synthesis, spectroscopic and biological aspects of iron(ii) complexes.five novel coordinated complexes of iron(ii) with ciprofloxacin and neutral bidentate ligands have been prepared and characterized using elemental analyses, magnetic measurements, ir spectra, uv-vis spectral, thermogravimetric analyses, 1h-nmr and 13c-nmr. the antimicrobial activity of the individual ligands, metal salt and metal complexes with respect to bacillus subtilis, escherichia coli, bacillus cereus, staphylococcus aureus, salmonella typhi, serratia marcescens, aspergillus niger, aspergi ...200717847716
lasiodiplodia theobromae pneumonia in a liver transplant recipient.we report a case of lasiodiplodia theobromae pneumonia in a patient who died 14 days after cadaveric-liver transplantation. his condition was complicated by enterococcus faecium peritonitis. direct microscopy analysis of the bronchoalveolar lavage specimens showed septate hyphae. a dematiaceous mold was recovered and identified as l. theobromae by microscopic morphology and ef1alpha gene sequencing.200818003802
anticlastogenic activity exhibited by botryosphaeran, a new exopolysaccharide produced by botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05.biopolymers such as exopolysaccharides (eps) are produced by microbial species and possess unusual properties known to modify biological responses, among them are antimutagenicity and immunomodulation. botryosphaeran, a newly described fungal (1-->3; 1-->6)-beta-d-glucan produced by botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05, was administered by gavage to mice at three doses (7.5, 15 and 30mg/kgb.w.per day) over 15 days, and found to be non-genotoxic by the micronucleus test in peripheral blood and bone mar ...200818022685
influence of nutrients on enhancing laccase production by botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05.the physiological requirements needed to enhance the production of laccases by the ascomycete botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 in submerged cultivation were examined under non-induced and induced (veratryl alcohol, va) conditions. under non-induced conditions (-va), the initial ph, c:n ratio, and inorganic n source did not influence laccase production, in contrast to tween 80, soybean oil, and copper, which significantly increased laccase production, and proline and urea, which suppressed laccase ...200718075999
production of epoxide hydrolases in batch fermentations of botryosphaeria rhodina.the filamentous fungus botryosphaeria rhodina (atcc 9055) was investigated related to its ability for epoxide hydrolase (eh) production. epoxide hydrolase activity is located at two different sites of the cells. the larger part is present in the cytosol (70%), while the smaller part is associated to membranes (30%). in media optimization experiments, an activity of 3.5 u/gdw for aromatic epoxide hydrolysis of para-nitro-styrene oxide (pnso) could be obtained. activity increased by 30% when pnso ...200818210174
structural characterization of the cell wall d-glucans isolated from the mycelium of botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05.three d-glucans were isolated from the mycelium of the fungus botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 by sequential extraction with hot-water and hot aqueous koh (2% w/v) followed by ethanol precipitation. following their purification by gel permeation chromatography on sepharose cl-4b, the structural characteristics of the d-glucans were determined by ft-ir and 13c nmr spectroscopy and, after methylation, by gc-ms. the hot-water extract produced a fraction designated q1a that was a beta-(1-->6)-d-glucan ...200818237722
iron(iii) complexes: preparation, characterization, antibacterial activity and dna-binding.iron(iii) have been combined to well known quinolones (ciprofloxacin) and some schiff bases with the help of coordination approach. characterization of these compounds have been done using elemental analysis, magnetic measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, ir, uv-vis, (1)h nmr and (13)c nmr spectral investigation. analytical studies suggest that the iron(iii)-quinolone complexes assume a six-coordinated dimeric distorted octahedral geometry. all the compounds show a good antibacterial activit ...200818343909
response surface methodology to optimize the nutritional parameters for enhanced production of jasmonic acid by lasiodiplodia find out the cumulative effect of the nutritional parameters and to enhance the production of jasmonic acid (ja) in static fermentation by lasiodiplodia theobromae using response surface methodology (rsm).200818397253
separation and quantitation of jasmonic acid using hptlc.a rapid, simple, and stringent protocol for the detection and quantitation of jasmonic acid (ja) is designed using high-performance thin-layer chromatography. acidified culture filtrate of lasiodiplodia theobromae is extracted with an equal volume of ethyl acetate and spotted on silica gel 60 f(254) foil using linomat-5 spray-on applicator. standard ja is also spotted either internally or adjacent to the sample, and the foils are developed with isopropanol-ammonia-water [10:1:1 (v/v)] as the mob ...200818402723
three exopolysaccharides of the beta-(1-->6)-d-glucan type and a beta-(1-->3;1-->6)-d-glucan produced by strains of botryosphaeria rhodina isolated from rotting tropical fruit.four exopolysaccharides (eps) obtained from botryosphaeria rhodina strains isolated from rotting tropical fruit (graviola, mango, pinha, and orange) grown on sucrose were purified on sepharose cl-4b. total acid hydrolysis of each eps yielded only glucose. data from methylation analysis and (13)c nmr spectroscopy indicated that the eps from the graviola isolate consisted of a main chain of glucopyranosyl (1-->3) linkages substituted at o-6 as shown in the putative structure below: [carbohydrate s ...200818639868
biocontrol efficacy of bacillus subtilis strains isolated from cow dung against postharvest yam (dioscorea rotundata l.) pathogens.the biocontrol potential of bacillus subtilis isolated from cow dung microflora was investigated in vitro and in vivo against two postharvest yam pathogenic fungi, fusarium oxysporum and botryodiplodia theobromae. b. subtilis strains inhibited the growth of f. oxysporum and b. theobromae in vitro in liquid medium in the range of 49.3-56.6% and in solid medium in the range of 31.0-36.0%, in comparison to the corresponding growth of fungi without bacterial inoculation. the interaction between b. s ...200818663522
new potato micro-tuber-inducing cyclohexene compounds related to theobroxide from lasiodiplodia theobromae.two new cyclohexene compounds related to theobroxide (3) were isolated from the mycelia of lasiodiplodia theobromae ocs71. the structures of these compounds were determined to be (4s,5s)-4,5-dihydroxy-2-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone (1) and (3as,4r,5s,7ar)-4,5-dihydroxy-7-methyl-3a,4,5,7a-tetrahydrobenzo[1,3]dioxol-2-one (2) by means of spectroscopic analyses and chemical correlation to 3. compound 2 was shown to take up the carbonate ion to form a carbonic acid ester non-enzymatically. the compounds ...200818685216
