[observation on the effectiveness of repellent coating against mosquitoes].the present paper reports on the effectiveness of a repellent coating for the first time. the repellent coating was made by combining deta (n,n-diethyl-meta-toluamide) with slow-releasing reagent. with this coating employed in the laboratory against aedes aegypti, the rate of blood-sucking was 3.9-9.5% and the rate of protection was 88.9-95.3% for 1-720 days. during 1-77 days' field trial, the rpi (relative population index) was 0-8.98% in the day-time and 0.74-17.15 during the night-time agains ...19921307278
[observation on the early development of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in mosquitoes].this paper reports the early development and variation of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in 3 groups of mosquitoes, i. e. young anopheles sinensis, young culex quinquefasciatus and old cx. quinquefasciatus. significant differences were observed among these groups. sixty hours after inoculation, the percentage of normally developing filarial larvae in young an. sinensis was 72.3%; the percentage of melanized microfilariae in young cx. quinquefasciatus was 75.4% and the percentage of filar ...19921363886
pathogenicity of spiroplasma taiwanense for larval aedes aegypti mosquitoes.helical replicative forms, but not the persistent non-replicative forms, of spiroplasma taiwanense abalain-colloc et al. (isolated from the mosquito anopheles sinensis wiedemann in taiwan) were shown to reduce significantly the survival of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito larvae reared in 10 ml of water with 0.3 ml of s.taiwanense suspensions added on days 0 and 3. the suspensions contained, respectively, helical forms at a concentration of 10(9) colour change units (ccu)/ml and persistent forms at 1 ...19911768913
the advantages of mosquito biocontrol by stocking edible fish in rice paddies.edible fish stocked in rice fields at a density of 600-800 fry per mu (1 mu = 1/15 hectare) for 150-170 days may act as an effective mosquito biocontrol agent. common carp (cyprinus carpio), grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella) and tilopia spp. killed late stage larvae and pupae of anopheles sinensis and culex tritaeniorrhyncus in laboratory and field trials. stocking of fish in experimental rice fields decreased larval numbers significantly in comparison with control areas. expansion of fish sto ...19911818398
[observations on the development of quantitatively inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus].with an improved technique, quantitative inoculation of brugia malayi microfilariae (mff) into anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus was carried out in our laboratory in 1988. the development of b. malayi mff in these two species of mosquitoes was observed. in the system of b. malayi and an. sinensis, a well-fitted linear correlation appeared between the number of mff inoculated and the infective larva (l3) positive rate (r = 0.9910; p less than 0.01). the regression equation with the re ...19911873882
threshold of transmission of brugia malayi by anopheles an area of central china where brugia malayi is transmitted by anopheles sinensis, three villages were followed for 4 years without any control measures. diethylcarbamazine (dec) had been used in a control programme reducing the parasite rate in shuiwa from 12.72 to 0.59%, in gubomen from 3.18 to 1.55% and in moshi from 5.62 to 2.81% (although this fell the following year to 2.23%) up until the start of the trial. the village populations, the human biting rate, the parous and the gonotrophic ...19911880826
[observation on the contraction process of ovarioles of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus after oviposition].in order to know the process of ovariole contraction after oviposition in anopheles sinensis and an. anthropophagus, and to determine the relationship between the ovariole contraction and the physiological age, the observation was conducted in 1988. the laboratory-reared female mosquitoes after 3-5 days of eclosion were fed with mouse blood and were kept in separate finger tubes for oviposition. after oviposition, the mosquitoes were dissected at different time. 30 ovarioles for each mosquito we ...19911959173
[the natural infection rate of mosquitoes by japanese encephalitis b virus in yunnan province].in july-september 1983-1987, 57,898 adult female mosquitoes belonging to 29 species of 8 genera were collected from japanese b encephalitis (je) epidemic areas in yunnan, china, and were examined by c 6/36 cell method and sucking mouse method. twenty-eight strains of je virus were isolated from culex tritaeniorhychus, c. whitomorei, c. pseudovishnui, c. fuscocephala, c. annulus, c. gelidus, anopheles sinensis, mansonia uniformis, aedes albopictus, ae. vexans, ae. lineatopennis, and ae. assamensi ...19901979768
[variations in reproductive capacity, gonotrophic cycle and longevity of anopheles sinensis infected by brugia malayi larvae].under the experimental conditions of 26 +/- 10 degrees c, relative humidity 70-80%, 100 +/- 20 lux and photoperiod 16 hours/day and using a membrane feeding method, the development of filarial larvae and the variations in reproductive capacity, gonotrophic cycle and longevity of an. sinensis infected with microfilariae of brugia malayi were observed. the infection rate and infection intensity of filarial larvae in an. sinensis increased with the microfilarial density in the blood meal from 50 to ...19912065448
quantitative studies on the development of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus.definite numbers of b. malayi mf were inoculated into an. sinensis and cx. quinquefasciatus, and their subsequent development was observed. the relationships between the dosage and the l3 positive rate on the one hand and the average filarial maturity rate on the other were defined. at the same dosages of 4 and 10 mf/mosquito, the l3 positive rates and the average filarial maturity rates in an. sinensis were much higher than those in cx. quinquefasciatus (p less than 0.01). it was demonstrated t ...19902075483
