distribution of anopheles in vietnam, with particular attention to malaria vectors of the anopheles minimus complex.the distribution of anopheline mosquitoes in vietnam was examined, with a particular interest for the two sibling species of the anopheles minimus complex (cellia: myzomyia), an. minimus and anopheles harrisoni, respectively former species a and c. because the morphological identification of both sibling species is difficult and may lead to misidentifications, accurate data on their respective distribution are missing. this is of fundamental importance since the two species seem to exhibit diffe ...200818190697
the resting sites and blood-meal sources of anopheles minimus in taiwan.the who declared taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies.200818538036
dynamics of positional warfare malaria: finland and korea compared.a sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among finnish troops in se-finland and along the front line in hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during world war ii. the common explanation has been an invasion of infective anopheles mosquitoes from the russian troops crossing the front line between finland and soviet union. a revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of finnish malaria.200818778473
ectopic migration of an adult heartworm in a dog with dirofilariasis (case report).a 3-yr-old female mongrel dog was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of chungnam national university in the republic of korea. an adult heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified knott's test, elisa test, and pcr analysis. the present case is the first report on the migration of an adult dog heartworm to the abdominal cavity of a dog in the republic of korea.200818830057
a recent survey of mosquito fauna in guangdong province,southern china, with a review of past records [corrected].the southern province of guangdong has long been subject to endemic mosquito-borne diseases. in recent years, this region of china has experienced rapid, extensive economic development involving environmental change, making much of the scant knowledge of its mosquito fauna obsolete. this paper reviews previous mosquito surveys, some of which may be too old to be of relevance to present-day conditions, and presents the results of a recent survey of adult and immature mosquitoes. the main vectors ...200819120964
nonreproductive isolation among four allopatric strains of anopheles sinensis in verify the genetic proximity of anopheles sinensis strains in korea, china, japan, and thailand, we established 5 iso-female lines, and investigated their genetic relationships by analyzing crossing tests and comparing the dna sequences of rdna internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 2 (co2). the results of reciprocal and f1-hybrid crosses between thailand form b (x, y2) with japanese form a (x, y1), japanese form b with korean form b, and korean fo ...200819181054
distribution of arboviruses and mosquitoes in northwestern yunnan province, china.from july to september in 2005 and 2006, a survey was conducted to identify mosquito species and mosquito-borne arboviruses at elevations ranging from 900-3280 m between 24 degrees 00' n and 29 degrees 00' n latitude in the northwestern part of yunnan province, china. a total of 54,879 mosquitoes representing 15 species and 4 genera was collected using uv light traps at 59 sites. culex tritaeniorhynchus and anopheles sinensis were the most abundant species. the density of mosquitoes as well as t ...200919196130
molecular genetic characterization of the merozoite surface protein 1 gene of plasmodium vivax from reemerging korean isolates.plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1) has been considered a major candidate for the development of an antimalaria vaccine, but the molecule exhibits antigenic diversity among isolates. the extent of genetic polymorphism in the region between interspecies conserved blocks 4 and 5 (icb4 and icb5) of the pvmsp-1 gene was analyzed for 30 korean isolates. two genotypes, sk-a and sk-b, were identified on the basis of amino acid substitution. almost all the amino acid sequences of the ...200919261779
the susceptibility of anopheles lesteri to infection with korean strain of plasmodium vivax.following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in korea. three species of the hyrcanusgroup, anopheles lesteri, anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. however, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. the present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a korean isolate of plasmodium vivax. also, an. sinensis is primarily suspected to ...200919284634
[evaluation on malaria situation in areas along yellow river and huaihe river by indirect fluorescent antibody test].to evaluate malaria situation by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) in 12 villages of six counties along yellow river and huihe river in anhui, henan and hubei provinces.200819288913
anopheles pseudowillmori is the predominant malaria vector in motuo county, tibet autonomous region.malaria is endemic in linzhi prefecture in the tibet autonomous region (tar), but the vector for malaria transmission had never been identified.200919291287
efficiency evaluation of nozawa-style black light trap for control of anopheline spraying and insecticide-treated bed nets have achieved some success in controlling anthropophilic and endophagic vectors. however, these methods have relatively low efficacy in korea because anopheles sinensis, the primary malaria vector, is highly zoophilic and exophilic. so, we focused our vector control efforts within livestock enclosures using ultraviolet black light traps as a mechanical control measure. we found that black light traps captured significantly more mosquitoes ...200919488423
geographic distribution and ecology of potential malaria vectors in the republic of korea.environmental geospatial data and adult and larval mosquito collection data for up to 106 sites throughout the republic of korea (rok) were used to develop ecological niche models (enms) of the potential geographic distribution for eight anopheline species known to occur there. the areas predicted suitable for the hyrcanus group species were the most extensive for anopheles sinensis wiedemann, an. kleini rueda, an. belenrae rueda, and an. pullus yamada, intermediate for an. sineroides yamada, an ...200919496442
[the first report of kadipiro virus isolation in china].5 strains of virus isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus, anopheles sinensis and armigeres subalbatus, which caused cytopathic effect in c6/36 cells, had been obtained in the survey of arboviruses in northwestern yunnan province. china. the virus particles displayed 70 nanometers diameter (n=7) with no envelope but spikes on the surfaces. rna-page of the genomes of the isolates showed 6-5-1 profile. a fragment of the 12th segment sequence was amplified by a pair of specific primers for kadipiro ...200919634758