[studies on the effects of carbon:nitrogen ratio, inoculum type and yeast extract addition on jasmonic acid production by botryodiplodia theobromae pat. strain rc1].jasmonic acid is a native plant growth regulator produced by algae, microorganisms and higher plants. this regulator is involved in the activation of defence mechanisms against pathogens and wounding in plants. studies concerning the effects of carbon: nitrogen ratio (c/nr: 17, 35 and 70), type of inoculum (spores or mycelium) and the yeast extract addition in the media on jasmonic acid production by botryodiplodia theobromae were evaluated. jasmonic acid production was stimulated at the carbon: ...200818785793
fungal diversity on fallen leaves of ficus in northern thailand.fallen leaves of ficus altissima, f. virens, f. benjamina, f. fistulosa and f. semicordata, were collected in chiang mai province in northern thailand and examined for fungi. eighty taxa were identified, comprising 56 anamorphic taxa, 23 ascomycetes and 1 basidiomycete. common fungal species occurring on five host species with high frequency of occurrence were beltraniella nilgirica, lasiodiplodia theobromae, ophioceras leptosporum, periconia byssoides and septonema harknessi. colletotrichum and ...200818837113
fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west africa.abstract fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. this paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on fusarium species associated with the disease. our studies in cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% ...200618943189
influence of culture media and environmental factors on mycelial growth and sporulation of lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon and maubl.lasiodiplodia theobromae, a common tea (camellia sinensis) pathogen, usually does not sporulate or sporulates poorly in common media, which makes spore production difficult. in this study the effects of culture media, carbon source, nitrogen source, temperature, ph and light on mycelial growth and sporulation were evaluated. among several carbon sources tested, glucose and sucrose were found superior for growth. potassium nitrate supplemented media showed maximum growth amongst the tested inorga ...200818972700
fungal keratitis in far north queensland, australia.aboriginals and torres strait islanders form a significant proportion of the population in far north queensland and are at increased risk for many eye conditions. this study describes the pattern of fungal keratitis seen at cairns base hospital, far north queensland, australia.200819128375
on the diversity of the laccase gene: a phylogenetic perspective from botryosphaeria rhodina (ascomycota: fungi) and other related taxa.the present study is the first describing the sequencing of a fragment of the copper-oxidase domain of a laccase gene in the family botryosphaeriaceae. the aim of this work was to assess the degree of genetic and evolutionary relationships of a laccase gene from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 with other ascomycete and basidiomycete laccase genes. the 193-amino acid sequences of the copper-oxidase domain from several different fungi, insects, a plant, and a bacterial species were retrieved from g ...200919160039
biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone lasiodiplodin in lasiodiplodia theobromae.the biosynthesis of lasiodiplodin (1) and its (5s)-5-hydroxylated derivative (2) were investigated by the administration of (13)c-labeled acetates to lasiodiplodia theobromae. the labeling patterns of biosynthetically (13)c-labeled 1 and 2 were determined by (13)c-nmr and inadequate spectra, demonstrating the octaketide origins of 1 and 2. taking into account the biosynthetic study of resorcylic acid lactones, the involvement of highly reduced acyl intermediates in the biosynthesis of lasiodiplo ...200919420710
sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of botryosphaeran from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 grown on fructose.botryosphaeran (eps(fru)), an exopolysaccharide of the beta-(1-->3,1-->6)-d-glucan type with 31% branching at c-6, is produced by the fungus botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 when grown on fructose as carbon source. botryosphaeran was derivatized by sulfonation to induce anticoagulant activity. the effectiveness of the sulfonation reaction by chlorosulfonic acid in pyridine was monitored by the degree of substitution and ft-ir analysis of the sulfonated eps(fru) (once sulfonated, eps(frusulf); and ...200919549543
isolation and structural elucidation of a new cyclohexenone compound from lasiodiplodia theobromae.a new cyclohexenone compound was isolated as a mixture of enantiomers from a culture filtrate of lasiodiplodia theobromae. the relative structure was determined to be 4,5-dihydroxy-3-methyl-cyclohex-2-enone on the basis of ms, (1)h-nmr, and (13)c-nmr spectroscopic analyses, including 2d-nmr experiments. resolution of the enantiomers was conducted by a coupling reaction with (s)-mtpa-cl followed by hplc separation.200919661717
anticancer activity of fungal taxol derived from botryodiplodia theobromae pat., an endophytic fungus, against 7, 12 dimethyl benz(a)anthracene (dmba)-induced mammary gland carcinogenesis in sprague dawley rats.breast cancer is the second most prevalent cancer worldwide and their incidence increases gradually. taxol (paclitaxel), a potent anticancer drug, is naturally isolated from the bark of the pacific yew. taxol is widely used in the treatment of ovarian, lung and breast cancer. the increased demand for taxol, coupled with its limited availability from the protected pacific yew, has had researchers scrambling for alternate sources. the purpose of the present study is to investigate chemopreventive ...201019762199
methyl angolensate changes in khaya ivorensis after fungal infection.khaya ivorensis with and without symptoms of stem and branch cankers, caused by botryosphaeria rhodina were examined in order to determine whether the secondary metabolites in this plant were associated with a chemical defense response. this study provides evidence that the limonoid methyl angolensate (ma) is present at higher concentrations in k. ivorensis with symptoms of stem cankers rather than in the plants without symptoms. a rapid, sensitive and selective hplc-esi-ms/ms method (using sele ...200919765786