[malaria situation in china, 1989. advisory committee on parasitic diseases, moph].according to the case reporting system, malaria cases in the whole country (taiwan province not included) in 1989 accounted for 137,540, the incidence being 12.56/100,000, and lethal cases, 60. all these were close to those (134,156, 12.44/100,000, and 53) in 1988, while an insidious increase was in view. on the basis of county/city reckoning, about 984.5 million people reside in 2,576 counties/cities where malaria incidence was less than 0.1 per 1,000 (including non-endemic areas); 80.2 million ...19902099250
[experimental infection index of anopheles sinensis and melanization of periodic brugia malayi larvae].this paper deals with the infection index of anopheles sinensis infected with the blood meals of 9 different microfilarial densities (5-300 mf/10 microliters) of periodic brugia malayi. the results indicated that the mean number of microfilariae (mf) ingested by mosquitoes increased with the mf-density of the blood meal. the infection rates of vectors were 30, 65, 93 and 100%, when mf-densities were 5, 10, 20 and 50 mf/10 microliters respectively. although the infection rate was 100% when mf-den ...19902099254
[comparative studies on the role of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis in malaria transmission in china].this paper reports on the studies of the role of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis in malaria transmission in a sense to elucidate which one of the two species the predominance in this respect. systematic investigations including artificial infection of mosquitoes, quantitative entomological studies and parasitological research were conducted in 1982-1987 in 5 pilot areas in anhui (1), guangxi (2), sichuan (1) and guangdong (1). the results revealed that the susceptibility of an. a ...19902276188
observations on the clinical manifestations and treatment of an experimental infection with brugia malayi in man.this paper reports clinical observations made during experimental brugia malayi infection in man. this was induced by 52 infective larvae-carrying mosquitoes, anopheles sinensis. a monkey, maccaca mulatta, was inoculated with infective larvae from the mosquitoes infected with nocturnally periodic type of b. malayi from patients. six months later, the monkey became a microfilaria carrier. nine days later, the subject was experimentally bitten by mosquitoes infected from biting the monkey, with an ...19892565406
[observation on the intake of brugia malayi microfilariae by anopheles sinensis and host efficiency].the experiments were carried out under the controlled conditions with temperature at 26 +/- 1 degree c and relative humidity 75-85%. the brugian microfilariae from the peritoneal cavity of mongolian jirds, mixed with rabbit blood, were ingested by anopheles mosquitoes through the artificial membrane. the experimental data show that the number of microfilariae ingested is fewer than would be expected from the microfilarial densities in the blood meal. the linear regression shows their quantitativ ...19892624934
trial of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of malaria transmitted by anopheles sinensis and anopheles 1985-1987, a field trial of malaria control using deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets was carried out with 4,450 people in the buji district, bao'an county, guangdong province, china. the vectors were exophilic anopheles sinensis (80%) and the endophilic and anthropophilic an. anthropophagus (20%). the first impregnation of the nets was in june 1985 and the second in april 1986. about 87% of the population slept under treated nets. the indoor vector density decreased by 93% and remained at ...19892712195
evaluation of permethrin-impregnated mosquito-nets against mosquitoes in yishan county, guangxi province, china, where malaria and brugian filariasis are transmitted by vectors belonging to the anopheles hyrcanus pallas group, a study was conducted from june to november 1986 to evaluate the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated mosquito bednets to reduce man/vector contact. in three experimental villages a total of 246 mosquito nets were treated with permethrin ec at a dosage of 0.5 g/m2. control bioassays (1 h exposure) of treated nets gave up to 100% mortality ...19882908784
[a longitudinal observation on the vectorial capacity of anopheles sinensis in vivax malaria endemic area]. 19883073014
[comparison of protein variation between anopheles sinensis from wuxi and zhengzhou]. 19883242968
[a preliminary study on the infectivity of different geographic strains of plasmodium vivax to anopheles sinensis]. 19873329066
[comparative studies on isoenzyme patterns, proteins, sugars and lipids of four geographic strains of anopheles sinensis]. 19853837706
kurotori virus: a virus newly isolated from anopheles sinensis and pathogenic to mice. i. isolation and properties. 19734199703
bionomics of anopheles sinensis wiedmann in henan province. 19836418470
[comparative observations on the salivary gland chromosomes of the fourth instar larva of anopheles sinensis in various districts]. 19836678658
[comparisons on life table characteristics among various geographical strains of anopheles sinensis from zhengzhou (henan), shanghai and youxi (fujian)]. 19836678661
[experimental infection of anopheles sinensis of zhengzhou and xingang districts with plasmodium (author's transl)]. 19827049622
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
[preliminary estimation of malaria transmission potential in areas where anopheles sinensis is the only vector].the data, vectorial capacity of anopheles sinensis in the suburb of jining city, shandong province in 1975, in 1980-1984, and the average gland infection rate of anopheles sinensis infected with plasmodium vivax artificially, were calculated by using macdonald formula (1957). the basic reproduction rates were 4.44, 6.47 and 4.25 in the years 1975, 1980 and 1981, respectively. in 1982-1984, the rate was reduced to 0.69, 0.41 and 0.1, respectively. since 1982, the incidence rate of malaria in the ...19947720199
metaphase karyotypes of anopheles of thailand and southeast asia: i. the hyrcanus group.metaphase karyotypes of 6 species of the hyrcanus species group of the subgenus anopheles show constitutive heterochromatin variation in x and y chromosomes. anopheles peditaeniatus exhibits the most extensive variation in the size and shape of heterochromatic sex chromosomes, with 3 types of x and 5 types of y chromosomes. anopheles nitidus shows the least variation, with only 2 types of x chromosomes. anopheles sinensis and an. crawfordi each have 2 forms of metaphase karyotype in the heteroch ...19938468575
