historical survey of the kdr mutations in the populations of anopheles sinensis in china in 1996-2014.anopheles sinensis has become an important malaria vector in china. the long-term extensive utilization of pyrethroids for itns and irs for mosquito control in the last three decades has resulted in the occurrence of resistant an. sinensis populations in many regions. knockdown resistance (kdr), caused by point mutations in the vgsc gene, is one of the mechanisms that confer resistance to ddt and pyrethroids. recently, several investigations revealed the kdr occurrence in some an. sinensis popul ...201525888824
malaria incidence from 2005-2013 and its associations with meteorological factors in guangdong, china.the temporal variation of malaria incidence has been linked to meteorological factors in many studies, but key factors observed and corresponding effect estimates were not consistent. furthermore, the potential effect modification by individual characteristics is not well documented. this study intends to examine the delayed effects of meteorological factors and the sub-population's susceptibility in guangdong, china.201525881185
mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene of anophelines and their association with resistance to pyrethroids - a review.constant and extensive use of chemical insecticides has created a selection pressure and favored resistance development in many insect species worldwide. one of the most important pyrethroid resistance mechanisms is classified as target site insensitivity, due to conformational changes in the target site that impair a proper binding of the insecticide molecule. the voltage-gated sodium channel (nav) is the target of pyrethroids and ddt insecticides, used to control insects of medical, agricultur ...201425292318
decreasing incidence of plasmodium vivax in the republic of korea during 2010-2012.after the re-emergence of plasmodium vivax in 1993, a total of 31,254 cases of vivax malaria were reported between 1993-2012 in the republic of korea (rok). the purpose of this study was to review korea centers for disease control and prevention records to investigate the transmission of malaria from 2010-2012.201324010412
a potential threat to malaria elimination: extensive deltamethrin and ddt resistance to anopheles sinensis from the malaria-endemic areas in china.insecticide resistance in malaria vectors is a growing concern in many countries and requires immediate attention because of the limited chemical arsenal available for vector control. there is lack of systematic and standard monitoring data of malaria vector resistance in the endemic areas, which is essential for the ambitious goal of malaria elimination programme of china.201323683359
susceptibility and resistance of field populations of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) collected from paju to 13 insecticides.over 20% of all malaria cases reported annually in the republic of korea (rok) occur in paju, gyeonggi province. vector control for malaria management is essential, but the insecticide resistance of the vector, anopheles mosquitoes, has been a major obstacle in implementing effective control. in this study, the insecticide resistance of the vector mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with that of vector mosquitoes collected from the same locality in 2001 and 2009.024159535
mosquito species composition and plasmodium vivax infection rates for korean army bases near the demilitarized zone in the republic of korea, 2011.vivax malaria is a significant military and civilian health threat in northern republic of korea (rok). mosquito collections were performed at two rok army installations, paju near the demilitarized zone (dmz) using black light traps in 2011. the dmz, a 4 km wide border, is the northernmost point of the rok and separates the rok from the democratic people's republic of korea (dprk). anopheles spp. were identified by polymerase chain reaction and screened for plasmodium vivax sporozoites. of 4,35 ...201223243112
the polymorphism and the geographical distribution of the knockdown resistance (kdr) of anopheles sinensis in the republic of the republic of korea (rok), six sibling species of the anopheles sinensis complex are considered the vector species of malaria, but data on their susceptibilities to malaria and vector capacities have been controversial. the intensive use of insecticides has contributed to the rapid development and spread of insecticide resistance in the an. sinensis complex. knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids and ddt in the an. sinensis complex is associated with a mutation in codon 1014 of the volta ...201222554130
random repeated cross sectional study on breeding site characterization of anopheles sinensis larvae in distinct villages of yongcheng city, people's republic of china.characterizing the breeding site of anopheles sinensis is of major importance for the transition from malaria control to elimination in china. however, little information is available especially regarding the characteristics and influencing factors of breeding sites of an. sinensis in yongcheng city, a representative region of unstable malaria transmission in the huang-huai river region of central china. the aims of this study were to determine the breeding site characteristics of an. sinensis a ...201222444032
species composition, larval habitats, seasonal occurrence and distribution of potential malaria vectors and associated species of anopheles (diptera: culicidae) from the republic of korea.larval mosquito habitats of potential malaria vectors and related species of anopheles from three provinces (gyeonggi, gyeongsangbuk, chungcheongbuk provinces) of the republic of korea were surveyed in 2007. this study aimed to determine the species composition, seasonal occurrence and distributions of anopheles mosquitoes. satellite derived normalized difference vegetation index data (ndvi) was also used to study the seasonal abundance patterns of anopheles mosquitoes.201020163728
insecticide resistance in areas under investigation by the international centers of excellence for malaria research: a challenge for malaria control and elimination.scale-up of the main vector control interventions, residual insecticides sprayed on walls or structures and/or impregnated in bed nets, together with prompt diagnosis and effective treatment, have led to a global reduction in malaria transmission. however, resistance in vectors to almost all classes of insecticides, particularly to the synthetic pyrethroids, is posing a challenge to the recent trend of declining malaria. ten international centers of excellence for malaria research (icemr) locate ...201526259947