in silico evidence for the species-specific conservation of mosquito retroposons: implications as a molecular biomarker.mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. however, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. we hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group ii introns - a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scrnas) - may form a potential species-specific biomarker. structurally, introns are a six-moiety complex. depending on the function of the protein ...200919640272
application of the indirect fluorescent antibody assay in the study of malaria infection in the yangtze river three gorges reservoir, china.china yangtze three gorges project (tgp) is one of the biggest construction projects in the world. the areas around the three gorge dam has a history of tertian malaria and subtertian malaria epidemic, but there are no overall data about malaria epidemics before the completion of the project. the objective of this study was to get a reliable baseline on malaria infection in the yangtze river three gorges reservoir area and to provide reference data for future studies about the impact of the proj ...200919678949
bacillus thuringiensis serovar mogi (flagellar serotype 3a3b3d), a novel serogroup with a mosquitocidal activity.the flagellated vegetative cells of the bacillus thuringiensis strain k4 were agglutinated with the h3 reference antiserum and further, agglutinated with 3b and 3d monospecific factor sera but non-reactive for 3c and 3e factor sera. this creates a new serogroup with flagellar antigenic structure of 3a3b3d: b. thuringiensis serovar mogi. the strain k4 showed high activity against dipteran larvae, anopheles sinensis and culex pipienspallens while no lepidopteran toxicity. it produced ovoidal paras ...200919703461
a locally acquired falciparum malaria via nosocomial transmission in korea.a 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. he had not traveled outside of korea for over 30 years. through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. we confirmed through molecular genotyping of the m ...200919724701
impact of insecticide-treated nets on wild pyrethroid resistant anopheles epiroticus population from southern vietnam tested in experimental this study, the efficacy of insecticide-treated nets was evaluated in terms of deterrence, blood-feeding inhibition, induced exophily and mortality on a wild resistant population of anopheles epiroticus in southern vietnam, in order to gain insight into the operational consequences of the insecticide resistance observed in this malaria vector in the mekong delta.200919874581
successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the republic of korea.a successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the republic of korea is briefly reviewed. filariasis in the republic of korea was exclusively caused by infection with brugia malayi. over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had b ...200919967079
global status of ddt and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease.i review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives.200920049114
nationwide surveillance of west nile virus targeting mosquitoes and dead birds from april 2004 through march 2007 in japan.we conducted nationwide west nile virus (wnv) surveillance targeting mosquitoes and dead birds to reveal whether the virus and its potential vectors are present in japan. a total of 12 766 mosquitoes and 230 dead birds were collected in april 2004-march 2005 (the 2004-2005 period), 10 755 mosquitoes and 267 dead birds in april 2005-march 2006 (the 2005-2006 period), and 8624 mosquitoes and 245 dead birds in april 2006-march 2007 (the 2006-2007 period). the species of most of the mosquitoes colle ...201120163573
banna virus, china, 1987-2007.banna viruses (bavs) have been isolated from pigs, cattle, ticks, mosquitoes, and human encephalitis patients. we isolated and analyzed 20 bavs newly isolated in china; this finding extends the distribution of bavs from tropical zone to north temperate climates and demonstrate regional variations in bav phylogeny and mosquito species possibly involved in bav transmission.201020202434
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
malaria vector surveillance in ganghwa-do, a malaria-endemic area in the republic of korea.we investigated the seasonality of anopheles mosquitoes, including its species composition, density, parity, and population densities of mosquitoes infected with the parasite in ganghwa-do (island), a vivax malaria endemic area in the republic of korea. mosquitoes were collected periodically with a dry-ice-tent trap and a blacklight trap during the mosquito season (april-october) in 2008. anopheles sinensis (94.9%) was the most abundant species collected, followed by anopheles belenrae (3.8%), a ...201020333283
presence of two alternative kdr-like mutations, l1014f and l1014s, and a novel mutation, v1010l, in the voltage gated na+ channel of anopheles culicifacies from orissa, india.knockdown resistance in insects resulting from mutation(s) in the voltage gated na+ channel (vgsc) is one of the mechanisms of resistance against ddt and pyrethroids. recently a point mutation leading to leu-to-phe substitution in the vgsc at residue 1014, a most common kdr mutation in insects, was reported in anopheles culicifacies-a major malaria vector in the indian subcontinent. this study reports the presence of two additional amino acid substitutions in the vgsc of an an. culicifacies popu ...201020509922
elimination of malaria risk through integrated combination strategies in a tropical military training island.on the military training facility of tekong island, singapore, a comprehensive vector-borne disease control program was started in end-2006 to reduce mosquito populations and negate the need for anti-malaria chemoprophylaxis. the program was based on 1) preventing importation of malaria through screening of visitors, 2) preventing human-to-mosquito transmission through early case detection and mosquito control, 3) preventing mosquito-to-human transmission through personal protection, and 4) cont ...201020519595
blocking effect of a monoclonal antibody against recombinant pvs25 on sporozoite development in anopheles develop a vaccine to block the transmission of vivax malaria, the gene encoding the ookinete surface protein pvs25 was cloned from a korean malaria patient. the pvs25 gene was 660 bp long, encoding 219 amino acids. it was subcloned into the expression vector pqe30 and expressed in escherichia coli. the expressed recombinant protein, named rpvs25, showed a molecular mass of approximately 25 kda by sds-page analysis. an anti-rpvs25 monoclonal antibody produced in balb/c mice was able to inhibit ...201020554802
