TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
genetic compatibility between anopheles lesteri from korea and anopheles paraliae from assess differentiation and relationships between anopheles lesteri and anopheles paraliae we established three and five iso-female lines of an. lesteri from korea and an. paraliae from thailand, respectively. these isolines were used to investigate the genetic relationships between the two taxa by crossing experiments and by comparing dna sequences of ribosomal dna second internal transcribed spacer (its2) and mitochondrial dna cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (coi) and subunit ii (coii). resul ...023778670
a mark-release-recapture experiment with anopheles sinensis in the northern part of gyeonggi-do, order to study the range of flight and feeding activity of anopheles sinensis, the dispersal experiment was conducted in paju city, located in the northern part of gyeonggi-do, republic of korea, during the period of 7th to 28th september 1998. unfed females an. sinensis were collected in cowshed and released after being marked with fluorescent dye at 23:00 hours on the same day. released female mosquitoes were recaptured everyday during 21 days using light traps, which were set at 10 sites i ...012325443
susceptibility and resistance of field populations of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) collected from paju to 13 insecticides.over 20% of all malaria cases reported annually in the republic of korea (rok) occur in paju, gyeonggi province. vector control for malaria management is essential, but the insecticide resistance of the vector, anopheles mosquitoes, has been a major obstacle in implementing effective control. in this study, the insecticide resistance of the vector mosquitoes was evaluated and compared with that of vector mosquitoes collected from the same locality in 2001 and 2009.024159535
vector mosquitoes of filariasis in japan. 022028600
diversity and convergence of sodium channel mutations involved in resistance to pyrethroids.pyrethroid insecticides target voltage-gated sodium channels, which are critical for electrical signaling in the nervous system. the intensive use of pyrethroids in controlling arthropod pests and disease vectors has led to many instances of pyrethroid resistance around the globe. in the past two decades, studies have identified a large number of sodium channel mutations that are associated with resistance to pyrethroids. the purpose of this review is to summarize both common and unique sodium c ...024019556
is there an efficient trap or collection method for sampling anopheles darlingi and other malaria vectors that can describe the essential parameters affecting transmission dynamics as effectively as human landing catches? - a review.distribution, abundance, feeding behaviour, host preference, parity status and human-biting and infection rates are among the medical entomological parameters evaluated when determining the vector capacity of mosquito species. to evaluate these parameters, mosquitoes must be collected using an appropriate method. malaria is primarily transmitted by anthropophilic and synanthropic anophelines. thus, collection methods must result in the identification of the anthropophilic species and efficiently ...025185008
heterochromatin, histone modifications, and nuclear architecture in disease vectors.interactions between a pathogen and a vector are plastic and dynamic. such interactions can be more rapidly accommodated by epigenetic changes than by genetic mutations. gene expression can be affected by the proximity to the heterochromatin, by local histone modifications, and by the three-dimensional position within the nucleus. recent studies of disease vectors indicate that gene regulation by these factors can be important for susceptibility to pathogens, reproduction, immunity, development, ...026097808
l1014f-kdr mutation in indian anopheles subpictus (diptera: culicidae) arising from two alternative transversions in the voltage-gated sodium channel and a single pira-pcr for their detection.leucine-to-phenylalanine substitution at residue l1014 in the voltage-gated sodium channel, target site of action for dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (ddt) and pyrethroids, is the most common knockdown resistance (kdr) mutation reported in several insects conferring resistance against ddt and pyrethroids. here, we report presence of two coexisting alternative transversions, a>t and a>c, on the third codon position of l1014 residue in malaria vector anopheles subpictus grassi (species a) from jam ...026336276
transmission risk from imported plasmodium vivax malaria in the china-myanmar border region.malaria importation and local vector susceptibility to imported plasmodium vivax infection are a continuing risk along the china-myanmar border. malaria transmission has been prevented in 3 border villages in tengchong county, yunnan province, china, by use of active fever surveillance, integrated vector control measures, and intensified surveillance and response.026401843
whole-genome sequencing of a plasmodium vivax isolate from the china-myanmar border area.currently, there is a trend of an increasing number of plasmodium vivax malaria cases in china that are imported across its southeast asia border, especially in the china-myanmar border area (cmb). to date, little is known about the genetic diversity of p. vivax in this region. in this paper, we report the first genome sequencing of a p. vivax isolate (cmb-1) from a vivax malaria patient in cmb. the sequencing data were aligned onto 96.43% of the p. vivax salvador i reference strain (sal i) geno ...026517664
analysis of intestinal bacterial community diversity of adult dastarcus helophoroides.polymerase chain reaction denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (pcr-dgge), and a culturedependent technique were used to study the diversity of the intestinal bacterial community in adult dastarcus helophoroides (fairmaire) (coleoptera: bothrideridae). universal bacterial primers targeting 200 bp regions of the 16s rdna gene were used in the pcr-dgge assay, and 14 bright bands were obtained. the intestinal bacteria detected by pcr-dgge were classified to enterococcus (lactobacillales: enteroc ...025200108