entomological monitoring and evaluation: diverse transmission settings of icemr projects will require local and regional malaria elimination strategies.the unprecedented global efforts for malaria elimination in the past decade have resulted in altered vectorial systems, vector behaviors, and bionomics. these changes combined with increasingly evident heterogeneities in malaria transmission require innovative vector control strategies in addition to the established practices of long-lasting insecticidal nets and indoor residual spraying. integrated vector management will require focal and tailored vector control to achieve malaria elimination. ...201526259942
salivary gland proteome during adult development and after blood feeding of female anopheles dissidens mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae).understanding changes in mosquito salivary proteins during the time that sporozoite maturation occurs and after blood feeding may give information regarding the roles of salivary proteins during the malarial transmission. anopheles dissidens (formerly anopheles barbirostris species a1) is a potential vector of plasmodium vivax in thailand. in this study, analyses of the proteomic profiles of female an. dissidens salivary glands during adult development and after blood feeding were carried out us ...201627669021
past and new challenges for malaria control and elimination: the role of operational research for innovation in designing interventions.this meeting report presents the outcomes of a workshop held in bangkok on december 1st 2014, where the following challenges were discussed: the threat of resistance to artemisinin and artemisinin-based combination therapy in the greater mekong sub-region (gms) and in africa; access to treatment for most at risk and hard to reach population; insecticide resistance, residual and outdoors transmission. the role of operational research and the interactions between research institutions, national ma ...201526185098
diversity and frequency of kdr mutations within anopheles sinensis populations from guangxi, china.anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria in china and its control is under great threat as the development of insecticide resistance. voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) is the target of several classes of insecticides. genetic mutations of vgsc have been documented to confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and pyrethroids in mosquitoes. to control this vector efficiently, it is important to know the resistance-associated genetic mutations, their distri ...201627527509
population dynamics and community structure of anopheles mosquitoes along the china-myanmar border.understanding the ecology of malaria vectors such as species composition and population dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective strategies to control mosquito vector populations.201526338527
molecular surveillance of pvdhfr, pvdhps, and pvmdr-1 mutations in plasmodium vivax isolates from yunnan and anhui provinces of china.plasmodium vivax is the predominant species of human malaria parasites present in china. although sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine (sp) and chloroquine (cq) have been widely used for malaria treatment in china, the resistance profiles of these drugs are not available. analysis of dihydrofolate reductase (dhfr), dihydropteroate synthase (dhps), and multidrug resistance (mdr-1) gene mutations in p. vivax isolates is a valuable molecular approach for mapping resistance to sp and cq. this study investigat ...201425179752
discovery and evolution of bunyavirids in arctic phantom midges and ancient bunyavirid-like sequences in insect genomes.bunyaviridae is a large family of rna viruses chiefly comprised of vertebrate and plant pathogens. we discovered novel bunyavirids that are approximately equally divergent from each of the five known genera. we characterized novel genome sequences for two bunyavirids, namely, kigluaik phantom virus (kigv), from tundra-native phantom midges (chaoborus), and nome phantom virus (nomv), from tundra-invading phantom midges, and demonstrated that these bunyavirid-like sequences belong to an infectious ...201424850747
susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to plasmodium vivax in malarial outbreak areas of central china.anopheles sinensis, anopheles anthropophagus, anopheles minimus and anopheles dirus are the major vectors of malaria transmission in china. anopheles sinensis is considered a secondary vector due to its relatively low malaria-transmission ability. however, in 2005, an outbreak of over 40,000 plasmodium vivax malaria cases was reported in areas where anopheles sinensis was the only major vector. therefore, it is necessary to reassess the malaria transmission ability of this vector species in chin ...201323768077
the susceptibility of aedes aegypti populations displaying temephos resistance to bacillus thuringiensis israelensis: a basis for management.aedes aegypti is the vector of dengue virus, and its control is essential to prevent disease transmission. among the agents available to control this species, biolarvicides based on bacillus thuringiensis serovar israelensis (bti) are an effective alternative to replace the organophosphate temephos for controlling populations that display resistance to this insecticide. the major goal of this study was to determine the baseline susceptibility of brazilian ae. aegypti populations to bti, taking i ...201324499507
identifying the main mosquito species in china based on dna barcoding.mosquitoes are insects of the diptera, nematocera, and culicidae families, some species of which are important disease vectors. identifying mosquito species based on morphological characteristics is difficult, particularly the identification of specimens collected in the field as part of disease surveillance programs. because of this difficulty, we constructed dna barcodes of the cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1, the coi gene, for the more common mosquito species in china, including the major dise ...201223071708
extensive genetic diversity of rickettsiales bacteria in multiple mosquito species.rickettsiales are important zoonotic pathogens, causing severe disease in humans globally. although mosquitoes are an important vector for diverse pathogens, with the exception of members of the genus wolbachia little is known about their role in the transmission of rickettsiales. herein, rickettsiales were identified by pcr in five species of mosquitoes (anopheles sinensis, armigeres subalbatus, aedes albopictus, culex quinquefasciatus and cu. tritaeniorhynchus) collected from three chinese pro ...201627934910
vector mosquitoes of filariasis in japan. 022028600