biosynthesis of resorcylic acid lactone (5s)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin in lasiodiplodia administration study of (2)h-labeled precursors showed that the 9-hydroxydecanoyl unit, the acyl intermediate of lasiodiplodin (1), was also the intermediate of (5s)-5-hydroxylasiodiplodin (2) in lasiodiplodia theobromae. the incorporation of [o-methyl-(2)h(3)]-lasiodiplodin (6) into 2 indicated that hydroxylation at c-5 occurred after cyclization.200919897901
botryorhodines a-d, antifungal and cytotoxic depsidones from botryosphaeria rhodina, an endophyte of the medicinal plant bidens endophytic fungus (botryosphaeria rhodina) was isolated from the stems of the medicinal plant bidens pilosa (asteraceae) that is known for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antifungal effects. the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal isolate exhibits significant antifungal activity as well as potent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects against several cancer cell lines. activity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a complex of four depsidones, botryorhodines a-d and the au ...201019913264
antifungal activities of ethanolic extract from jatropha curcas seed cake.phorbol ester extraction was carried out from jatropha curcas seed cake, a by-product from the bio-diesel fuel industry. four repeated extractions from 5 g j. curcas seed cake using 15 ml of 90% (v/v) ethanol and a shaking speed of 150 rev/min gave the highest yield of phosbol esters. the ethanolic extract of j. curcas seed cake showed antifungal activities against important phytofungal pathogens: fusarium oxysporum, pythium aphanidermatum, lasiodiplodia theobromae, curvularia lunata, fusarium s ...201020208435
maxillary sinusitis caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae.lasiodiplodia (monotypic) comprises a very small proportion of the fungal biota. it is a common plant pathogen in tropical and subtropical regions. clinical reports on its association with onychomycosis, corneal ulcer and phaeohyphomycosis are available. however, lasiodiplodia theobromae causing fungal sinusitis has not been reported. we present here a case of fungal sinusitis in a 30-year-old woman, who came to the ent opd (out patient department) with complaints of intermittent bleeding and na ...201020404468
morphological, pathological and molecular variability in botryodiplodia theobromae (botryosphaeriaceae) isolates associated with die-back and bark canker of pear trees in punjab, india.thirteen isolates of botryodiplodia theobromae collected from pear varieties grown in various regions of punjab were studied for morphological, pathological and molecular characterization. the mycelial growth of b. theobromae isolates was classified as fluffy or depressed, uniform to irregular and cottony white turning to black. colony growth rate varied from 19.1 to 24.9 mm per day. pycnidia were produced either on the edge, centered or scattered on petri dishes after 20 to 34 days of incubatio ...201020603807
medicinal mushroom ganoderma lucidum as a potent elicitor in production of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol in peanut calluses.phytoalexins t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol, the well-known health-promoting active components in plants, are secondary metabolites generated upon biotic or abiotic stresses. we have reported uv-irradiated peanut callus is a potent means to produce these compounds (j. agric. food chem. 2005, 53, 3877). in this work, the effects of fungi and chemical elicitors on induction of t-resveratrol and t-piceatannol were examined. results showed the investigated fungi botryodiplodia theobromae and reishi ...201020687553
fungi associated with storage rots of cocoyams (colocasia spp.) in nsukka, nigeria.cocoyam (colocasia spp.) corms and cormels showing spoilage symptoms were collected from many stores in nsukka locality and examined for rot and associated fungal pathogens. aspergillus niger, botryodiplodia theobromae, corticium rolfsii, geotrichum candidum, fusarium oxysporum, and f. solani were recovered from rotten cocoyams. the representative isolates of these species caused cocoyam rot in pathogenicity tests. the rot due to a. niger, b. theobromae and c. rolfsii was extensive resulting in ...199620882465
biosynthesis of jasmonic acid in a plant pathogenic fungus, lasiodiplodia theobromae.jasmonic acid (ja) is a plant hormone that plays an important role in a wide variety of plant physiological processes. the plant pathogenic fungus, lasiodiplodia theobromae also produces ja; however, its biosynthesis in this fungus has yet to be explored. administration of [1-(13)c] and [2-(13)c] naoac into l. theobromae established that ja in this fungus originates from a fatty acid synthetic pathway. the methyl ester of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid (opda) was detected in the culture extracts of l. ...201020952041
evaluation of lactoperoxidase system treatment to reduce anthracnose, stem-end rot, and bacterial black spot development during storage of mangoes.the lactoperoxidase system (lps) was evaluated for the prevention of postharvest diseases caused by xanthomonas campestris, botryodiplodia theobromae, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'keitt' and 'kent' mangoes. the lps treatment significantly reduced the disease development on both cultivars after storage at 12 degrees c for 2 weeks, which was followed by a ripening at 25 degrees c. the lps treatment did not alter the sensory quality of mango fruits (color, firmness, titrable acidity, and ...200521132977
toxicological and immunomodulatory assessments of botryosphaeran (β-glucan) produced by botryosphaeria rhodina rcyu 30101.toxicological and immunomodulatory activities of botryosphaeran (br), a newly emerged β-glucan that comprises a β-(1 → 3) backbone and β-(1 → 6) branched glucose residues were assessed. br was 1.82 × 10(6) da (m.w.) estimated by reversely-linear equation constructed by regression of logarithms of standard polysaccharides and their retention times of gel permeation chromatography. sprague-dawley rats were daily gavage-administered with br at doses of 0, 1.25, 12.5, and 125 mg/kg body weight (bw) ...201021185904
botryosphaeriaceae associated with pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) in south africa.there have been several recent reports of pterocarpus angolensis (kiaat) trees dying in south africa, zambia and zimbabwe, where this tree is used in traditional medicine and is a valuable source of timber for woodcarving and furniture. a survey of material from diseased p. angolensis trees in south africa yielded isolates of the botryosphaeriaceae, an important fungal family known to cause a number of tree diseases. the aim of this study was to identify these botryosphaeriaceae and to determine ...201021186325