a standard cytogenetic map for anopheles sinensis and chromosome arm homology between the subgenera anopheles and cellia.anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) is an important vector of plasmodium vivax in southeast asia. to facilitate population genetic and genomic studies of an. sinensis, we developed a standard cytogenetic photomap for this species. the polytene chromosomes were straightened and divided into 39 numbered divisions and 116 lettered subdivisions. the chromosomal localizations of 13 dna probes were determined by fluorescent in situ hybridization. a comparison of the physical map for an. sinensis w ...025171604
meteorological factors-based spatio-temporal mapping and predicting malaria in central china.despite significant reductions in the overall burden of malaria in the 20th century, this disease still represents a significant public health problem in china, especially in central areas. understanding the spatio-temporal distribution of malaria is essential in the planning and implementing of effective control measures. in this study, normalized meteorological factors were incorporated in spatio-temporal models. seven models were established in winbugs software by using bayesian hierarchical ...021896823
analysis of vivax malaria cases in gangwon-do (province), korea in the year 2000.a total of 827 malaria cases were reported in the gangwon-do in the year 2000. there were 18.2 cases per 100,000 inhabitants. there were 283 cases among civilians and 544 cases among the military. 90.6% of cases were reported in cheorwon--(531), hwacheon--(152), and goseong--(66) gun (county), which bordered the demilitarized zone (dmz). a distinct feature pertaining to the malaria cases in gangwon-do is that the number of cases has increased about two times over the last year. the mean time fro ...011775330
incidence patterns of vivax malaria in civilians residing in a high-risk county of kyonggi-do (province), republic of korea.the characteristics of vivax malaria epidemics along the demilitarized zone (dmz) in the republic of korea has been established by the early surveillance data. to further characterize the epidemic, data of civilian patients microscopically diagnosed with malaria from 1995 through 2000 were analyzed in yonchon-gun (county). malaria incidence was greater in male civilians > 30 years of age (p < 0.05). the annual parasite index was significantly higher in those living in the administrative areas (m ...011775329
comparative study on longevity of anopheles sinensis in malarious and non-malarious areas in outbreak of vivax malaria has been occurring in northern part of kyonggi-do and north-western part of kangwon-do, where are located near the demilitarized zone, since 1993. for understanding of epidemiological features of malaria, the probability of daily survival of anopheles sinensis, the vector species of malaria was compared in malarious and non-malarious areas in july-august, 2000. total 915 females collected at three locations in malarious areas were dissected for ovaries, and 64.6% of ...011138320
unstable vivax malaria in korea.korean vivax malaria had been prevalent for longtime throughout the country with low endemicity. as a result of the korean war (1950-1953), malaria became epidemic. in 1959-1969 when the national malaria eradication service (nmes) was implemented, malaria rates declined, with low endemicity in the south-west and south plain areas and high endemic foci in north kyongsangbuk-do (province) and north and east kyonggi-do. nmes activities greatly contributed in accelerating the control and later eradi ...011002647
current status of vivax malaria among civilians in korea.a result of national malaria surveillance in korean civilians was described. since a case of indigenous vivax malaria was detected in 1993, a total of 2,198 cases was confirmed by blood smear up to 1997. of them, 1,548 cases were soldiers serving in the demilitarized zone (dmz), while 650 cases were civilians. number of civilian cases was 3 in 1994, 19 in 1995, 71 in 1996, and 557 in 1997. of them, 239 were ex-soldiers who discharged after military service in the prevalent areas such as paju, yo ...09868889
malaria studies in japan after world war ii. part ii. the research for anopheles sinensis sibling species group. 196014429383
insecticide susceptibility tests on adults of anopheles sinensis in korea.the authors carried out two series of field test to determine the basic lines of ddt and dieldrin susceptibility of anopheles sinensis at andong(1961) and yoju(1962), where malaria endemicity is relatively high in korea. tests were performed in accordance with the standard method established by the world health oraganization(1960). the results were summarized as follows: 1. the lc-50 of ddt for a. sinensis caught at andong as 1.5 %, while for the same species in yoju was 1.3 %. 2. the lc-50 of d ...196712913564
[study on natural infection of plasmodium vivax in anopheles sinensis in korea]on epidemiological grounds, anopheles sinensis has been suspected for many years to be the malaria vector in korea. of 7,517 dissections of a. sinensis, one specimen was found for the first time in korea naturally infected with sporozoites in august 1962. experimental infection of a. sinensis with plasmodium vivax had been successfully conducted at earlier date.196712913558
[insecticide tests for resistance on adults of anopheles sinensis and culex tritaeniorhynchus in korea]during the summer season(july-august) in 1967, the insecticide tests for resistance on adult a. sinensis and c. tritaeniorhynchus were carried out in gobu-myun jeongup-gun, chollapuk-do, where many japanese encephalitis cases occur every year. 1)the mortality by 4.0% ddt in a. sinensis was 88.9% and by 4.0% dieldrin was 84.4%. therefore the lc-50 of ddt for a. sinensis was 1.75%, while lc-50 of dieldrin was 1.1%. 2)the mortality by 4.0% ddt in c. tritaeniorhynchus was 36.7%, and by 4.0% dieldrin ...196912913538
