phylogenomic analysis of polyketide synthase-encoding genes in trichoderma.members of the economically important ascomycete genus trichoderma are ubiquitously distributed around the world. the mycoparasitic lifestyle and plant defence-inducing interactions of trichoderma spp. make them ideal biocontrol agents. of the trichoderma enzymes that produce secondary metabolites, some of which likely play important roles in biocontrol processes, polyketide synthase (pkss) have garnered less attention than non-ribosomal peptide synthetases such as those that produce peptaibols. ...201222096146
tanshinone iia and tanshinone i production by trichoderma atroviride d16, an endophytic fungus in salvia this study the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the root of the medicinal herb salvia miltiorrhiza bunge is reported for the first time. the fungus produced tanshinone i and tanshinone iia in rich mycological medium (potato dextrose broth) under shake flask and bench scale fermentation conditions. the fungus was identified as trichoderma atroviride by its morphology and authenticated by its analysis (its1 and its2 regions and the intervening 5.8s rdna region). tanshinone i and tanshinon ...201122035769
Secondary metabolism in Trichoderma - a genomic perspective.Trichoderma spp. are a rich source of secondary metabolites (SMs). The recent publication of the genome sequences of three Trichoderma spp. has revealed a vast repertoire of genes putatively involved in the biosynthesis of SMs, such as non-ribosomal peptides, polyketides, terpenoids and pyrones. Interestingly, the genomes of the mycoparasitic species Trichoderma virens and Trichoderma atroviride are enriched in secondary metabolism-related genes compared with the biomass-degrading Trichoderma re ...201221998165
properties of secreted protease from vegetative trichoderma atroviride mycelia cultivated with protein inducer reveal a complex protein-recognition this study, the submerged cultivation of trichoderma atroviride with protein substrate (bovine serum albumin, casein, ovalbumin, etc.) led to the secretion of protease activity (pa) into the medium. the secretion started within 30 h and rose to the maximum after 72-h cultivation. it continued upon the prolonged cultivation (up to 8 days) with lower secreted pa. zymography of the secreted protease (sds-page with 0.2% gelatine), revealing high molecular weight (m.w.) protease(s) (~200 kda) with ...201121858658
proteomic analysis of trichoderma atroviride reveals independent roles for transcription factors blr-1 and blr-2 in light and darkness.the genus trichoderma is one of the most widely used biological control agents of plant-pathogenic fungi. the main mechanism for survival and dispersal of trichoderma is through the production of asexual spores (conidia). the transition from filamentous growth to conidiation can be triggered by light, nutrient deprivation, and mechanical damage of the mycelium. we conducted proteomic profiling analyses of trichoderma atroviride after a blue light pulse. the use of two-dimensional electrophoresis ...201222058143
The seven-transmembrane receptor Gpr1 governs processes relevant for the antagonistic interaction of Trichoderma atroviride with its host.Mycoparasitic Trichoderma species are applied as biocontrol agents in agriculture to guard plants against fungal diseases. During mycoparasitism, Trichoderma directly interacts with phytopathogenic fungi, preceded by a specific recognition of the host and resulting in its disarming and killing. In various fungal pathogens, including mycoparasites, signalling via heterotrimeric G proteins plays a major role in regulating pathogenicity-related functions. However, the corresponding receptors involv ...201222075023
trichoderma-induced plant immunity likely involves both hormonal- and camalexin-dependent mechanisms in arabidopsis thaliana and confers resistance against necrotrophic fungi botrytis cinerea.filamentous fungi belonging to the genus trichoderma have long been recognized as agents for the biocontrol of plant diseases. in this work, we investigated the mechanisms involved in the defense responses of arabidopsis thaliana seedlings elicited by co-culture with trichoderma virens and trichoderma atroviride. interaction of plant roots with fungal mycelium induced growth and defense responses, indicating that both processes are not inherently antagonist. expression studies of the pathogenesi ...201121931272
[anaerobic growth ability and alcohol fermentation activity of microscopic fungi].the method proposed in this study was used to isolate fungi grown under anaerobic conditions and to reveal distinctions in their abundance and species composition in different habitats. the ability of micromycetes of different taxa to grow under anaerobic conditions and ensure alcohol fermentation was determined for a representative sample (344 strains belonging to more than 60 species). the group of fungi growing under anaerobic conditions included species with high, moderate, and low fermentat ...201122808743
glutamic acid decarboxylase gene disruption reveals signalling pathway(s) governing complex morphogenic and metabolic events in trichoderma atroviride.glutamate decarboxylase (gad) catalyses decarboxylation of glutamate to gamma-aminobutyrate (gaba) in a metabolic pathway connected to citrate cycle and known as gaba shunt. the gene (gad) was disrupted in trichoderma atroviride ccm f-534 and viable mutants were characterized. two of them were found to arise by homologous recombination and were devoid of both gad activity and gaba. mutants grew slower as compared to the wild type (f534). in the submerged culture, mutants developed less co2 and c ...201323912446
transcriptomic responses of a simplified soil microcosm to a plant pathogen and its biocontrol agent reveal a complex reaction to harsh habitat.soil microorganisms are key determinants of soil fertility and plant health. soil phytopathogenic fungi are one of the most important causes of crop losses worldwide. microbial biocontrol agents have been extensively studied as alternatives for controlling phytopathogenic soil microorganisms, but molecular interactions between them have mainly been characterised in dual cultures, without taking into account the soil microbial community. we used an rna sequencing approach to elucidate the molecul ...201627784266
hr4 gene is induced in the arabidopsis-trichoderma atroviride beneficial interaction.plants are constantly exposed to microbes, for this reason they have evolved sophisticated strategies to perceive and identify biotic interactions. thus, plants have large collections of so-called resistance (r) proteins that recognize specific microbe factors as signals of invasion. one of these proteins is codified by the arabidopsis thaliana hr4 gene in the col-0 ecotype that is homologous to rpw8 genes present in the ms-0 ecotype. in this study, we investigated the expression patterns of the ...201222942755
the epl1 and sm1 proteins from trichoderma atroviride and trichoderma virens differentially modulate systemic disease resistance against different life style pathogens in solanum lycopersicum.fungi belonging to the genus trichoderma, commonly found in soil or colonizing plant roots, exert beneficial effects on plants, including the promotion of growth and the induction of resistance to disease. t. virens and t. atroviride secrete the proteins sm1 and epl1, respectively, which elicit local and systemic disease resistance in plants. in this work, we show that these fungi promote growth in tomato (solanum lycopersicum) plants. t. virens was more effective than t. atroviride in promoting ...201525755658