experimental and field studies on some biological characteristics of plasmodium vivax isolated from tropical and temperate zones of clarify some biological behaviors of plasmodium vivax including the periodical infectivity of gametocytes for mosquitoes, the prepatent period, the incubation period, the relapse patterns and their relationship.19968758285
effects of brugia malayi infection on the survival of anopheles sinensis.effect of different numbers of infecting brugia malayi on the survival of anopheles sinensis were quantitatively studied in our laboratory. four groups of healthy adult female mosquitos were tested. they were named g-0, g-1, g-2 and g-3, in which the numbers of microfilariae (mf) infecting per mosquito were 0, 5, 10 and 50, respectively. the experimental infection was conducted by inoculating the mf into the bodies of mosquitos through the neck membrane with a microinjector. it was observed that ...19969031418
field-simulated residual efficacy of betacyfluthrin against anopheles sinensis wiedemann.the residual efficacy of a relatively new pyrethroid, betacyfluthrin was compared with ddt against anopheles sinensis wiedemann in some village houses in penang, malaysia, for a period of 30 weeks. efficacy was determined by exposing laboratory-cultured an. sinensis mosquitos to treated wall surfaces with either betacyfluthrin at 15 and 25 mg/m2 or ddt at 2,000 mg/m2 for one hour. betacyfluthrin provided a longer residual effect (up to 210 days with > 70% mortality) compared with ddt. the potent ...19979322312
resurgence of vivax malaria in henan province, china.henan province (population, 90 million) in china has nonstable endemic malaria. after 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. by 1992 only 318 cases were reported. in 1992 henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern hena ...19989744246
isoenzyme study and hybridization of two forms of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in northern thailand.the screening of ten isoenzymes of two forms of anopheles sinensis, form a and b, using electrophoretic gels revealed that est-5(96) allele was the marker in both 4th larva and adult female of an. sinensis form b, whereas it was lacking in form a. hybridization tests of the two sinensis forms were done by induced copulation. the results of crosses indicated that they were genetically compatible, providing viable progeny and completely synaptic polytene chromosomes.199810772574
mosquito surveillance in the demilitarized zone, republic of korea, during an outbreak of plasmodium vivax malaria in 1996 and 1997.since 1993, more than 2,000 cases of vivax malaria have occurred in the republic of korea in an epidemic that ended nearly 20 malaria-free years. most malaria has occurred in the northwestern part of the country, mainly affecting korean military personnel. as a part of an operational surveillance effort, we sampled mosquitoes in and near the demilitarized zone (paju county, kyonggi province) during the last 2 wk of july in 1996 and from may 15 to september 10 in 1997. the 1st year, landing colle ...200010901633
indoor thermal fogging application of pesguard fg 161, a mixture of d-tetramethrin and cyphenothrin, using portable sprayer against vector mosquitoes in the tropical environment.indoor bioefficacy of the thermal fogging application of pesguard fg 161, a formulation containing both knockdown and killing agents (active ingredient [ai]: d-tetramethrin 4% [w/w] and cyphenothrin 12% [w/w]) was compared with resigen5 (ai: s-bioallethrin 0.8% [w/w], permethrin 125/75] 18.7% [w/w], and piperonyl butoxide 16.8% [w/w]), another pyrethroid formulation, as larvicides and adulticides against aedes aegypti, aedes albopictus, anopheles sinensis, and culex quinquefasciatus using a port ...200111345415
experimental infection of anopheles sinensis with korean isolates of plasmodium vivax.the objectives of the present study were to (1) determine the susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to korean isolates of plasmodium vivax, (2) establish a method to collect large quantities of p. vivax sporozoites for use as antigen in seroepidemiological studies, and (3) investigate the characteristics of korean isolates of p. vivax sporozoites. females of anopheles sinensis were collected at non-epidemic area, seokwha-ri, cheongwon-gun and chungcheongbuk-do using tent-trap methods coupled with ...200111441505
malaria transmission potential by anopheles sinensis in the republic of evaluate the factors that determine the transmission level of vivax malaria using vectorial capacity, entomological surveys were conducted from june to august, 2000. from 6 nights of human-bait collection in paju, the human biting rate (ma) was counted as 87.5 bites/man/night. the parity of anopheles sinensis from human baiting collections fluctuated from 41% to 71% (average 48.8%) of which the rate gradually increased as time passed on: 35.2% in jun.; 55.0% in july; 66.2% in aug. from this p ...200111441506
vector competence of anopheles lesteri baisas and hu (diptera: culicidae) to plasmodium vivax in korea.three anopheline mosquitoes in korea were studied for their abilities as vectors for plasmodium vivax. the female mosquitoes of anopheles lesteri, an. pullus and an. sinensis were allowed to suck malaria patient blood until fully fed, and they were then bred for 2 weeks to develop from malaria parasites to sporozoites. the result from the above confirmed the sporozoites in one an. lesteri of one individual and five an. sinensis of six individuals. we also confirmed that an. sinensis was the main ...200211949212
late season commercial mosquito trap and host seeking activity evaluation against mosquitoes in a malarious area of the republic of korea.field trials evaluating selected commercially available mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, and/or octenol were conducted from 18-27 september 2000 in a malarious area near paekyeon-ri (tongil-chon) and camp greaves in paju county, kyonggi province, republic of korea. the host-seeking activity for common mosquito species, including the primary vector of japanese encephalitis, culex tritaeniorhynchus giles, was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human and ...200211949213
