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expression of two major chitinase genes of trichoderma atroviride (t. harzianum p1) is triggered by different regulatory signals.regulation of the expression of the two major chitinase genes, ech42 (encoding the chit42 endochitinase) and nag1 (encoding the chit73 n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase), of the chitinolytic system of the mycoparasitic biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride (= trichoderma harzianum p1) was investigated by using a reporter system based on the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase. strains harboring fusions of the ech42 or nag1 5' upstream noncoding sequences with the a. niger goxa gene displayed a gl ...199910223970
pcr-based genotyping of epidemic and preepidemic trichoderma isolates associated with green mold of agaricus bisporus.we used randomly amplified polymorphic dna (rapd)-pcr to estimate genetic variation among isolates of trichoderma associated with green mold on the cultivated mushroom agaricus bisporus. of 83 isolates examined, 66 were sampled during the recent green mold epidemic, while the remaining 17 isolates were collected just prior to the epidemic and date back to the 1950s. trichoderma harzianum biotype 4 was identified by rapd analysis as the cause of almost 90% of the epidemic-related episodes of gree ...199910347059
mechanisms of coal solubilization by the deuteromycetes trichoderma atroviride and fusarium oxysporumthree different mechanisms can be envisaged that are used by fungi to solubilize coal: the production of alkaline substances, the extrusion of chelators and, of special interest in the scope of biotechnology, the action of enzymes. whether these mechanisms are operating separately or in various combinations has not yet been finally assessed. the two deuteromycetes fusarium oxysporum and trichoderma atroviride solubilize coal by synergistic effects of various differnt mechanisms depending on the ...199910461370
biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates from low-rank coal liquefaction products by pseudomonas oleovorans and rhodococcus rubera screening identified several bacteria that were able to use chemically heterogeneous low-rank coal liquefaction products as complex carbon sources for growth. pseudomonas oleovorans and rhodococcus ruber accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoic acids (pha) amounting to 2%-8% of the cell dry weight when the cells were cultivated on these liquefaction products in the absence of any other carbon source. r. ruber accumulated, in addition to pha, small amounts of triacylglycerols. the accumulated pha consis ...199910461375
enzyme diffusion from trichoderma atroviride (= t. harzianum p1) to rhizoctonia solani is a prerequisite for triggering of trichoderma ech42 gene expression before mycoparasitic contact.a plate confrontation experiment is commonly used to study the mechanism by which trichoderma spp. antagonize and parasitize other fungi. previous work with chitinase gene expression (ech42) during the precontact period of this process in which cellophane and dialysis membranes separated trichoderma harzianum and its host rhizoctonia solani resulted in essentially opposite results. here, we show that cellophane membranes are permeable to proteins up to at least 90 kda in size but that dialysis m ...200010788407
separation and identification of volatile components in the fermentation broth of trichoderma atroviride by solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.a preseparated fermentation broth of trichoderma atroviride strain 11 is analyzed by gas chromatography followed by mass-spectral detection using a finnigan mat gcq apparatus. after preseparation in a c18 and a silica gel column, nineteen pyrone and dioxolane derivatives and two aliphatic esters are obtained, respectively. among these, the four dioxolane derivatives have not been identified previously. the main component is found to be 5,5'-dimethyl-2h-pyran-2-on. the relative standard deviation ...200011048777
development of a strain-specific scar marker for the detection of trichoderma atroviride 11, a biological control agent against soilborne fungal plant pathogens.the genus trichoderma includes biocontrol agents (bcas) effective against soilborne plant pathogenic fungi. several potentially useful strains for biological control are difficult to distinguish from other strains of trichoderma found in the field. so, there is a need to find ways to monitor these strains when applied to natural pathosystems. we have used random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) markers to estimate genetic variation among sixteen strains of the species t. asperellum, t. atrovirid ...200111270577
identification of trichoderma strains by image analysis of hplc chromatograms.forty-four trichoderma strains from water-damaged building materials or indoor dust were classified with chromatographic image analysis on full chromatographic matrices obtained by high performance liquid chromatography with uv detection of culture extracts. the classes were compared with morphological identification and rdna sequence data, and for each class all strains were of the same identity. with all three techniques each strain--except one--was identified as the same species. these strain ...200111583856
cloning, sequence and structure of a gene encoding an antifungal glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase from trichoderma atroviride (t. harzianum).a gene (gluc78) encoding an antifungal glucan 1,3-beta-glucosidase was cloned from strain p1 of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride (formerly t. harzianum). a putative regulatory sequence upstream from the coding region was cloned using single-strand extension from a primer in the known portion of the gene, circularized with t4 ligase, and then reamplified with pcr to generate double-stranded dna. the entire genomic dna sequence consisted of 3440 bp, with 559 and 579 bp, respectively, i ...200111602357
interaction of ammonium, glucose, and chitin regulates the expression of cell wall-degrading enzymes in trichoderma atroviride strain p1.chitinolytic and glucanolytic fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes have been suggested to be primary determinants of biocontrol by trichoderma spp. we examined the effects of ammonium, glucose, chitin, and chito-oligomers on transcription of specific genes and secretion of fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes. the genes ech42, nag1, and gluc78 were examined, as were the enzymes they encode (endochitinase chit42, n-acetylhexosaminidase chit73, and glucan exo-1,3-beta-glucanase gluc78, respectively). ...200111722918
synergistic activity of endochitinase and exochitinase from trichoderma atroviride (t. harzianum) against the pathogenic fungus (venturia inaequalis) in transgenic apple plants.genes from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride encoding the antifungal proteins endochitinase or exochitinase (n-acetyl-beta-d-hexosaminidase) were inserted into 'marshall mcintosh' apple singly and in combination. the genes were driven by a modified camv35s promoter. the resulting plants were screened for resistance to venturia inaequalis, the causal agent of apple scab, and for effects of enzyme expression on growth. disease resistance was correlated with the level of expression of ei ...200111817541
identification of the n-acetyl-d-glucosamine-inducible element in the promoter of the trichoderma atroviride nag1 gene encoding n-acetyl-glucosaminidase.we have investigated the regulation by n-acetyl-glucosamine of the nag1 gene of the mycoparasitic biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride (= t. harzianum p1), which encodes a 73-kda n-acetyl-beta-d-glucosaminidase. the use of translational fusions revealed that a 290-bp fragment of the 5' regulatory region of nag1 is sufficient to confer inducibility on the aspergillus niger goxa gene. the region between positions -150 and -290, upstream of the nag1 coding region, was investigated using in vivo ...200211976959