kurotori virus: a virus newly isolated from anopheles sinensis and pathogenic to mice. i. isolation and properties. 19734199703
[natural transition of endemicity of malayan flariasis in inland korea: pattern of change in microfilaria rate among inhabitants of yongpung (former yongju) area during the period of the last seven years]with a purpose to find out natural transition of endemicity of malayan filariasis in inland korea, a survey was conducted in june 1980 in isan-myeon of yongpung-gun (former yongju-gun) where an epidemiological investigation had been carried out in 1973 without any control activities such as chemotherapy. five sample villages were surveyed for microfilaremia by 20 microliter night blood examination among inhabitants and the results of the surveys conducted in 1973 and 1980 were compared to determ ...198012902727
[experimental infection of anopheles sinensis of zhengzhou and xingang districts with plasmodium (author's transl)]. 19827049622
[comparative observations on the salivary gland chromosomes of the fourth instar larva of anopheles sinensis in various districts]. 19836678658
[comparisons on life table characteristics among various geographical strains of anopheles sinensis from zhengzhou (henan), shanghai and youxi (fujian)]. 19836678661
bionomics of anopheles sinensis wiedmann in henan province. 19836418470
preliminary field trials of romanomermis jingdeensis against anopheles sinensis in the suburbs of shanghai. 19846440752
[gonotrophic cycle of anopheles sinensis in the north of yanchen, jiangsu]. 19846518643
collection of adult and larval mosquitoes in u.s. army compounds in the republic of korea during 1979~1983.this paper is the result of adult female mosquito and larval collection in u.s. army installations in korea from 1979 to 1983. new jersey light traps ere operated for ault collection from may to october. the primary concern of this surveillance is to determine when to recommend insecticide spraying for mosquito control in the army areas. the 5th preventive medicine unit have developed an "index" level of female mosquitoes in a light trap similar to other agencies in other parts of the w ...198412891039
[scanning electron microscopic observation of anopheles sinensis wied ova of various geographic strains]. 19846467544
[investigation and quantitative analysis of the components of vectorial capacity of anopheles sinensis]. 19846467539
[experimental observation on the effectiveness of pirimiphosmethyl and decamethrin against anopheles sinensis]. 19854006117
seasonal prevalence of the vector mosquitoes of japanese encephalitis virus in kyungpook province, order to determine the seasonal prevalence and population density of vector mosquitoes in kyungpook province, a survey based on average number of female mosquito per trap-night, were carried out during the period from may to november in 1984. among the 34,571 mosquitoes collected in kyungsan county in animal shelters and human dwellings by light traps, approximately 45.0 % were culex tritaeniorhynchus, 34.0 % per cent culex pipiens pallens, and 19.0 per cent anopheles sinensis. by comparison, ...198512888695
[comparative studies on isoenzyme patterns, proteins, sugars and lipids of four geographic strains of anopheles sinensis]. 19853837706
epidemiological studies on malayan filariasis in an inland area in kyungpook, korea 3. ecological survey of vector mosquitoes of brugia malayi.the species composition, population density, and seasonal prevalence of vector mosquitoes in an inland area of kyungpook province were studied, based on light trap and human bait trap collections, and the recent patterns of infestation for infective larvae of brugia malayi in these vector hosts were investigated from may to november in 1985. nine species in four genera of mosquitoes were collected by light trap, human bait trap, and/or by nets. anopheles sinensis wiedemann was the most abundant ...198612886104
[on the surveying method for man-biting rate of anopheles sinensis]. 19863802431
[the occurrence of the mermithid nematode romanomermis jingdeensis in the pupae and adults of anopheles sinensis]. 19863769153
[a preliminary study on the infectivity of different geographic strains of plasmodium vivax to anopheles sinensis]. 19873329066
evaluation of permethrin-impregnated mosquito-nets against mosquitoes in yishan county, guangxi province, china, where malaria and brugian filariasis are transmitted by vectors belonging to the anopheles hyrcanus pallas group, a study was conducted from june to november 1986 to evaluate the effectiveness of permethrin-impregnated mosquito bednets to reduce man/vector contact. in three experimental villages a total of 246 mosquito nets were treated with permethrin ec at a dosage of 0.5 g/m2. control bioassays (1 h exposure) of treated nets gave up to 100% mortality ...19882908784
[a longitudinal observation on the vectorial capacity of anopheles sinensis in vivax malaria endemic area]. 19883073014
[effects of brugia malayi infection on the fecundity and survival rate of anopheles sinensis]. 19883180366
[comparison of protein variation between anopheles sinensis from wuxi and zhengzhou]. 19883242968
[experimental observation on the effectiveness of pirimiphos methyl against anopheles sinensis]. 19883383392
[identification of the short arm of the sex chromosome of the polytene chromosomes of the salivary gland of anopheles sinensis]. 19883180362
[a paracentric inversion in the salivary gland chromosome 3r of anopheles sinensis].an inversion heterozygote has been found in the fourth stage larvae of the laboratory line of shanghai anopheles sinensis in our laboratory, the frequency of occurrence of the heterozygote being 2 to 5%. the characteristic inversion loop formed in the midst of chromosome 3r together with the break points arises from 26c to 30a segment of the chromosomes. this inversion paracentric is the first record in the literature available and may be of significance as a genetic marker in studying the inter ...19892633892
