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population structure of botryosphaeria dothidea from pistachio and other hosts in california.abstract genetic diversity was investigated among california populations of botryosphaeria dothidea, causal agent of botryosphaeria panicle and shoot blight of pistachio, with random amplified polymorphic dna (rapd) and microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (mp-pcr). we surveyed 120 isolates, 112 of which originated from the california central valley and included pistachio isolates (n = 52) and isolates from other plant species (n = 60). out-group isolates (n = 8) were obtained from pi ...200118942996
latency- and defense-related ultrastructural characteristics of apple fruit tissues infected with botryosphaeria dothidea.abstract apple fruit tissues infected with botryosphaeria dothidea were examined by transmission electron microscopy using susceptible cv. fuji and resistant cv. jonathan. immature (green) and mature (red) fruits of cv. fuji with restricted or expanding lesions were also examined to reveal subcellular characteristics related with latent and restricted disease development. in infected susceptible mature fruits, cytoplasmic degeneration and organelle disruption commonly occurred, accompanying cell ...200118944390
characterization of botryosphaeria dothidea isolates collected from pistachio and other plant hosts in california.abstract eighty-six isolates of botryosphaeria dothidea, the causal agent of botryosphaeria panicle and shoot blight of pistachio, were collected from pistachio and other plant hosts in california. the isolates were characterized by microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (mp-pcr), sequences of the nuclear ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer region (its1, 5.8s gene, and its2), morphological and cultural characters, osmotic and fungicide sensitivity, and pathogenicity on pistachio. ...200218943026
glyoxysomal nature of microbodies complexed with lipid globules in botryosphaeria dothidea.abstract the glyoxysomal nature of microbodies was determined in botryosphaeria dothidea hyphae based on morphology and in situ enzyme characteristics by transmission electron microscopy and cytochemistry. bound by a single membrane, microbodies had a homogeneous matrix and varied in size ranging from 200 to 400 nm in diameter. microbodies often had crystalline inclusions that consisted of parallel arrays of fine tubules in their matrices. microbodies and lipid globules were placed in close asso ...200418943073
effects of single-drop impactions and natural and simulated rains on the dispersal of botryosphaeria dothidea conidia.abstract laboratory and field experiments were conducted to study the dispersal of botryosphaeria dothidea conidia using single-drop impactions and natural and simulated precipitations. for laboratory studies, 200 single drops were released from a height of 1 m on infected pistachio nuts. on pieces of photographic film, 50% of the droplets were collected within 20 mm (average droplet travel distance) of the target area, and the droplets ranged from 0.041 to 3.19 mm in diameter, with an average o ...200418944454
spatiotemporal changes in the population structure of botryosphaeria dothidea from california pistachio orchards.abstract spatiotemporal changes in the population structure of botryosphaeria dothidea, causal agent of panicle and shoot blight of pistachio, were analyzed by using microsatellite-primed polymerase chain reaction (mppcr), partial sequences of the rna polymerase ii (rpb2) gene, and vegetative compatibility groups (vcgs). we examined 390 isolates, 378 recovered from pistachio in seven counties of california from 1990 to 2001 and 12 recovered from peach, apple, and sycamore in georgia, north carol ...200418944107
combined multiple gene genealogies and phenotypic characters differentiate several species previously identified as botryosphaeria dothidea.botryosphaeria dothidea is one of the most commonly reported species in a genus of important pathogens of woody plants. this taxon generally is accepted to represent a species complex, and hence its identity remains unclear. previous studies either have treated b. dothidea as the valid name for b. ribis and b. berengeriana or argued for them to be separate entities. to add to the confusion, no ex-type cultures are available for either b. dothidea or b. ribis. the aim of the present study, theref ...200421148832
morphology and phylogeny of botryosphaeria dothidea causing fruit rot of olives.the taxonomic position of the causal agent of fruit rot of olives was determined from fresh collections of the fungus from central greece. in culture it formed two types of conidia, namely fusiform, hyaline, aseptate conidia typical of the genus fusicoccum, and dark-walled, ovoid, ellipsoid or fusiform, 1-2 septate conidia that are not typically observed in fusicoccum. a phylogenetic analysis based on its and ef1-alpha sequences placed the fungus within the same clade as fusicoccum aesculi, whic ...200515883730