development and application of an allglo probe-based qpcr assay for detecting knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in anopheles sinensis.anopheles sinensis is one of the most important malaria vectors in china and other southeast asian countries. high levels of resistance have been reported in this species due to the long-term use of insecticides, especially pyrethroids, for public health and agricultural purposes. knockdown resistance (kdr) caused by a single base pair mutation in the gene encoding the sodium channel is strongly associated with pyrethroid insecticide resistance in many anopheles mosquitoes. there are few methods ...201425245258
next-generation sequencing reveals recent horizontal transfer of a dna transposon between divergent mosquitoes.horizontal transfer of genetic material between complex organisms often involves transposable elements (tes). for example, a dna transposon mariner has been shown to undergo horizontal transfer between different orders of insects and between different phyla of animals. here we report the discovery and characterization of an itmd37d transposon, mj1, in anopheles sinensis. we show that some mj1 elements in aedes aegypti and an. sinensis contain intact open reading frames and share nearly 99% nucle ...201121379317
rotational symmetry of two pyrethroid receptor sites in the mosquito sodium channel.voltage-gated sodium channels are the primary target of pyrethroid insecticides. although it is well known that specific mutations in insect sodium channels confer knockdown resistance (kdr) to pyrethroids, the atomic mechanisms of pyrethroid-sodium channel interactions are not clearly understood. previously, computer modeling and mutational analysis predicted two pyrethroid receptors, pyrethroid receptor site 1 (pyr1) (initial) and pyrethroid receptor site 2 (pyr2), located in the domain interf ...201525972447
knockdown resistance (kdr) mutations in indian anopheles culicifacies populations.anopheles culicifacies s.l. is one of the primary vectors of malaria in india responsible for the highest number of malaria cases. this vector is resistant to ddt in most parts of the country with indication of emerging resistance to pyrethroids. since knockdown resistance (kdr) is known to confer cross-resistance between ddt and pyrethroids owing to a common target site of action, knowledge of prevalence of knockdown resistance (kdr) alleles is important from insecticide resistance management p ...201526082160
molecular biology of insect sodium channels and pyrethroid resistance.voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the initiation and propagation of the action potential in neurons and other excitable cells. because of their critical roles in electrical signaling, sodium channels are targets of a variety of naturally occurring and synthetic neurotoxins, including several classes of insecticides. this review is intended to provide an update on the molecular biology of insect sodium channels and the molecular mechanism of pyrethroid resistance. although mammalian ...201424704279
diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in resistance to pyrethroids.pyrethroid insecticides target voltage-gated sodium channels, which are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. the intensive use of pyrethroids in controlling arthropod pests and disease vectors has led to many instances of pyrethroid resistance around the globe. in the past two decades, studies have identified a large number of sodium channel mutations that are associated with resistance to pyrethroids. the purpose of this review is to summarize both common and unique sodium c ...024019556
knockdown resistance (kdr)-like mutations in the voltage-gated sodium channel of a malaria vector anopheles stephensi and pcr assays for their detection.knockdown resistance (kdr) in insects, resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage-gated sodium channel (vgsc) gene is one of the mechanisms of resistance against ddt and pyrethroid-group of insecticides. the most common mutation(s) associated with knockdown resistance in insects, including anophelines, has been reported to be present at residue leu1014 in the iis6 transmembrane segment of the vgsc gene. this study reports the presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, l1014s and l1014f, at t ...201121401946
insecticide resistance of anopheles sinensis and an. vagus in hainan island, a malaria-endemic area of china.malaria is one of the most important public health problems in southeast asia, including hainan island, china. vector control is the main malaria control measure, and insecticide resistance is a major concern for the effectiveness of chemical insecticide control programs. the objective of this study is to determine the resistance status of the main malaria vector species to pyrethroids and other insecticides recommended by the world health organization (who) for indoor residual sprays.201424589247
proteomic profile of the bradysia odoriphaga in response to the microbial secondary metabolite benzothiazole.benzothiazole, a microbial secondary metabolite, has been demonstrated to possess fumigant activity against sclerotinia sclerotiorum, ditylenchus destructor and bradysia odoriphaga. however, to facilitate the development of novel microbial pesticides, the mode of action of benzothiazole needs to be elucidated. here, we employed itraq-based quantitative proteomics analysis to investigate the effects of benzothiazole on the proteomic expression of b. odoriphaga. in response to benzothiazole, 92 of ...201627883048
tyrosine hydroxylase is crucial for maintaining pupal tanning and immunity in anopheles sinensis.tyrosine hydroxylase (th), the initial enzyme in the melanin pathway, catalyzes tyrosine conversion into dopa. although expression and regulation of th have been shown to affect cuticle pigmentation in insects, no direct functional studies to date have focused on the specific physiological processes involving the enzyme during mosquito development. in the current study, silencing of asth during the time period of continuous high expression in anopheles sinensis pupae led to significant impairmen ...201627416870
rickettsia felis, an emerging flea-borne rickettsiosis.rickettsia felis is an emerging insect-borne rickettsial pathogen and the causative agent of flea-borne spotted fever. first described as a human pathogen from the usa in 1991, r. felis is now identified throughout the world and considered a common cause of fever in africa. the cosmopolitan distribution of this pathogen is credited to the equally widespread occurrence of cat fleas (ctenocephalides felis), the primary vector and reservoir of r. felis. although r. felis is a relatively new member ...201627340613
the cpcfc cuticular protein family: anatomical and cuticular locations in anopheles gambiae and distribution throughout pancrustacea.arthropod cuticles have, in addition to chitin, many structural proteins belonging to diverse families. information is sparse about how these different cuticular proteins contribute to the cuticle. most cuticular proteins lack cysteine with the exception of two families (cpap1 and cpap3), recently described, and the one other that we now report on that has a motif of 16 amino acids first identified in a protein, bc-ncp1, from the cuticle of nymphs of the cockroach, blaberus craniifer (jensen et  ...201526164413