solubilization of low-rank coal by trichoderma atroviride: evidence for the involvement of hydrolytic and oxidative enzymes by using 14c-labelled lignite.the deuteromycete trichoderma atroviride is able to solubilize lignite in dependence on a given carbon source for growth. when cultivated on media containing glutamate, this mold excreted a set of different enzymes with hydrolytic activity. addition of lignite to the growth media induced the synthesis of extracellular lignite-specific esterase activity but no evidence has been provided for its direct involvement in the process of lignite solubilization. hence, the basic capability of t. atroviri ...200211986921
pseudomonas lipodepsipeptides and fungal cell wall-degrading enzymes act synergistically in biological control.pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae strain b359 secreted two main lipodepsipeptides (ldps), syringomycin e (sre) and syringopeptin 25a (sp25a), together with at least four types of cell wall-degrading enzymes (cwdes). in antifungal bioassays, the purified toxins sre and sp25a interacted synergistically with chitinolytic and glucanolytic enzymes purified from the same bacterial strain or from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride strain p1. the synergism between ldps and cwdes occurred again ...200212026170
atroviridins a-c and neoatroviridins a-d, novel peptaibol antibiotics produced by trichoderma atroviride f80317. i. taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and biological activities.seven new peptaibols, atroviridins a-c composed of 20 residue amino acids and neoatroviridins a-d with 18 residues, were isolated from the culture broth of fungal strain f80317. the strain f80317 was identified as trichoderma atroviride from its morphological and cultural characteristics. these compounds showed antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria and phytopathogenic fungi, and exhibited significant cytotoxicity to human cancer cell lines in vitro. atroviridins showed significan ...200212195961
multiple environmental signals determine the transcriptional activation of the mycoparasitism related gene prb1 in trichoderma atroviride.trichoderma atroviride parasitizes a large variety of phytopathogenic fungi. this characteristic has allowed its use as a biological control agent. the production of hydrolytic enzymes appears to be a key element in the parasitic process. among the enzymes released by trichoderma, the proteinase prb1 plays a major role. we show here that the corresponding gene ( prb1) is subject to nitrogen catabolite repression. accordingly, induction of prb1 transcription by rhizoctonia solani cell walls and b ...200212207218
the trichoderma atroviride seb1 (stress response element binding) gene encodes an agggg-binding protein which is involved in the response to high osmolarity stress.the chitinase genes of trichoderma spp. (ech42, chit33, nag1) contain one or more copies of a pentanucleotide element (5'-agggg-3') in their 5'-noncoding regions. in saccharomyces cerevisiae, this motif is recognized and bound by the stress response regulator proteins msn2p/msn4p. to test whether this motif in the chitinase promoters is bound by a trichoderma msn2/4p homolog, we have cloned a gene (seb1) from t. atroviride which encodes a c2h2 zinc-finger protein that is 62 (64)% identical to s. ...200212395196
extracellular laccases in ascomycetes trichoderma atroviride and trichoderma harzianum.laccase activity in trichoderma harzianum and in our own isolate trichoderma atroviride was correlated with the production of the green pigment in conidial spores. the laccases of the two fungal species exhibit comparable kinetic parameters, ph optima and thermal sensitivity but differed in physiological properties, such as their catalytic activity during growth.200212422522
trichoderma atroviride g-protein alpha-subunit gene tga1 is involved in mycoparasitic coiling and conidiation.the soil fungus trichoderma atroviride, a mycoparasite, responds to a number of external stimuli. in the presence of a fungal host, t. atroviride produces hydrolytic enzymes and coils around the host hyphae. in response to light or nutrient depletion, asexual sporulation is induced. in a biomimetic assay, different lectins induce coiling around nylon fibers; coiling in the absence of lectins can be induced by applying cyclic amp (camp) or the heterotrimeric g-protein activator mastoparan. we iso ...200212456007
expression of the ech42 (endochitinase) gene of trichoderma atroviride under carbon starvation is antagonized via a brla-like cis-acting element.expression of the endochitinase encoding ech42 gene of the mycoparasite trichoderma atroviride is subject to control by several environmental signals, including derepression by carbon starvation. in order to identify promoter areas involved in control by this condition, we prepared fusions of several mutant forms of the ech42 promoter to the aspergillus niger goxa gene as a reporter. removal of a 130-bp fragment comprising a binding site for the carbon catabolite repressor cre1, an agggg element ...200312586401
tolerance and uptake of heavy metals by trichoderma atroviride isolated from sludge.a strain of trichoderma atroviride, isolated from sewage sludge obtained from a water treatment plant located in madrid (spain), has been studied for tolerance to heavy metals (copper, zinc and cadmium) and for its capacities to uptake these metals. it was found that this fungus is capable of surviving high metal concentrations, apparently as a result of the natural selection of resistant cells. also, growth and metal uptake have been assayed in samples where the fungus was cultured in the prese ...200312656239
genetic and metabolic diversity of trichoderma: a case study on south-east asian isolates.we have used isolates of trichoderma spp. collected in south-east asia, including taiwan and western indonesia, to assess the genetic and metabolic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma. ninety-six strains were isolated in total, and identified at the species level by analysis of morphological and biochemical characters (biolog system), and by sequence analysis of their internal transcribed spacer regions 1 and 2 (its1 and 2) of the rdna cluster, using ex-type strains and taxonomically est ...200312684020
the nag1 n-acetylglucosaminidase of trichoderma atroviride is essential for chitinase induction by chitin and of major relevance to biocontrol.the nag1 gene of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma atroviride encodes a 73-kda n-acetyl-beta- d-glucosaminidase, which is secreted into the medium and partially bound to the cell wall. to elucidate the role of this enzyme in chitinase induction and biocontrol, a nag1-disruption mutant was prepared. it displayed only 4% of the original n-acetyl-beta- d-glucosaminidase activity, indicating that the nag1 gene product accounts for the majority of this activity in t. atroviride. the nag1-disruptio ...200312748812
mycotoxigenic fusarium and deoxynivalenol production repress chitinase gene expression in the biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride p1.mycotoxin contamination associated with head blight of wheat and other grains caused by fusarium culmorum and f. graminearum is a chronic threat to crop, human, and animal health throughout the world. one of the most important toxins in terms of human exposure is deoxynivalenol (don) (formerly called vomitoxin), an inhibitor of protein synthesis with a broad spectrum of toxigenicity against animals. certain fusarium toxins have additional antimicrobial activity, and the phytotoxin fusaric acid h ...200312788701