evaluation of amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis as a method for the identification of botryosphaeria species.the polymerase chain reaction was used to amplify a rdna fragment containing the internal transcribed spacers (its1-5.8s-its2) and the d1/d2 variable domains of the 28s rdna from 10 species of the genus botryosphaeria (fungi, ascomycota). restriction analysis of the amplicons with frequent-cutting endonucleases (amplified ribosomal dna restriction analysis) allowed the definition of 12 rdna haplotypes. each of the rdna haplotypes could be unambiguously assigned to a single botryosphaeria species ...200515837376
biotransformation of citrus aromatics nootkatone and valencene by microorganisms.biotransformations of the sesquiterpene ketone nootkatone from the crude drug alpiniae fructus and grapefruit oil, and the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon valencene from valencia orange oil were carried out with microorganisms such as aspergillus niger, botryosphaeria dothidea, and fusarium culmorum to afford structurally interesting metabolites. their stereostructures were established by a combination of high-resolution nmr spectral and x-ray crystallographic analysis and chemical reaction. metabolic ...200516272725
highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae chlorella species and fungi such as mucor species, botryosphaeria dothidea, and botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.200516272746
botryosphaeria species from eucalyptus in australia are pleoanamorphic, producing dichomera synanamorphs in culture.species within the genus botryosphaeria include some of the most widespread and important pathogens of woody plants, and have been the focus of numerous taxonomic studies in recent years. it is currently accepted that anamorphs of botryosphaeria belong to two distinct genera, fusicoccum and diplodia. species within the genus fusicoccum commonly produce aseptate, hyaline conidia. in the present study, fungi were isolated from foliage and wood of eucalyptus in native forests and plantations in aus ...200516353635
lysobacter capsici sp. nov., with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper, and emended description of the genus lysobacter.the taxonomic position of a novel bacterial strain, yc5194(t), with antimicrobial activity, isolated from the rhizosphere of pepper in jinju, south korea, was studied using a polyphasic approach. cells of the strain were gram-negative, rod-shaped, facultative anaerobes. it grew at a temperature of 15-37 degrees c (optimum 28 degrees c). growth of the strain occurred between ph 5.5 and 8.5, with an optimum of ph 7.0-7.5. the strain inhibited mycelial growth of pythium ultimum, colletotrichum gloe ...200818218936
botryosphaeriaceae from tuart (eucalyptus gomphocephala) woodland, including descriptions of four new species.eucalyptus gomphocephala (tuart) is a tree native to the southwest coast of western australia, where, in some areas, there is a significant decline in the health of tuart. botryosphaeriaceous taxa have been isolated as endophytes and canker pathogens from numerous hosts in many parts of the world and have been implicated in the decline of e. gomphocephala. in the present study, endophytic fungi were isolated from a wide variety of native woody plant species (acacia cochlearis, a. rostellifera, a ...200919070663
a six locus phylogeny reveals high species diversity in botryosphaeriaceae from california almond.botryosphaeriaceae are important pathogens on a variety of woody hosts, including almond, a major crop in california. almond is susceptible to botryosphaeria dothidea that forms band cankers on almond trunks, and the same fungus was also isolated from cankers of the canopy. to study the diversity and host range of b. dothidea and allied species from almond we used 132 isolates from 36 plant hosts from five continents, including 45 strains from almond in california. species were identified by com ...201020943551
enantioselective hydrolysis of glycidyl methylphenyl ethers by botryosphaeria dothidea zjuzq007: effect of substitution pattern on enantioselectivity.resolution of racemic glycidyl (o, m, p)-methylphenyl ethers by using a newly isolated botryosphaeria dothidea zjuzq007 with epoxide hydrolase activity affords enantiopure epoxides with enantiomeric excesses (e.e.(s)) of 91-99% and enantiomeric ratios (e) of 18.1 to 48.6. the (r)-enantiomer was obtained from rac-glycidyl (o or m)-methylphenyl ethers whereas the (s)-epoxides was obtained from glycidyl p-methylphenyl ether. substitution pattern of the methyl group exerted effects both on configura ...201021057981