the rhizobacterium arthrobacter agilis produces dimethylhexadecylamine, a compound that inhibits growth of phytopathogenic fungi in vitro.plant diseases caused by fungal pathogens such as botrytis cinerea and the oomycete phytophthora cinnamomi affect agricultural production worldwide. control of these pests can be done by the use of fungicides such as captan, which may have deleterious effects on human health. this study demonstrates that the rhizobacterium arthrobacter agilis umcv2 produces volatile organic compounds that inhibit the growth of b. cinerea in vitro. a single compound from the volatile blends, namely dimethylhexade ...201323674267
molecular characterization of the putative transcription factor seba involved in virulence in aspergillus fumigatus.aspergillus fumigatus is a major opportunistic pathogen and allergen of mammals. nutrient sensing and acquisition mechanisms, as well as the capability to cope with different stressing conditions, are essential for a. fumigatus virulence and survival in the mammalian host. this study characterized the a. fumigatus seba transcription factor, which is the putative homologue of the factor encoded by trichoderma atroviride seb1. the δseba mutant demonstrated reduced growth in the presence of paraqua ...201222345349
improving 2-phenylethanol and 6-pentyl-α-pyrone production with fungi by microparticle-enhanced cultivation (mpec).trichoderma atroviride imi 206040 synthesizes the coconut lactone 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6-pap) de novo and aspergillus niger dsm 821 produces the rose-like flavour compound 2-phenylethanol (2-pe) from the precursor l-phenylalanine. here, microparticles of different chemical composition and nominal particle diameter in the range 5-250 µm were added to shake-flask cultures of both fungi to investigate the particles' effect on product formation. maximum 2-pe concentration increased by a factor of 1.3 ...201524910400
the capability of endophytic fungi for production of hemicellulases and related enzymes.there is an imperative necessity for alternative sources of energy able to reduce the world dependence of fossil oil. one of the most successful options is ethanol obtained mainly from sugarcane and corn fermentation. the foremost residue from sugarcane industry is the bagasse, a rich lignocellulosic raw material uses for the production of ethanol second generation (2g). new cellulolytic and hemicellulytic enzymes are needed, in order to optimize the degradation of bagasse and production of etha ...201324175970
direct plantlet inoculation with soil or insect-associated fungi may control cabbage root fly maggots.a potential delia radicum biological control strategy involving cauliflower plantlet inoculation with various fungi was investigated in a series of laboratory and glasshouse experiments. in addition to entomopathogenic fungi, fungi with a high rhizosphere competence and fungi with the ability to survive as saprotrophs in soil were tested. the following fungal species were evaluated in the experiments: trichoderma atroviride, t. koningiopsis, t. gamsii, beauveria bassiana, metharhizium anisopliae ...201424907449
evaluation of insect associated and plant growth promoting fungi in the control of cabbage root flies.delia radicum l. or cabbage maggot is an important pest for brassicaceous crops. there are currently no registered chemical control agents for its control in slovenia. fungal control agents for cabbage maggot were therefore sought among nine rhizosphere-compatible and plant growth-promoting, soil-adapted, and entomopathogenic species to cabbage maggots and were assayed in in vitro and soil laboratory bioassays. in the in vitro tests, the conidial suspensions were applied directly to cabbage magg ...201425195421
the interaction of fungi with the environment orchestrated by rnai.the fungal kingdom has been key in the investigation of the biogenesis and function of small rnas (srnas). the discovery of phenomena such as quelling in neurospora crassa represents pioneering work in the identification of the main elements of the rna interference (rnai) machinery. recent discoveries in the regulatory mechanisms in some yeast and filamentous fungi are helping us reach a deeper understanding of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional gene-silencing mechanisms involved in ge ...201626932186
role of the methylcitrate cycle in growth, antagonism and induction of systemic defence responses in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride.methylisocitrate lyase (mcl), a signature enzyme of the methylcitrate cycle, which cleaves methylisocitrate to pyruvate and succinate, is required for propionate metabolism, for secondary metabolite production and for virulence in bacteria and fungi. here we investigate the role of the methylcitrate cycle by generating an mcl deletion mutant in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride. gene expression analysis shows that a basal expression of mcl is observed in all growth conditions te ...201324100269
the glyoxylate cycle is involved in pleotropic phenotypes, antagonism and induction of plant defence responses in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride.isocitrate lyase (icl), a signature enzyme of the glyoxylate cycle, is required for metabolism of non-fermentable carbon compounds like acetate or ethanol, and virulence in bacteria and fungi. in the present study, we investigate the role of the glyoxylate cycle in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride by generating icl deletion and complementation mutants. phenotypic analyses of the deletion mutant δicl suggest that icl is required for normal growth, conidial pigmentation and germi ...201323850601
disruption of the eng18b engase gene in the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride affects growth, conidiation and antagonistic ability.the recently identified phylogenetic subgroup b5 of fungal glycoside hydrolase family 18 genes encodes enzymes with mannosyl glycoprotein endo-n-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (engase)-type activity. intracellular engase activity is associated with the endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation pathway (erad) of misfolded glycoproteins, although the biological relevance in filamentous fungi is not known. trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasitic fungus that is used for biological control o ...201222586463
colonization of onions by endophytic fungi and their impacts on the biology of thrips tabaci.endophytic fungi, which live within host plant tissues without causing any visible symptom of infection, are important mutualists that mediate plant-herbivore interactions. thrips tabaci (lindeman) is one of the key pests of onion, allium cepa l., an economically important agricultural crop cultivated worldwide. however, information on endophyte colonization of onions, and their impacts on the biology of thrips feeding on them, is lacking. we tested the colonization of onion plants by selected f ...201425254657
white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw with phanerochaete chrysosporium for biohydrogen production: simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.this paper demonstrates biohydrogen production was enhanced by white-rot fungal pretreatment of wheat straw (ws) through simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf). wheat straw was pretreated by phanerochaete chrysosporium at 30 °c under solid state fermentation for 12 days, and lignin was removed about 28.5 ± 1.3 %. microscopic structure observation combined thermal gravity and differential thermal gravity analysis further showed that the lignocellulose structure obviously disrupted a ...201424429553