efficacy of microorganisms antagonistic to rhizoctonia cerealis and their cell wall degrading enzymatic activities.the effect of trichoderma atroviride, t. harzianum, t. longibrachiatum, clonostachys rosea and bacillus subtilis isolates applied to wheat seeds against rhizoctonia cerealis disease of seedlings was investigated under controlled greenhouse conditions. most trichoderma isolates significantly reduced the incidence of disease compared with the infected control. bacillus subtilis was also effective against sharp eyespot, although less active than trichoderma spp. interactions between the antagonisti ...200312825514
saprotrophic and mycoparasitic components of aggressiveness of trichoderma harzianum groups toward the commercial mushroom agaricus bisporus.we examined the mycoparasitic and saprotrophic behavior of isolates representing groups of trichoderma harzianum to establish a mechanism for the aggressiveness towards agaricus bisporus in infested commercial compost. mycoparasitic structures were infrequently observed in interaction zones on various media, including compost, with cryoscanning electron microscopy. t. harzianum grows prolifically in compost in the absence or presence of a. bisporus, and the aggressive european (th2) and north am ...200312839799
enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of langostino shell chitin with mixtures of enzymes from bacterial and fungal sources.a combination of enzyme preparations from trichoderma atroviride and serratia marcescens was able to completely degrade high concentrations (100 g/l) of chitin from langostino crab shells to n-acetylglucosamine (78%), glucosamine (2%), and chitobiose (10%). the result was achieved at 32 degrees c in 12 days with no pre-treatment (size reduction or swelling) of the substrate and without removal of the inhibitory end-products from the mixture. enzymatic degradation of three forms of chitin by serr ...200312932365
establishment of a trichoderma atroviride strain in some organic products. 200315151281
chitinases of trichoderma atroviride induce scab resistance and some metabolic changes in two cultivars of apple.abstract this study reports the combination of a transgene-mediated defense mechanism with a conventionally bred resistance in order to improve apple scab resistance. two cultivars of apple (galaxy, scab-susceptible, and ariane, carrying the vf resistance gene) were transformed with endochitinase and exochitinase genes derived from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride. the obtained transgenic lines were analyzed for the expression of both genes and resistance to two races of the pathogen ...200318943613
effect of germination initiation on competitive capacity of trichoderma atroviride p1 conidia.abstract trichoderma biocontrol isolates are most effective as highly concentrated inocula. their antagonism to other fungi may be a result of pregermination respiration. in a nutrient-rich medium, almost all trichoderma atroviride p1 (p1) conidia initiated germination processes and increased respiration, even in dense suspensions. when 1 x 10(7) p1 conidia/ml were coinoculated with 1 x 10(5) botrytis cinerea conidia/ml, dissolved oxygen fell to <1% within 2 h and the pathogen failed to germinat ...200318943625
hypocrea atroviridis sp. nov., the teleomorph of trichoderma atroviride.a new species, hypocrea atroviridis, is described for the teleomorph of trichoderma atroviride. based on sequences of its-1, 5.8s, and its-2 regions of the rdna complex and translation-elongation factor (ef-1α), t. atroviride and h. atroviridis form a well-supported clade within trichoderma sect. trichoderma. the conserved anamorphic phenotype of t. atroviride, observed for both conidial and ascospore derived cultures, was only found within that clade. in contrast, the teleomorph phenotype of h. ...200321156586
co-expression of two genes, a chitinase (chit42) and proteinase (prb1), implicated in mycoparasitism by trichoderma hamatum.mycoparasitism of fungal plant pathogens by trichoderma species is a complex process that involves the production and coordinated secretion of cell-wall degrading enzymes. genes implicated in mycoparasitism by trichoderma atroviride contain motifs in the promoter region, designated myre1-myre4, that are proposed to act as binding sites for a global inducer of the mycoparasitic response. the aim of our study was to establish whether these motifs also were present in trichoderma hamatum and whethe ...200421148948
a comparison of constitutive promoters for expression of transgenes in alfalfa (medicago sativa).the activity of constitutive promoters was compared in transgenic alfalfa plants using two marker genes. three promoters, the 35s promoter from cauliflower mosaic virus (camv), the cassava vein mosaic virus (csvmv) promoter, and the sugarcane bacilliform badnavirus (scbv) promoter were each fused to the beta-glucuronidase (gusa) gene. the highest gus enzyme activity was obtained using the csvmv promoter and all alfalfa cells assayed by in situ staining had high levels of enzyme activity. the 35s ...200415517994
blr-1 and blr-2, key regulatory elements of photoconidiation and mycelial growth in trichoderma atroviride.in fungi, phototropism, the induction of carotenogenesis and reproductive structures, and resetting of the circadian rhythm are controlled by blue light. trichoderma atroviride, a fungus used in biological control, sporulates in a synchronized manner following a brief pulse of blue light. due to its apparent simplicity, this response was chosen for pursuing photoreceptor isolation. two genes were cloned, blue-light regulators 1 and 2 (blr-1 and blr-2), similar to the neurospora crassa white-coll ...200415528646
the fungal stre-element-binding protein seb1 is involved but not essential for glycerol dehydrogenase (gld1) gene expression and glycerol accumulation in trichoderma atroviride during osmotic stress.fungi counteract extracellular osmotic pressure by producing intracellular polyols to prevent loss of water. in yeast osmotic signaling involves a map-kinase pathway culminating at the stre-binding transcription factors msn2/4. we investigated the role of a putative stre-binding orthologue of trichoderma atroviride, seb1, in osmotic stress signaling. t. atroviride, subjected to osmotic stress (10% glucose or glycerol, 1m kcl or nacl), responds by raising its intracellular glycerol level. in cont ...200415531216
gene disruption in trichoderma atroviride via agrobacterium-mediated transformation.a modified agrobacterium-mediated transformation method for the efficient disruption of two genes encoding signaling compounds of the mycoparasite trichoderma atroviride is described, using the hph gene of escherichia coli as selection marker. the transformation vectors contained about 1 kb of 5' and 3' non-coding regions from the tmk1 (encoding a map kinase) or tga3 (encoding an alpha-subunit of a heterotrimeric g protein) target loci flanking a selection marker. transformation of fungal conidi ...200414586554
enhancing rice resistance to fungal pathogens by transformation with cell wall degrading enzyme genes from trichoderma atroviride.three genes encoding for fungal cell wall degrading enzymes (cwdes), ech42, nag70 and gluc78 from the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride were inserted into the binary vector pcambia1305.2 singly and in all possible combinations and transformed to rice plants. more than 1800 independently regenerated plantlets in seven different populations (for each of the three genes and each of the four gene combinations) were obtained. the ech42 gene encoding for an endochitinase increased resistance to ...200414674022