a new species of anopheles hyrcanus group from nei mongol autonomous region (diptera:culicidae).morphology of anopheles (anopheles) hailarensis, a new species belonging to the anopheles hyrcanus group, collected from hailaer, nei mongol autonomous region, p. r. of china, is described in adult, pupal, larval and egg stages. it is closely related to anopheles sinensis wiedemann, 1828 and anopheles heiheensis ma, 1981. comparisons on adult morphology among above three species and egg morphology between the new species and anopheles sinensis are made.199812078208
[observation on the susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to periodic brugia malayi microfilariae].to explore the susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to brugia malayi microfilariae of different densities.199812078219
[detection of brugia malayi larva in mosquito vector by pcr and pcr-elisa].to develop sensitive, specific, simple assays for the detection of brugia malayi larva in mosquito vectors.199812078257
[observation on the infectivity of different densities of plasmodium vivax to anopheles sinensis].to study the infectivity of different densities of p. vivax to an. sinensis.199812078276
intraspecific hybridization of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) strains from thailand and korea.anopheles (anopheles) sinensis [wiedemann (1828)] is a member of the hyrcanus species group, and it has been incriminated as the natural or experimental malaria vectors in the republic of korea, japan, china, and indonesia. in thailand, however, an. sinensis seems to be of little medical importance. hybridization tests among the three iso-female lines (isolines) of an. sinensis [i.e., form a (x, y1) and form b (x, y2) (thailand strain), and form b (x, y2) (korean strain)] were established based ...200212442891
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 1999].although the middle and lower reaches of changjiang river were consecutively stricken by severe flood in 1998 and 1999, the transmission of malaria was not frequent and prevalence of the disease was basically stable with no reports of outbreaks in the above areas, which was attributed to the intensification of malaria surveillance, prompt implementation of integrated measures including mosquito control and chemoprophylaxis, as well as the zoophilous trend of anopheles sinensis, the vector in the ...200012567683
[survey of susceptibility of anopheline vectors to insecticides in a malaria mesoendemic area, hubei province].to determine the susceptibility of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin and ddt in an area where different counter-measures had been adopted.200012567689
[studies on detecting brugia malayi larva in mosquitoes by polymerase chain reaction].to establish a specific, sensitive and simple assay for the detection of brugia malayi larva in anopheles sinensis.200112571998
seasonal prevalence of the vector mosquitoes of japanese encephalitis virus in kyungpook province, order to determine the seasonal prevalence and population density of vector mosquitoes in kyungpook province, a survey based on average number of female mosquito per trap-night, were carried out during the period from may to november in 1984. among the 34,571 mosquitoes collected in kyungsan county in animal shelters and human dwellings by light traps, approximately 45.0 % were culex tritaeniorhynchus, 34.0 % per cent culex pipiens pallens, and 19.0 per cent anopheles sinensis. by comparison, ...198512888695
light, carbon dioxide, and octenol-baited mosquito trap and host-seeking activity evaluations for mosquitoes in a malarious area of the republic of korea.two field trials for commercially available and experimental mosquito traps variously baited with light, carbon dioxide, octenol, or combinations of these were evaluated in a malarious area at paekyeon-ri near tongil-chon (village) and camp greaves, paju county, kyonggi province, republic of korea. the host-seeking activity for common mosquito species was determined using hourly aspirator collections from a human- and propane lantern-baited shannon trap. the total number of mosquitoes and number ...200114529088
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 2002].this summary was made on the basis of the annual reports of malaria control from the professional institutions in the 21 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/m/a). the number of malaria cases reported in the country was 35,298 in the year 2002 and the incidence rate was 0.348/10,000, an increase of 68.2% than that of the last year and the largest increase since 1994. the total number of suspected cases was 136,902, and the death toll due to malaria was 42. based on the numbers of malaria ...200314628361
molecular identification of the malaria vectors anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in central china using polymerase chain reaction and appraisal of their position within the hyrcanus central china, anopheles anthropophagus is considered the primary malaria vector and anopheles sinensis is a secondary vector. identification of these two cryptic species would facilitate studies on malaria transmission and the application of control measures. at present, the only reliable morphological markers occur in the egg stage, making this approach impractical for any large scale field studies. in this study, we report on the development of a polymerase chain reaction (pcr)-restriction ...200414989340
immune responses to mosquito saliva in 14 individuals with acute systemic allergic reactions to mosquito bites.mosquito bite-induced acute systemic allergic reactions are an increasing clinical concern and have not been optimally characterized immunologically.200415536430
[study on natural infection of plasmodium vivax in anopheles sinensis in korea]on epidemiological grounds, anopheles sinensis has been suspected for many years to be the malaria vector in korea. of 7,517 dissections of a. sinensis, one specimen was found for the first time in korea naturally infected with sporozoites in august 1962. experimental infection of a. sinensis with plasmodium vivax had been successfully conducted at earlier date.196712913558
evaluation of various control agents against mosquito larvae in rice paddies in taiwan.a field test was conducted in rice paddies adjacent to wufeng, taichung county in central taiwan to evaluate the efficacy of control agents against mosquito larvae. the agents included bacillus thuringienesis israelensis (bti), two lagenidium giganteum products (lg product a and t), and temephos. the major mosquito species found in the rice paddies were culex tritaeniorhynchus/vishnui and anopheles sinensis. compared to controls, a 7-day treatment with bti or lg products a and t caused overall r ...200516007966