is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - a review.distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. to evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently ...025185008
heterochromatin, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture in disease vectors.interactions between a pathogen and a vector are plastic and dynamic. such interactions can be more rapidly accommodated by epigenetic changes than by genetic mutations. gene expression can be affected by the proximity to the heterochromatin, by local histone modifications, and by the three-dimensional position within the nucleus. recent studies of disease vectors indicate that gene regulation by these factors can be important for susceptibility to pathogens, reproduction, immunity, development, ...026097808
estimating the malaria transmission of plasmodium vivax based on serodiagnosis.plasmodium vivax re-emerged in 1993 and has now become a major public health problem during the summer season in south korea. the aim of this study was to interpret and understand the meaning of seroepidemiological studies for developing the best malaria control programme in south korea.201222852558
de novo transcriptome sequencing and sequence analysis of the malaria vector anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae).anopheles sinensis is the major malaria vector in china and southeast asia. vector control is one of the most effective measures to prevent malaria transmission. however, there is little transcriptome information available for the malaria vector. to better understand the biological basis of malaria transmission and to develop novel and effective means of vector control, there is a need to build a transcriptome dataset for functional genomics analysis by large-scale rna sequencing (rna-seq).201425000941
a genome-scale investigation of incongruence in culicidae mosquitoes.comparison of individual gene trees in several recent phylogenomic studies from diverse lineages has revealed a surprising amount of topological conflict or incongruence, but we still know relatively little about its distribution across the tree of life. to further our understanding of incongruence, the factors that contribute to it and how it can be ameliorated, we examined its distribution in a clade of 20 culicidae mosquito species through the reconstruction and analysis of the phylogenetic h ...201526608059
a sensitive and rapid assay for homologous recombination in mosquito cells: impact of vector topology and implications for gene targeting.recent progress in insect transgenesis has been dramatic but existing transposon-based approaches are constrained by position effects and potential instability. gene targeting would bring a number of benefits, however progress requires a better understanding of the mechanisms involved. much can be learned in vitro since extrachromosomal recombination occurs at high frequency, facilitating the study of multiple events and the impact of structural changes among the recombining molecules. we have i ...200111801182
comparative transcriptome analyses of deltamethrin-resistant and -susceptible anopheles gambiae mosquitoes from kenya by rna-seq.malaria causes more than 300 million clinical cases and 665,000 deaths each year, and the majority of the mortality and morbidity occurs in sub-saharan africa. due to the lack of effective vaccines and wide-spread resistance to antimalarial drugs, mosquito control is the primary method of malaria prevention and control. currently, malaria vector control relies on the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. the extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressures for resistanc ...201222970263
rickettsia in mosquitoes, yangzhou, china. 201627729642
risky behaviors: effects of toxorhynchites splendens (diptera: culicidae) predator on the behavior of three mosquito species.viable biocontrol agents for mosquito control are quite rare, therefore improving the efficacy of existing biological agents is an important study. we need to have a better understanding of the predation-risk behavioral responses toward prey. this research examined prey choices by toxorhynchites splendens by monitoring the behavioral responses of aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, and anopheles sinensis larvae when exposed to the predator. the results show that tx. splendens prefers to consume ae. ...201526386041
transcriptome profiling of pyrethroid resistant and susceptible mosquitoes in the malaria vector, anopheles sinensis.anopheles sinensis is a major malaria vector in china and other southeast asian countries, and it is becoming increasingly resistant to the insecticides used for agriculture, net impregnation, and indoor residual spray. very limited genomic information on this species is available, which has hindered the development of new tools for resistance surveillance and vector control. we used the 454 gs flx system and generated expressed sequence tag (est) databases of various life stages of an. sinensis ...201424909924
first report of rickettsia felis in china.rickettsia felis is a recently described flea-borne spotted fever group rickettsia that is an emerging human pathogen. although there is information on the organism from around the world, there is no information on the organism in china.201425510419
an efficient strategy of screening for pathogens in wild-caught ticks and mosquitoes by reusing small rna deep sequencing data.this paper explored our hypothesis that srna (18 ∼ 30 bp) deep sequencing technique can be used as an efficient strategy to identify microorganisms other than viruses, such as prokaryotic and eukaryotic pathogens. in the study, the clean reads derived from the srna deep sequencing data of wild-caught ticks and mosquitoes were compared against the ncbi nucleotide collection (non-redundant nt database) using blastn. the blast results were then analyzed with in-house python scripts. an empirical fo ...201424618575
mass primaquine treatment to eliminate vivax malaria: lessons from the past.recent successes in malaria control have put malaria eradication back on the public health agenda. a significant obstacle to malaria elimination in asia is the large burden of plasmodium vivax, which is more difficult to eliminate than plasmodium falciparum. persistent p. vivax liver stages can be eliminated only by radical treatment with a ≥ seven-day course of an 8-aminoquinoline, with the attendant risk of acute haemolytic anaemia in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (g6pd) d ...201424502194