in vivo study of trichoderma-pathogen-plant interactions, using constitutive and inducible green fluorescent protein reporter systems.plant tissue colonization by trichoderma atroviride plays a critical role in the reduction of diseases caused by phytopathogenic fungi, but this process has not been thoroughly studied in situ. we monitored in situ interactions between gfp-tagged biocontrol strains of t. atroviride and soilborne plant pathogens that were grown in cocultures and on cucumber seeds by confocal scanning laser microscopy and fluorescence stereomicroscopy. spores of t. atroviride adhered to pythium ultimum mycelia in ...200415128569
signal transduction by tga3, a novel g protein alpha subunit of trichoderma atroviride.trichoderma species are used commercially as biocontrol agents against a number of phytopathogenic fungi due to their mycoparasitic characterisitics. the mycoparasitic response is induced when trichoderma specifically recognizes the presence of the host fungus and transduces the host-derived signals to their respective regulatory targets. we made deletion mutants of the tga3 gene of trichoderma atroviride, which encodes a novel g protein alpha subunit that belongs to subgroup iii of fungal galph ...200515746364
overexpression and characterization of a novel chitinase from trichoderma atroviride strain p1.we describe the overexpression and characterization of a new 30 kda family 18 chitinase (ech30) from trichoderma atroviride strain p1. sequence alignments indicate that the active site architecture of ech30 resembles that of endochitinases such as hevamine from the rubber tree (hevea brasiliensis). the ech30 gene was overexpressed in escherichia coli without its signal peptide and with an n-terminal his-tag. the enzyme was produced as inclusion bodies, from which active chitinase could be recove ...200515769595
cytoplasmic contractions in growing fungal hyphae and their morphogenetic consequences.video-enhanced light microscopy of the apical and subapical regions of growing hyphae of several fungal species revealed the existence of momentary synchronized motions of subcellular organelles. first discovered in a temperature-sensitive morphological mutant (ramosa-1) of aspergillus niger, these seemingly spontaneous cytoplasmic contractions were also detected in wild-type hyphae of a. niger, neurospora crassa, and trichoderma atroviride. cytoplasmic contractions in all fungi lasted about 1 s ...200515812630
proteomic response of the biological control fungus trichoderma atroviride to growth on the cell walls of rhizoctonia solani.trichoderma atroviride has a natural ability to parasitise phytopathogenic fungi such as rhizoctonia solani and botrytis cinerea, therefore providing an environmentally sound alternative to chemical fungicides in the management of these pathogens. two-dimensional electrophoresis was used to display cellular protein patterns of t. atroviride (t. harzianum p1) grown on media containing either glucose or r. solani cell walls. protein profiles were compared to identify t. atroviride proteins up-regu ...200515856359
the g protein alpha subunit tga1 of trichoderma atroviride is involved in chitinase formation and differential production of antifungal metabolites.trichoderma mycoparasitism includes recognition, attack, overgrowth and lysis of the host fungus accompanied by morphological changes and secretion of hydrolytic enzymes and antibiotics. studying the underlying signal transduction pathways, the tga1 gene encoding a galpha subunit of trichoderma atroviride p1 was analysed. a deltatga1 mutant showed continuous sporulation and elevated internal steady-state camp levels. tga1 gene deletion resulted in a complete loss of mycoparasitic overgrowth and ...200515964222
improvement of the fungal biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride to enhance both antagonism and induction of plant systemic disease resistance.biocontrol agents generally do not perform well enough under field conditions to compete with chemical fungicides. we determined whether transgenic strain sj3-4 of trichoderma atroviride, which expresses the aspergillus niger glucose oxidase-encoding gene, goxa, under a homologous chitinase (nag1) promoter had increased capabilities as a fungal biocontrol agent. the transgenic strain differed only slightly from the wild-type in sporulation or the growth rate. goxa expression occurred immediately ...200516000810
a microsatellite based method for quantification of fungi in decomposing plant material elucidates the role of fusarium graminearum don production in the saprophytic competition with trichoderma atroviride in maize tissue microcosms.common pcr assays for quantification of fungi in living plants cannot be used to study saprophytic colonization of fungi because plant decomposition releases pcr-inhibiting substances and saprophytes degrade the plant dna which could serve as internal standard. the microsatellite pcr assays presented here overcome these problems by spiking samples prior to dna extraction with mycelium of a reference strain. pcr with fluorescent primers co-amplifies microsatellite fragments of different length fr ...200616420629
molecular cloning, characterization, and expression studies of a novel chitinase gene (ech30) from the mycoparasite trichoderma atroviride strain p1.we describe the cloning and characterization of a single copy gene from trichoderma atroviride p1 encoding a novel 30 kda chitinase, ech30. ech30 is a family 18 chitinase showing low sequence similarity to other trichoderma chitinases. real-time quantitative rt-pcr studies revealed that expression of the ech30 gene was induced by the presence of botrytis cinerea in plate confrontation assays, but hardly by chitin in liquid cultures. studies of ech30 purified from an escherichia coli strain overe ...200616499618
cross talk between a fungal blue-light perception system and the cyclic amp signaling pathway.blue light regulates many physiological and developmental processes in fungi. in trichoderma atroviride the complex formed by the blr-1 and blr-2 proteins appears to play an essential role as a sensor and transcriptional regulator in photoconidiation. here we demonstrate that the blr proteins are necessary for carbon deprivation induced conidiation, even in the absence of light, pointing to the existence of an unprecedented cross talk between light and carbon sensing. further, in contrast to wha ...200616524905
impact of transgenic bt maize residues on the mycotoxigenic plant pathogen fusarium graminearum and the biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride.transformation of maize with genes encoding for insecticidal crystal (cry) proteins from bacillus thuringiensis (bt) could have an impact on the saprophytic survival of plant pathogens and their antagonists on crop residues. we assessed potential effects on the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (don)-producing wheat and maize pathogen fusarium graminearum and on the biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride. purified cry1ab protein caused no growth inhibition of these fungi on agar plates. cry1ab concentra ...200616738384
a screening system for carbon sources enhancing beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase formation in hypocrea atroviridis (trichoderma atroviride).to identify carbon sources that trigger beta-n-acetylglucosaminidase (nagase) formation in hypocrea atroviridis (anamorph trichoderma atroviride), a screening system was designed that consists of a combination of biolog phenotype microarray plates, which contain 95 different carbon sources, and specific enzyme activity measurements using a chromogenic substrate. the results revealed growth-dependent kinetics of nagase formation and it was shown that nagase activities were enhanced on carbon sour ...200616804175