molecular epidemiological investigation of plasmodium knowlesi in humans and macaques in singapore.singapore reported its first locally acquired human plasmodium knowlesi infection in 2007, involving a soldier who had undergone training in a forested area where long-tailed macaques are frequently seen. comprehensive disease surveillance and monitoring system that was set up after the initial case detected four additional human p. knowlesi cases in 2007 and one in 2008. all involved military personnel who had undergone training in the forested area, and none had traveled out of singapore 1 mon ...201120586605
validation of ecological niche models for potential malaria vectors in the republic of on molecularly identified adult and larval mosquitoes collected from 104 sites from the republic of korea (rok) in 2007 were used to test the predictive ability of recently reported ecological niche models (enms) for 8 potential malaria vectors. the enms, based on the program maxent and the least presence threshold criterion, predicted 100% of new collection locations for anopheles sinensis, an. belenrae, an. pullus, and an. sineroides; 96% of locations for an. kleini; and 83% for an. leste ...201020649131
[the midgut bacterial flora in lab-reared anopheles sinensis].to screen gram-negative bacteria in the midguts of lab-reared anopheles sinensis at 3 development stages (larva, unfed adult and engorged adult).201020666322
the role of pvs28 in sporozoite development in anopheles sinensis and its longevity in balb/c develop a vivax malaria vaccine for blocking malarial transmission, the ookinete surface protein pvs28 was cloned from korean malaria patients using polymerase chain reaction. the pvs28 gene consists of 726bp and encodes 241 amino acids. it was subcloned into the expression vector pqe30 and expressed in escherichia coli. the expressed recombinant protein, rpvs28, has a molecular weight of about 28 kda in sds-page analysis. a monoclonal antibody against rpvs28 was produced using balb/c mice. i ...201120801117
vectors and malaria transmission in deforested, rural communities in north-central vietnam.malaria is still prevalent in rural communities of central vietnam even though, due to deforestation, the primary vector anopheles dirus is uncommon. in these situations little is known about the secondary vectors which are responsible for maintaining transmission. basic information on the identification of the species in these rural communities is required so that transmission parameters, such as ecology, behaviour and vectorial status can be assigned to the appropriate species.201020846447
the 6th meeting of the global alliance to eliminate lymphatic filariasis: a half-time review of lymphatic filariasis elimination and its integration with the control of other neglected tropical diseases.abstract: the 6th meeting of the global alliance to eliminate lymphatic filariasis (gaelf6) was held 1-3 june, 2010 in seoul, korea, with 150 participants from 38 countries. the year 2010 marks the midpoint between the first gaelf meeting, in 2000, and the world health organization (who) 2020 goal of global elimination of lymphatic filariasis (lf) as a public health problem. the theme of the meeting, "half-time in lf elimination: teaming up with neglected tropical diseases (ntds)," reflected sig ...201020961435
entomologic and molecular investigation into plasmodium vivax transmission in singapore, 2009.singapore has been certified malaria free since november 1982 by the world health organization and despite occasional local transmission, the country has maintained the standing. in 2009, three clusters of malaria cases were reported in singapore.201021029478
malaria transmission and vector behaviour in a forested malaria focus in central vietnam and the implications for vector vietnam, malaria is becoming progressively restricted to specific foci where human and vector characteristics alter the known malaria epidemiology, urging for alternative or adapted control strategies. long-lasting insecticidal hammocks (llih) were designed and introduced in ninh thuan province, south-central vietnam, to control malaria in the specific context of forest malaria. an entomological study in this specific forested environment was conducted to assess the behavioural patterns of fo ...201021182774
population dynamics of five anopheles species of the hyrcanus group in northern gyeonggi-do, investigate the population densities of potential malaria vectors, anopheles species were collected by light traps in malaria endemic areas, paju and gimpo, gyeonggi-do of korea. five anopheles hyrcanus sibling species (an. sinensis, an. pullus, an. lesteri, an. kleini, and an. belenrae) were identified by pcr. the predominant species, an. pullus was collected during the late spring and mid-summer, while higher population consists of an. sinensis were collected from late summer to early autum ...201021234242
detection of an antibody against plasmodium vivax in residents of gimpo-si, south korea, using an indirect fluorescent antibody test.first reemerged malaria case was reported in 1993 after two decades absent in south korea. thereafter, plasmodium vivax spreads out near demilitarized zone (dmz). this study investigated the prevalence of p. vivax after the malaria transmission season in gimpo-si where adjacent to dmz of south korea. an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) was performed to evaluate anti-malaria antibodies in blood samples.201121281481
evaluation of octenol and lurex as baits in mosquito magnet pro traps to collect vector mosquitoes in china.the effectiveness of the attractants 1-octen-3-ol (octenol) and l-lactic acid (lurex) on the collection of aedes albopictus, culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. pipiens pallens, and anopheles sinensis was first evaluated in mosquito magnet pro traps in yamenkou and badachu residential areas, beijing city, and lishui area, zhejiang province, china. the mosquito magnet pro traps baited with octenol collected significantly more ae. albopictus, cx. tritaeniorhynchus, and an. sinensis, but fewer cx. pipiens ...201021290944
newly recognized mosquito-associated viruses in mainland china, in the last two decades.there are four principal arboviruses in mainland china. two kinds of them are mosquito-borne viruses, namely japanese encephalitis virus and dengue virus, which lead to japanese encephalitis, and dengue fever/dengue hemorrhagic fever respectively; the other two are tick-borne viruses, namely tick-borne encephalitis virus and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever virus), which contribute to tick-borne encephalitis and xinjiang hemorrhagic fever respective ...201121314994