[comparative studies on several biochemical indices of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis].proteins, sugars and esterase isoenzymes of an. anthropophagus and an. sinensis were compared by ief and two dimensional gel electrophoresis. the results show that there are some differences in the electrophoretic patterns between an. anthropophagus and an. sinensis. the glycoprotein, lipid protein, glycolipidprotein, protein, polysaccharide and esterase isoenzymes showed 10, 0, 6, 14, 2 and 13 bands in an. anthropophagus; 10, 1, 5, 16, 3 and 15 in an. sinensis. there exist 234 and 240 polypepti ...19892633890
observations on the clinical manifestations and treatment of an experimental infection with brugia malayi in man.this paper reports clinical observations made during experimental brugia malayi infection in man. this was induced by 52 infective larvae-carrying mosquitoes, anopheles sinensis. a monkey, maccaca mulatta, was inoculated with infective larvae from the mosquitoes infected with nocturnally periodic type of b. malayi from patients. six months later, the monkey became a microfilaria carrier. nine days later, the subject was experimentally bitten by mosquitoes infected from biting the monkey, with an ...19892565406
[observation on the intake of brugia malayi microfilariae by anopheles sinensis and host efficiency].the experiments were carried out under the controlled conditions with temperature at 26 +/- 1 degree c and relative humidity 75-85%. the brugian microfilariae from the peritoneal cavity of mongolian jirds, mixed with rabbit blood, were ingested by anopheles mosquitoes through the artificial membrane. the experimental data show that the number of microfilariae ingested is fewer than would be expected from the microfilarial densities in the blood meal. the linear regression shows their quantitativ ...19892624934
[studies on the variability of incubation period of vivax malaria following mosquito biting].from september 1985 to may 1987, 30 people were experimentally infected by anopheles sinensis infected with plasmodium vivax isolated from northwestern part of hunan province. the findings displayed in graphs demonstrate that the incubation period was variably depended on the number of infective mosquitoes used in the experiment. the short incubation period of 15.8 +/- 1.9d was frequently observed in 6 persons bitten by 10 infected mosquitoes. however, when one mosquito was allowed to feed on ea ...19892670311
trial of deltamethrin impregnated bed nets for the control of malaria transmitted by anopheles sinensis and anopheles 1985-1987, a field trial of malaria control using deltamethrin impregnated mosquito nets was carried out with 4,450 people in the buji district, bao'an county, guangdong province, china. the vectors were exophilic anopheles sinensis (80%) and the endophilic and anthropophilic an. anthropophagus (20%). the first impregnation of the nets was in june 1985 and the second in april 1986. about 87% of the population slept under treated nets. the indoor vector density decreased by 93% and remained at ...19892712195
quantitative studies on the development of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus.definite numbers of b. malayi mf were inoculated into an. sinensis and cx. quinquefasciatus, and their subsequent development was observed. the relationships between the dosage and the l3 positive rate on the one hand and the average filarial maturity rate on the other were defined. at the same dosages of 4 and 10 mf/mosquito, the l3 positive rates and the average filarial maturity rates in an. sinensis were much higher than those in cx. quinquefasciatus (p less than 0.01). it was demonstrated t ...19902075483
[malaria situation in china, 1989. advisory committee on parasitic diseases, moph].according to the case reporting system, malaria cases in the whole country (taiwan province not included) in 1989 accounted for 137,540, the incidence being 12.56/100,000, and lethal cases, 60. all these were close to those (134,156, 12.44/100,000, and 53) in 1988, while an insidious increase was in view. on the basis of county/city reckoning, about 984.5 million people reside in 2,576 counties/cities where malaria incidence was less than 0.1 per 1,000 (including non-endemic areas); 80.2 million ...19902099250
[experimental infection index of anopheles sinensis and melanization of periodic brugia malayi larvae].this paper deals with the infection index of anopheles sinensis infected with the blood meals of 9 different microfilarial densities (5-300 mf/10 microliters) of periodic brugia malayi. the results indicated that the mean number of microfilariae (mf) ingested by mosquitoes increased with the mf-density of the blood meal. the infection rates of vectors were 30, 65, 93 and 100%, when mf-densities were 5, 10, 20 and 50 mf/10 microliters respectively. although the infection rate was 100% when mf-den ...19902099254
[comparative studies on the role of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis in malaria transmission in china].this paper reports on the studies of the role of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis in malaria transmission in a sense to elucidate which one of the two species the predominance in this respect. systematic investigations including artificial infection of mosquitoes, quantitative entomological studies and parasitological research were conducted in 1982-1987 in 5 pilot areas in anhui (1), guangxi (2), sichuan (1) and guangdong (1). the results revealed that the susceptibility of an. a ...19902276188