epl1, the major secreted protein of hypocrea atroviridis on glucose, is a member of a strongly conserved protein family comprising plant defense response elicitors.we used a proteomic approach to identify constitutively formed extracellular proteins of hypocrea atroviridis (trichoderma atroviride), a known biocontrol agent. the fungus was cultivated on glucose and the secretome was examined by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. the two predominant spots were identified by maldi ms utilizing peptide mass fingerprints and amino acid sequence tags obtained by postsource decay and/or high-energy collision-induced dissociation (ms/ms) experiments, and turned ...200616939625
conidiation of trichoderma atroviride isolate during submerged cultivation in a laboratory stirred-tank fermenter.conditions for conidiation of a natural isolate of trichoderma atroviride during submerged cultivation in erlenmeyer flasks and in a laboratory stirred-tank fermenter were optimized. from the simple sugars tested, cellobiose was the best substrate for conidia production while cellulose fines from paper mill waste proved to be a suitable cheap complex carbon source. optimum temperature for conidiation was 24-26 degrees c, and the required dissolved oxygen level was > 40% saturation. after initial ...200617004652
study of the three-way interaction between trichoderma atroviride, plant and fungal pathogens by using a proteomic approach.the main molecular factors involved in the complex interactions occurring between plants (bean), two different fungal pathogens (botrytis cinerea, rhizoctonia solani) and an antagonistic strain of the genus trichoderma were investigated. two-dimensional (2-d) electrophoresis was used to analyze separately collected proteomes from each single, two- or three-partner interaction (i.e., plant, pathogenic and antagonistic fungus alone and in all possible combinations). differential proteins were subj ...200617008992
novel light-regulated genes in trichoderma atroviride: a dissection by cdna microarrays.the influence of light on living organisms is critical, not only because of its importance as the main source of energy for the biosphere, but also due to its capacity to induce changes in the behaviour and morphology of nearly all forms of life. the common soil fungus trichoderma atroviride responds to blue light in a synchronized manner, in time and space, by forming a ring of green conidia at what had been the colony perimeter at the time of exposure (photoconidiation). a putative complex for ...200617074901
signaling via the trichoderma atroviride mitogen-activated protein kinase tmk 1 differentially affects mycoparasitism and plant protection.trichoderma atroviride is a mycoparasite of a number of plant pathogenic fungi thereby employing morphological changes and secretion of cell wall degrading enzymes and antibiotics. the function of the tmk 1 gene encoding a mitogen-activated protein kinase (mapk) during fungal growth, mycoparasitic interaction, and biocontrol was examined in t. atroviride. deltatmk 1 mutants exhibited altered radial growth and conidiation, and displayed de-regulated infection structure formation in the absence of ...200717509915
trichoderma atroviride phr1, a fungal photolyase responsible for dna repair, autoregulates its own photoinduction.the photolyases, dna repair enzymes that use visible and long-wavelength uv light to repair cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (cpds) created by short-wavelength uv, belong to the larger photolyase-cryptochrome gene family. cryptochromes (uva-blue light photoreceptors) lack repair activity, and sensory and regulatory roles have been defined for them in plants and animals. evolutionary considerations indicate that cryptochromes diverged from cpd photolyases before the emergence of eukaryotes. in proka ...200717545314
degradation of low rank coal by trichoderma atroviride es11.a new isolate of trichoderma atroviride has been shown to grow on low rank coal as the sole carbon source. t. atroviride es11 degrades approximately 82% of particulate coal (10 g l(-1)) over a period of 21 days with 50% reduction in 6 days. glucose (5 g l(-1)) as a supplemented carbon source enhanced the coal solubilisation efficiency of t. atroviride es11, while 10 and 20 g l(-1) glucose decrease coal solubilisation efficiency. addition of nitrogen [1 g l(-1) (nh(4))(2)so(4)] to the medium also ...200717605059
overexpression, purification and characterization of the trichoderma atroviride endochitinase, ech42, in pichia pastoris.the endochitinase gene ech42 from trichoderma atroviride was cloned and expressed in pichia pastoris using a constitutive expression system. over 98% of the recombinant protein was secreted into the culture medium as glycoprotein. a high endochitinase concentration, 186 mg/l with a specific enzyme activity of 14,128 umg(-1) was produced. the optimal enzyme kinetic parameters for the recombinant protein were identical to those reported for the enzyme isolated from t. atroviride. the recombinant e ...200717629497
calcium-mediated perception and defense responses activated in plant cells by metabolite mixtures secreted by the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride.calcium is commonly involved as intracellular messenger in the transduction by plants of a wide range of biotic stimuli, including signals from pathogenic and symbiotic fungi. trichoderma spp. are largely used in the biological control of plant diseases caused by fungal phytopathogens and are able to colonize plant roots. early molecular events underlying their association with plants are relatively unknown.200717663762
enhanced responsiveness and sensitivity to blue light by blr-2 overexpression in trichoderma atroviride.light is an environmental factor that regulates pivotal processes in living organisms, and appropriate perception is key to adaptation to the environment. blue light activates asexual reproduction in trichoderma atroviride through transcription factors blr-1 and blr-2 which regulate light-responsive genes. here, we show that blr-2 expression is a limiting factor for photo-perception and photo-transduction. overexpression of blr-2 resulted in increased photoconidiation and stronger expression of ...200717975098
profiling of trichorzianines in culture samples of trichoderma atroviride by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.peptaibols are bioactive linear peptides of 5-20 amino acid residues and contain specific non-proteinogenic amino acids such as alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (aib). they are antibiotic secondary metabolites of moulds belonging predominantly to the genus trichoderma, some species of which are successfully used as biocontrol organisms to fight against plant diseases. in the present study we developed a profiling method for the relative quantification of 16 trichorzianine peptaibols in culture samples ...200718008385
overexpression of an endochitinase gene (then-42) in trichoderma atroviride for increased production of antifungal enzymes and enhanced antagonist action against pathogenic fungi.trichoderma is one of the most promising biocontrol agents against plant fungal diseases. in this study, a transgenic strain of trichoderma atroviride was characterized. the transgenic strain contains an endochitinase gene (then-42) driven by the cellulase promoter cbh1 of t. reesei for overexpression of then-42. the culture filtrates of the transformant and the parental strain grown in eight different media were evaluated for chitinase and antifungal enzyme production based on activity gels, pr ...200718025571