risk analysis of the re-emergence of plasmodium vivax malaria in japan using a stochastic transmission model.this study analyzed the risk of infection with plasmodium vivax in local residents through a stochastic simulation in which an infected tourist, local resident, or immigrants from an endemic area would visit himi-shi, toyama prefecture, which is a formerly endemic area in japan.201121431796
seasonal prevalence of mosquitoes, including vectors of brugian filariasis, in southern islands of the republic of korea.a survey of mosquitoes, including the vector status of brugia malayi filariasis and their relative larval density, was conducted from 2002 to 2005 at several southern remote islands of jeollanam-do (province), gyeongsangnam-do, and jeju-do, korea, where filariasis was previously endemic. overall, a total of 9 species belonging to 7 genera were collected. ochlerotatus togoi (formerly known as aedes togoi), anopheles (hyrcanus) group, and culex pipiens were the predominant species captured at all ...201121461270
continuity and change of japanese encephalitis virus in toyama prefecture, japan.abstract. to determine the mechanisms of maintenance and evolution of japanese encephalitis virus (jev) in a temperate zone, we attempted to isolate jev from mosquitoes and pigs in toyama prefecture, japan. a total of 87 jevs were isolated from female culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes and pigs during 2005-2009. the prevalence of jev in toyama prefecture was seasonally late in comparison with that of the virus during 1966-1972. furthermore, jevs were isolated after the peak in the number of fema ...201121540378
distribution of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses in yunnan province near the china-myanmar-laos border.abstract. economic development and increased tourism in the southern region of yunnan province in china, adjacent to several countries in southeast asia, has increased the likelihood of import and export of vectors and vector-borne diseases. we report the results of surveillance of mosquitoes and mosquito-borne arboviruses along the border of china-myanmar-laos in 2005 and 2006, and information associating several arboviruses with infections and possibly disease in local human populations. seven ...201121540383
the dominant anopheles vectors of human malaria in the asia-pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic precis.abstract: background: the final article in a series of three publications examining the global distribution of 41 dominant vector species (dvs) of malaria is presented here. the first publication examined the dvs from the americas, with the second covering those species present in africa, europe and the middle east. here we discuss the 19 dvs of the asian-pacific region. this region experiences a high diversity of vector species, many occurring sympatrically, which, combined with the occurrence ...201121612587
emergence of genotype i of japanese encephalitis virus as the dominant genotype in asia.japanese encephalitis virus (jev), a mosquito-borne zoonotic pathogen, is one of the major causes of viral encephalitis worldwide. previous phylogenetic studies based on the envelope protein indicated that there are four genotypes, and surveillance data suggest that genotype i is gradually replacing genotype iii as the dominant strain. here we report an evolutionary analysis based on 98 full-length genome sequences of jev, including 67 new samples isolated from humans, pigs, mosquitoes, midges. ...201121697481
discovery of dna viruses in wild-caught mosquitoes using small rna high throughput sequencing.mosquito-borne infectious diseases pose a severe threat to public health in many areas of the world. current methods for pathogen detection and surveillance are usually dependent on prior knowledge of the etiologic agents involved. hence, efficient approaches are required for screening wild mosquito populations to detect known and unknown pathogens.201121949749
the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine species (diptera: culicidae) and anopheles sinensis in yongcheng city, people's republic of china.abstract: background: the knowledge of mosquito species diversity and the level of anthropophily exhibited by each species in a region are of great importance to the integrated vector control. culicine species are the primary vectors of japanese encephalitis (je) virus and filariasis in china. anopheles sinensis plays a major role in the maintenance of plasmodium vivax malaria transmission in china. the goal of this study was to compare the abundance and host-seeking behavior of culicine specie ...201122115320
Mosquito species composition and Plasmodium vivax infection rates on Baengnyeong-do (island), Republic of Korea.Vivax malaria is a significant military and civilian health threat in the north of the Republic of Korea (ROK). The island of Baengnyeong-do is the westernmost point of the ROK and is located close to the southwestern coast of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (DPRK). Mosquitoes were collected using a black light trap on Baengnyeong-do, and Anopheles spp. were assayed by PCR, to identify the species, and screened for sporozoites of Plasmodium vivax. Of a subsample of 257 mosquitoes, Anop ...201122072836
[establishment of early warning system of malaria epidemic situation in jiangsu province i impact of temperature on development of plasmodium vivax in anopheles sinensis in jiangsu province].to observe the developmental threshold temperature and the effective accumulated temperature of plasmodium vivax sporozoites in anopheles sinensis in jiangsu province, and to analyze the impact of temperature on the development of plasmodium vivax.201223373272
[cloning and sequence analysis of cdna encoding aquaporin (aqp) gene from anopheles sinensis].to clone and analyze the full-length sequence of aquaporin gene of anopheles sinensis (asaqp), so as to provide an insight into its biology functions.201223593837
[resistance of anopheles sinensis to insecticides in huaibin county of henan province].anopheles sinensis adults were captured from huaibin county and raised in laboratory. larvae dipping method and the who tubes were used to determine the resistance of f1 iv-stage larvae and 3-5 day-old adult mosquitoes to dimethyl dichloroviny phosphate (ddvp), deltamethrin, and arprocarb. the activity of acetylcholine esterase (ache) of larvae and adult mosquitoes was measured by colorimetric method before and after the respective addition of the 3 insecticides. the results showed that the mort ...201223484266
[effectiveness of "hunmiewei" and deltamethrin residual spraying in controlling anopheles sinensis]. 20093155383