molecular characterisation of endophytic fungi from roots of wild banana (musa acuminata).endophytic fungi inhabit apparently healthy plant tissues and are prevalent in terrestrial plants, especially root tissues, which harbour a wide assemblage of fungal endophytes. therefore, this study focused on the isolation and characterisation of endophytic fungi from the roots of wild banana (musa acuminata). a total of 31 isolates of endophytic fungi were isolated from 80 root fragments. the endophytic fungi were initially sorted according to morphological characteristics and identified usin ...201627019688
generation of trichoderma atroviride mutants with constitutively activated g protein signaling by using geneticin resistance as selection marker.species of the fungal genus trichoderma are important industrial producers of cellulases and hemicellulases, but also widely used as biocontrol agents (bcas) in agriculture. in the latter function trichoderma species stimulate plant growth, induce plant defense and directly antagonize plant pathogenic fungi through their mycoparasitic capabilities. the recent release of the genome sequences of four mycoparasitic trichoderma species now forms the basis for large-scale genetic manipulations of the ...201223158850
molecular cloning of chitinase 33 (chit33) gene from trichoderma this study trichoderma atroviride was selected as over producer of chitinase enzyme among 30 different isolates of trichoderma sp. on the basis of chitinase specific activity. from this isolate the genomic and cdna clones encoding chit33 have been isolated and sequenced. comparison of genomic and cdna sequences for defining gene structure indicates that this gene contains three short introns and also an open reading frame coding for a protein of 321 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequenc ...200824031242
polymorphism and phylogenetic species delimitation in filamentous fungi from predominant mycobiota in withered grapes.filamentous fungi are the main pathogens of withered grapes destined for passito wine production. knowledge of which species inhabit these post-harvest fruits and their pathogenicity is essential in order to develop strategies to control infection, but is still scarce. this study investigated the predominant mycobiota of withered grapes through a cultivation-dependent approach. strain and species heterogeneity was evidenced on examining isolates collected over three consecutive years. colony mor ...201627591387
tomato progeny inherit resistance to the nematode meloidogyne javanica linked to plant growth induced by the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride.root-knot nematodes (rkn) are major crop pathogens worldwide. trichoderma genus fungi are recognized biocontrol agents and a direct activity of trichoderma atroviride (ta) against the rkn meloidogyne javanica (mj), in terms of 42% reduction of number of galls (ng), 60% of number of egg masses and 90% of number of adult nematodes inside the roots, has been observed in tomato grown under greenhouse conditions. an in vivo split-root designed experiment served to demonstrate that ta induces systemic ...201728071749
transcription factor xpp1 is a switch between primary and secondary fungal metabolism.fungi can produce a wide range of chemical compounds via secondary metabolism. these compounds are of major interest because of their (potential) application in medicine and biotechnology and as a potential source for new therapeutic agents and drug leads. however, under laboratory conditions, most secondary metabolism genes remain silent. this circumstance is an obstacle for the production of known metabolites and the discovery of new secondary metabolites. in this study, we describe the dual r ...201728074041
the transcription factor ste12 mediates the regulatory role of the tmk1 map kinase in mycoparasitism and vegetative hyphal fusion in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride.mycoparasitic species of the fungal genus trichoderma are potent antagonists able to combat plant pathogenic fungi by direct parasitism. an essential step in this mycoparasitic fungus-fungus interaction is the detection of the fungal host followed by activation of molecular weapons in the mycoparasite by host-derived signals. the trichoderma atroviride map kinase tmk1, a homolog of yeast fus3/kss1, plays an essential role in regulating the mycoparasitic host attack, aerial hyphae formation and c ...201425356841
the trichoderma atroviride photolyase-encoding gene is transcriptionally regulated by non-canonical light response elements.the blr-1 and blr-2 proteins of trichoderma atroviride are the neurospora crassa homologs of white collar-1 and -2, two transcription factors involved in the regulation of genes by blue light. blr-1 and blr-2 are essential for photoinduction of phr-1, a photolyase-encoding gene whose promoter exhibits sequences similar to well-characterized light regulatory elements of neurospora, including the albino proximal element and the light response element (lre). however, despite the fact that this gene ...201323721733
studying trophic interactions between a plant pathogen and two different antagonistic microorganisms using a 13c-labeled compound and isotope ratio mass spectrometry.the study of the interactions among microorganisms, especially between pathogens and other microorganisms, is a very useful way to identify possible biocontrol agents (bcas). in this study we verified the capability of δ(13)c analysis using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (irms) to detect active parasitism or metabolic assimilation of (13)c-labeled armillaria mellea (plant pathogen) by trichoderma atroviride and pseudomonas fluorescens (two bcas).201222302490
expression and characteristics of an endoglucanase from trichoderma atroviride (taegii) in saccharomyces cerevisiae.endoglucanase secreted by the fungus trichoderma atroviride is a kind of cellulase. an endoglucanase gene egii was cloned from t. atroviride as3.3013 and expressed in saccharomyces cerevisiae invsci. the open reading frame of the egii gene was composed of 1257 bp, encoding 418 amino acids with a molecular weight of 44.23 kda plus a signal peptide of 21 amino acids. based on sequence similarity, taegii belonged to the glycosyl hydrolase family 5. expression of the egii gene in t. atroviride as3.3 ...201728155168
endo-β-n-acetylglucosamidases (engases) in the fungus trichoderma atroviride: possible involvement of the filamentous fungi-specific cytosolic engase in the erad process.n-glycosylation is an important post-translational modification of proteins, which mainly occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum (er). glycoproteins that are unable to fold properly are exported to the cytosol for degradation by a cellular system called er-associated degradation (erad). once misfolded glycoproteins are exported to the cytosol, they are subjected to deglycosylation by peptide:n-glycanase (pngase) to facilitate the efficient degradation of misfolded proteins by the proteasome. intere ...201424835952
surface display of a bifunctional glutathione synthetase on saccharomyces cerevisiae for converting chicken feather hydrolysate into glutathione.the low economic profits of feather recycling lead that the large amount of feathers is currently discarded in china. to convert feather hydrolysates into gsh with high values, surface display of the bifunctional glutathione synthetase encoded by gcsgs from streptococcus thermophilus on saccharomyces cerevisiae and the potential in glutathione (gsh) production from feather hydrolysates were studied. the surface-displayed gcsgs could be used to convert feather hydrolysates into gsh. results showe ...201424706360