first detection of candidatus rickettsia barbariae in the flea vermipsylla alakurt from north-western china.vermipsylla is a genus of the family vermipsyllidae within the order siphonaptera of fleas. vermipsylla alakurt is mainly distributed in alpine pastoral areas of kazakhstan, mongolia, china and nepal, and infests sheep, yaks and horses, causing irritation, poor condition, anaemia and even death. however, to date, no rickettsial agents have been reported in v. alakurt.201627267467
multicopper oxidase-1 is required for iron homeostasis in malpighian tubules of helicoverpa armigera.multicopper oxidases (mcos) are enzymes that contain 10 conserved histidine residues and 1 cysteine residue. mco1 has been extensively investigated in the midgut because this mco is implicated in ascorbate oxidation, iron homeostasis and immune responses. however, information regarding the action of mco1 in malpighian tubules is limited. in this study, helicoverpa armigera was used as a model to investigate the function of mco1 in malpighian tubules. sequence analysis results revealed that hamco ...201526437857
the colonization of pyrethroid resistant strain from wild anopheles sinensis, the major asian malaria vector.anopheles sinensis is one of the most important malaria vectors in asian countries. the rapid spread of insecticide resistance has become a major obstacle for insecticide-based strategies for vector control. therefore, it is necessary to prepare an insecticide-resistant strain of an. sinensis to further understand the insecticide resistance mechanisms in this species to facilitate genetic approaches to targeting the insecticide-resistant population of this important malaria vector.201425499700
a case of horizontal gene transfer from wolbachia to aedes albopictus c6/36 cell line.horizontal gene transfer plays an essential role in evolution and ecological adaptation, yet this phenomenon has remained controversial, particularly where it occurs between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. there are a handful of reported examples of horizontal gene transfer occurring between prokaryotes and eukaryotes in the literature, with most of these documented cases pertaining to invertebrates and endosymbionts. however, the vast majority of these horizontally transferred genes were either eve ...201424812591
the history of the elimination of lymphatic filariasis in china.china used to be one of the most heavily endemic countries for lymphatic filariasis (lf) in the world. there were 864 endemic counties/cities in 16 provinces/autonomous regions/municipalities (p/a/m) with a total population of 330 million at risk of infection. since the founding of the people's republic of china in 1949, the chinese government has designated the control of the disease to be a top priority. due to decades of sustained efforts, close cooperation related to lf control among governm ...201324289733
geographical, meteorological and vectorial factors related to malaria re-emergence in huang-huai river of central china.malaria still represents a significant public health problem in china, and the cases dramatically increased in the areas along the huang-huai river of central china after 2001. considering spatial aggregation of malaria cases and specific vectors, the geographical, meteorological and vectorial factors were analysed to determine the key factors related to malaria re-emergence in these particular areas.201021092326
l1014f-kdr mutation in indian anopheles subpictus (diptera: culicidae) arising from two alternative transversions in the voltage-gated sodium channel and a single pira-pcr for their detection.leucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at residue l1014 in the voltage-gated sodium channel, target site of action for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and pyrethroids, is the most common knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation reported in several insects conferring resistance against ddt and pyrethroids. here, we report presence of two coexisting alternative transversions, a>t and a>c, on the third codon position of l1014 residue in malaria vector anopheles subpictus grassi (species a) from jam ...026336276
organization of subunits in the membrane domain of the bovine f-atpase revealed by covalent cross-linking.the f-atpase in bovine mitochondria is a membrane-bound complex of about 30 subunits of 18 different kinds. currently, ∼85% of its structure is known. the enzyme has a membrane extrinsic catalytic domain, and a membrane intrinsic domain where the turning of the enzyme's rotor is generated from the transmembrane proton-motive force. the domains are linked by central and peripheral stalks. the central stalk and a hydrophobic ring of c-subunits in the membrane domain constitute the enzyme's rotor. ...201525851905
drosophila kash-domain protein klarsicht regulates microtubule stability and integrin receptor localization during collective cell migration.during collective migration of the drosophila embryonic salivary gland, cells rearrange to form a tube of a distinct shape and size. here, we report a novel role for the drosophila klarsicht-anc-syne homology (kash) domain protein klarsicht (klar) in the regulation of microtubule (mt) stability and integrin receptor localization during salivary gland migration. in wild-type salivary glands, mts became progressively stabilized as gland migration progressed. in embryos specifically lacking the kas ...201526247519
imbalanced hemolymph lipid levels affect feeding motivation in the two-spotted cricket, gryllus bimaculatus.insect feeding behavior is regulated by many intrinsic factors, including hemolymph nutrient levels. adipokinetic hormone (akh) is a peptide factor that modulates hemolymph nutrient levels and regulates the nutritional state of insects by triggering the transfer of lipids into the hemolymph. we recently demonstrated that rna interference (rnai)-mediated knockdown of the akh receptor (akhr) reduces hemolymph lipid levels, causing an increase in the feeding frequency of the two-spotted cricket, gr ...201627144650
genome sequence of anopheles sinensis provides insight into genetics basis of mosquito competence for malaria parasites.anopheles sinensis is an important mosquito vector of plasmodium vivax, which is the most frequent and widely distributed cause of recurring malaria throughout asia, and particularly in china, korea, and japan.201424438588
mathematical models for lymphatic filariasis transmission and control: challenges and prospects. 200818275593
multiple resistances and complex mechanisms of anopheles sinensis mosquito: a major obstacle to mosquito-borne diseases control and elimination in china.malaria, dengue fever, and filariasis are three of the most common mosquito-borne diseases worldwide. malaria and lymphatic filariasis can occur as concomitant human infections while also sharing common mosquito vectors. the overall prevalence and health significance of malaria and filariasis have made them top priorities for global elimination and control programmes. pyrethroid resistance in anopheline mosquito vectors represents a highly significant problem to malaria control worldwide. severa ...201424852174