challenges with using names to link digital biodiversity information. 201627346955
annotation of the asian citrus psyllid genome reveals a reduced innate immune system.citrus production worldwide is currently facing significant losses due to citrus greening disease, also known as huanglongbing. the citrus greening bacteria, candidatus liberibacter asiaticus (clas), is a persistent propagative pathogen transmitted by the asian citrus psyllid, diaphorina citri kuwayama (hemiptera: liviidae). hemipterans characterized to date lack a number of insect immune genes, including those associated with the imd pathway targeting gram-negative bacteria. the d. citri draft ...201627965582
characteristics of the nuclear (18s, 5.8s, 28s and 5s) and mitochondrial (12s and 16s) rrna genes of apis mellifera (insecta: hymenoptera): structure, organization, and retrotransposable an accompanying manuscript to the release of the honey bee genome, we report the entire sequence of the nuclear (18s, 5.8s, 28s and 5s) and mitochondrial (12s and 16s) ribosomal rna (rrna)-encoding gene sequences (rdna) and related internally and externally transcribed spacer regions of apis mellifera (insecta: hymenoptera: apocrita). additionally, we predict secondary structures for the mature rrna molecules based on comparative sequence analyses with other arthropod taxa and reference to re ...200617069639
insect-specific flaviviruses: a systematic review of their discovery, host range, mode of transmission, superinfection exclusion potential and genomic organization.there has been a dramatic increase in the number of insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) discovered in the last decade. historically, these viruses have generated limited interest due to their inability to infect vertebrate cells. this viewpoint has changed in recent years because some isfs have been shown to enhance or suppress the replication of medically important flaviviruses in co-infected mosquito cells. additionally, comparative studies between isfs and medically important flaviviruses can ...201525866904
spatial patterns of malaria reported deaths in yunnan province, china.malaria has been a heavy social and health burden in the remote and poor areas in southern china. analyses of malaria epidemic patterns can uncover important features of malaria transmission. this study identified spatial clusters, seasonal patterns, and geographic variations of malaria deaths at a county level in yunnan, china, during 1991-2010. a discrete poisson model was used to identify purely spatial clusters of malaria deaths. logistic regression analysis was performed to detect changes i ...201223269660
viral metagenomics on blood-feeding arthropods as a tool for human disease surveillance.surveillance and monitoring of viral pathogens circulating in humans and wildlife, together with the identification of emerging infectious diseases (eids), are critical for the prediction of future disease outbreaks and epidemics at an early stage. it is advisable to sample a broad range of vertebrates and invertebrates at different temporospatial levels on a regular basis to detect possible candidate viruses at their natural source. however, virus surveillance systems can be expensive, costly i ...201627775568
mosquito rasputin interacts with chikungunya virus nsp3 and determines the infection rate in aedes albopictus.chikungunya virus (chikv) is an arthritogenic alphavirus (family togaviridae), transmitted by aedes species mosquitoes. chikv re-emerged in 2004 with multiple outbreaks worldwide and recently reached the americas where it has infected over a million individuals in a rapidly expanding epidemic. while alphavirus replication is well understood in general, the specific function (s) of non-structural protein nsp3 remain elusive. chikv nsp3 modulates the mammalian stress response by preventing stress ...201526384002
novel virus discovery and genome reconstruction from field rna samples reveals highly divergent viruses in dipteran hosts.we investigated whether small rna (srna) sequenced from field-collected mosquitoes and chironomids (diptera) can be used as a proxy signature of viral prevalence within a range of species and viral groups, using srnas sequenced from wild-caught specimens, to inform total rna deep sequencing of samples of particular interest. using this strategy, we sequenced from adult anopheles maculipennis s.l. mosquitoes the apparently nearly complete genome of one previously undescribed virus related to chro ...201324260463
mosquitoes of western yunnan province, china: seasonal abundance, diversity, and arbovirus associations.the western borderland between yunnan province, china, and myanmar is characterized by a climate that facilitates year-round production of mosquitoes. numerous mosquito-transmitted viruses, including japanese encephalitis virus circulate in this area. this project was to describe seasonal patterns in mosquito species abundance and arbovirus activity in the mosquito populations.201324146951
comparison of genotypes i and iii in japanese encephalitis virus reveals distinct differences in their genetic and host diversity.japanese encephalitis (je) is an arthropod-borne disease associated with the majority of viral encephalitis cases in the asia-pacific region. the causative agent, japanese encephalitis virus (jev), has been phylogenetically divided into five genotypes. recent surveillance data indicate that genotype i (gi) is gradually replacing genotype iii (giii) as the dominant genotype. to investigate the mechanism behind the genotype shift and the potential consequences in terms of vaccine efficacy, human c ...201425056890
comparative studies on the stenogamous and eurygamous behavior of eight anopheles species of the hyrcanus group (diptera: culicidae) in thailand.establishment of laboratory colony is essential for mosquito-borne-disease research. mating behavior of stenogamous anopheles peditaeniatus and seven eurygamous species (anopheles argyropus, anopheles crawfordi, anopheles nigerrimus, anopheles nitidus, anopheles paraliae (=an. lesteri), anopheles pursati and anopheles sinensis), were investigated and compared in this study. the self-mating success of adult mosquitoes in different size cages at two density resting surface (drs) values, 3.6 and 7. ...201627023618
unprecedented genomic diversity of rna viruses in arthropods reveals the ancestry of negative-sense rna viruses.although arthropods are important viral vectors, the biodiversity of arthropod viruses, as well as the role that arthropods have played in viral origins and evolution, is unclear. through rna sequencing of 70 arthropod species we discovered 112 novel viruses that appear to be ancestral to much of the documented genetic diversity of negative-sense rna viruses, a number of which are also present as endogenous genomic copies. with this greatly enriched diversity we revealed that arthropods contain ...201525633976