[the natural infection rate of mosquitoes by japanese encephalitis b virus in yunnan province].in july-september 1983-1987, 57,898 adult female mosquitoes belonging to 29 species of 8 genera were collected from japanese b encephalitis (je) epidemic areas in yunnan, china, and were examined by c 6/36 cell method and sucking mouse method. twenty-eight strains of je virus were isolated from culex tritaeniorhychus, c. whitomorei, c. pseudovishnui, c. fuscocephala, c. annulus, c. gelidus, anopheles sinensis, mansonia uniformis, aedes albopictus, ae. vexans, ae. lineatopennis, and ae. assamensi ...19901979768
[restriction fragment length differences (rflds) of genomic dna from different geographical strains of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus].total dna was extracted from three geographical strains of anopheles sinensis and two geographical strains of anopheles anthropophagus and digested respectively with three restriction endonucleases (bgl ii, hae iii and pst i). the restriction fragment length differences (rflds) of repetitive dna detected after agarose gel electrophoretic separation and ethidium bromide staining were compared among the above-mentioned geographical strains of both an. sinensis and an. anthropohagus. the results in ...19901982859
[variations in reproductive capacity, gonotrophic cycle and longevity of anopheles sinensis infected by brugia malayi larvae].under the experimental conditions of 26 +/- 10 degrees c, relative humidity 70-80%, 100 +/- 20 lux and photoperiod 16 hours/day and using a membrane feeding method, the development of filarial larvae and the variations in reproductive capacity, gonotrophic cycle and longevity of an. sinensis infected with microfilariae of brugia malayi were observed. the infection rate and infection intensity of filarial larvae in an. sinensis increased with the microfilarial density in the blood meal from 50 to ...19912065448
pathogenicity of spiroplasma taiwanense for larval aedes aegypti mosquitoes.helical replicative forms, but not the persistent non-replicative forms, of spiroplasma taiwanense abalain-colloc et al. (isolated from the mosquito anopheles sinensis wiedemann in taiwan) were shown to reduce significantly the survival of aedes aegypti (l.) mosquito larvae reared in 10 ml of water with 0.3 ml of s.taiwanense suspensions added on days 0 and 3. the suspensions contained, respectively, helical forms at a concentration of 10(9) colour change units (ccu)/ml and persistent forms at 1 ...19911768913
the advantages of mosquito biocontrol by stocking edible fish in rice paddies.edible fish stocked in rice fields at a density of 600-800 fry per mu (1 mu = 1/15 hectare) for 150-170 days may act as an effective mosquito biocontrol agent. common carp (cyprinus carpio), grass carp ctenopharyngodon idella) and tilopia spp. killed late stage larvae and pupae of anopheles sinensis and culex tritaeniorrhyncus in laboratory and field trials. stocking of fish in experimental rice fields decreased larval numbers significantly in comparison with control areas. expansion of fish sto ...19911818398
[observations on the development of quantitatively inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus].with an improved technique, quantitative inoculation of brugia malayi microfilariae (mff) into anopheles sinensis and culex quinquefasciatus was carried out in our laboratory in 1988. the development of b. malayi mff in these two species of mosquitoes was observed. in the system of b. malayi and an. sinensis, a well-fitted linear correlation appeared between the number of mff inoculated and the infective larva (l3) positive rate (r = 0.9910; p less than 0.01). the regression equation with the re ...19911873882
threshold of transmission of brugia malayi by anopheles an area of central china where brugia malayi is transmitted by anopheles sinensis, three villages were followed for 4 years without any control measures. diethylcarbamazine (dec) had been used in a control programme reducing the parasite rate in shuiwa from 12.72 to 0.59%, in gubomen from 3.18 to 1.55% and in moshi from 5.62 to 2.81% (although this fell the following year to 2.23%) up until the start of the trial. the village populations, the human biting rate, the parous and the gonotrophic ...19911880826
[observation on the contraction process of ovarioles of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus after oviposition].in order to know the process of ovariole contraction after oviposition in anopheles sinensis and an. anthropophagus, and to determine the relationship between the ovariole contraction and the physiological age, the observation was conducted in 1988. the laboratory-reared female mosquitoes after 3-5 days of eclosion were fed with mouse blood and were kept in separate finger tubes for oviposition. after oviposition, the mosquitoes were dissected at different time. 30 ovarioles for each mosquito we ...19911959173
[observation on the effectiveness of repellent coating against mosquitoes].the present paper reports on the effectiveness of a repellent coating for the first time. the repellent coating was made by combining deta (n,n-diethyl-meta-toluamide) with slow-releasing reagent. with this coating employed in the laboratory against aedes aegypti, the rate of blood-sucking was 3.9-9.5% and the rate of protection was 88.9-95.3% for 1-720 days. during 1-77 days' field trial, the rpi (relative population index) was 0-8.98% in the day-time and 0.74-17.15 during the night-time agains ...19921307278
[observation on the early development of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in mosquitoes].this paper reports the early development and variation of inoculated brugia malayi microfilariae in 3 groups of mosquitoes, i. e. young anopheles sinensis, young culex quinquefasciatus and old cx. quinquefasciatus. significant differences were observed among these groups. sixty hours after inoculation, the percentage of normally developing filarial larvae in young an. sinensis was 72.3%; the percentage of melanized microfilariae in young cx. quinquefasciatus was 75.4% and the percentage of filar ...19921363886