colonization of cashew plants by lasiodiplodia theobromae: microscopical features.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a phytopathogenic fungus causing gummosis, a threatening disease for cashew plants in brazil. in an attempt to investigate the ultrastructural features of the pathogen colonization and its response to immunofluorescence labeling, light, confocal and electron microscope studies were conducted on different severity scale patterns of diseased plants. lasiodiplodia-antisera was checked for cross reactivity against common cashew plants fungi. optical microscopy analysis re ...201021194959
Thermal and rheological properties of a family of botryosphaerans produced by Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05.Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetry (TG) and Fourier-transform infra-red spectroscopy (FT-IR) analyses were performed to investigate changes in the physico-chemical properties of botryosphaerans, a family of exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by the fungus Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB-05 grown on glucose (EPS(GLC)), sucrose (EPS(SUC)) and fructose (EPS(FRU)). A slight endothermic transition and small mass loss attributable to the removal of water of hydration were observed in ...201121892127
[isolation of highly-effective benzo[a]pyrene degrading strain and its degradation capacity].one new mycete, which could degrade high concentration (up to 100 mg/l) of benzo[a]pyrene (bap) in liquid, was isolated from contaminated soil of beijing coking plant by gradually increasing the concentration of bap in mineral salt medium (msm) in order to get new microorganism species for remediation of bap contamination. the strain was identified as lasiodiplodia theobromae, and its biodegradation ability in liquid was further investigated. the results showed that l. theobromae could utilize b ...201122165241
A new antifungal coumarin from Clausena excavata.A new ?-lactone coumarin, named as excavarin-A, showing antifungal activity was isolated from the leaves of Clausena excavata by bioassay guided fractionation method. The structure was elucidated by spectroscopic data analysis and identified as 7((2E)-4(4,5-dihydro-3-methylene-2-oxo-5-furanyl)-3-methylbut-2-enyloxy) coumarin. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined against fifteen fungal strains pathogenic against plants and human. The least MIC was recorded against the human patho ...201222088496
Chemical modification of botryosphaeran: structural characterization and anticoagulant activity of a water-soluble sulfonated (1-->3)(1-->6)-ß-D-glucan.The exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran (EPS(GLC); a (1--> 3)(1-->6)-ß-D-glucan from Botryosphaeria rhodina MAMB- 05) was sulfonated to produce a water-soluble fraction (EPS(GLC)-S) using pyridine and chlorosulfonic acid in formamid. This procedure was then repeated twice to produce another fraction (EPSGLC-RS) with a higher degree of substitution (DS, 1.64). The purity of each botryosphaeran sample (unsulfonated and sulfonated) was assessed by gel filtration chromatography (Sepharose CL-4B), where ...201122031027
linolenate 9r-dioxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities of lasiodiplodia theobromae.jasmonic acid (ja) is synthesized from linolenic acid (18:3n-3) by sequential action of 13-lipoxygenase, allene oxide synthase (aos), and allene oxide cyclase. the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae can produce large amounts of ja and was recently reported to form the ja precursor 12-oxophytodienoic acid. the objective of our study was to characterize the fatty acid dioxygenase activities of this fungus. two strains of l. theobromae with low ja secretion (~0.2 mg/l medium) oxygenated 18:3n-3 to 5,8 ...201222048860
diversity of plant oil seed-associated fungi isolated from seven oil-bearing seeds and their potential for the production of lipolytic enzymes.commercial oil-yielding seeds (castor, coconut, neem, peanut, pongamia, rubber and sesame) were collected from different places in the state of tamil nadu (india) from which 1279 endophytic fungi were isolated. the oil-bearing seeds exhibited rich fungal diversity. high shannon-index h' was observed with pongamia seeds (2.847) while a low index occurred for coconut kernel-associated mycoflora (1.018). maximum colonization frequency (%) was observed for lasiodiplodia theobromae (176). dominance i ...201122806781
hypoglycemic and hypocholesterolemic effects of botryosphaeran from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 in diabetes-induced and hyperlipidemia conditions in rats.botryosphaeran, a water-soluble exopolysaccharide of the β-(1 → 3;1 → 6)-d-glucan type that has been isolated from the culture medium of botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 grown in submerged fermentation using glucose as the sole carbon source, was previously demonstrated to be non-genotoxic in peripheral blood and bone marrow, and exhibited strong anticlastogenic activity. in the present study, the effects of botryosphaeran were investigated in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats as well as in hig ...201122783102
high gene flow and outcrossing within populations of two cryptic fungal pathogens on a native and non-native host in this study, we determined the genetic diversity of 126 isolates representing both lasiodiplodia theobromae and lasiodiplodia pseudotheobromae, collected from theobroma cacao and terminalia spp. in cameroon, using simple sequence repeat (ssr) markers. ssr alleles showed clear genetic distinction between l. theobromae and l. pseudotheobromae, supporting their earlier separation as sister species. both l. theobromae and l. pseudotheobromae populations from cameroon had high levels of gene divers ...201122385617
sulfonation and anticoagulant activity of fungal exocellular β-(1→6)-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan).an exocellular β-(1→6)-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan) produced by a strain of lasiodiplodia theobromae (mmlr) grown on sucrose was derivatized by sulfonation to promote anticoagulant activity. the structural features of the sulfonated β-(1→6)-d-glucan were investigated by uv-vis, ft-ir and (13)c nmr spectroscopy, and the anticoagulant activity was investigated by the classical coagulation assays aptt, pt and tt using heparin as standard. the content of sulfur and degree of substitution of the sulfonat ...201223399236
identification and evaluation of strain b37 of bacillus subtilis antagonistic to sapstain fungi on poplar wood.devaluation of poplar products by sapstain accounts for huge and unpredictable losses each year in china. we had isolated four poplar sapstain fungi, ceratocystis adiposa hz91, lasiodiplodia theobromae ym0737, l. theobromae fx46, and fusarium sp. ym05, from five poplar varieties and 13 antagonistic bacteria from nine diverse varieties. after being experimented with agar plates, wood chips, and enzyme activities, strain b37 was identified as the best poplar sapstain biocontrol bacterium. the stra ...201425401124