the mapkk fgmkk1 of fusarium graminearum regulates vegetative differentiation, multiple stress response, and virulence via the cell wall integrity and high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathways.mitogen-activated protein (map) kinases play crucial roles in regulating fungal development, growth and pathogenicity, and in responses to the environment. in this study, we characterized a map kinase kinase fgmkk1 in fusarium graminearum, the causal agent of wheat head blight. phenotypic analyses of the fgmkk1 mutant (δfgmkk1) showed that fgmkk1 is involved in the regulation of hyphal growth, pigmentation, conidiation, deoxynivalenol biosynthesis and virulence of f. graminearum. δfgmkk1 also sh ...201424237706
enhanced resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum in brassica napus by co-expression of defensin and chimeric chitinase genes.sclerotinia stem rot caused by sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the major fungal diseases of brassica napus l. to develop resistance against this fungal disease, the defensin gene from raphanus sativus and chimeric chit42 from trichoderma atroviride with a c-terminal fused chitin-binding domain from serratia marcescens were co-expressed in canola via agrobacterium-mediated transformation. twenty transformants were confirmed to carry the two transgenes as detected by polymerase chain reaction ( ...201626862081
physicochemical study of a novel chimeric chitinase with enhanced binding ability.chitinases are slow-reacting but important enzymes as they are anticipated to have diverse applications. the role of a chitin-binding domain (chbd) in enhancing the quality of binding is essential information for purposeful engineering of chitinases. the idea of making hybrid chitinases by fusing a known chbd to a chitinase, which naturally lacks chbd is of interest especially for bio-controlling purposes. therefore, in the present study, the chbd of serratia marcescens chitinase b was selected ...201323979812
designing a new chitinase with more chitin binding and antifungal activity.chitinases have the ability of chitin digestion that constitutes a main compound of the cell wall in many of the phytopathogens such as fungi. chitinase chit42 from trichoderma atroviride ptcc5220 is considered to play an important role in the biocontrol activity of this fungus against plant pathogens. chit42 lacks a chitin binding domain (chbd). we have produced a chimeric chitinase with stronger chitin-binding capacity by fusing to chit42 a chbd from serratia marcescens chitinase b. the fusion ...201323515962
requalification of a brazilian trichoderma collection and screening of its capability to decolourise real textile effluent.water contamination with large amounts of industrial textile coloured effluents is an environmental concern. for the treatment of textile effluents, white-rot fungi have received extensive attention due to their powerful capability to produce oxidative (e.g., ligninolytic) enzymes. in addition, other groups of fungi, such as species of aspergillus and trichoderma, have also been used for textile effluents treatment. the main aim of the present study was to requalify a brazilian trichoderma cultu ...201728368305
synergistic action of a microbial-based biostimulant and a plant derived-protein hydrolysate enhances lettuce tolerance to alkalinity and the coming years, farmers will have to deal with growing crops under suboptimal conditions dictated by global climate changes. the application of plant biostimulants such as beneficial microorganisms and plant-derived protein hydrolysates (phs) may represent an interesting approach for increasing crop tolerance to alkalinity and salinity. the current research aimed at elucidating the agronomical, physiological, and biochemical effects as well as the changes in mineral composition of greenhous ...201728223995
biosynthesis of eight-carbon volatiles from tomato and pepper pomaces by fungi: trichoderma atroviride and aspergillus sojae.the aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of using tomato and red pepper pomaces for the production eight-carbon volatiles by trichoderma atroviride and aspergillus sojae. the fermentation of tomato and pepper pomace-based media by both moulds was conducted in shake flasks and bioreactors. microbial growth behaviours and fermentation abilities of t. atroviride and a. sojae under both fermentation conditions were followed by microbial counting. the production of flavours from tomat ...201728057467
characterization of a novel dsrna mycovirus of trichoderma atroviride nfcf028.molecular characterization of the most common dsrna element from trichoderma atroviride indicated that it comprised 8,566 bp and encoded two large open reading frames (orf1 and 2). the two orfs were found to overlap by 46 bp with a typical (-1) slippery heptanucelotide sequence. the deduced protein sequences of orf1 and orf2 showed significant similarities to those of known mycoviral structural proteins and rna-dependent rna polymerases, respectively. phylogenetic analysis indicated that this ds ...201728050736
histone deacetylase hda-2 regulates trichoderma atroviride growth, conidiation, blue light perception, and oxidative stress responses.fungal blue-light photoreceptors have been proposed as integrators of light and oxidative stress. however, additional elements participating in the integrative pathway remain to be identified. in trichoderma atroviride, the blue-light regulator (blr) proteins blr-1 and -2 are known to regulate gene transcription, mycelial growth, and asexual development upon illumination, and recent global transcriptional analysis revealed that the histone deacetylase-encoding gene hda-2 is induced by light. her ...201727864177
co-transformation of canola by chimeric chitinase and tlp genes towards improving resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum.canola (brassica napus) plants were co-transformed with two pathogenesis-related protein genes expressing a trichoderma atroviride chitinase with a chitin-binding domain (chimeric chitinase) and a thaumatin-like protein (tlp) from oryza sativa conferring resistance to phytopatogenic fungi by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. the putative transgenic plants were confirmed by pcr. after measuring the specific activity of the chimeric chitinase and glucanase activity for tlp genes, transgenic p ...201627430511
response of vitis vinifera cell cultures to eutypa lata and trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates: expression of defence-related genes and phenotypes.cell suspension cultures of vitis vinifera cv. dauphine berries were used to study the response to the vascular pathogen, eutypa lata, in comparison with a biological control agent, trichoderma atroviride, that was previously shown to be effective in pruning wound protection. the expression of genes coding for enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway and pathogenesis-related (pr) proteins was profiled over a 48-h period using quantitative reverse transcriptase pcr. the cell cultures responded to e ...201727352313
a comprehensive characterization of simple sequence repeats in the sequenced trichoderma genomes provides valuable resources for marker development.members of genus trichoderma are known worldwide for mycoparasitism. to gain a better insight into the organization and evolution of their genomes, we used an in silico approach to compare the occurrence, relative abundance and density of ssrs in trichoderma atroviride, t. harzianum, t. reesei, and t. virens. our analysis revealed that in all the four genome sequences studied, the occurrence, relative abundance, and density of microsatellites varied and was not influenced by genome sizes. the re ...201627199911