identification and characterization of larval and adult anopheline mosquito habitats in the republic of korea: potential use of remotely sensed data to estimate mosquito distributions.plasmodium vivax malaria reemerged in the republic of korea in 1993, with more than 2,000 cases reported in the northwestern part of the country over the last 10 years. to better assess the risk of malaria transmission we conducted a surveillance study to identify and characterize the habitats that produce potential anopheles vector mosquitoes. immature and adult mosquito collection data were incorporated into a geographic information system (gis) along with remotely sensed satellite imagery, an ...200516011809
enhanced t-cell response to mosquito extracts by nk cells in hypersensitivity to mosquito bites associated with ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis.hypersensitivity to mosquito bites is characterized by severe systemic as well as local symptoms, and associated with chronic active ebv infection and nk cell lymphocytosis. in this hen disease, we investigated the response of pbmc to msg extracts. pbmc were taken from three defined cases of hen disease, three borderline cases, five individuals with simple exaggerated reactions to mosquito bites without systemic symptoms (simple responders), and eight healthy donors. pbmc, or purified cd4+, cd8+ ...200516108834
[natural transition of endemicity of malayan flariasis in inland korea: pattern of change in microfilaria rate among inhabitants of yongpung (former yongju) area during the period of the last seven years]with a purpose to find out natural transition of endemicity of malayan filariasis in inland korea, a survey was conducted in june 1980 in isan-myeon of yongpung-gun (former yongju-gun) where an epidemiological investigation had been carried out in 1973 without any control activities such as chemotherapy. five sample villages were surveyed for microfilaremia by 20 microliter night blood examination among inhabitants and the results of the surveys conducted in 1973 and 1980 were compared to determ ...198012902727
collection of adult and larval mosquitoes in u.s. army compounds in the republic of korea during 1979~1983.this paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in u.s. army installations in korea from 1979 to 1983. new jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from may to october. the primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the army areas. the 5th preventive medicine unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other agencies in other parts of the w ...198412891039
epidemiological studies on malayan filariasis in an inland area in kyungpook, korea 3. ecological survey of vector mosquitoes of brugia malayi.the species composition, population density, and seasonal prevalence of vector mosquitoes in an inland area of kyungpook province were studied, based on light trap and human bait trap collections, and the recent patterns of infestation for infective larvae of brugia malayi in these vector hosts were investigated from may to november in 1985. nine species in four genera of mosquitoes were collected by light trap, human bait trap, and/or by nets. anopheles sinensis wiedemann was the most abundant ...198612886104
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 2003].total 40,681 malaria cases and 129,147 suspected cases with 52 deaths were reported by the case reporting system in 910 counties of 21 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/m/a) in 2003, and the annual incidence was 0.39/10000, an increase of 15.3% than that of the last year, which is the third year that malaria incidence consecutively increased since 2001. based on a baseline survey in the project funded by the global fund to fight aids, tuberculosis and malaria (gfatm), the estimated num ...200516566200
relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index to anopheles density and malaria incidence study the relationship of remote sensing normalized differential vegetation index (ndvi) to anopheles density and malaria incidence rate.200616827184
[malaria situation in the people' s republic of china in 2004].in 2004, 38,972 malaria cases and 106,704 suspected cases with 31 deaths were reported by the annual case reporting system in 1,005 counties of 23 provinces/municipality/autonomous region (p/ m/a) and the annual incidence was 0.38/10 000, a decrease of 4.2% than that of the last year, which is the year that the disease was slightly rolled back after consecutively increased since 2001. as an important development of the case reporting system, the internet reporting system started in 2004, majorit ...200616866130
[cloning and identification of the cdna and genomic dna sequences of the defensin gene of anopheles sinensis].to clone and identify the cdna sequence and genomic dna sequence of anopheles sinensis defensin gene.200616866140
insecticide resistance in vector mosquitoes in china.because of their special behaviour, physiology and close relationship with humans, mosquitoes act as one of the most important vectors of human diseases, such as filariasis, japanese encephalitis, dengue and malaria. the major vector mosquitoes are members of the culex, aedes and anopheles genera. insecticides play important roles in agricultural production and public health, especially in a country with a huge human population, like china. large quantities of four classes of insecticides, organ ...200616953491
outbreak of vivax malaria in areas adjacent to the demilitarized zone, south korea, 1998.malaria had been eradicated in the republic of korea (south korea) by the late 1970s. in 1993, a soldier was infected with plasmodium vivax malaria in the demilitarized zone (dmz; the border area between north and south korea), and since then, the number of cases has been steadily increasing year after year. in 1998, 3,932 vivax malaria cases were microscopically confirmed, affecting 2,784 (70.8%) soldiers (including discharged soldiers) and 1,148 (29.2%) civilians. these cases occurred througho ...200212135260
[malaria situation and evaluation on the control effect in henan province during 1990-2005].to analyze malaria situation and evaluate the effect of control program in henan province during 1990-2005.200617094630