theobroxide treatment inhibits wild fire disease occurrence in nicotiana benthamiana by the overexpression of defense-related genes.theobroxide, a novel compound isolated from a fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae, stimulates potato tuber formation and induces flowering of morning glory by initiating the jasmonic acid synthesis pathway. to elucidate the effect of theobroxide on pathogen resistance in plants, nicotiana benthamiana plants treated with theobroxide were immediately infiltrated with pseudomonas syringae pv. tabaci. exogenous application of theobroxide inhibited development of lesion symptoms, and growth of the bacter ...201325288936
gene expression changes during the gummosis development of peach shoots in response to lasiodiplodia theobromae infection using rna-seq.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a causal agent of peach (prunus persica l.) tree gummosis, a serious disease affecting peach cultivation and production. however, the molecular mechanism underlying the pathogenesis remains unclear. rna-seq was performed to investigate gene expression in peach shoots inoculated or mock-inoculated with l. theobromae. a total of 20772 genes were detected in eight samples; 4231, 3750, 3453, and 3612 differentially expressed genes were identified at 12, 24, 48, and 60 h a ...201627242544
antimicrobial and inhibitory enzyme activity of n-(benzyl) and quaternary n-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives on plant pathogens.chemical modification of a biopolymer chitosan by introducing quaternary ammonium moieties into the polymer backbone enhances its antimicrobial activity. in the present study, a series of quaternary n-(benzyl) chitosan derivatives were synthesized and characterized by (1)h-nmr, ft-ir and uv spectroscopic techniques. the antimicrobial activity against crop-threatening bacteria agrobacterium tumefaciens and erwinia carotovora and fungi botrytis cinerea, botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium oxysporu ...201425037402
agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of lasiodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of gummosis in cashew nut plants.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a major pathogen of many different crop cultures, including cashew nut plants. this paper describes an efficient agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) system for the successful delivery of t-dna, transferring the genes of green fluorescent protein (gfp) and hygromycin b phosphotransferase (hph) to l. theobromae. when the fungal pycnidiospores were co-cultured with a. tumefaciens harboring the binary vector with hph-gfp gene, hygromycin-resistant fun ...201424634294
synthesis and structure-activity relationship of n-(cinnamyl) chitosan analogs as antimicrobial agents.the current study focuses on the preparation of new n-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives as antimicrobial agents against nine types of crop-threatening pathogens. chitosan was reacted with a set of aromatic cinnamaldehyde analogs by reductive amination involving formation of the corresponding imines, followed by reduction with sodium borohydride to produce n-(cinnamyl) chitosan derivatives. the structural characterization was confirmed by (1)h and (13)c nmr spectroscopy and the degrees of substitut ...201323511055
antifungal and proteolytic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from piper hispidum sw.endophytes are being considered for use in biological control, and the enzymes they secrete might facilitate their initial colonization of internal plant tissues and direct interactions with microbial pathogens. microbial proteases are also biotechnologically important products employed in bioremediation processes, cosmetics, and the pharmaceutical, photographic and food industries. in the present study, we evaluated antagonism and competitive interactions between 98 fungal endophytes and altern ...201526273250
isolation, identification and antimicrobial activity of propolis-associated fungi.propolis is a natural product widely known for its medicinal properties. in this work, fungi present on propolis samples were isolated, identified and tested for the production of antimicrobial metabolites. twenty-two fungal isolates were obtained, some of which were identified as alternaria alternata, aspergillus flavus, bipolaris hawaiiensis, fusarium merismoides, lasiodiplodia theobromae, penicillium citrinum, penicillium crustosum, penicillium janthinellum, penicillium purpurogenum, pestalot ...201323439233
pcr-sscp-based reconstruction of the original fungal flora of heat-processed meat processing of spoiled meat is prohibited by law, since it is a deception and does not comply with food safety aspects. in general, spoilage of meat is mostly caused by bacteria. however, a high contamination level of fungi could be also found in some meat or meat products with certain preserving conditions. in case that unhygienic meat is used to produce heat processed products, the microorganisms will be deactivated by heat, so that they cannot be detected by a standard cultivation method. ...201323361099
season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the indian medicinal plant tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location.a total of 1,151 endophytic fungal isolates representing 29 taxa were isolated from symptom-less, surface-sterilized segments of stem, leaf, petiole, and root of tinospora cordifolia which had been collected at three locations differing in air pollution in india (ramnagar, banaras hindu university, maruadih) during three seasons (summer, monsoon, winter). endophytes were most abundant in leaf tissues (29.38% of all isolates), followed by stem (18.16%), petiole (10.11%), and root segments (6.27%) ...201222430503
seedborne pathogenic fungi in common bean (phaseolus vulgaris cv. inta rojo) in nicaragua.common bean (phaseolus vulgaris l.) is an important legume with high nutritional value. in nicaragua, certified healthy seeds of local bean varieties are not available, and seedborne fungi have gained little attention. here, were surveyed seedborne pathogenic fungi in an important local bean cultivar, 'inta rojo'. beans grown in the four main production areas in nicaragua (boaco, carazo, estelí, matagalpa) for future use as seed stock were sampled from four seed storehouses and six seed lots. a ...201627997595
unusual causes of fungal rhinosinusitis: a study from a tertiary care centre in south india.the frequency of mycotic infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses has been increasing over the past three decades. apart from the common causes of fungal rhinosinusitis such as aspergillus species and penicillium species, there have been reports of rare and unusual fungi isolated from india and other countries.201524064646
