 million people at the risk of infection in hubei province. there were 2 million people infected either by b. malayi or w. bancrofti that 1.6 million microfilaremia cases and 0.4 million chronic patients. the average rate of microfilaremia among population was 5.94%. anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus were the principal transmitting vectors. since 1970s, with the strategy of taking elimination of infection so ...201222913195
[effect of intermittent irrigation in paddy fields on mosquito control].to investigate the effects of intermittent irrigation in paddy fields on mosquito control and the impact on growth and yield of rice.201222590874
[survey on malaria vectors in jiangsu province, 2005-2009].to understand the species, density and seasonal variation of malaria vectors in jiangsu province, so as to provide scientific evidence for malaria control.201122164867
[sensitivity of anopheles sinensis to insecticides in jiangsu province].to understand the sensitivity of anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin, ddt and malathion in jiangsu province.201122164497
isolation and characterization of polymorphic microsatellite markers from asian malaria mosquito anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae).microsatellite-containing region were isolated and characterized in anopheles sinensis, a primary vector of malaria parasites in asia. an enrichment protocol yielded 252 microsatellite sequences. we designed primers to amplify 20 unique microsatellites, 14 of which amplify cleanly and were polymorphic. a survey of 24 individuals showed that 12 loci are highly variable with the number of alleles ranging from two to 11, and expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.116 to 0.903. these markers will be ...200821585971
analysis of the population genetic structure of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis in south korea based on mitochondrial sequences.the population genetics of anopheles sinensis, a major malaria vector in south korea, was studied based on the nucleotide sequences of a 238-bp variable region of the mitochondrial control region. three features of genetic variance were observed. first, the taebaek and sobaek mountain ranges may function as genetic barriers between the northern group (ng) and the southern group (sg). these mountain ranges are associated with the subdivision of the population, and significant and unique populatio ...200717690404
[cloning and prokaryotic expression of anopheles sinensis defensin gene and preliminary bioactivity evaluation of the recombinant product].to clone the defensin gene of anopheles sinensis for its prokaryotic expression and preliminary bioactivity evaluation of the recombinant protein.200515837630
[laboratory rearing technique of anopheles sinensis]. 199912563751
environmental factors associated with larval habitats of malaria vectors in northern kyunggi province, republic of korea.the larval habitats of malaria vectors near the demilitarized zone of the republic of korea (rok) were sampled from june through september 2000 to determine larval abundance and to identify environmental factors associated with high larval density. six primary habitats were identified: rice fields, irrigation ditches, drainage ditches, stream pools, irrigation pools, and marshes. most habitats harbored similar densities of larvae until august and september, when population densities in rice fiel ...200212322939
intragenomic length variation of the ribosomal dna intergenic spacer in a malaria vector, anopheles sinensis.we determined the complete sequences of six size variants of intergenic spacer (igs) region from one individual of the malaria vector mosquito species, anopheles sinensis. all six size variants observed in this study show almost the same basic primary structure in which three repeat regions (a, b, and c) are interspersed by highly conserved nonrepeating sections. in contrast to the well-ordered subrepeating patterns found in a and c, the repeat region b displays extremely variable and complicate ...200212243346
habitat size: a factor determining the opportunity for encounters between mosquito larvae and aquatic predators.occurrence patterns of mosquito immatures and insect predators in containers of various sizes were surveyed in summer (june-july) and autumn (september) of 1998 in a rural area of saga, southwestern japan. mosquitoes were categorized into three types in relation to habitat size. first, aedes (stegomyia) spp. and tripteroides bambusa occurred mostly in small containers of < 0.1 m2. second, ae. japonicus and culex kyotoensis occurred in larger container sizes, compared with the first group. third, ...200212125876
one-step pcr amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes.a new pcr primer set which enables one-step amplification of complete arthropod mitochondrial genomes was designed from two conserved 16s rdna regions for the long pcr technique. for this purpose, partial 16s rdnas amplified with universal primers 16sa and 16sb were newly sequenced from six representative arthropods: armadillidium vulgare and macrobrachium nipponense (crustacea), anopheles sinensis (insecta), lithobius forficatus and megaphyllum sp. (myriapoda), and limulus polyphemus (chelicera ...200111399145
resistance and response to selection to deltamethrin in anopheles sinensis from zhejiang, china.resistance levels to deltamethrin were measured in 5 natural populations of anopheles sinensis. the median lethal concentrations (lc50s) of deltamethrin in these populations were higher than those in susceptible strains originating from the same populations, especially in the wenzhou population, which had a resistance ratio (rr50) of 11 relative to its susceptible strain. resistant strains were selected with deltamethrin for 12 generations. resistance levels in resistant strains were 130 to 190- ...200010757484
effect of two rice culture methods on the seasonal occurrence of mosquito larvae and other aquatic animals in rice fields of southwestern ecological study has been performed on the community structures of aquatic animals and on abiotic factors in organically and conventionally-farmed rice fields at bulkyo, bosong-gun, chollanamdo during the rice growing periods between may 1995 and october 1996. the total numbers of aquatic insect taxa in these fields were 25 species, 22 families in 10 orders. in 1995 and 1996, three and then four more species of aquatic insects were collected in the organically-farmed rice fields than in conve ...19989879072
two vivax malaria cases detected in korea.on june and july 1994, two cases of vivax malaria were consecutively diagnosed at the yongsan hospital, chung-ang university in seoul. the first patient was a soldier serving in western parts of the demilitarized zone (dmz) while the second case was a resident of a village near dmz. neither patients had history of being abroad. republic of korea (rok) has been free of malaria since the mid-1970s except for imported cases. the two vivax malaria cases, together with an additional patient detected ...19947834248
[the mosquitocidal efficacy of microcapsules of alpha-cypermethrin against anopheles sinensis].the efficacy of spraying of alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule for the control of anopheles sinensis was investigated when alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule was sprayed at 0.5 g/m2, the kt50 was 7.9 min and a 100% of 24 hours' mortality of an. sinensis, the efficacy being similar to that of the emulsion. 180 days after spray, the kt50 was 28.2 min, the 24 hours' mortality was 85.7%, the residual efficacy was 3 times over that of the emulsion. in the mimic field experiment, similar results were obtain ...19948044904
epidemio-entomological survey on malarial vector mosquitoes in kyongbuk, order to determine population dynamics of anopheles sinensis, a survey based on average number of female mosquitoes per trap-night was carried out during the period of 5 years from 1987 to 1991. a. sinensis first appeared between the 2nd and 20th april, and were trapped in large number between the 5th and 12th july. the number of trapped mosquitoes began to decrease from mid-august, and a few were collected until mid-november, each year. the average number of a. sinensis in july was 542.6 per ...19921363628
[a paracentric inversion in the salivary gland chromosome 3r of anopheles sinensis].an inversion heterozygote has been found in the fourth stage larvae of the laboratory line of shanghai anopheles sinensis in our laboratory, the frequency of occurrence of the heterozygote being 2 to 5%. the characteristic inversion loop formed in the midst of chromosome 3r together with the break points arises from 26c to 30a segment of the chromosomes. this inversion paracentric is the first record in the literature available and may be of significance as a genetic marker in studying the inter ...19892633892
[experimental observation on the effectiveness of pirimiphos methyl against anopheles sinensis]. 19883383392
[identification of the short arm of the sex chromosome of the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland of anopheles sinensis]. 19883180362
[the occurrence of the mermithid nematode romanomermis jingdeensis in the pupae and adults of anopheles sinensis]. 19863769153
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