symbiont-mediated phenotypic variation without co-evolution in an insect-fungus association.recent studies have shown that symbionts can be a source of adaptive phenotypic variation for their hosts. it is assumed that co-evolution between hosts and symbionts underlies these ecologically significant phenotypic traits. we tested this assumption in the ectosymbiotic fungal associate of the gall midge asteromyia carbonifera. phylogenetic analysis placed the fungal symbiont within a monophyletic clade formed by botryosphaeria dothidea, a typically free-living (i.e. not associated with an in ...201020840311
characterization and pathogenicity of botryosphaeriaceae species collected from olive and other hosts in spain and california.species in the family botryosphaeriaceae are common pathogens causing fruit rot and dieback of many woody plants. in this study, 150 botryosphaeriaceae isolates were collected from olive and other hosts in spain and california. representative isolates of each type were characterized based on morphological features and comparisons of dna sequence data of three regions: internal transcribed spacer 5.8s, β-tubulin, and elongation factor. three main species were identified as neofusicoccum mediterra ...201020731532
symbiotic fungal flora in leaf galls induced by illiciomyia yukawai (diptera: cecidomyiidae) and in its mycangia.we investigated the association between a gall midge, illiciomyia yukawai, and its symbiotic fungi on japanese star anise, illicium anisatum. the number of fungal species isolated from the galls increased with development of the galls, whereas those from the leaves showed a different trend. botryosphaeria dothidea was dominant in the galls from june to october, and after that phomopsis sp. 1, colletotrichum sp., and pestalotiopsis sp. became dominant. although b. dothidea was not isolated from t ...201122015684
involvement of microrna-mediated gene expression regulation in the pathological development of stem canker disease in populus trichocarpa.micrornas (mirnas), a type of short (21-23 nucleotides), non-coding rna molecule, mediate repressive gene regulation through rna silencing at the post-transcriptional level, and play an important role in defense and response to abiotic and biotic stresses. in the present study, affymetrix® mirna array, real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) for mirnas and their targets, and mirna promoter analysis were used to validate the gene expression patterns of mirnas in populus trichocarpa plantlets induced wi ...201223028709
fungal trunk pathogens associated with wood decay of almond trees on mallorca (spain).severe decline of almond trees has recently been observed in several orchards on the island of mallorca (balearic islands, western mediterranean sea). however, the identity of the causal agents has not yet been investigated. between august 2008 and june 2010, wood samples from branches of almond trees showing internal necroses and brown to black vascular streaking were collected in the llevant region on the island of mallorca. several fungal species were subsequently isolated from the margin bet ...201223105149
phylogeny and taxonomy of botryosphaeria and neofusicoccum species in iran, with description of botryosphaeria scharifii sp. nov.species of botryosphaeriaceae are important pathogens and endophytes associated with woody plants. botryosphaeria and neofusicoccum are two well known genera of the family. in this study 125 isolates morphologically resembling members of this family were collected from about 20 different fruit and forest trees in iran. based on morphology, msp-pcr profile and dna sequence data (its and tef1-a), four species were identified. of these, botryosphaeria dothidea, neofusicoccum mediterraneum and n. pa ...201322893637
multiple group i introns in the small-subunit rdna of botryosphaeria dothidea: implication for intraspecific genetic diversity.botryosphaeria dothidea is a widespread and economically important pathogen on various fruit trees, and it often causes die-back and canker on limbs and fruit rot. in characterizing intraspecies genetic variation within this fungus, group i introns, rich in rdna of fungi, may provide a productive region for exploration. in this research, we analysed complete small subunit (ssu) ribosomal dna (rdna) sequences of 37 b. dothidea strains, and found four insertions, designated bdo.s943, bdo.s1199-a, ...201323844098
isolation and characterization of endophytic fungi from camptotheca acuminata.in this study, a total of 161 endophytic fungal isolates from camptotheca acuminata were obtained and classified to 16 taxa according to morphological and molecular analysis. these taxa were composed of 2 frequent genera (botryosphaeria and fusarium) and 14 infrequent groups such as xylaria, diaporthe, rhizopus, epicoccum, and preussia, demonstrating that fungal endophytes in c. acuminata were highly abundant and diverse. antimicrobial activity screening using filter-paper diffusion method showe ...201323579767