molecular cloning and characterization of g alpha proteins from the western tarnished plant bug, lygus hesperus.the gα subunits of heterotrimeric g proteins play critical roles in the activation of diverse signal transduction cascades. however, the role of these genes in chemosensation remains to be fully elucidated. to initiate a comprehensive survey of signal transduction genes, we used homology-based cloning methods and transcriptome data mining to identity gα subunits in the western tarnished plant bug (lygus hesperus knight). among the nine sequences identified were single variants of the gαi, gαo, g ...201426463065
genome sequencing and genetic characterization of culex flavirirus (cxfv) provides new information about its genotypes.culex flavivirus (cxfv) is an insect-specific virus that is widely distributed and primarily infects mosquito species from the genus culex. its hosts include culex tritaeniorhynchus, culex quinquefasciatus, and anopheles sinensis mosquitoes. since its original identification, cxfv has been reported in several countries. despite the increasing number of reports on cxfv, little is known about its genomic characteristics. it is unclear whether the phylogenetic relationships between the strains are ...201627658621
maiden outbreak of chikungunya in dongguan city, guangdong province, china: epidemiological characteristics.this study was conducted to identify epidemiological characteristics of the first documented chik fever outbreak in china and evaluate the effect of the preventive measures taken.201222916166
comparison of epsilon- and delta-class glutathione s-transferases: the crystal structures of the glutathione s-transferases dmgste6 and dmgste7 from drosophila melanogaster.cytosolic glutathione transferases (gsts) comprise a large family of enzymes with canonical structures that diverge functionally and structurally among mammals, invertebrates and plants. whereas mammalian gsts have been characterized extensively with regard to their structure and function, invertebrate gsts remain relatively unstudied. the invertebrate gsts do, however, represent potentially important drug targets for infectious diseases and agricultural applications. in addition, it is essentia ...201526457432
development of insecticide resistance in malaria vector anopheles sinensis populations from shandong province in china.anopheles sinensis is a major vector of malaria and among the dominant species in shandong province of china. insecticide resistance is an important threat to vector-borne disease control. however, there are only few reports about insecticide resistance of an. sinensis populations from shandong province.201525880316
landscape genetic structure and evolutionary genetics of insecticide resistance gene mutations in anopheles sinensis.anopheles sinensis is one of the most abundant vectors of malaria and other diseases in asia. vector control through the use of insecticides is the front line control method of vector-borne diseases. pyrethroids are the most commonly used insecticides due to their low toxicity to vertebrates and low repellency. however, the extensive use of insecticides has imposed strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. high levels of resistance to pyrethroid insecticides and various m ...201627108406
anopheles sinensis mosquito insecticide resistance: comparison of three mosquito sample collection and preparation methods and mosquito age in resistance measurements.insecticide resistance monitoring in malaria mosquitoes is essential for guiding the rational use of insecticides in vector control programs. resistance bioassay is the first step for insecticide monitoring and it lays an important foundation for molecular examination of resistance mechanisms. in the literature, various mosquito sample collection and preparation methods have been used, but how mosquito sample collection and preparation methods affect insecticide susceptibility bioassay results i ...201424472598
evaluation of isotope (32)p method to mark culex pipiens (diptera: culicidae) in a laboratory.the aim of the current study was to develop a marking technique as an internal marker to mark post blood meal mosquitoes by using stable phosphate isotope (32)p and determine the optimal concentration of it.201627308279
the increasing importance of plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae in a malaria elimination setting: an observational study of imported cases in jiangsu province, china, 2011-2014.following initiation of china's national malaria elimination action plan in 2010, indigenous malaria infections in jiangsu province decreased significantly. meanwhile imported plasmodium infections have increased substantially, particularly plasmodium ovale and plasmodium malariae. given the risk for malaria resurgence, there is an urgent need to understand the increase in imported p. ovale and p. malariae infections as china works to achieve national malaria elimination.201627604629
a bibliometric analysis of malaria research in china during 2004-2014.china has made great progress in malaria prevention and control, but there has been no research to provide a macroscopic overview of malaria research in china. this bibliometric analysis was conducted from international databases to explore the characteristics of malaria investigations in china.201525958002
spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal analysis of malaria in hubei province, china from 2004-2011.malaria remains a public health concern in hubei province despite the significant decrease in malaria incidence over the past decades. furthermore, history reveals that malaria transmission is unstable and prone to local outbreaks in hubei province. thus, understanding spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal distribution of malaria is needed for the effective control and elimination of this disease in hubei province.201525879447
malaria outbreaks in china (1990-2013): a systematic review.china has already achieved remarkable accomplishments in shrinking the malaria burden since the mid-20th century. the country now plans to eliminate malaria by the year 2020. looking at the dynamics of malaria outbreaks during the last decades might provide important information regarding the potential challenges of such an elimination strategy and might help to avoid mistakes of the past.201425012078
malaria in overseas labourers returning to china: an analysis of imported malaria in jiangsu province, 2001-2011.while great success in malaria control has been achieved in china, imported malaria has become a major challenge in the context of malaria elimination. this retrospective study describes the epidemiological profile of imported malaria and identifies the at-risk population during the period of 2001-2011 in jiangsu province.201424460982