reemerging vivax malaria: changing patterns of annual incidence and control programs in the republic of korea.changing patterns of the reemerging plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea (south korea) during the period 1993 to 2005 are briefly analyzed with emphasis on the control measures used and the effects of meteorological and entomological factors. data were obtained from the communicable diseases monthly reports published by the korea center for disease control and prevention, and webpages of world health organization and united nations. meteorological data of kangwon-do (province) were ...200617170570
estimates of short- and long-term incubation periods of plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea.with the current epidemic of vivax malaria closely associated with the demilitarised zone along the border between north and south korea, it has been suggested that the incubation period tends, in part, to be prolonged. based on the detailed travel history of cases from 2000 to 2003 who reside in non-malarious areas, statistical estimates of the incubation periods were obtained. the data suggest that cases fall into two categories with short- and long-term incubation periods, respectively. of 41 ...200717204297
detection of vivax malaria sporozoites naturally infected in anopheline mosquitoes from endemic areas of northern parts of gyeonggi-do (province) in korea.we investigated population densities of mosquitoes infected with sporozoites in three highly epidemic areas of josan-ri and jangpa-ri (paju city) and dongjung-ri (yeoncheon county) in korea. anopheline mosquitoes were collected from both indoors and outdoors by human baiting collection method during the period of the first week of june to the second week of september 1999. total 13,296 female mosquitoes were collected and 8,650 (65.1%) were anophelines. thirty seven percent (3,199) of the anophe ...200212073732
a low-cost repellent for malaria vectors in the americas: results of two field trials in guatemala and peru.the cost of mosquito repellents in latin america has discouraged their wider use among the poor. to address this problem, a low-cost repellent was developed that reduces the level of expensive repellent actives by combining them with inexpensive fixatives that appear to slow repellent evaporation. the chosen actives were a mixture of para-menthane-diol (pmd) and lemongrass oil (lg).200717678537
malaria prevalence in nias district, north sumatra province, indonesia.the nias district of the north sumatra province of indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in december 2004 and march 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. the present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associ ...200717760967
evaluation of anopheline mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) from the republic of korea for plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite part of an on-going malaria surveillance effort conducted by the u.s. forces korea, republic of korea (rok), a total of 28,286 anopheline mosquitoes was tested for the presence of plasmodium vivax circumsporozoite (cs) protein. mosquitoes were collected (using a variety of light and baited traps) from 29 locations throughout the rok (the majority were collected near the de-militarized zone), identified to species, and tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the presence of p. vivax 21 ...200211931266
daily survival and human blood index of anopheles sinensis, the vector species of malaria in evaluate the vector efficiency of anopheles sinensis in transmitting vivax malaria in the northern part of gyonggi-do, south korea, daily survival and feeding host preferences were studied during the period of june-october 1999. ovaries of unfed and freshly fed an. sinensis females were dissected and parity or nulliparity were observed. the parous rates were 75.2% in july, 56.5% in august, 78.5% in september, and 60.0% in october at gusan-dong, goyang-si, gyonggi-do. the average probability o ...200111345422
re-emerging plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea.plasmodium vivax malaria, which was highly prevalent in the republic of korea, disappeared rapidly since 1970s. however, malaria re-emerged with the first occurrence of a patient in 1993 near the demilitarized zone (dmz), the border between south korea and north korea. thereafter, the number of cases increased exponentially year after year, totaling 6,142 cases (6,249 if united states army personnels were included) by the end of 1998. interestingly enough, the majority of cases (3,743; 61%) was ...199910507220
anopheles kleini, anopheles pullus, and anopheles sinensis: potential vectors of plasmodium vivax in the republic of korea.anopheles sinensis wiedemann (63.3%) was the most abundant anopheles mosquito captured at cowshed resting collections in malaria high-risk areas (northern gyeonggi province) near the demilitarized zone (dmz) in korea during 2005, followed by anopheles kleini rueda (24.7%) and anopheles pullus m. yamada (8.7%). at cowshed resting collections in malaria low-risk areas (jeonnam and gyeongnam provinces), an. sinensis accounted for 96.8% of all anopheles spp. collected, followed by an. kleini rueda ( ...200718047210
evaluation of the malaria threat at the multipurpose range complex, yongp'yong, republic of part of an operational effort to control the transmission of malaria after its reemergence in the republic of korea, a number of u.s. military and korean civilian health workers assessed the situation at a large training site where two cases had been transmitted. the vector mosquitoes (anopheles sinensis) probably had a limited flight range (< 1 km) in this situation based on low numbers in permanent light traps and biting collections at the billeting area compared with collections from light ...199910495632
the resting sites and blood-meal sources of anopheles minimus in taiwan.the who declared taiwan free from malaria in 1965, but in 2003 the reporting of two introduced cases in a rural area suggested a possible local transmission of this disease. therefore, understanding the resting sites and the blood sources of anopheles minimus is crucial in order to provide information for implementing vector control strategies.200818538036