a pr-4 gene identified from malus domestica is involved in the defense responses against botryosphaeria dothidea.pathogenesis-related protein-4 (pr-4) family is a group of proteins with a barwin domain in c-terminus and generally thought to be involved in plant defense responses. however, their detailed roles are poorly understood in defense of apple plant against pathogenic infection. in the present study, a new pr-4 gene (designated as mdpr-4) was identified from malus domestica, and its roles in defense responses of apple were investigated. the open reading frame of mdpr-4 gene is of 447 bp encoding a p ...201323178481
biological control of apple ring rot on fruit by bacillus amyloliquefaciens 9001.apple ring rot disease, caused by botryosphaeria dothidea (moug. ex. fr) ces. et de not., is one of the most important diseases on apple fruits. in this study, strain 9001 isolated from healthy apple fruits from an infested orchard was evaluated for its biocontrol activity against apple ring rot in vitro and in vivo. strain 9001 showed obvious antagonistic activity to b. dothidea yl-1 when plated on potato dextrose agar. soaking healthy apples in the bacterial suspensions of strain 9001 prior to ...201325288943
secondary metabolites from the endophytic botryosphaeria dothidea of melia azedarach and their antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities.two new metabolites, an α-pyridone derivative, 3-hydroxy-2-methoxy-5-methylpyridin-2(1h)-one (1), and a ceramide derivative, 3-hydroxy-n-(1-hydroxy-3-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (2), and a new natural product, 3-hydroxy-n-(1-hydroxy-4-methylpentan-2-yl)-5-oxohexanamide (3), along with 15 known compounds including chaetoglobosin c (7) and chaetoglobosin f (8) were isolated from the solid culture of the endophytic fungus botryosphaeria dothidea kj-1, collected from the stems of white cedar ...201424689437
confronting the constraints of morphological taxonomy in the botryosphaeriales.identification of fungi and the international code of nomenclature underpinning this process, rests strongly on the characterisation of morphological structures. yet, the value of these characters to define species in many groups has become questionable or even superfluous. this has emerged as dna-based techniques have increasingly revealed cryptic species and species complexes. this problem is vividly illustrated in the present study where 105 isolates of the botryosphaeriales were recovered fr ...201425737598
identification of glutathione s-transferase genes responding to pathogen infestation in populus tomentosa.stem blister canker, caused by botryosphaeria dothidea, is becoming the most serious disease of poplar in china. the molecular basis of the poplar in response to stem blister canker is not well understood. to reveal the global transcriptional changes of poplar to infection by b. dothidea, solexa paired-end sequencing of complementary dnas (cdnas) from control (nb) and pathogen-treated samples (wb) was performed, resulting in a total of 339,283 transcripts and 183,881 unigenes. a total of 206,586 ...201424870810
hypovirulence of the phytopathogenic fungus botryosphaeria dothidea: association with a coinfecting chrysovirus and a partitivirus.botryosphaeria dothidea is an important pathogenic fungus causing fruit rot, leaf and stem ring spots and dieback, stem canker, stem death or stool mortality, and decline of pear trees. seven double-stranded rnas (dsrnas; dsrnas 1 to 7 with sizes of 3,654, 2,773, 2,597, 2,574, 1,823, 1,623, and 511 bp, respectively) were identified in an isolate of b. dothidea exhibiting attenuated growth and virulence and a sectoring phenotype. characterization of the dsrnas revealed that they belong to two dsr ...201424760881
botryosphaeriaceae species overlap on four unrelated, native south african hosts.botryosphaeriaceae represents an important and diverse family of latent fungal pathogens of woody plants. we address the question of host range of these fungi by sampling leaves and branches of four native south african trees, including acacia karroo (fabaceae), celtis africana (cannabaceae), searsia lancea (anacardiaceae), and gymnosporia buxifolia (celastraceae). two new species of the botryosphaeriaceae, namely tiarosporella africana sp. nov. and aplosporella javeedii sp. nov. were identified ...201424528639