[dna probe for identification of sibling species of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus].genomic dna libraries of anopheles sinensis and anopheles anthropophagus were constructed. the positive clones suitable for discrimination sibling species of an. sinensis and an. anthropophagus were screened and a clone from an. sinensis dna library was selected and the insert dna was used as a dna probe to test dot blot of genomic dna from an. sinensis and an. anthropophagus. the results showed that the dna probe hybridized with all stages of an. sinensis dna, but had very weak hybridization si ...19921303333
epidemio-entomological survey on malarial vector mosquitoes in kyongbuk, order to determine population dynamics of anopheles sinensis, a survey based on average number of female mosquitoes per trap-night was carried out during the period of 5 years from 1987 to 1991. a. sinensis first appeared between the 2nd and 20th april, and were trapped in large number between the 5th and 12th july. the number of trapped mosquitoes began to decrease from mid-august, and a few were collected until mid-november, each year. the average number of a. sinensis in july was 542.6 per ...19921363628
effect of intermittent irrigation on mosquitoes (diptera: culicidae) and larvivorous predators in rice fields.effect of intermittent irrigation to facilitate rice production on rice-field mosquitoes and larvivorous predators was studied in saga, japan. mosquitoes and associated taxa were sampled by dipping in two rice fields subject to intermittent irrigation and in one rice field that remained flooded throughout the study period of approximately 1 mo. with the onset of intermittent irrigation, larval mosquito (culex tritaeniorhynchus giles and anopheles sinensis wiedemann) abundance decreased; reirriga ...19938096247
the ecology of anopheline mosquitos in northwest coastal malaysia: larval habitats and adult seasonal abundance.collections of anopheline mosquitos were made twice monthly for 13 months from a cow-baited trap in two villages, kampung permatang rawa and sungai udang kecil, on mainland coastal penang, malaysia. each collection period was six hours from sunset. unquantified larval collections were made regularly in each area. although the villages were only about 50km apart, and each had extensive, irrigated rice-fields in its vicinity, the species abundance and the seasonal fluctuations differed significant ...19938160063
[occurrence of culex modestus inatomii kamimura et wada in rongcheng city, shandong province].a mosquito survey was made at rongcheng city, shandong province in august, 1991. altogether 4 genera and 8 species of mosquitoes were collected in this survey, namely aedes dorsalis (meigen), anopheles sinensis wiedemann, an. yatsushiroensis miyazaki, culex fuscanus wiedemann, cx. modestus inatomii kamimura et wada, cx. pipiens pallens coquillett, cx. tritaeniorhynchus giles and mansonia uniformis (theobald). among them cx. modestus inatomii and an. yatsushiroensis were found to be the first rec ...19938403280
metaphase karyotypes of anopheles of thailand and southeast asia: i. the hyrcanus group.metaphase karyotypes of 6 species of the hyrcanus species group of the subgenus anopheles show constitutive heterochromatin variation in x and y chromosomes. anopheles peditaeniatus exhibits the most extensive variation in the size and shape of heterochromatic sex chromosomes, with 3 types of x and 5 types of y chromosomes. anopheles nitidus shows the least variation, with only 2 types of x chromosomes. anopheles sinensis and an. crawfordi each have 2 forms of metaphase karyotype in the heteroch ...19938468575
urbanization and its effects on the ecology of mosquitoes in macau, southeast asia.recent urbanization in macau has resulted in the precipitous decline to zero in populations of several anopheline vectors of malaria while providing optimal habitat for the population increase in culicines. of 18 species of mosquitoes reported in macau in recent years, 15 species are included here. culex quinquefasciatus, culex sitiens, and aedes albopictus were the most abundant species. notes are provided for anopheles sinensis, armigeres magnus, armigeres subalbatus, culex foliatus, culex fus ...19947707061
[preliminary estimation of malaria transmission potential in areas where anopheles sinensis is the only vector].the data, vectorial capacity of anopheles sinensis in the suburb of jining city, shandong province in 1975, in 1980-1984, and the average gland infection rate of anopheles sinensis infected with plasmodium vivax artificially, were calculated by using macdonald formula (1957). the basic reproduction rates were 4.44, 6.47 and 4.25 in the years 1975, 1980 and 1981, respectively. in 1982-1984, the rate was reduced to 0.69, 0.41 and 0.1, respectively. since 1982, the incidence rate of malaria in the ...19947720199
a successful control programme for lymphatic filariasis in hubei, china.this paper describes the epidemiology and control of human lymphatic filariasis in hubei province, china from the 1950s to the 1990s. brugia malayi, transmitted by anopheles sinensis, and wuchereria bancrofti, transmitted by culex quinquefasciatus, were found in 69 of 78 counties and cities. the distribution of filaria species was distinct, with b. malayi endemic in the plains, mixed infections in hilly areas, and w. bancrofti in the mountains. before 1979, the microfilaria rate (mfr) in some vi ...19947992323
two vivax malaria cases detected in korea.on june and july 1994, two cases of vivax malaria were consecutively diagnosed at the yongsan hospital, chung-ang university in seoul. the first patient was a soldier serving in western parts of the demilitarized zone (dmz) while the second case was a resident of a village near dmz. neither patients had history of being abroad. republic of korea (rok) has been free of malaria since the mid-1970s except for imported cases. the two vivax malaria cases, together with an additional patient detected ...19947834248