trichoderma biocontrol: signal transduction pathways involved in host sensing and mycoparasitism.fungi of the genus trichoderma are used as biocontrol agents against several plant pathogenic fungi like rhizoctonia spp., pythium spp., botrytis cinerea and fusarium spp. which cause both soil-borne and leaf- or flower-borne diseases of agricultural plants. plant disease control by trichoderma is based on complex interactions between trichoderma, the plant pathogen and the plant. until now, two main components of biocontrol have been identified: direct activity of trichoderma against the plant ...200719936091
scar-based real time pcr to identify a biocontrol strain (t1) of trichoderma atroviride and study its population dynamics in soils.strains of trichoderma spp. are known for their antagonistic properties against plant pathogens, some are already on the market, others are under development. in order to launch a strain on the market its perfect identification at the species and strain levels is needed. the aim of this study is to (i) design a scar marker for specific identification of strain t1 of trichoderma atroviride and (ii) monitor population dynamics of this strain in soil by real time pcr. a primer pair targeting a 141- ...200716887226
characterization of a new keratinolytic trichoderma atroviride strain f6 that completely degrades native chicken feather.to isolate novel nonpathogenic fungus that completely degrades native chicken feather and characterize its keratinases.200818266639
trichoderma atroviride f6 improves phytoextraction efficiency of mustard (brassica juncea (l.) coss. var. foliosa bailey) in cd, ni contaminated soils.trichoderma atroviride f6, isolated from decaying feather and resistant to 100 mg l(-1) cd2+ and 250 mg l(-1) ni2+, was applied for rhizoremediation of cd, ni and cd-ni combination contaminated soils through association with brassica juncea (l.) coss. var. foliosa. the strain significantly alleviated the cellular toxicity of cadmium and nickel to plants. inoculation of b. juncea (l.) coss. var. foliosa with t. atroviride f6 resulted a 110%, 40% and 170% increase in fresh weight in cd, ni and cd- ...200818342911
real-time pcr for detection and quantification of the biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride strain sc1 in soil.trichoderma (hypocreales, ascomycota) is a widespread genus in nature and several trichoderma species are used in industrial processes and as biocontrol agents against crop diseases. it is very important that the persistence and spread of microorganisms released on purpose into the environment are accurately monitored. real-time pcr methods for genus/species/strain identification of microorganisms are currently being developed to overcome the difficulties of classical microbiological and enzymat ...200818375004
characterisation of the peptaibiome of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.the present study describes the liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (lc/ms/ms)-based screening and characterisation of linear antibiotic alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (aib)-containing non-ribosomal peptides (nrp) in culture samples of the filamentous fungus trichoderma atroviride atcc 74058. fungal culture filtrates were enriched by solid-phase extraction (spe) and separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (hplc), prior to mass spectrometric (ms) and tandem mass ...200818470867
dimerization controls the activity of fungal elicitors that trigger systemic resistance in plants.the soilborne fungus trichoderma virens secretes a small protein (sm1) that induces local and systemic defenses in plants. this protein belongs to the ceratoplatanin protein family and is mainly present as a monomer in culture filtrates. however, hypocrea atroviride (the telomorph form of trichoderma atroviride) secretes an sm1-homologous protein, epl1, with high levels of dimerization. nonetheless, the molecular mechanisms involved in recognition and the signaling pathways involved in the induc ...200818487198
trichoderma g protein-coupled receptors: functional characterisation of a camp receptor-like protein from trichoderma atroviride.galpha subunits act to regulate vegetative growth, conidiation, and the mycoparasitic response in trichoderma atroviride. to extend our knowledge on g protein signalling, we analysed g protein-coupled receptors (gpcrs). as the genome sequence of t. atroviride is not publicly available yet, we carried out an in silico exploration of the genome database of the close relative t. reesei. twenty genes encoding putative gpcrs distributed over eight classes and additional 35 proteins similar to the mag ...200818836726
purification and preliminary characterization of a cold-adapted extracellular proteinase from trichoderma atroviride.eleven cold-tolerant trichoderma isolates were screened for the production of proteolytic activities at 10 degrees c. based on the activity profiles determined with paranitroanilide substrates at 5 degrees c, strain t221 identified as trichoderma atroviride was selected for further investigations. the culture broth of the strain grown at 10 degrees c in casein-containing culture medium was concentrated by lyophilization and subjected to gel filtration, which was followed by chromatofocusing of t ...200818637564
ecophysiological requirements and survival of a trichoderma atroviride isolate with biocontrol potential.trichoderma atroviride sc1, isolated from decayed hazelnut wood in northern italy in 2000, is a promising fungal agent for biological control of soil-borne plant pathogens. the objective of this research was to characterize the biology and ecology of this fungus, in order to determine its environmental parameter tolerance levels and its behavior in the phylloplane and soil systems. to better characterize t. atroviride sc1, the influences of ph, temperature, water activity and different nitrogen ...200818720503
molecular cloning of chitinase 33 (chit33) gene from trichoderma atroviride.in this study trichoderma atroviride was selected as over producer of chitinase enzyme among 30 different isolates of trichoderma sp. on the basis of chitinase specific activity. from this isolate the genomic and cdna clones encoding chit33 have been isolated and sequenced. comparison of genomic and cdna sequences for defining gene structure indicates that this gene contains three short introns and also an open reading frame coding for a protein of 321 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequenc ...200824031242
comparative enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated spruce by supernatants, whole fermentation broths and washed mycelia of trichoderma reesei and trichoderma atroviride.cellulase and beta-glucosidase production on steam pretreated spruce (sps) with trichoderma reesei rut c30, trichoderma atroviride tub f-1505 and tub f-1663 was investigated. the enzymes were compared in term of activity, temperature optima and hydrolytic capacity. the t. atroviride cellulases proved to have lower temperature optima for filter paper activity (fpa) assay (50 degrees c) and for hydrolysis of sps (40 degrees c) than the rut c30 enzymes (60 degrees c for fpa and 50 degrees c for hyd ...200918793835
improved degradation of organophosphate dichlorvos by trichoderma atroviride transformants generated by restriction enzyme-mediated integration (remi).a simple technique, remi (restriction enzyme-mediated integration), was used to construct transformants of trichoderma atroviride with improved capability of degrading organophosphate pesticide dichlorvos. linearized dna of plasmid pv2 bearing the hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) gene was inserted into chromosomes of wild strain t23 and transformation was confirmed by pcr and southern blot analysis, respectively. of 247 transformants, 76% showed improved dichlorvos degradation ability as co ...200918585910