identification of a xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from apple (malus × domestica borkh.) as a potential defense gene against botryosphaeria dothidea.botryosphaeria dothidea is the causal agent of apple ring rot which is a highly destructive apple disease in china. here, a putative xyloglucan-specific endo-(1-4)-beta-d-glucanase inhibitor protein from malus×domestica (designated as mdxegip1) was found to be involved in defense against b. dothidea infection. mdxegip1 shares high amino acid sequence identity with other apple xegips, but exhibited significantly different responses to b. dothidea infection. quantitative real-time pcr revealed tha ...201525575987
immunosuppressive potential of botryosphaeria dothidea, an endophyte isolated from kigelia africana.for years, natural products from microbes have been used as drugs. endophytes are the most important fungi that produce many novel metabolites for potential use in pharmacology and agriculture.201525237890
antifungal activity of brevibacillus laterosporus jx-5 and characterization of its antifungal components.the establishment of safe and effective methods for controlling fungal disease is an urgent issue in agriculture and forestry. microbiological control of plant disease is expected to achieve better results than use of chemically derived fungicides. this study aimed to establish brevibacillus laterosporus jx-5 as a potential microbiological control agent of poplar canker. the bacterium was isolated from the poplar rhizosphere and demonstrated significant growth inhibition of several pathogenic fu ...201526265360
complete dsrna sequence of a novel victorivirus isolated from the pear stem wart fungus botryosphaeria dothidea.botryosphaeria dothidea is a pathogen that causes many important diseases of deciduous fruit trees worldwide. in this study, a double-stranded (ds) rna of 5322 base pairs (bp) in length from strain gy25 of b. dothidea was isolated and sequenced. the dsrna potentially contained two overlapping open reading frames (orfs). the predicted gene product of orf1 had the highest amino acid sequence similarity, 37 % (e-value, 8e(-101)), to the capsid protein of rosellinia necatrix victorivirus 1 (rnv1), a ...201525416855
extraction and separation of active ingredients in schisandra chinensis (turcz.) baill and the study of their antifungal effects.schisandra chinensis extracts (ses) have traditionally been used as an oriental medicine for the treatment of various human diseases, however, their further application in the biocontrol of plant disease remains poorly understood. this study was conducted to develop eco-friendly botanical pesticides from extracts of s. chinensis and assess whether they could play a key role in plant disease defense. concentrated active fractions (se-i, se-ii, and se-iii) were obtained from s. chinensis via speci ...201627152614
botryosphaeriaceae associated with the die-back of ornamental trees in the western balkans.extensive die-back and mortality of various ornamental trees and shrubs has been observed in parts of the western balkans region during the past decade. the disease symptoms have been typical of those caused by pathogens residing in the botryosphaeriaceae. the aims of this study were to isolate and characterize botryosphaeriaceae species associated with diseased ornamental trees in serbia, montenegro, bosnia and herzegovina. isolates were initially characterized based on the dna sequence data fo ...201626891906
effects of interrupted wetness periods on conidial germination, germ tube elongation and infection periods of botryosphaeria dothidea causing apple white rot.responses of botryosphaeria dothidea to interrupted wetness periods were investigated under in vivo and in vitro conditions. conidia of b. dothidea were allowed to germinate on apple fruits under wetting condition at 25ºc for 5 hr. they were air-dried for 0, 1, 2 or 4 hr, and then rewetted at 25ºc for 5 hr. following an initial wetness period of 5 hr, 83% of the conidia germinated. the percent conidial germination increased to 96% when wetting was extended continuously another 5 hr. however, no ...201626889109
antifungal activity of isolated bacillus amyloliquefaciens sybc h47 for the biocontrol of peach gummosis.the gummosis disease is caused by botryosphaeria dothidea (moug. ex. fr) ces. et de not., and it is one of the most important diseases of stone fruits worldwide. the use of biocontrol as an alternative approach to synthetic chemical fungicides has aroused general concern about how to control plant diseases that are caused by phytopathogens. the aim of this study is to isolate bacillus strains from raw honeys with the capacity to inhibit b. dothidea and to explore the mechanisms by which they cou ...201627583463