microbial diversity in the gut of cashew stem girdler, analeptes trifasciata fabricius (coleoptera: cerambycidae), in ibadan, nigeria.the cashew stem girdler, analeptes trifasciata, is a major insect pest of cashew in nigeria causing economic damage in cashew plantations even at low density. in this study, newly emerged adults of a. trifasciata reared from field-infested cashew stems were collected from the rearing cages, sexed, and dissected to reveal the internal structures of the insects. the gut was excised and separated into the foregut, midgut, and hindgut. the dissected gut compartments were blotted dry by sandwiching i ...201627147898
efficacy of oryza sativa husk and quercus phillyraeoides extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of fungal rot disease of white yam (dioscorea rotundata poir).tuber rot disease is a major constraint to white yam (dioscorea rotundata) production, accounting for 50-60% of annual yield losses in nigeria. the main method of control using synthetic fungicides is being discouraged due to human and environmental health hazards. the potential of oryza sativa husk (osh) and quercus phillyraeoides (qp) extracts for the in vitro and in vivo control of six virulent rot-causing fungal pathogens, lasiodiplodia theobromae, aspergillus niger, rhizoctonia solani, peni ...201425674452
chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of basil (ocimum basilicum) essential oils depends on seasonal variations.chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the essential oils from aerial parts of basil (ocimum basilicum l.) as affected by four seasonal, namely summer, autumn, winter and spring growing variation were investigated. the hydro-distilled essential oils content ranged from 0.5% to 0.8%, the maximum amounts were observed in winter while minimum in summer. the essential oils consisted of linalool as the most abundant component (56.7-60.6%), followed by epi-α-cadinol (8.6-11. ...200826065762
β-(1 → 3)-glucanolytic yeasts from brazilian grape microbiota: production and characterization of β-glucanolytic enzymes by aureobasidium pullulans 1wa1 cultivated on fungal mycelium.a total of 95 yeast strains were isolated from the microbiota of different grapes collected at vineyards in southern brazil. the yeasts were screened for β-(1 → 3)-glucanases using a newly developed zymogram method that relies upon the appearance of clearance zones around growing colonies cultured on agar–botryosphaeran medium and also by submerged fermentation on nutrient medium containing botryosphaeran, a (1 → 3),(1 → 6)-β-d-glucan. among 14 β-(1 → 3)-glucanase-positive yeasts identified, fou ...201525559084
identification and characterization of lipopeptides from bacillus subtilis b1 against sapstain fungus of rubberwood through maldi-tof-ms and rt-pcr.bacillus subtilis is a potent biocontrol agent producing a wide array of antifungal lipopeptides for the inhibition of fungal growth. b. subtilis b1 isolated from market-available compost provided an efficient control of rubberwood sapstain fungus, lasiodiplodia theobromae. the current study is aimed to identify and characterize the lipopeptides responsible for the biocontrol of rubberwood sapstain fungus by bacillus subtilis b1. the bacterial whole-cell surface extract from the dual culture of ...201627004481
screening of bacterial biocontrols against sapstain fungus (lasiodiplodia theobromae pat.) of rubberwood (hevea brasiliensis muell.arg.).diverse bacterial biocontrol agents from various sources of aerobic composts against the sapstain fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae in rubberwood (hevea brasiliensis) were isolated, screened and identified by various morphological, biochemical and molecular techniques. the inhibitory effect of seventeen bacterial isolates was examined and seven exhibited inhibition towards the sapstain fungus. among the seven antagonists, six were conclusively identified as bacillus subtilis and one as paenibacill ...201425049165
biotransformations of 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin and 6',7'-epoxybergamottin by the citrus-pathogenic fungi diminish cytochrome p450 3a4 inhibitory activity.penicillium digitatum, as well as five other citrus pathogenic species, (penicillium ulaiense link, geotrichum citri link, botrytis cinerea p. micheli ex pers., lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon & maubl., and phomopsis citri (teleomorph diaporthe citri)) were observed to convert 6',7'-epoxybergamottin (1) into 6',7'-dihydroxybergamottin (2), bergaptol (3), and an opened lactone ring metabolite 6,7-furano-5-(6',7'-dihydroxy geranyloxy)-2-hydroxy-hydrocoumaric acid (4). metabolism of 2 by th ...201222342630
the botryosphaeriaceae: genera and species known from this paper we give an account of the genera and species in the botryosphaeriaceae. we consider morphological characters alone as inadequate to define genera or identify species, given the confusion it has repeatedly introduced in the past, their variation during development, and inevitable overlap as representation grows. thus it seems likely that all of the older taxa linked to the botryosphaeriaceae, and for which cultures or dna sequence data are not available, cannot be linked to the spec ...201324302790
fatty acid esters produced by lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings.the botryosphaeriaceae are a family of trunk disease fungi that cause dieback and death of various plant hosts. this work sought to characterize fatty acid derivatives in a highly virulent member of this family, lasiodiplodia theobromae. nuclear magnetic resonance and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of an isolated compound revealed (z, z)-9,12-ethyl octadecadienoate, (trivial name ethyl linoleate), as one of the most abundant fatty acid esters produced by l. theobromae. a variety of natural ...201626926564
agarwood formation induced by fermentation liquid of lasiodiplodia theobromae, the dominating fungus in wounded wood of aquilaria sinensis.agarwood is broadly used in incense and medicine. traditionally, agarwood formation is induced by wounding the trunks and branches of some species of aquilaria spp., including a. sinensis. as recently evidenced, some fungi or their fermentation liquid may have the potential of inducing agarwood formation. the present study aimed to analyze the fungi isolated from an agarwood-producing a. sinensis tree and subsequently identify the fungi capable of promoting agarwood formation. we identified a to ...201728224223
succession patterns of fungi associated to wound-induced agarwood in wild aquilaria malaccensis revealed from quantitative pcr assay.aquilaria malaccensis produces agarwood in response to wounding and fungal attack. however, information is limited regarding aquilaria's interaction with its diverse fungal community. in this study, time-related changes of three natural fungal colonizers in two wounded wild a. malaccensis were tracked, beginning a few hours after wounding up to 12 months. using species-specific primers derived from their nrits sequences in quantitative real-time pcr (qpcr), we quantified the amount of cunningham ...201424840100