the trichoderma atroviride putative transcription factor blu7 controls light responsiveness and tolerance.most living organisms use sunlight as a source of energy and/or information about their environment. consequently, they have developed mechanisms to sense light quality and quantity. in the fungus trichoderma atroviride blue-light is perceived through the blue light regulator complex, which in turn up-regulates a set of genes (blu) and down-regulates another set (bld), triggering asexual reproduction. to gain insight into this process, we characterized the blu7 gene, which encodes a protein cont ...201627142227
culturing conditions affect biological control activity of trichoderma atroviride against rhizoctonia solani in ryegrass.effects of culture conditions on productivity, germinability and bioactivity of trichoderma atroviride lu132 conidia were assessed to identify the factors affecting conidium 'fitness' (quantity and quality) and to withstand variable environmental conditions, increase conidial productivity, and perform optimum bioactivity.201627123762
the trichoderma atroviride cryptochrome/photolyase genes regulate the expression of blr1-independent genes both in red and blue light.quantitative transcriptome analysis led to the identification of 331 transcripts regulated by white light. evaluation of the response to white light in mutants affected in the previously characterized blue-light receptor blr1, demonstrated the existence of both blr1-dependent and independent responses. functional categorization of the light responsive genes indicated the effect of light on regulation of various transcription factors, regulators of chromatin structure, signaling pathways, genes r ...201627020152
visualizing fungal metabolites during mycoparasitic interaction by maldi mass spectrometry imaging.studying microbial interactions by maldi mass spectrometry imaging (msi) directly from growing media is a difficult task if high sensitivity is demanded. we present a quick and robust sample preparation strategy for growing fungi (trichoderma atroviride, rhizoctonia solani) on glass slides to establish a miniaturized confrontation assay. by this we were able to visualize metabolite distributions by maldi msi after matrix deposition with a home-built sublimation device and thorough recrystallizat ...201626959280
the improvement of competitive saprophytic capabilities of trichoderma species through the use of chemical mutagens.the antagonistic potential of trichoderma strains was assayed by studying the effect of their culture filtrate on the radial growth of sclerotium rolfsii, the causal agent of chickpea collar rot. trichoderma harzianum-1432 (42.2%) and trichoderma atroviride (40.3%) were found to be strong antagonists. to enhance their antagonistic potential, mutagenesis of these two selected strains was performed. two mutants, th-m1 and t. atroviride m1, were found to be more effective than their parent strains. ...201726887221
a trichoderma atroviride stress-activated mapk pathway integrates stress and light signals.cells possess stress-activated protein kinase (sapk) signalling pathways, which are activated practically in response to any cellular insult, regulating responses for survival and adaptation to harmful environmental changes. to understand the function of sapk pathways in t. atroviride, mutants lacking the mapkk pbs2 and the mapk tmk3 were analysed under several cellular stresses, and in their response to light. all mutants were highly sensitive to cellular insults such as osmotic and oxidative s ...201626878111
co-expression of chimeric chitinase and a polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein in transgenic canola (brassica napus) confers enhanced resistance to sclerotinia sclerotiorum.sclerotinia stem rot (ssr) caused by sclerotinia sclerotiorum is one of the major fungal diseases of canola. to develop resistance against this fungal disease, the chit42 from trichoderma atroviride with chitin-binding domain and polygalacturonase-inhibiting protein 2 (pg1p2) of phaseolus vulgaris were co-expressed in canola via agrobacterium-mediated transformation.201626875090
xenobiotic compounds degradation by heterologous expression of a trametes sanguineus laccase in trichoderma atroviride.fungal laccases are enzymes that have been studied because of their ability to decolorize and detoxify effluents; they are also used in paper bleaching, synthesis of polymers, bioremediation, etc. in this work we were able to express a laccase from trametes (pycnoporus) sanguineus in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride. for this purpose, a transformation vector was designed to integrate the gene of interest in an intergenic locus near the blu17 terminator region. although monosporic se ...201626849129
effects of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of trichoderma atroviride.the goal was to determine the effect of temperature, light and incubation period on production, germination and bioactivity of trichoderma atroviride lu132 against rhizoctonia solani.201626810985
comparative analysis of microsatellites in five different antagonistic trichoderma species for diversity assessment.microsatellites provide an ideal molecular markers system to screen, characterize and evaluate genetic diversity of several fungal species. currently, there is very limited information on the genetic diversity of antagonistic trichoderma species as determined using a range of molecular markers. in this study, expressed and whole genome sequences available in public database were used to investigate the occurrence, relative abundance and relative density of ssrs in five different antagonistic tri ...201626712623
trichoderma species occurring on wood with decay symptoms in mountain forests in central europe: genetic and enzymatic characterization.the aim of this study was to explore the species diversity of trichoderma obtained from samples of wood collected in the forests of the gorce mountains (location a), karkonosze mountains (location b) and tatra mountains (location c) in central europe and to examine the cellulolytic and xylanolytic activity of these species as an expression of their probable role in wood decay processes. the present study has led to the identification of the following species and species complex: trichoderma atro ...201626586561
the volatile 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one from trichoderma atroviride regulates arabidopsis thaliana root morphogenesis via auxin signaling and ethylene insensitive 2 functioning.plants interact with root microbes via chemical signaling, which modulates competence or symbiosis. although several volatile organic compounds (vocs) from fungi may affect plant growth and development, the signal transduction pathways mediating voc sensing are not fully understood. 6-pentyl-2h-pyran-2-one (6-pp) is a major voc biosynthesized by trichoderma spp. which is probably involved in plant-fungus cross-kingdom signaling. using microscopy and confocal imaging, the effects of 6-pp on root ...201626568541
the role of a novel fungal strain trichoderma atroviride rvf3 in improving humic acid content in mature compost and vermicompost via ligninolytic and celluloxylanolytic activities.with the rising concerns about indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers and accumulation of agro-industrial wastes in huge quantities, the present experiment was conducted to elucidate the effect of a novel fungal strain of trichoderma atroviride in hastening the compost/vermicompost production process and for the production of humic acid (ha) rich compost and vermicompost.201526387985
arabidopsis thaliana polyamine content is modified by the interaction with different trichoderma species.plants are associated with a wide range of microorganisms throughout their life cycle, and some interactions result on plant benefits. trichoderma species are plant beneficial fungi that enhance plant growth and development, contribute to plant nutrition and induce defense responses. nevertheless, the molecules involved in these beneficial effects still need to be identify. polyamines are ubiquitous molecules implicated in plant growth and development, and in the establishment of plant microbe i ...201526186363
mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 and ethylene and auxin signaling pathways are involved in arabidopsis root-system architecture alterations by trichoderma atroviride.trichoderma atroviride is a symbiotic fungus that interacts with roots and stimulates plant growth and defense. here, we show that arabidopsis seedlings cocultivated with t. atroviride have an altered root architecture and greater biomass compared with axenically grown seedlings. these effects correlate with increased activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase 6 (mpk6). the primary roots of mpk6 mutants showed an enhanced growth inhibition by t. atroviride when compared with wild-type (wt) pla ...201526067203
discovery of secondary metabolites in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization system and its application to high-throughput interfacial screening of antibiotic-producing extractive liquid-surface immobilization (ext-lsi) system, which consists of a hydrophobic organic solvent (an upper phase), a fungal cell-ballooned microsphere layer (a middle phase) and a liquid medium (a lower phase), is a unique interfacial cultivation system for fungi. the fungal cells growing at the interface between the organic and aqueous phases efficiently produce hydrophobic metabolites, which are continuously extracted into the organic phase, and/or hydrophilic metabolites that mig ...201525966852
draft genome sequence of a strain of cosmopolitan fungus trichoderma unknown fungus has been isolated as a contaminant of in vitro-grown fungal cultures. in an attempt to identify the contamination, we isolated the causal agent and performed whole-genome sequencing. blast analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (its) sequence against the ncbi database showed 100% identity to trichoderma atroviride, and further alignment of the genome assembly confirmed the unknown fungus to be t. atroviride. here, we report the draft genome sequence of a t. atroviride stra ...201525953169
virulency of novel nanolarvicide from trichoderma atroviride against aedes aegypti (linn.): a clsm analysis.aedes aegypti is the vector for transmitting dengue, chikungunya, and yellow fever. these diseases' transmission has increased predominantly in urban and semi-urban areas as a major public health concern. in present investigation, trichoderma atroviride culture filtrates were used for the synthesis of silver nanoparticle. moreover, t. atroviride is a free-living and rapidly growing fungi common in soil and root ecosystem. this fungi is an exceptionally good model for biocontrol and more signific ...201525907629
hex1-related transcriptome of trichoderma atroviride reveals expression patterns of abc transporters associated with tolerance to dichlorvos.the tolerance to organophosphate pesticide, dichlorvos, is essential for the application of trichoderma in bioremediation and integrated pest management, although the molecular events associated with the tolerance process have not yet been elucidated.201525813775
genetic diversity of trichoderma atroviride strains collected in poland and identification of loci useful in detection of within-species diversity.molecular markers that enable monitoring of fungi in their natural environment or assist in the identification of specific strains would facilitate trichoderma utilization, particularly as an agricultural biocontrol agent (bca). in this study, sequence analysis of internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) of the ribosomal rna (rrna) gene cluster, a fragment of the translation elongation factor 1-alpha (tef1) gene, and random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers were applied ...201525791292
nutrient transport into germinating trichoderma atroviride conidia and development of its driving force.the exit from dormancy and the start of growth should be preceded or at least accompanied by the uptake of nutrients. in this work we studied changes in the transport of several nutrients into trichoderma atroviride conidia. germination started with a short period of isodiametric growth (conidial swelling), followed by polarized growth (germ tube formation) after about 8 h at 26 °c. the onset of isodiametric growth required the presence of external both phosphate and nitrate. at the same time, a ...201525777081
age matters: the effects of volatile organic compounds emitted by trichoderma atroviride on plant growth.studying the effects of microbial volatile organic compounds (vocs) on plant growth is challenging because the production of volatiles depends on many environmental factors. adding to this complexity, the method of volatile exposure itself can lead to different responses in plants and may account for some of the contrasting results. in this work, we present an improved experimental design, a plate-within-a-plate method, to study the effects of vocs produced by filamentous fungi. we demonstrate t ...201525771960
sm2, a paralog of the trichoderma cerato-platanin elicitor sm1, is also highly important for plant protection conferred by the fungal-root interaction of trichoderma with maize.the proteins sm1 and sm2 from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma virens belong to the cerato-platanin protein family. members of this family are small, secreted proteins that are abundantly produced by filamentous fungi with all types of life-styles. some species of the fungal genus trichoderma are considered as biocontrol fungi because they are mycoparasites and are also able to directly interact with plants, thereby stimulating plant defense responses. it was previously shown that the cerato-pl ...201525591782
damage response involves mechanisms conserved across plants, animals and fungi.all organisms are constantly exposed to adverse environmental conditions including mechanical damage, which may alter various physiological aspects of growth, development and reproduction. in plant and animal systems, the damage response mechanism has been widely studied. both systems posses a conserved and sophisticated mechanism that in general is aimed at repairing and preventing future damage, and causes dramatic changes in their transcriptomes, proteomes, and metabolomes. these damage-induc ...201525572693
extracellular atp activates mapk and ros signaling during injury response in the fungus trichoderma atroviride.the response to mechanical damage is crucial for the survival of multicellular organisms, enabling their adaptation to hostile environments. trichoderma atroviride, a filamentous fungus of great importance in the biological control of plant diseases, responds to mechanical damage by activating regenerative processes and asexual reproduction (conidiation). during this response, reactive oxygen species (ros) are produced by the nadph oxidase complex. to understand the underlying early signaling ev ...201425484887
tissue-specific and pathogen-inducible expression of a fusion protein containing a fusarium-specific antibody and a fungal chitinase protects wheat against fusarium pathogens and mycotoxins.fusarium head blight (fhb) in wheat and other small grain cereals is a globally devastating disease caused by toxigenic fusarium pathogens. controlling fhb is a challenge because germplasm that is naturally resistant against these pathogens is inadequate. current control measures rely on fungicides. here, an antibody fusion comprised of the fusarium spp.-specific recombinant antibody gene cwp2 derived from chicken, and the endochitinase gene ech42 from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atrovirid ...201525418882