species composition, seasonal occurrence, habitat preference and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other disease vectors in eastern is increasingly recognized that climate change can alter the geographical distribution of vector-borne diseases (vbds) with shifts of disease vectors to higher altitudes and latitudes. in particular, an increasing risk of malaria and dengue fever epidemics in tropical highlands and temperate regions has been predicted in different climate change scenarios. the aim of this paper is to expand the current knowledge on the seasonal occurrence and altitudinal distribution of malaria and other dise ...201425430654
mosquito surveillance revealed lagged effects of mosquito abundance on mosquito-borne disease transmission: a retrospective study in zhejiang, china.mosquito-borne diseases (mbds) are still threats to public health in zhejiang. in this study, the associations between the time-lagged mosquito capture data and mbds incidence over five years were used to examine the potential effects of mosquito abundance on patterns of mbds epidemiology in zhejiang during 2008-2012. light traps were used to collect adult mosquitoes at 11 cities. correlation tests with and without time lag were performed to investigate the correlations between mbds incidence ra ...201425393834
molecular epidemiology of japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes in taiwan during 2005-2012.japanese encephalitis (je) is a mosquito-borne zoonotic disease caused by the japanese encephalitis virus (jev). pigs and water birds are the main amplifying and maintenance hosts of the virus. in this study, we conducted a jev survey in mosquitoes captured in pig farms and water bird wetland habitats in taiwan during 2005 to 2012. a total of 102,633 mosquitoes were collected. culex tritaeniorhynchus was the most common mosquito species found in the pig farms and wetlands. among the 26 mosquito ...201425275652
genetic compatibility between anopheles lesteri from korea and anopheles paraliae from assess differentiation and relationships between anopheles lesteri and anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of an. lesteri from korea and an. paraliae from thailand, respectively. these isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing dna sequences of ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and subunit ii (coii). resul ...023778670
the effects of climate change and globalization on mosquito vectors: evidence from jeju island, south korea on the potential for asian tiger mosquito (aedes albopictus) influxes and survival from vietnam rather than japan.climate change affects the survival and transmission of arthropod vectors as well as the development rates of vector-borne pathogens. increased international travel is also an important factor in the spread of vector-borne diseases (vbds) such as dengue, west nile, yellow fever, chikungunya, and malaria. dengue is the most important vector-borne viral disease. an estimated 2.5 billion people are at risk of infection in the world and there are approximately 50 million dengue infections and an est ...201323894312
comparison of the functional features of the pump organs of anopheles sinensis and aedes togoi.mosquitoes act as vectors for severe tropical diseases. mosquito-borne diseases are affected by various factors such as environmental conditions, host body susceptibility, and mosquito feeding behavior. among these factors, feeding behavior is affected by the feeding pump system located inside the mosquito head and also depends on the species of mosquito. therefore, the 3d morphological structures of the feeding pumps of aedes togoi and anopheles sinensis were comparatively investigated using sy ...201526464043
a video clip of the biting midge culicoides anophelis ingesting blood from an engorged anopheles mosquito in hainan, china.biting midges are hematophagus ectoparasites of insects, humans and other animals. culicoides (trithicoides) anophelis edwards1922 is a predator of engorged mosquitoes.201324499575
japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes and swine in yunnan province, china 2009-2010.the residential regions of yunnan province, canton of jing hong, in china were surveyed for japanese encephalitis virus (jev) infection in mosquito and swine vectors to determine the frequency of jev-carrying zoonotic vectors in 2009-2010. a total of 21,500 mosquitoes were collected and divided by species, and brain tissue was collected from 108 stillborn piglets. the infection rates for the different jev species were 13.2% for culex tritaeniorhynchus, 2.7% for anopheles sinensis, 0.7% for armig ...201223199264
molecular epidemiology of japanese encephalitis virus in mosquitoes during an outbreak in china, 2013.japanese encephalitis virus (jev) can cause serious encephalitis and culex mosquitoes are the primary vector. in 2013, a je outbreak occurred in shandong province, china with 407 confirmed cases, including 11 deaths. an investigation on jev in mosquitoes during the outbreak was conducted. a total of 14,719 mosquitoes were collected at 3 sites. for the 12,695 culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes, 88/201 pooled samples were positive by rt-pcr for the presence of the pre-membrane or envelope protein ...201424809635
evidence to support natural hybridization between anopheles sinensis and anopheles kleini (diptera: culicidae): possibly a significant mechanism for gene introgression in sympatric populations.malaria caused by plasmodium vivax is still a public health problem in the republic of korea (rok), particularly regarding the recent re-emergence of this malarial species near the demilitarized zone in northwestern paju city, gyeonggi-do province. currently, at least 4 species (an. kleini, an. pullus, an. belenrae and an. lesteri) of the hyrcanus group are reported as possible natural vectors of vivax malaria in the rok, and an. sinensis, which is the most dominant species, has long been incrim ...201424443885
isolation and identification of a distinct strain of culex flavivirus from mosquitoes collected in mainland china.culexflavivirus (cxfv) is an insect specific virus that has been isolated from culexpipiens, culexquinquefasciatus, culextritaeniorhynchus and other culex mosquitoes. it is a novel flavivirus isolated in asia, north america, central america and africa. phylogenetic analysis indicates that, based on the envelope gene (e gene) sequence, the worldwide cxfv strains can be divided into two genotypes.201222452813