[the mosquitocidal efficacy of microcapsules of alpha-cypermethrin against anopheles sinensis].the efficacy of spraying of alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule for the control of anopheles sinensis was investigated when alpha-cypermethrin microcapsule was sprayed at 0.5 g/m2, the kt50 was 7.9 min and a 100% of 24 hours' mortality of an. sinensis, the efficacy being similar to that of the emulsion. 180 days after spray, the kt50 was 28.2 min, the 24 hours' mortality was 85.7%, the residual efficacy was 3 times over that of the emulsion. in the mimic field experiment, similar results were obtain ...19948044904
[seasonal prevalence and behaviour of aedes togoi].ecological studies of aedes togoi, the vector of malayan filariasis, were carried out at tolsando, yosu and sokcho area in 1991. the adult population of aedes togoi was continuously appeared from the first week of april to the end of november showing the highest density in july. the larvae of aedes togoi were found at rock pools from march to december in sokcho area and the density was highest in july and august, whereas in the southern coastal area (yosu), the larvae were found throughout the y ...19957735782
[histochemical changes in brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis].histochemical changes in normal and brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis were observed using histochemical technique. the results showed that the activity of alkaline phosphatase (akp) and acid phosphatase (acp) and the content of glycogen and basic protein in brugia malayi microfilariae-infected anopheles sinensis were less obviously than those of the normal control. esterase (est) activity was reduced slightly and acetylcholinesterase (ache) remained no change in infected mo ...19957554161
[studies on elements in anopheles sinensis infected with brugia malayi microfilariae].amounts of certain elements in anopheles sinensis, both normal ones (emerged mosquitoes, d0, d5, d8, d12 and d18 after taking blood meal) and those infected with brugia malayi microfilaria (d5, d8, d12 and d18 after infection), were determined using il-551 and pe-603 atomic absorption spectrometer (aas). the results showed that 9 kinds of trace elements including fe, zn, cu, cd, al, pb, mn, ni and cr and 4 kinds of macro elements as k, na, ca, mg were present in both the noninfected and infected ...19958556801
experimental and field studies on some biological characteristics of plasmodium vivax isolated from tropical and temperate zones of clarify some biological behaviors of plasmodium vivax including the periodical infectivity of gametocytes for mosquitoes, the prepatent period, the incubation period, the relapse patterns and their relationship.19968758285
effects of brugia malayi infection on the survival of anopheles sinensis.effect of different numbers of infecting brugia malayi on the survival of anopheles sinensis were quantitatively studied in our laboratory. four groups of healthy adult female mosquitos were tested. they were named g-0, g-1, g-2 and g-3, in which the numbers of microfilariae (mf) infecting per mosquito were 0, 5, 10 and 50, respectively. the experimental infection was conducted by inoculating the mf into the bodies of mosquitos through the neck membrane with a microinjector. it was observed that ...19969031418
field trials of combined use of two species of mermithid nematodes to control anopheles and culex breeding in china.the field tests of combined use of romanomermis yunanensis 2000-3000 larvae per sq m and romanomermis sp 1000-2000 larvae per sq m in rice fields. ponds and streams in four cities of china, resulted in 60.8-95.5% parasitism in culex tritaeniorhynchus, cx. quinquefasciatus, anopheles sinensis and an. anthropophagus. this successful use of two species of romanomermis together not only curb mosquito nuisance it also controls the major vectors of malaria, filariasis and encephalitis b in china.19969125829
field-simulated residual efficacy of betacyfluthrin against anopheles sinensis wiedemann.the residual efficacy of a relatively new pyrethroid, betacyfluthrin was compared with ddt against anopheles sinensis wiedemann in some village houses in penang, malaysia, for a period of 30 weeks. efficacy was determined by exposing laboratory-cultured an. sinensis mosquitos to treated wall surfaces with either betacyfluthrin at 15 and 25 mg/m2 or ddt at 2,000 mg/m2 for one hour. betacyfluthrin provided a longer residual effect (up to 210 days with > 70% mortality) compared with ddt. the potent ...19979322312
comparative susceptibility of two forms of anopheles sinensis wiedemann 1828 (diptera : culicidae) to infection with plasmodium falciparum, p. vivax, p. yoelii and the determination of misleading factor for sporozoite identification.two karyotypic forms of laboratory-raised anopheles sinensis, ie form a (xy1) and form b (xy2), were experimentally infected with various indigenous strains of plasmodium falciparum and p. vivax using an artificial membrane feeding technique, and a rodent malaria, p. yoelii, using a direct feeding technic and dissected 7-9 days and 10-15 days after feeding for oocyst and sporozoite rates, respectively. the results revealed that two forms of an. sinensis were refractory vectors for p. falciparum ...19989740293
resurgence of vivax malaria in henan province, china.henan province (population, 90 million) in china has nonstable endemic malaria. after 1970 when 10.2 million cases of malaria were reported in the province, a huge control programme was undertaken, and in the mid-1980s indoor spraying and bednet impregnation with pyrethroids began. by 1992 only 318 cases were reported. in 1992 henan declared "basic elimination of malaria" and in consequence spraying and bednet impregnation ceased after 1994. subsequently, malaria broke out again in southern hena ...19989744246
isoenzyme study and hybridization of two forms of anopheles sinensis (diptera: culicidae) in northern thailand.the screening of ten isoenzymes of two forms of anopheles sinensis, form a and b, using electrophoretic gels revealed that est-5(96) allele was the marker in both 4th larva and adult female of an. sinensis form b, whereas it was lacking in form a. hybridization tests of the two sinensis forms were done by induced copulation. the results of crosses indicated that they were genetically compatible, providing viable progeny and completely synaptic polytene chromosomes.199810772574