gate crashing arbuscular mycorrhizas: in vivo imaging shows the extensive colonization of both symbionts by trichoderma atroviride.plant growth-promoting fungi include strains of trichoderma species that are used in biocontrol, and arbuscular mycorrhizal (am) fungi, that enhance plant nutrition and stress resistance. the concurrent interaction of plants with these two groups of fungi affects crop performance but has only been occasionally studied so far. using in vivo imaging of green fluorescent protein-tagged lines, we investigated the cellular interactions occurring between trichoderma atroviride pki1, medicago truncatul ...201525346536
co-inoculation of glomus intraradices and trichoderma atroviride acts as a biostimulant to promote growth, yield and nutrient uptake of vegetable crops.the application of beneficial microorganisms at transplanting can promote rapid transplant establishment (starter effect) for achieving early and high yields. the aim of this study was to evaluate the biostimulant effects of glomus intraradices beg72 (g) and trichoderma atroviride mucl 45632 (t) alone or in combination on plant growth parameters, yield, chlorophyll index (spad), chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral composition of several vegetable crops.201525123953
changes in metabolome and in enzyme activities during germination of trichoderma atroviride conidia.the aim of this work was to study the metabolic changes during germination of trichoderma atroviride conidia along with selected marker enzyme activities. the increase in proteinogenic amino acid concentrations together with the increase in glutamate dehydrogenase activity suggests a requirement for nitrogen metabolism. even though the activities of tricarboxylic acid cycle enzymes also increased, detected organic acid pools did not change, which predisposes this pathway to energy production and ...201424964818
trichoderma atroviride transcriptional regulator xyr1 supports the induction of systemic resistance in a result of a transcriptome-wide analysis of the ascomycete trichoderma atroviride, mycoparasitism-related genes were identified; of these, 13 genes were further investigated for differential expression. in silico analysis of the upstream regulatory regions of these genes pointed to xylanase regulator 1 (xyr1) as a putatively involved regulatory protein. transcript analysis of the xyr1 gene of t. atroviride in confrontation with other fungi allowed us to determine that xyr1 levels increased d ...201424951787
biodegradation of neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid by restriction enzyme mediated integration (remi) generated trichoderma mutants.remi (restriction enzyme-mediated integration) technique was employed to construct trichoderma atroviride strain t23 mutants with degrading capability of neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid. the plasmid pbluescript ii ks-hph used for integration in remi mutants was confirmed by pcr and southern hybridization. among 153 transformants, 57% of them have showed higher neonicotinoid insecticide, imidacloprid, degradation ability than the wild strain t23 (p<0.01). more specifically, seven single-c ...201424589300
population, diversity and characteristics of cellulolytic microorganisms from the indo-burma biodiversity hotspot.forest ecosystem harbour a large number of biotic components where cellulolytic microorganisms participate actively in the biotransformation of dead and decaying organic matter and soil nutrient cycling. this study explores the aerobic culturable cellulolytic microorganisms in the forest soils of north east india. soil samples rich in dead and decaying organic matter were collected from eight conserved forests during the season when microbes were found to be most active. cellulolytic microorgani ...201426034690
eight new peptaibols from sponge-associated trichoderma atroviride.eight new and four known peptaibols were isolated from a strain of the fungus, trichoderma atroviride (nf16), which was cultured from an axinellid sponge collected from the east mediterranean coast of israel. the structures of the pure compounds were determined using hrms, ms/ms and one- and two-dimensional nmr measurements. the isolated compounds belong to the trichorzianines, a family of 19-residue linear hydrophobic peptides containing a high proportion of α-aminoisobutyric acid (aib), an ace ...201324335521
cloning and characterization of a protein elicitor sm1 gene from trichoderma harzianum.a small protein, cysteine-rich, designated sm1, produced by trichoderma virens and trichoderma atroviride, acts as elicitor for triggering plant defense reactions. we analyzed sm1 gene expression of eight different strains of trichoderma spp. grown on glucose, seeds or roots of beans. regardless of the carbon source, t37 strain had significantly higher sm1 expression and was chosen for further studies. when grown on different carbon sources, sm1 expression was highest on galactose, bean seed, gl ...201424322765
disruption of hex1 in trichoderma atroviride leads to loss of woronin body and decreased tolerance to dichlorvos.the tolerance of trichoderma species to organophosphorus pesticides is necessary for their application in the bioremediation of pesticide-polluted environments. in some cases, such a requirement is also key to the synergistic use of these fungi with chemical pesticides, aiming to broaden the scope of control targets to include both plant pathogens and insect pests. however, the mechanism of trichoderma tolerance of organophosphorus pesticides remains unclear. to address this, we have analyzed th ...201424243234
elicitors from the endophytic fungus trichoderma atroviride promote salvia miltiorrhiza hairy root growth and tanshinone biosynthesis.biotic elicitors can be used to stimulate the production of secondary metabolites in plants. however, limited information is available on the effects of biotic elicitors from endophytic fungi on their host plant. trichoderma atroviride d16 is an endophytic fungus isolated from the root of salvia miltiorrhiza and previously reported to produce tanshinone i (t-i) and tanshinone iia (t-iia). here, the effects of extract of mycelium (em) and the polysaccharide fraction (psf), produced by t. atroviri ...201324127517
camptothecin-producing endophytic fungus trichoderma atroviride ly357: isolation, identification, and fermentation conditions optimization for camptothecin production.camptothecin (cpt), the third largest anticancer drug, is produced mainly by camptotheca acuminata and nothapodytes foetida. cpt itself is the starting material for clinical cpt-type drugs, but the plant-derived cpt cannot support the heavy demand from the global market. research efforts have been made to identify novel sources for cpt. in this study, three cpt-producing endophytic fungi, aspergillus sp. ly341, aspergillus sp. ly355, and trichoderma atroviride ly357, were isolated and identified ...201323949997
the putative protein methyltransferase lae1 of trichoderma atroviride is a key regulator of asexual development and ascomycota the protein methyltransferase laea is a global regulator that affects the expression of secondary metabolite gene clusters, and controls sexual and asexual development. the common mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma atroviride is one of the most widely studied agents of biological control of plant-pathogenic fungi that also serves as a model for the research on regulation of asexual sporulation (conidiation) by environmental stimuli such as light and/or mechanical injury. in order to ...201323826217