dynamics of positional warfare malaria: finland and korea compared.a sudden outbreak of vivax malaria among finnish troops in se-finland and along the front line in hanko peninsula in the southwest occurred in 1941 during world war ii. the common explanation has been an invasion of infective anopheles mosquitoes from the russian troops crossing the front line between finland and soviet union. a revised explanation is presented based on recent studies of finnish malaria.200818778473
ectopic migration of an adult heartworm in a dog with dirofilariasis (case report).a 3-yr-old female mongrel dog was referred to the veterinary teaching hospital of chungnam national university in the republic of korea. an adult heartworm, dirofilaria immitis, was found in the abdominal cavity of the dog during spaying. dirofilariasis in this dog was also diagnosed by modified knott's test, elisa test, and pcr analysis. the present case is the first report on the migration of an adult dog heartworm to the abdominal cavity of a dog in the republic of korea.200818830057
a recent survey of mosquito fauna in guangdong province,southern china, with a review of past records [corrected].the southern province of guangdong has long been subject to endemic mosquito-borne diseases. in recent years, this region of china has experienced rapid, extensive economic development involving environmental change, making much of the scant knowledge of its mosquito fauna obsolete. this paper reviews previous mosquito surveys, some of which may be too old to be of relevance to present-day conditions, and presents the results of a recent survey of adult and immature mosquitoes. the main vectors ...200819120964
resistance to two pyrethroids in anopheles sinensis from zhejiang, china.probabilities of pyrethroid resistant genotypes in natural populations of anopheles sinensis wiedemann were measured with deltamethrin and permethrin. the median lethal concentrations (lc50s) of deltamethrin and permethrin in the susceptible larval population were 0.0209 and 0.1747 ppm, respectively. under dosages that produced 99% mortality in susceptible laboratory strains of larvae, the lethal percentage of cangnan larval field populations after 20 min of exposure was only 61.23% for deltamet ...199910480120
comparative susceptibility of two forms of anopheles sinensis wiedemann 1828 (diptera : culicidae) to infection with plasmodium falciparum, p. vivax, p. yoelii and the determination of misleading factor for sporozoite identification.two karyotypic forms of laboratory-raised anopheles sinensis, ie form a (xy1) and form b (xy2), were experimentally infected with various indigenous strains of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax using an artificial membrane feeding technique, and a rodent malaria, p. yoelii, using a direct feeding technic and dissected 7-9 days and 10-15 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively. the results revealed that two forms of an. sinensis were refractory vectors for p. falciparum ...19989740293
molecular genetic characterization of the merozoite surface protein 1 gene of plasmodium vivax from reemerging korean isolates.plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein 1 (pvmsp-1) has been considered a major candidate for the development of an antimalaria vaccine, but the molecule exhibits antigenic diversity among isolates. the extent of genetic polymorphism in the region between interspecies conserved blocks 4 and 5 (icb4 and icb5) of the pvmsp-1 gene was analyzed for 30 korean isolates. two genotypes, sk-a and sk-b, were identified on the basis of amino acid substitution. almost all the amino acid sequences of the ...200919261779
the susceptibility of anopheles lesteri to infection with korean strain of plasmodium vivax.following its recent re-emergence, malaria has gained renewed attention as a serious infectious disease in korea. three species of the hyrcanusgroup, anopheles lesteri, anopheles sinensis and anopheles pullus, have long been suspected malaria vectors. however, opinions about their vector ability are controversial. the present study was designed with the aim of determining the susceptibility of these mosquitoes to a korean isolate of plasmodium vivax. also, an. sinensis is primarily suspected to ...200919284634
field trials of combined use of two species of mermithid nematodes to control anopheles and culex breeding in china.the field tests of combined use of romanomermis yunanensis 2000-3000 larvae per sq m and romanomermis sp 1000-2000 larvae per sq m in rice fields. ponds and streams in four cities of china, resulted in 60.8-95.5% parasitism in culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. quinquefasciatus, anopheles sinensis and an. anthropophagus. this successful use of two species of romanomermis together not only curb mosquito nuisance it also controls the major vectors of malaria, filariasis and encephalitis b in china.19969125829
[studies on elements in anopheles sinensis infected with brugia malayi microfilariae].amounts of certain elements in anopheles sinensis, both normal ones (emerged mosquitoes, d0, d5, d8, d12 and d18 after taking blood meal) and those infected with brugia malayi microfilaria (d5, d8, d12 and d18 after infection), were determined using il-551 and pe-603 atomic absorption spectrometer (aas). the results showed that 9 kinds of trace elements including fe, zn, cu, cd, al, pb, mn, ni and cr and 4 kinds of macro elements as k, na, ca, mg were present in both the noninfected and infected ...19958556801
[occurrence of culex modestus inatomii kamimura et wada in rongcheng city, shandong province].a mosquito survey was made at rongcheng city, shandong province in august, 1991. altogether 4 genera and 8 species of mosquitoes were collected in this survey, namely aedes dorsalis (meigen), anopheles sinensis wiedemann, an. yatsushiroensis miyazaki, culex fuscanus wiedemann, cx. modestus inatomii kamimura et wada, cx. pipiens pallens coquillett, cx. tritaeniorhynchus giles and mansonia uniformis (theobald). among them cx. modestus inatomii and an. yatsushiroensis were found to be the first rec ...19938403280
the ecology of anopheline mosquitos in northwest coastal malaysia: larval habitats and adult seasonal abundance.collections of anopheline mosquitos were made twice monthly for 13 months from a cow-baited trap in two villages, kampung permatang rawa and sungai udang kecil, on mainland coastal penang, malaysia. each collection period was six hours from sunset. unquantified larval collections were made regularly in each area. although the villages were only about 50km apart, and each had extensive, irrigated rice-fields in its vicinity, the species abundance and the seasonal fluctuations differed significant ...19938160063