transcriptomic response of the mycoparasitic fungus trichoderma atroviride to the presence of a fungal prey.combating the action of plant pathogenic microorganisms by mycoparasitic fungi has been announced as an attractive biological alternative to the use of chemical fungicides since two decades. the fungal genus trichoderma includes a high number of taxa which are able to recognize, combat and finally besiege and kill their prey. only fragments of the biochemical processes related to this ability have been uncovered so far, however.200919948043
two new compounds from fermentation liquid of the marine fungus trichoderma atroviride g20-12.the chemical constituent research on the ethyl acetate extracts of fermentation liquid of the marine fungus trichoderma atroviride g20-12 led to the isolation of two new compounds, 2-hydroxybutan-3-yl 5'-(2''-hydroxy-n-(2'''-oxobutan-3'''-yl)propanamido)butanoate (1) and 3-hydroxy-5-(4-hydroxybenzyl)dihydrofuran-2(3h)-one (2). the structures of the new compounds were determined by spectroscopic and chemical analysis.200920183251
trichoderma virens, a plant beneficial fungus, enhances biomass production and promotes lateral root growth through an auxin-dependent mechanism in arabidopsis.trichoderma species belong to a class of free-living fungi beneficial to plants that are common in the rhizosphere. we investigated the role of auxin in regulating the growth and development of arabidopsis (arabidopsis thaliana) seedlings in response to inoculation with trichoderma virens and trichoderma atroviride by developing a plant-fungus interaction system. wild-type arabidopsis seedlings inoculated with either t. virens or t. atroviride showed characteristic auxin-related phenotypes, incl ...200919176721
evaluating the survival and environmental fate of the biocontrol agent trichoderma atroviride sc1 in vineyards in northern italy.to study the survival in the soil and the dispersion in the environment of trichoderma atroviride sc1 after soil applications in a vineyard.200919210568
identification of a new biocontrol gene in trichoderma atroviride: the role of an abc transporter membrane pump in the interaction with different plant-pathogenic fungi.successful biocontrol interactions often require that the beneficial microbes involved are resistant or tolerant to a variety of toxicants, including antibiotics produced by themselves or phytopathogens, plant antimicrobial compounds, and synthetic chemicals or contaminants. the ability of trichoderma spp., the most widely applied biocontrol fungi, to withstand different chemical stresses, including those associated with mycoparasitism, is well known. in this work, we identified an atp-binding c ...200919245323
biodiversity of trichoderma strains in tunisia.trichoderma strains were sampled in 4 different bioclimatic zones of tunisia, a mediterranean north african country with strong climatic and edaphic variability from north to south, to assess the genetic diversity of endemic species of trichoderma and their relationship to the bioclimatic zones. in all, 53 strains were isolated and identified at the species level by analysis of their internal transcribed spacers regions 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) of the rdna cluster and (or) a fragment of the trans ...200919295648
genetic and metabolic biodiversity of trichoderma from colombia and adjacent neotropic regions.the genus trichoderma has been studied for production of enzymes and other metabolites, as well as for exploitation as effective biological control agents. the biodiversity of trichoderma has seen relatively limited study over much of the neotropical region. in the current study we assess the biodiversity of 183 isolates from mexico, guatemala, panama, ecuador, peru, brazil and colombia, using morphological, metabolic and genetic approaches. a comparatively high diversity of species was found, c ...200919439189
generation and identification of dna sequence flanking t-dna integration site of trichoderma atroviride mutants with high dichlorvos-degrading capacity.a protocol for efficient agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) of biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride strain t23 was developed to construct mutants with improved dichlorvos-degradation ability. a transformation frequency of 5x10(-6) was achieved. among 110 genetically stable t-dna transformants of t. atroviride t23, two transformants, amt-12 and amt-28, confirmed by southern blot analysis to have single-copy inserts of t-dna, showed an increase in dichlorvos-degradation a ...200919577921
enzymatic hydrolysis of steam-pretreated lignocellulosic materials with trichoderma atroviride enzymes produced in-house.improvement of the process of cellulase production and development of more efficient lignocellulose-degrading enzymes are necessary in order to reduce the cost of enzymes required in the biomass-to-bioethanol process.200919580644
the beta-n-acetylglucosaminidases nag1 and nag2 are essential for growth of trichoderma atroviride on chitin.the chitinolytic enzyme machinery of fungi consists of chitinases and beta-n-acetylglucosaminidases. these enzymes are important during the fungal life cycle for degradation of exogenous chitin, which is the second most abundant biopolymer, as well as fungal cell-wall remodelling. in addition, involvement of chitinolytic enzymes in the lysis of the host cell wall in mycoparasitic trichoderma spp. has been reported. in view of the fact that fungi have on average 15-20 chitinases, but only two bet ...200919674110
molecular identification of trichoderma species associated with pleurotus ostreatus and natural substrates of the oyster mushroom.green mold of pleurotus ostreatus, caused by trichoderma species, has recently resulted in crop losses worldwide. therefore, there is an emerging need for rapid means of diagnosing the causal agents. a pcr assay was developed for rapid detection of trichoderma pleurotum and trichoderma pleuroticola, the two pathogens causing green mold of p. ostreatus. three oligonucleotide primers were designed for identifying these species in a multiplex pcr assay based on dna sequences within the fourth and f ...200919735461
an intact soil-core microcosm method to evaluate the survival and vertical dispersal of trichoderma atroviride sc1.to develop an intact soil-core microcosm method to study the survival and vertical dispersal of an experimental biocontrol agent (trichoderma atroviride sc1) applied to the soil surface.200919780964
proteomic analysis of trichoderma atroviride mycelia stressed by organophosphate pesticide dichlorvos.the proteomic approach is a powerful tool to study microbial response to environmental stress. to evaluate the responses of trichoderma spp. to the organophosphate pesticide dichlorvos, mycelia of trichoderma atroviride t23 were exposed to dichlorvos at concentrations of 0, 100, 300, 500, and 1000 microg/ml, respectively. changes in protein expression were investigated using two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate - polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. sixteen protein spots were differentially exp ...201020237573
identification and profiling of volatile metabolites of the biocontrol fungus trichoderma atroviride by hs-spme-gc-ms.in the present study we describe a method, which is based on solid phase microextraction (spme) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (gc-ms) and which can be used for the profiling of microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) in the headspace (hs) of cultures of filamentous fungi. the method comprises the following successive steps: 1. growth of the fungus on a solid culture medium directly in headspace vials, 2. measurement of volatiles by hs-spme-gc-ms, 3. deconvolution of mass s ...201020302890