unprecedented 17-residue peptaibiotics produced by marine-derived trichoderma the course of investigations on marine-derived toxigenic fungi, five strains of trichoderma atroviride were studied for their production of peptaibiotics. while these five strains were found to produce classical 19-residue peptaibols, three of them exhibited unusual peptidic sodium-adduct [m + 2 na](2+) ion peaks at m/z between 824 and 854. the sequencing of these peptides led to two series of unprecedented 17-residue peptaibiotics based on the model ac-xxx-ala-ala-xxx-xxx-gln-aib-aib-aib-ala ...201323681725
comparative analysis of the repertoire of g protein-coupled receptors of three species of the fungal genus trichoderma.eukaryotic organisms employ cell surface receptors such as the seven-transmembrane g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs) as sensors to connect to the environment. gpcrs react to a variety of extracellular cues and are considered to play central roles in the signal transduction in fungi. several species of the filamentous ascomycete trichoderma are potent mycoparasites, i.e. can attack and parasitize other fungi, which turns them into successful bio-fungicides for the protection of plants against f ...201323679152
the rnai machinery regulates growth and development in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride.the rnai machinery is generally involved in genome protection in filamentous fungi; however, the physiological role of rnai has been poorly studied in fungal models. here, we report that in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride, the products of the dcr2 and rdr3 genes control reproductive development, because mutations in these genes affect conidiation. in addition, dcr1 together with dcr2 control vegetative growth since δdcr1, δdcr2 and δdcr1δdcr2 present morphological alterations. whol ...201323672609
comparative transcriptomics reveals different strategies of trichoderma mycoparasitism.trichoderma is a genus of mycotrophic filamentous fungi (teleomorph hypocrea) which possess a bright variety of biotrophic and saprotrophic lifestyles. the ability to parasitize and/or kill other fungi (mycoparasitism) is used in plant protection against soil-borne fungal diseases (biological control, or biocontrol). to investigate mechanisms of mycoparasitism, we compared the transcriptional responses of cosmopolitan opportunistic species and powerful biocontrol agents trichoderma atroviride an ...201323432824
production and partial characterization of cellulases and xylanases from trichoderma atroviride 676 using lignocellulosic residual biomass.trichoderma atroviride 676 was studied to evaluate its efficiency in the production of some lignocellulolytic enzymes, using lignocellulosic residual biomass. best results were obtained when 3.0 % (w/v) untreated sugarcane bagasse was used (61.3 u ml(-1) for xylanase, 1.9 u ml(-1) for endoglucanase, 0.25 u ml(-1) for fpase, and 0.17 u ml(-1) for β-glucosidase) after 3-4 days fermentation. the maximal enzymatic activity for endoglucanase, fpase, and xylanase were observed at 50-60 °c and ph 4.0-5 ...201323306885
spore germination of trichoderma atroviride is inhibited by its lysm protein tal6.lysm motifs are carbohydrate-binding modules found in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. they have general n-acetylglucosamine binding properties and therefore bind to chitin and related carbohydrates. in plants, plasma-membrane-bound proteins containing lysm motifs are involved in plant defence responses, but also in symbiotic interactions between plants and microorganisms. filamentous fungi secrete lysm proteins that contain several lysm motifs but no enzymatic modules. in plant pathogenic fungi, for ...201323289754
self-assembly at air/water interfaces and carbohydrate binding properties of the small secreted protein epl1 from the fungus trichoderma atroviride.the protein epl1 from the fungus trichoderma atroviride belongs to the cerato-platanin protein family. these proteins occur only in filamentous fungi and are associated with the induction of defense responses in plants and allergic reactions in humans. however, fungi with other lifestyles also express cerato-platanin proteins, and the primary function of this protein family has not yet been elucidated. in this study, we investigated the biochemical properties of the cerato-platanin protein epl1 ...201323250741
the contribution of foliar endophytes to quantitative resistance to melampsora rust.foliar endophytes of populus do not induce the hypersensitive response associated with major genes for resistance to melampsora leaf rust. but they could contribute to the quantitative resistance that represents a second line of defense. quantitative resistance is thought to be determined by suites of minor genes in both host and pathogen that are influenced by the abiotic environment. here, we determined the relative importance to quantitative resistance of foliar endophytes, one element of the ...201323228058
an injury-response mechanism conserved across kingdoms determines entry of the fungus trichoderma atroviride into development.a conserved injury-defense mechanism is present in plants and animals, in which the production of reactive oxygen species (ros) and lipid metabolism are essential to the response. here, we describe that in the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride, injury results in the formation of asexual reproduction structures restricted to regenerating cells. high-throughput rna-seq analyses of the response to injury in t. atroviride suggested an oxidative response and activation of calcium-signaling pa ...201222927395
chitinase activities, scab resistance, mycorrhization rates and biomass of own-rooted and grafted transgenic apple.this study investigated the impact of constitutively expressed trichoderma atroviride genes encoding exochitinase nag70 or endochitinase ech42 in transgenic lines of the apple cultivar pinova on the symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (amf). we compared the exo- and endochitinase activities of leaves and roots from non-transgenic pinova and the transgenic lines t386 and t389. local and systemic effects were examined using own-rooted trees and trees grafted onto rootstock m9. scab suscept ...201222888297
enhancement of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone fermentation activity in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (ext-lsi) system by mixing anion-exchange resin microparticles.the addition of anion-exchange resin microparticles into a polyacrylonitrile (pan) ballooned microsphere layer drastically enhanced the fermentative activity of trichoderma atroviride ag2755-5nm398 in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (ext-lsi) system. the production of 6-pentyl-α-pyrone (6pp), a fungicidal secondary metabolite, was 1.92-fold higher than the control (pan alone).201222871800
three new compounds from the marine-derived fungus trichoderma atroviride g20-12.three new compounds, 4'-(4,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolan-2-yl)methyl-phenol (1), (3'-hydroxybutan-2'-yl)5-oxopyrrolidine-2-carboxylate (2), and atroviridetide (3), have been isolated from the marine-derived fungus trichoderma atroviride g 20-12. their structures were determined on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods.201222582864
derepression of carbon catabolite repression in an extractive liquid-surface immobilization (ext-lsi) extractive liquid-surface immobilization (ext-lsi) system with a fungal mat formed on the surface of a liquid medium effectively enabled derepression of carbon catabolite repression. in this system, a fungicidal secondary metabolite 6-pentyl-α-pyrone was efficiently produced by trichoderma atroviride ag2755-5nm398 despite the addition of 25% glucose or fructose.201222382014
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