phylogeny and pathogenicity of lasiodiplodia species associated with dieback of mango in, which is an important tropical fruit crop in the region of piura (peru), is known to be prone to a range of diseases caused by lasiodiplodia spp. the aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence and prevalence of mango dieback in the region of piura, and to identify the species of lasiodiplodia associated with the disease and evaluate their pathogenicity towards mango. mango dieback was present in all orchards surveyed but incidence varied with location. identification of fungal isolat ...201728317545
analysis of phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis of anacardium in brazil, with a new species of lasiodiplodia.netto, m. s. b., lima, w. g., correia, k. c., da silva, c. f. b., thon, m., martins, r. b., miller, r. n. g., michereff, s. j., and câmara, m. p. s. 2016. analysis of phylogeny, distribution, and pathogenicity of botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis of anacardium in brazil, with a new species of lasiodiplodia. we identified botryosphaeriaceae species associated with gummosis on anacardium in brazil. isolates were sampled and identified on the basis morphology and phylogeny, throug ...201728317544
intracerebroventricular administration of the (1→6)-β-d-glucan (lasiodiplodan) in male rats prevents d-penicillamine-induced behavioral alterations and lipoperoxidation in the cortex.lasiodiplodan, an exocellular (1→6)-β-d-glucan of molecular weight >1.4 × 10(6) da produced by mmpi strain of lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon & maubl. (brotyosphaeriaceae) is known to exhibit anti-proliferative activity on breast cancer cells (mcf-7), anticoagulant activity when sulfonylated, and reduction in transaminase activity when administered in rats.201728274189
first report of dieback caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae in strawberry plants in korea.dieback in strawberry (seolhyang cultivar) was first observed during the nursery season (june to september) in the nonsan area of korea in the years 2012 and 2013. initial disease symptoms included dieback on runners, as well as black rot on roots, followed by wilting and eventually blackened, necrotic discoloration in the crowns of daughter plants. a fungus isolated from the diseased roots, runners, and crowns is close to lasiodiplodia theobromae based on morphological characteristics. analysis ...201628154491
in vitro protective effects of botryosphaeran, a (1→3;1→6)-β-d-glucan, against mutagens in normal and tumor rodent cells.botryosphaeran (bot) is an exocellular β-d-glucan (carbohydrate biopolymer) of the (1→3;1→6)-linked type produced by botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05. the cytotoxic, mutagenic, genotoxic, and protective effects of this substance were evaluated in chinese hamster lung fibroblasts (v79) and rat hepatocarcinoma cells (htc) by the micronucleus test (mn) and the comet assay. bot was not genotoxic in either cell line; it decreased the clastogenic effects of doxorubicin, h2o2, and benzo[a]pyrene. these r ...201728137365
banana peel culture as an indigenous medium for easy identification of late-sporulation human fungal pathogens.fungi are increasing in incidence as human pathogens and newer and rarer species are continuously being encountered. identifying these species from growth on regular culture media may be challenging due to the absence of typical features. an indigenous and cheap medium, similar to the natural substrate of these fungi, was standardised in our laboratory as an aid to species identification in a conventional laboratory setting.201727934823
optimized jasmonic acid production by lasiodiplodia theobromae reveals formation of valuable plant secondary metabolites.jasmonic acid is a plant hormone that can be produced by the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae via submerged fermentation. from a biotechnological perspective jasmonic acid is a valuable feedstock as its derivatives serve as important ingredients in different cosmetic products and in the future it may be used for pharmaceutical applications. the objective of this work was to improve the production of jasmonic acid by l. theobromae strain 2334. we observed that jasmonic acid formation is dependent ...201627907207
successful treatment of lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis - assessing the role of voriconazole.the aim of this paper is to report the successful management of the first case of lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis in hong kong.201727843433
metabolomics-guided isolation of anti-trypanosomal metabolites from the endophytic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae.fungal endophytes offer diverse and unique secondary metabolites, making these organisms potential sources of promising drug leads. the application of high-resolution-liquid chromatography mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance-based metabolomics to fungal endophytes is practical in terms of dereplication studies and the mining of bioactive compounds. in this paper, we report the application of metabolomics in parallel with anti-trypanosomal assays to determine the ideal conditions for ...201627760442
invasive fungal sinusitis by lasiodiplodia theobromae in an patient with aplastic anemia: an extremely rare case report and literature review.human lasiodiplodia theobromae infection has not been reported frequently. we report the first case of invasive l. theobromae nasal and neck infection. a 66-year-old male visited our hospital with anemia and general weakness. he showed pancytopenia, and his bone marrow examination revealed markedly decreased hematopoietic cells. the patient was presumed to have iatrogenic aplastic anemia due to mushroom toxicity. he began treatment for multiple organ infections with broad-spectrum antibiotics an ...201627650099
cytotoxic and antibacterial preussomerins from the mangrove endophytic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae zj-hq1.two new chlorinated preussomerins, chloropreussomerins a and b (1 and 2), together with nine known preussomerin analogues, 3-11, were obtained from the endophytic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae zj-hq1. their structures were elucidated by a combination of spectroscopic analyses. the absolute configurations of 1 and 2 were both determined by single-crystal x-ray diffraction using cu kα radiation. chloropreussomerins a and b (1 and 2) are the first chlorinated compounds in the preussomerin family, ...201627560695