a new species of anopheles hyrcanus group from nei mongol autonomous region (diptera:culicidae).morphology of anopheles (anopheles) hailarensis, a new species belonging to the anopheles hyrcanus group, collected from hailaer, nei mongol autonomous region, p. r. of china, is described in adult, pupal, larval and egg stages. it is closely related to anopheles sinensis wiedemann, 1828 and anopheles heiheensis ma, 1981. comparisons on adult morphology among above three species and egg morphology between the new species and anopheles sinensis are made.199812078208
[observation on the susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to periodic brugia malayi microfilariae].to explore the susceptibility of anopheles sinensis to brugia malayi microfilariae of different densities.199812078219
[detection of brugia malayi larva in mosquito vector by pcr and pcr-elisa].to develop sensitive, specific, simple assays for the detection of brugia malayi larva in mosquito vectors.199812078257
[observation on the infectivity of different densities of plasmodium vivax to anopheles sinensis].to study the infectivity of different densities of p. vivax to an. sinensis.199812078276
effect of two rice culture methods on the seasonal occurrence of mosquito larvae and other aquatic animals in rice fields of southwestern ecological study has been performed on the community structures of aquatic animals and on abiotic factors in organically and conventionally-farmed rice fields at bulkyo, bosong-gun, chollanamdo during the rice growing periods between may 1995 and october 1996. the total numbers of aquatic insect taxa in these fields were 25 species, 22 families in 10 orders. in 1995 and 1996, three and then four more species of aquatic insects were collected in the organically-farmed rice fields than in conve ...19989879072
[laboratory rearing technique of anopheles sinensis]. 199912563751
resistance to two pyrethroids in anopheles sinensis from zhejiang, china.probabilities of pyrethroid resistant genotypes in natural populations of anopheles sinensis wiedemann were measured with deltamethrin and permethrin. the median lethal concentrations (lc50s) of deltamethrin and permethrin in the susceptible larval population were 0.0209 and 0.1747 ppm, respectively. under dosages that produced 99% mortality in susceptible laboratory strains of larvae, the lethal percentage of cangnan larval field populations after 20 min of exposure was only 61.23% for deltamet ...199910480120
evaluation of the malaria threat at the multipurpose range complex, yongp'yong, republic of part of an operational effort to control the transmission of malaria after its reemergence in the republic of korea, a number of u.s. military and korean civilian health workers assessed the situation at a large training site where two cases had been transmitted. the vector mosquitoes (anopheles sinensis) probably had a limited flight range (< 1 km) in this situation based on low numbers in permanent light traps and biting collections at the billeting area compared with collections from light ...199910495632
re-emerging plasmodium vivax malaria in the republic of korea.plasmodium vivax malaria, which was highly prevalent in the republic of korea, disappeared rapidly since 1970s. however, malaria re-emerged with the first occurrence of a patient in 1993 near the demilitarized zone (dmz), the border between south korea and north korea. thereafter, the number of cases increased exponentially year after year, totaling 6,142 cases (6,249 if united states army personnels were included) by the end of 1998. interestingly enough, the majority of cases (3,743; 61%) was ...199910507220
mosquito surveillance in the demilitarized zone, republic of korea, during an outbreak of plasmodium vivax malaria in 1996 and 1997.since 1993, more than 2,000 cases of vivax malaria have occurred in the republic of korea in an epidemic that ended nearly 20 malaria-free years. most malaria has occurred in the northwestern part of the country, mainly affecting korean military personnel. as a part of an operational surveillance effort, we sampled mosquitoes in and near the demilitarized zone (paju county, kyonggi province) during the last 2 wk of july in 1996 and from may 15 to september 10 in 1997. the 1st year, landing colle ...200010901633
[malaria situation in the people's republic of china in 1999].although the middle and lower reaches of changjiang river were consecutively stricken by severe flood in 1998 and 1999, the transmission of malaria was not frequent and prevalence of the disease was basically stable with no reports of outbreaks in the above areas, which was attributed to the intensification of malaria surveillance, prompt implementation of integrated measures including mosquito control and chemoprophylaxis, as well as the zoophilous trend of anopheles sinensis, the vector in the ...200012567683
[survey of susceptibility of anopheline vectors to insecticides in a malaria mesoendemic area, hubei province].to determine the susceptibility of anopheles anthropophagus and anopheles sinensis to deltamethrin and ddt in an area where different counter-measures had been adopted.200012567689
resistance and response to selection to deltamethrin in anopheles sinensis from zhejiang, china.resistance levels to deltamethrin were measured in 5 natural populations of anopheles sinensis. the median lethal concentrations (lc50s) of deltamethrin in these populations were higher than those in susceptible strains originating from the same populations, especially in the wenzhou population, which had a resistance ratio (rr50) of 11 relative to its susceptible strain. resistant strains were selected with deltamethrin for 12 generations. resistance levels in resistant strains were 130 to 190- ...200010757484
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