[the first report of kadipiro virus isolation in china].5 strains of virus isolated from culex tritaeniorhynchus, anopheles sinensis and armigeres subalbatus, which caused cytopathic effect in c6/36 cells, had been obtained in the survey of arboviruses in northwestern yunnan province. china. the virus particles displayed 70 nanometers diameter (n=7) with no envelope but spikes on the surfaces. rna-page of the genomes of the isolates showed 6-5-1 profile. a fragment of the 12th segment sequence was amplified by a pair of specific primers for kadipiro ...200919634758
in silico evidence for the species-specific conservation of mosquito retroposons: implications as a molecular biomarker.mosquitoes are the transmissive vectors for several infectious pathogens that affect man. however, the control of mosquitoes through insecticide and pesticide spraying has proved difficult in the past. we hypothesized that, by virtue of their reported vertical inheritance among mosquitoes, group ii introns - a class of small coding ribonucleic acids (scrnas) - may form a potential species-specific biomarker. structurally, introns are a six-moiety complex. depending on the function of the protein ...200919640272
effect of intermittent irrigation on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and larvivorous predators in rice fields.effect of intermittent irrigation to facilitate rice production on rice-field mosquitoes and larvivorous predators was studied in saga, japan. mosquitoes and associated taxa were sampled by dipping in two rice fields subject to intermittent irrigation and in one rice field that remained flooded throughout the study period of approximately 1 mo. with the onset of intermittent irrigation, larval mosquito (culex tritaeniorhynchus giles and anopheles sinensis wiedemann) abundance decreased; reirriga ...19938096247
a successful control programme for lymphatic filariasis in hubei, china.this paper describes the epidemiology and control of human lymphatic filariasis in hubei province, china from the 1950s to the 1990s. brugia malayi, transmitted by anopheles sinensis, and wuchereria bancrofti, transmitted by culex quinquefasciatus, were found in 69 of 78 counties and cities. the distribution of filaria species was distinct, with b. malayi endemic in the plains, mixed infections in hilly areas, and w. bancrofti in the mountains. before 1979, the microfilaria rate (mfr) in some vi ...19947992323
a locally acquired falciparum malaria via nosocomial transmission in korea.a 57-year old man who was admitted to an emergency room of a tertiary hospital with hemoptysis developed malarial fever 19 days later and then died from severe falciparum malaria 2 days later. he had not traveled outside of korea for over 30 years. through intensive interviews and epidemiological surveys, we found that a foreign patient with a recent history of travel to africa was transferred to the same hospital with severe falciparum malaria. we confirmed through molecular genotyping of the m ...200919724701
[histochemical changes in brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis].histochemical changes in normal and brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis were observed using histochemical technique. the results showed that the activity of alkaline phosphatase (akp) and acid phosphatase (acp) and the content of glycogen and basic protein in brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis were less obviously than those of the normal control. esterase (est) activity was reduced slightly and acetylcholinesterase (ache) remained no change in infected mo ...19957554161
successful control of lymphatic filariasis in the republic of korea.a successful experience of lymphatic filariasis control in the republic of korea is briefly reviewed. filariasis in the republic of korea was exclusively caused by infection with brugia malayi. over the past several decades from the 1950s to 2006, many investigators exerted their efforts to detection, treatment, and follow-up of filariasis patients in endemic areas, and to control filariasis. mass, combined with selective, treatments with diethylcarbamazine to microfilaria positive persons had b ...200919967079
global status of ddt and its alternatives for use in vector control to prevent disease.i review the status of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt), used for disease vector control, along with current evidence on its benefits and risks in relation to the available alternatives.200920049114
nationwide surveillance of west nile virus targeting mosquitoes and dead birds from april 2004 through march 2007 in japan.we conducted nationwide west nile virus (wnv) surveillance targeting mosquitoes and dead birds to reveal whether the virus and its potential vectors are present in japan. a total of 12 766 mosquitoes and 230 dead birds were collected in april 2004-march 2005 (the 2004-2005 period), 10 755 mosquitoes and 267 dead birds in april 2005-march 2006 (the 2005-2006 period), and 8624 mosquitoes and 245 dead birds in april 2006-march 2007 (the 2006-2007 period). the species of most of the mosquitoes colle ...201120163573
banna virus, china, 1987-2007.banna viruses (bavs) have been isolated from pigs, cattle, ticks, mosquitoes, and human encephalitis patients. we isolated and analyzed 20 bavs newly isolated in china; this finding extends the distribution of bavs from tropical zone to north temperate climates and demonstrate regional variations in bav phylogeny and mosquito species possibly involved in bav transmission.201020202434
mosquito species associated within some western himalayas phytogeographic zones in the garhwal region of india.thirty four species of mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) were collected across three phytogeographic zones; tropical (300 to 1000 m), sub tropical (1000 to 2000 m) and temperate (2000 to 3000 m) in the garhwal region of india. they included 5 genera: aedes, anopheles, armigeres, culex and uranotaenia. of these, the immature forms of 23 species were recovered from different breeding habitats. the larval habitats were seepage pools, river beds, rice fields, tanks, forest pools, ditches, streams, roc ...200720233101
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