epidemiological analysis of bovine ephemeral fever in 2012-2013 in the subtropical islands of japan.bovine ephemeral fever (bef) is a febrile disease of cattle that is transmitted by arthropod vectors such as mosquitoes and culicoides biting midges. an outbreak of bef recently occurred in ishigaki island and surrounding islands that are located southwest of japan. in this study, an epidemiological analysis was conducted to understand the temporal and spatial characteristics of the outbreak. factors associated with the disease spread within ishigaki island were investigated by hierarchical baye ...201626956227
peculiar liquid-feeding and pathogen transmission behavior of aedes togoi and comparison with anopheles sinensis.female mosquitoes transmit various diseases as vectors during liquid-feeding. identifying the determinants of vector efficiency is a major scientific challenge in establishing strategies against these diseases. infection rate and transmission efficiency are interconnected with the mosquito-induced liquid-feeding flow as main indexes of vector efficiency. however, the relationship between liquid-feeding characteristics and pathogen remains poorly understood. the liquid-feeding behavior of aedes t ...201626839008
discovery of flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements in anopheles mosquito genomes supports the existence of anopheles-associated insect-specific flaviviruses.the flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and zika viruses. it also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (isfs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. the vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the aedes and culex genera in the culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. mosquitoes of the anophelinae subfamily are not considered significan ...201728078104
a mark-release-recapture experiment with anopheles sinensis in the northern part of gyeonggi-do, order to study the range of flight and feeding activity of anopheles sinensis, the dispersal experiment was conducted in paju city, located in the northern part of gyeonggi-do, republic of korea, during the period of 7th to 28th september 1998. unfed females an. sinensis were collected in cowshed and released after being marked with fluorescent dye at 23:00 hours on the same day. released female mosquitoes were recaptured everyday during 21 days using light traps, which were set at 10 sites i ...012325443
a metagenomic survey of viral abundance and diversity in mosquitoes from hubei province.mosquitoes as one of the most common but important vectors have the potential to transmit or acquire a lot of viruses through biting, however viral flora in mosquitoes and its impact on mosquito-borne disease transmission has not been well investigated and evaluated. in this study, the metagenomic techniquehas been successfully employed in analyzing the abundance and diversity of viral community in three mosquito samples from hubei, china. among 92,304 reads produced through a run with 454 gs fl ...201526030271
sero-molecular epidemiology of japanese encephalitis in zhejiang, an eastern province of china.sporadic japanese encephalitis (je) cases still have been reported in zhejiang province in recent years, and concerns about vaccine cross-protection and population-level immunity have been raised off and on within the public health sphere. genotype i (gi) has replaced giii as the dominant genotype in asian countries during the past few decades, which caused considerable concerns about the potential change of epidemiology characteristics and the vaccine effectiveness. the aim of this study was to ...201627560360
comparative evaluation of the efficiency of the bg-sentinel trap, cdc light trap and mosquito-oviposition trap for the surveillance of vector mosquitoes.the surveillance of vector mosquitoes is important for the control of mosquito-borne diseases. to identify a suitable surveillance tool for the adult dengue vector aedes albopictus, the efficacy of the bg-sentinel trap, cdc light trap and mosquito-oviposition trap (mot) on the capture of vector mosquitoes were comparatively evaluated in this study.201627519419
structure, spatial and temporal distribution of the culex pipiens complex in shanghai, china.culex pipiens molestus was first reported in shanghai in 2010. the population structures and seasonal distributions of culex pipiens subspecies c. p. molestus, culex pipiens pallens, and culex pipiens quinquefasciatus are not well known.201627869687
genomic analysis of detoxification supergene families in the mosquito anopheles sinensis.anopheles sinensis is an important malaria vector in china and other southeast asian countries, and the emergence of insecticide resistance in this mosquito poses a serious threat to the efficacy of malaria control programs. the recently published an. sinensis genome and transcriptome provide an opportunity to understand the molecular mechanisms of insecticide resistance. analysis of the an. sinensis genome revealed 174 detoxification genes, including 93 cytochrome p450s (p450s), 31 glutathione- ...201526588704
sodium channel point mutations associated with pyrethroid resistance in chinese strains of culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (diptera: culicidae).pesticide resistance due to sodium channel point mutations has been well documented in many mosquito species.201425128988
dna barcoding: complementing morphological identification of mosquito species in singapore.taxonomy that utilizes morphological characteristics has been the gold standard method to identify mosquito species. however, morphological identification is challenging when the expertise is limited and external characters are damaged because of improper specimen handling. therefore, we explored the applicability of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (coi) gene-based dna barcoding as an alternative tool to identify mosquito species. in the present study, we compared the morphological ...201425498759
twenty-five new viruses associated with the drosophilidae (diptera).drosophila melanogaster is an important laboratory model for studies of antiviral immunity in invertebrates, and drosophila species provide a valuable system to study virus host range and host switching. here, we use metagenomic rna sequencing of about 1600 adult flies to discover 25 new rna viruses associated with six different drosophilid hosts in the wild. we also provide a comprehensive listing of viruses previously reported from the drosophilidae. the new viruses include iflaviruses, rhabdo ...201627375356
impact of interventions on malaria in internally displaced persons along the china-myanmar border: 2011-2014.internally displaced persons (idp) represent vulnerable populations whose public health conditions merit special attention. in the china-myanmar border area, human movement and resettlements of idp can influence malaria transmission. comparison of disease incidence and vector densities between idp camps and surrounding local villages allows for better understanding of current epidemiology and to evaluate the effectiveness of interventions in the region.201627628040