conidia immobilization of t-dna inserted trichoderma atroviride mutant amt-28 with dichlorvos degradation ability and exploration of biodegradation mechanism.an immobilizing conidia approach was used to study the degradation ability of dichlorvos in trichoderma atroviride t-dna insertional mutant amt-28. beads with 10(7) immobilized conidia per 100 ml of na-alginate solution exhibited the highest degradation abilities. the immobilized conidia showed enhanced degradation abilities compared with immobilized or freely suspended mycelia. the immobilized cells kept good storage capacity and reusability. dichlorvos was confirmed to be completely removed by ...201020685111
coupling aerobic biodegradation of methanol vapors with heterologous protein expression of endochitinase ech42 from trichoderma atroviride in pichia pastoris.methanol is included among the most hazardous air pollutants, and an effort of vapors biofiltration by using microbial consortiums has been reported. the aim of this work was to couple the methanol vapors biodegradation with the production of recombinant endochitinase (ech42) from trichoderma atroviride in pichia pastoris transformed with the ppic-ech42 plasmid. after carrying out batch experiments at 0.5% (w/v) of methanol concentration, the recombinant p. pastoris mut(+) strain was selected be ...201020709543
screening, identification and evaluation of potential biocontrol fungal endophytes against rhizoctonia solani ag3 on potato plants.rhizoctonia solani is an important soilborne pathogen of potato plants whose control typically depends on chemicals. here, we screened six fungal endophytes for the suppression of r. solani growth both in vitro and in a greenhouse. these isolates were identified using morphology and internal transcribed spacer regions of rdna as alternaria longipes, epicoccum nigrum, phomopsis sp., and trichoderma atroviride. both t. atroviride and e. nigrum showed significant in vitro inhibition of mycelial gro ...201020738401
ambient ph intrinsically influences trichoderma conidiation and colony morphology.conidiation in trichoderma has been demonstrated to be favoured by a low ambient ph and more recently pacc (pac1) mediated ph-regulation has been implicated in the control of conidiation. in this study, ambient ph effects on conidiation were investigated in three isolates (trichoderma hamatum, trichoderma atroviride and trichoderma pleuroticola) exposed to a single blue-light burst or to mycelial injury. disks of conidiation were observed for t. atroviride in response to a single light exposure, ...201020943130
statistical approach to determine the effect of combined environmental parameters on conidial development of trichoderma atroviride (t-15603.1).trichoderma atroviride (t-15603.1) is a promising fungal agent for biological control of wood decay fungi in urban tree wounds. the aim of this work was to determine the combined effects of water activity (a(w), 0.998-0.892), temperature (10-30 °c) and ph (3-7) on the development of conidia on low-nutrient agar (lna). lag phase prior to germination (h), germination rates (µ(m)) and germ-tube elongation were obtained at each set of conditions. the experimental data were used to fit a response sur ...201021072860
tanshinone iia and tanshinone i production by trichoderma atroviride d16, an endophytic fungus in salvia miltiorrhiza.in this study the isolation of an endophytic fungus from the root of the medicinal herb salvia miltiorrhiza bunge is reported for the first time. the fungus produced tanshinone i and tanshinone iia in rich mycological medium (potato dextrose broth) under shake flask and bench scale fermentation conditions. the fungus was identified as trichoderma atroviride by its morphology and authenticated by its analysis (its1 and its2 regions and the intervening 5.8s rdna region). tanshinone i and tanshinon ...201122035769
trichodermanin a, a novel diterpenoid from endophytic fungus culture.trichodermanin a, a structurally unique diterpenoid with skeletal carbons arranged compactly in a fused 6-5-6-6 ring system, has been isolated from cultures of trichoderma atroviride (strain no. s361), an endophytic fungus isolate in cephalotaxus fortunei. the structure of this compound was elucidated based on extensive spectroscopic methods and confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis.201121213064
transient excretion of succinate from trichoderma atroviride submerged mycelia reveals the complex movements and metabolism of carboxylates.submerged growth of trichoderma atroviride ccm f 534 on glucose-containing medium was accompanied by the excretion of organic acids (succinate, citrate, alpha-ketoglutarate, fumarate, aconitate). the excretion of succinate was transient. after 48-72 h cultivation, millimolar amounts of succinate disappeared from the medium. we studied the mechanism of the removal of succinate from the medium and demonstrated the activation of the inward transport of succinate by submerged mycelia. this transport ...201121337029
comparative genome sequence analysis underscores mycoparasitism as the ancestral life style of trichoderma.abstract: background: mycoparasitism, a lifestyle where one fungus is parasitic on another fungus, has special relevance when the prey is a plant pathogen, providing a strategy for biological control of pests for plant protection. probably, the most studied biocontrol agents are species of the genus hypocrea/trichoderma. results: here we report an analysis of the genome sequences of the two biocontrol species trichoderma atroviride (teleomorph hypocrea atroviridis) and trichoderma virens (former ...201121501500
identification of mycoparasitism-related genes in trichoderma atroviride: a holistic comparative study on self-confrontation and host interaction by de novo transcriptome sequencing.a high-throughput sequencing approach was utilized to carry out a comparative transcriptome analysis of trichoderma atroviride imi206040 during mycoparasitic interaction with the plant pathogenic fungus rhizoctonia solani. in this study, transcript fragments of 7,797 trichoderma genes were sequenced, 175 of which were host responsive. according to the functional annotation of these genes by kog, the most abundant group during direct contact was 'metabolism'. quantitative rt-pcr confirmed the dif ...201121531825
elevated activity of dolichyl phosphate mannose synthase enhances biocontrol abilities of trichoderma atroviride.antagonism of trichoderma against phytopathogenic fungi is widely exploited for biocontrol of plant diseases. a crucial role in the biocontrol mechanism is attributed to cell wall degrading enzymes secreted by trichoderma. more efficient production and secretion of the enzymes should therefore elevate the biocontrol abilities of trichoderma. since the majority of secretory hydrolases are glycoproteins, it has been postulated that the posttranslational modification of these proteins could constit ...201121770768
sesquiterpenoids from trichoderma atroviride, an endophytic fungus in cephalotaxus fortunei.two new sesquiterpenoids, identified as (rel 1s, 3r, 4r, 7r)-3-[5-hydroxy-4-methylpent-3-enyl]-1, 3, 7-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptane (1) and (rel 1s, 3r, 4r, 7r)-3-[3, 4-dihydroxy-4-methylpentyl]-1, 3, 7-trimethyl-2-oxabicyclo [2, 2, 1] heptane (2), were isolated from cultures of trichoderma atroviride (strain no. s361), an endophytic fungal strain residing in the bark of cephalotaxus fortunei. the structures of compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by detailed spectroscopic analyses on t ...201121745552
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