genetic diversity of plasmodium vivax population in anhui province of china.although the numbers of malaria cases in china have been declining in recent years, outbreaks of plasmodium vivax malaria were still being reported in rural areas south of the yellow river. to better understand the transmission dynamics of p. vivax parasites in china, the extent of genetic diversity of p. vivax populations circulating in bozhou of anhui province of china were investigated using three polymorphic genetic markers: merozoite surface proteins 1 and 3α (pvmsp-1 and pvmsp-3α) and circ ...201424401153
spatial analysis of malaria in anhui province, china.malaria has re-emerged in anhui province, china, and this province was the most seriously affected by malaria during 2005-2006. it is necessary to understand the spatial distribution of malaria cases and to identify highly endemic areas for future public health planning and resource allocation in anhui province.200818847489
collagen cross-linking: insights on the evolution of metazoan extracellular matrix.collagens constitute a large family of extracellular matrix (ecm) proteins that play a fundamental role in supporting the structure of various tissues in multicellular animals. the mechanical strength of fibrillar collagens is highly dependent on the formation of covalent cross-links between individual fibrils, a process initiated by the enzymatic action of members of the lysyl oxidase (lox) family. fibrillar collagens are present in a wide variety of animals, therefore often being associated wi ...201627876853
challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 malaria surveillance and response strategy in china: a qualitative study.china has made great progress in malaria control over the last century and now aims to eliminate malaria by 2020. in 2012, the country launched its 1-3-7 surveillance and response strategy for malaria elimination. the strategy involves to case reporting within 1 day, case investigation within 3 days, and focus investigation and public health actions within 7 days. the aim of this study was to evaluate the challenges in and lessons learned during the implementation of the 1-3-7 strategy in china ...201627716398
characteristics of imported malaria and species of plasmodium involved in shandong province, china (2012-2014).malaria remains a serious public health problem in shandong province, china; therefore, it is important to explore the characteristics of the current malaria prevalence situation in the province. in this study, data of malaria cases reported in shandong during 2012-2014 were analyzed, and plasmodium species were confirmed by smear microscopy and nested-pcr. a total of 374 malaria cases were reported, 80.8% of which were reported from 6 prefectures. of all cases, p. falciparum was dominant (81.3% ...201627658591
further evidence of increasing diversity of plasmodium vivax in the republic of korea in recent years.vivax malaria was successfully eliminated from the republic of korea (rok) in the late 1970s but re-emerged in 1993. two decades later as the rok enters the final stages of malaria elimination, dedicated surveillance of the local p. vivax population is critical. we apply a population genetic approach to gauge p. vivax transmission dynamics in the rok between 2010 and 2012.201626990869
assessing the impact of meteorological factors on malaria patients in demilitarized zones in republic of korea.the trend of military patients becoming infected with vivax malaria reemerged in the republic of korea (rok) in 1993. the common explanation has been that infective anopheles mosquitoes from the democratic people's republic of korea have invaded republic of korea's demilitarized zone (dmz). the aim of this study was to verify the relationship between meteorological factors and the number of malaria patients in the military in this region.201626955803
risk assessment of malaria prevalence in ludian, yongshan, and jinggu counties, yunnan province, after 2014 earthquake disaster.the objective of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence after the 2014 earthquakes in ludian, yongshan, and jinggu counties, yunnan province, china. we collected and analyzed epidemiological data and made a risk assessment of transmission probability. from january 2005 to july 2015, 87 malaria cases were reported in the three counties, most of which (81.6%) occurred between 2005 and 2009, with five cases reported in jinggu county between january 2014 and july 2015, of which one case wa ...201526711514
distribution and frequency of g119s mutation in ace-1 gene within anopheles sinensis populations from guangxi, china.malaria is one of the most serious vector-borne diseases in the world. vector control is an important measure for malaria prevention and elimination. however, this strategy is under threat as disease vectors are developing resistance to insecticides. therefore, it is important to monitor mechanisms responsible for insecticide resistance. in this study, the presence of g119s mutation in the acetyl cholinesterase-encoding gene (ace-1) was investigated in nine anopheles sinensis populations sampled ...201526608572
transmission risk from imported plasmodium vivax malaria in the china-myanmar border region.malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the china-myanmar border. malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in tengchong county, yunnan province, china, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response.026401843
whole-genome sequencing of a plasmodium vivax isolate from the china-myanmar border area.currently, there is a trend of an increasing number of plasmodium vivax malaria cases in china that are imported across its southeast asia border, especially in the china-myanmar border area (cmb). to date, little is known about the genetic diversity of p. vivax in this region. in this paper, we report the first genome sequencing of a p. vivax isolate (cmb-1) from a vivax malaria patient in cmb. the sequencing data were aligned onto 96.43% of the p. vivax salvador i reference strain (sal i) geno ...026517664
malaria in zhejiang province, china, from 2005 to summarize the changing epidemiological characteristics of malaria in zhejiang province, china, we collected data on malaria from the chinese notifiable disease reporting system (ndrs) and analyzed them. a total of 2,738 malaria cases were identified in zhejiang province from 2005 to 2014, of which 2,018 were male and 720 were female. notably, only 7% of malaria cases were indigenous and the other cases were all imported. the number of malaria cases increased from 2005 to 2007, peaked in 2007, ...201526078321