synthesis and in vitro antifungal efficacy of oleoyl-chitosan nanoparticles against plant pathogenic fungi.an antifungal dispersion system was prepared by oleoyl-chitosan (o-chitosan) nanoparticles, and the antifungal activity against several plant pathogenic fungi was investigated. under scanning electron microscopy, the nanoparticles formulation appeared to be uniform with almost spherical shape. the particle size of nanoparticles was around 296.962 nm. transmission electron microscopy observation showed that nanoparticles could be well distributed in potato dextrose agar medium. mycelium growth ex ...201626434526
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of botryosphaeria dothidea.botryosphaeria dothidea is a severe causal agent of die-back and cankers of many woody plants and causes great losses in many regions. the pathogenic mechanism of this pathogen has not been well explored due to lack of mutants and genetic information. in this study, we developed an agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) protocol for b. dothidea protoplasts using vector pbht2 containing the hph gene as a selection marker under the control of trp c promoter. using this protocol w ...201627263001
characterization of a novel double-stranded rna mycovirus conferring hypovirulence from the phytopathogenic fungus botryosphaeria dothidea.a novel double-stranded rna (dsrna) virus, designated as botryosphaeria dothidea rna virus 1 (bdrv1), isolated from a hypovirulent strain yzn115 of botryosphaeria dothidea was biologically and molecularly characterized. the genome of bdrv1 comprises of five dsrnas. each dsrna contains a single open reading frame. the proteins encoded by dsrna1-4 shared significant amino acid identities of 55%, 47%, 43% and 53% with the corresponding proteins of aspergillus fumigatus tetramycovirus-1. dsrna1, 3, ...201627015523
draft genome sequence of botryosphaeria dothidea, the pathogen of apple ring rot.botryosphaeria dothidea is a destructive pathogen infecting apple (malus domestica) on the fruit and stem. here, we present the draft genome sequence of b. dothidea (strain lw030101) using illumina sequencing. the draft genome sequence provides useful information and acts as a platform for further research on the pathogen.201627789635
fungal melanonychia: ungual phaeohyphomycosis caused by botryosphaeria dothidea.is missing (short communication).201728293689
development of qpcr systems to quantify shoot infections by canker-causing pathogens in stone fruits and nut crops.to develop real-time pcr assays for quantification of shoot infection levels of canker disease of stone fruits and nut crops caused by six fungal pathogen groups.201727862716
botryosphaeriaceae species associated with dieback and canker disease of bay laurel in northern california with the description of dothiorella californica sp. nov.members of the botryosphaeriaceae are cosmopolitan fungi that may exist as seemingly innocuous endophytes or as destructive pathogens of numerous woody hosts, including fruit and nut crops, urban ornamental trees and shrubs, and forest trees. surveys of bay laurel in northern california have revealed symptoms of dieback and branch canker of unknown aetiology. the goals of this study were to identify and clarify the species of botryosphaeriaceae associated with these symptoms and to confirm their ...201728317539
effects of rhizobacteria paenibacillus polymyxa apec136 and >bacillus subtilis apec170 on biocontrol of postharvest pathogens of apple fruits.in this study, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (pgpr) were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against postharvest pathogens of apple fruits. in vitro bioassays revealed that, out of 30 isolates screened, isolates apec136 and apec170 had the most significant inhibitory effects against the mycelial growth of several fungal pathogens. analysis of 16s ribosomal rna (rrna) sequences identified the two effective isolates as paenibacillus polymyxa and bacillus subtilis, respectively. the two ...201727921398
botryosphaeria dothidea: a latent pathogen of global importance to woody plant health.botryosphaeria dothidea is the type species of botryosphaeria (botryosphaeriaceae, botryosphaeriales). fungi residing in this order are amongst the most widespread and important canker and dieback pathogens of trees worldwide, with b. dothidea one of the most common species on a large number of hosts. its taxonomic circumscription has undergone substantial change in the past decade, making it difficult to interpret the large volume of literature linked to the name b. dothidea. this pathogen prof ...201727682468
characterization of a novel strain of botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1 from the apple white rot pathogen botryosphaeria dothidea.a novel strain of botryosphaeria dothidea chrysovirus 1 was identified. it encodes a shortened rna-dependent rna polymerase and an elongated coat protein, and it might cause hypovirulence of the host fungal strain.201728315015
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