a household randomized, controlled trial of the efficacy of 0.03% transfluthrin coils alone and in combination with long-lasting insecticidal nets on the incidence of plasmodium falciparum and plasmodium vivax malaria in western yunnan province, china.mosquito coils are the most commonly used household insecticidal product in the world with sales exceeding 50 billion coils, used by two billion people worldwide annually. despite strong evidence that coils prevent mosquito bites a systematic review concluded that there is no evidence that burning mosquito coils prevents malaria acquisition. therefore, the current trial was designed to measure and compare prevention of malaria infection by mosquito coils or long-lasting insecticidal net (llin) o ...201424885993
entomological determinants of insecticide-treated bed net effectiveness in western a large cluster randomized control trial of insecticide-treated bed nets (itn) in western myanmar the malaria protective effect of itn was found to be highly variable and, in aggregate, the effect was not statistically significant. a coincident entomological investigation measured malaria vector abundance and biting behaviour and the human population sleeping habits, factors relevant to itn effectiveness.201324119994
absence of knockdown resistance suggests metabolic resistance in the main malaria vectors of the mekong insecticide resistance may jeopardize the successful malaria control programmes in the mekong region, a large investigation was previously conducted in the mekong countries to assess the susceptibility of the main malaria vectors against ddt and pyrethroid insecticides. it showed that the main vector, anopheles epiroticus, was highly pyrethroid-resistant in the mekong delta, whereas anopheles minimus sensu lato was pyrethroid-resistant in northern vietnam. anopheles dirus sensu stricto showed ...200919400943
spatiotemporal epidemic characteristics and risk factor analysis of malaria in yunnan province, china.malaria remains an important public health concern in china and is particularly serious in yunnan, a china's provincial region of high malaria burden with an incidence of 1.79/10(5) in 2012. this study aims to examine the epidemiologic profile and spatiotemporal aspects of epidemics of malaria, and to examine risk factors which may influence malaria epidemics in yunnan province.201728077125
key knowledge gaps for plasmodium vivax control and elimination.there is inadequate understanding of the biology, pathology, transmission, and control of plasmodium vivax, the geographically most widespread cause of human malaria. during the last decades, study of this species was neglected, in part due to the erroneous belief that it is intrinsically benign. in addition, many technical challenges in culturing the parasite also hampered understanding its fundamental biology and molecular and cellular responses to chemotherapeutics. research on vivax malaria ...201627430544
spatial and space-time distribution of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum malaria in china, 2005-2014.despite the declining burden of malaria in china, the disease remains a significant public health problem with periodic outbreaks and spatial variation across the country. a better understanding of the spatial and temporal characteristics of malaria is essential for consolidating the disease control and elimination programme. this study aims to understand the spatial and spatiotemporal distribution of plasmodium vivax and plasmodium falciparum malaria in china during 2005-2009.201627993171
structural divergence of chromosomes between malaria vectors anopheles lesteri and anopheles sinensis.anopheles lesteri and anopheles sinensis are two major malaria vectors in china and southeast asia. they are dramatically different in terms of geographical distribution, host preference, resting habitats, and other traits associated with ecological adaptation and malaria transmission. both species belong to the anopheles hyrcanus group, but the extent of genetic differences between them is not well understood. to provide an effective way to differentiate between species and to find useful marke ...201627887641
effects of microclimate condition changes due to land use and land cover changes on the survivorship of malaria vectors in china-myanmar border the past decade, developing countries have been experiencing rapid land use and land cover changes, including deforestation and cultivation of previously forested land. however, little is known about the impact of deforestation and land-use changes on the life history of malaria vectors and their effects on malaria transmission. this study examined the effects of deforestation and crop cultivation on the adult survivorship of major malaria mosquitoes, anopheles sinensis and an. minimus in the ...201627171475
distribution of malaria vectors and incidence of vivax malaria at korean army installations near the demilitarized zone, republic of a result of the reintroduction of malaria in the republic of korea (rok) in 1993 and the threat to military and civilian populations, the korea military national defense (mnd) increased emphasis on vector control in 2012 at rok army (roka) installations located near the dmz, while decreasing chemoprophylaxis, fearing potential drug resistance. mosquito surveillance demonstrated a need for continuous monitoring of disease patterns among roka soldiers and vector malaria infection rates to ensur ...201627150110
diversification of the genus anopheles and a neotropical clade from the late cretaceous.the anopheles genus is a member of the culicidae family and consists of approximately 460 recognized species. the genus is composed of 7 subgenera with diverse geographical distributions. despite its huge medical importance, a consensus has not been reached on the phylogenetic relationships among anopheles subgenera. we assembled a comprehensive dataset comprising the coi, coii and 5.8s rrna genes and used maximum likelihood and bayesian inference to estimate the phylogeny and divergence times o ...201526244561
knockdown resistance of anopheles sinensis in henan province, china.vivax malaria was historically epidemic in henan province of china and anopheles sinensis was the main vectors and poor farming communities bare the greatest burden of disease. knockdown resistance in an. sinensis is one of the mechanisms of resistance against pyrethroids. in the present study, the frequency of mutations from an. sinensis was examined in henan province, china.201525890038
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