a call for benchmarking transposable element annotation methods.dna derived from transposable elements (tes) constitutes large parts of the genomes of complex eukaryotes, with major impacts not only on genomic research but also on how organisms evolve and function. although a variety of methods and tools have been developed to detect and annotate tes, there are as yet no standard benchmarks-that is, no standard way to measure or compare their accuracy. this lack of accuracy assessment calls into question conclusions from a wide range of research that depends ...201526244060
the plasmodium vivax in china: decreased in local cases but increased imported cases from southeast asia and africa.currently the local p. vivax was sharply decreased while the imported vivax malaria increased in china. despite southeast asia was still the main import source of vivax malaria, the trend of africa become serious, especially for west and central africa. herein we have clarified the trend of p. vivax in china from 2004-2012, and made some analysis for the differences of imported vivax back from different regions. there are significantly different of p. vivax between southeast asia and africa, als ...201525739365
spatial-temporal variation and primary ecological drivers of anopheles sinensis human biting rates in malaria epidemic-prone regions of china.robust malaria vector surveillance is essential for optimally selecting and targeting vector control measures. sixty-two vector surveillance sites were established between 2005 and 2008 by the national malaria surveillance program in china to measure anopheles sinensis human biting rates. using these data to determine the primary ecological drivers of malaria vector human biting rates in malaria epidemic-prone regions of china will allow better targeting of vector control resources in space and ...201525611483
the epidemiology of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum malaria in china, 2004-2012: from intensified control to china, the national malaria elimination programme has been operating since 2010. this study aimed to explore the epidemiological changes in patterns of malaria in china from intensified control to elimination stages.201425363492
analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult dastarcus helophoroides.polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult dastarcus helophoroides (fairmaire) (coleoptera: bothrideridae). universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16s rdna gene were used in the pcr-dgge assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. the intestinal bacteria detected by pcr-dgge were classified to enterococcus (lactobacillales: enteroc ...025200108
a standard cytogenetic map for anopheles sinensis and chromosome arm homology between the subgenera anopheles and cellia.anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) is an important vector of plasmodium vivax in southeast asia. to facilitate population genetic and genomic studies of an. sinensis, we developed a standard cytogenetic photomap for this species. the polytene chromosomes were straightened and divided into 39 numbered divisions and 116 lettered subdivisions. the chromosomal localizations of 13 dna probes were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. a comparison of the physical map for an. sinensis w ...025171604
phylogenetic study of six species of anopheles mosquitoes in peninsular malaysia based on inter-transcribed spacer region 2 (its2) of ribosomal dna.molecular techniques are invaluable for investigation on the biodiversity of anopheles mosquitoes. this study aimed at investigating the spatial-genetic variations among anopheles mosquitoes from different areas of peninsular malaysia, as well as deciphering evolutionary relationships of the local anopheles mosquitoes with the mosquitoes from neighbouring countries using the anopheline its2 rdna gene.201424993022
communicating and monitoring surveillance and response activities for malaria elimination: china's "1-3-7" strategy. 201424824170
microsatellite dna analysis revealed a drastic genetic change of plasmodium vivax population in the republic of korea during 2002 and 2003.vivax malaria was successfully eliminated in the republic of korea (south korea) in the late 1970s, but it was found to have re-emerged from 1993. in order to control malaria and evaluate the effectiveness of malaria controls, it is important to develop a spatiotemporal understanding of the genetic structure of the parasite population. here, we estimated the population structure and temporal dynamics of the transmission of plasmodium vivax in south korea by analyzing microsatellite dna markers o ...201324205429
genetic variations of nd5 gene of mtdna in populations of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) malaria vector in china.anopheles sinensis is a principal vector for plasmodium vivax malaria in most parts of china. understanding of genetic structure and genetic differentiation of the mosquito should contribute to the vector control and malaria elimination in china.201324192424
application of structural equation models for elucidating the ecological drivers of anopheles sinensis in the three gorges identify the major ecological drivers for malaria vector density using the structural equation model (sem) in the three gorges reservoir.201323935887
blood stage of plasmodium vivax in central china is still susceptible to chloroquine plus primaquine combination central china, plasmodium vivax accounts for all of the native reported cases of malaria. chloroquine (cq) plus primaquine (pq) have been used for more than 60 years as the frontline drugs, but the risk of treatment failure remains unknown. to measure the effectiveness and safety of cq-pq among vivax malaria patients, a total of 39 subjects with monoinfection vivax malaria was enrolled in a study from 2008 to 2009. there were no recrudescence or danger signs observed within the 28-day follow- ...201323669232
the long and short incubation periods of plasmodium vivax malaria in korea: the characteristics and relating factors.the cases of plasmodium vivax malaria in korea are mixed with long and short incubation periods. this study aims to define clinico-epidemiologic chracteristcs of plasmodium vivax malaria in korea.201324265966
relationship between knockdown resistance, metabolic detoxification and organismal resistance to pyrethroids in anopheles sinensis.anopheles sinensis is the most important vector of malaria in southeast asia, including china. currently, the most effective measure to prevent malaria transmission relies on vector control through the use of insecticides, primarily pyrethroids. extensive use of insecticides poses strong selection pressure on mosquito populations for resistance. resistance to insecticides can arise due to mutations in the insecticide target site (target site resistance), which in the case of pyrethroids is the p ...201323405157
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