temperature modulates the secretome of the phytopathogenic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae.environmental alterations modulate host-microorganism interactions. little is known about how climate changes can trigger pathogenic features on symbiont or mutualistic microorganisms. current climate models predict increased environmental temperatures. the exposing of phytopathogens to these changing conditions can have particularly relevant consequences for economically important species and for humans. the impact on pathogen/host interaction and the shift on their biogeographical range can in ...201627536303
global transcriptional analysis suggests lasiodiplodia theobromae pathogenicity factors involved in modulation of grapevine defensive response.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a fungus of the botryosphaeriaceae that causes grapevine vascular disease, especially in regions with hot climates. fungi in this group often remain latent within their host and become virulent under abiotic stress. transcriptional regulation analysis of l. theobromae exposed to heat stress (hs) was first carried out in vitro in the presence of grapevine wood (gw) to identify potential pathogenicity genes that were later evaluated for in planta expression.201627514986
chemopreventive effect and lack of genotoxicity and mutagenicity of the exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran on human lymphocytes.carbohydrate biopolymers of fungal-origin are an important natural resource in the search for new bioagents with therapeutic and nutraceutical potential. in this study the mutagenic, genotoxic, antigenotoxic and antioxidant properties of the fungal exopolysaccharide botryosphaeran, a (1→3)(1→6)-β-d-glucan, from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05, was evaluated. the mutagenicity was assessed at five concentrations in salmonella typhimurium by the ames test. normal and tumor (jurkat cells) human t lym ...201627387458
3-o-β-d-glucopyranosyltheobroxide from aerial parts of cowpea (vigna unguiculata).theobroxide has been isolated from culture filtrates of lasiodiplodia theobromae as a potato tuber-inducing compound. in this study, the metabolism of theobroxide was investigated using cowpea as an experimental model and [2h3-7]theobroxide as a substrate for analyzing a metabolite, which revealed that theobroxide applied exogenously to the roots was converted into 3-o-β-d-glucopyranosyltheobroxide.201627319148
data from mass spectrometry, nmr spectra, gc-ms of fatty acid esters produced by lasiodiplodia theobromae.the data described herein is related to the article with the title "fatty acid esters produced by lasiodiplodia theobromae function as growth regulators in tobacco seedlings" c.c. uranga, j. beld, a. mrse, i. cordova-guerrero, m.d. burkart, r. hernandez-martinez (2016) [1]. data includes nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and gc-ms data used for the identification and characterization of fatty acid esters produced by l. theobromae. gc-ms traces are also shown for incubations in defined subs ...201627274528
quantitative real-time pcr normalization for gene expression studies in the plant pathogenic fungi lasiodiplodia theobromae.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a highly virulent plant pathogen. it has been suggested that heat stress increases its virulence. the aim of this work was to evaluate, compare, and recommend normalization strategies for gene expression analysis of the fungus growing with grapevine wood under heat stress. using rt-qpcr-derived data, reference gene stability was evaluated through genorm, normfinder and bestkeeper applications. based on the geometric mean using the ranking position obtained for each in ...201627237774
comparative assessment of fungal augmentation treatments of a fine-textured and historically oil-contaminated soil.the removal of aged hydrophobic contaminants from fine-textured soils is a challenging issue in remediation. the objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of augmentation treatments to that of biostimulation in terms of total aliphatic hydrocarbon (tah) and toxicity removal from a historically contaminated clay soil and to assess their impact on the resident microbial community. to this aim, pleurotus ostreatus, botryosphaeria rhodina and a combination of both were used as the inoculan ...201627220102
protective effects of the exopolysaccharide lasiodiplodan against dna damage and inflammation induced by doxorubicin in rats: cytogenetic and gene expression assays.the lasiodiplodan (ls) is a β-(1→6)-d-glucan produced by the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae and some of the biological activities of ls were reported as hypoglycemic, anticoagulant, anti-proliferative and anticancer action; however, its effects on dna instability and modulation of gene expression are still unclear. aims of study were investigate the genotoxic effects of lasiodiplodan, and its protective activity against dna damage induced by doxorubicin (dxr) and its impact on the expression of ...201727181935
low doses of gamma radiation in the management of postharvest lasiodiplodia theobromae in mangos.the postharvest life of mango is limited by the development of pathogens, especially fungi that cause rot, among which stands out the lasiodiplodia theobromae. several control methods have been employed to minimize the damages caused by this fungus, chemical control can leave residues to man and nature; physical control by the use of gamma radiation in combination with modified atmosphere and cold storage. the use of gamma radiation helps to reduce the severity of the pathogen assist in the ripe ...201526413068
(1→6)- and (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucans from lasiodiplodia theobromae mmbj: structural characterization and pro-inflammatory activity.the chemical composition and structural characterization of exopolysaccharides from the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae mmbj are described, and the immunomodulatory activity of a purified β-glucan was evaluated. l. theobromae mmbj produced three different β-glucans. one, fraction peps, was a branched (1→3)(1→6)-β-glucan and was insoluble in cold water. the other two, fractions seps-005r and seps-10e, were characterized as linear (1→6)-β-glucans with molar mass of 1.8×10(6)da and 7.0×10(3)da, res ...201526344312
isolation, purification and characterization of a novel steroidal saponin cholestanol glucoside from lasiodiplodia theobromae that induces apoptosis in a549 for novel anticancer lead molecules continues to be a major focus of cancer research due to the limitations of existing drugs such as lack of tumor selectivity, narrow therapeutic index and multidrug resistance of cancer types. natural molecules often possess better pharmacokinetic traits compared to synthetic molecules as they continually evolve by natural selection process to interact with biological macromolecules. microbial metabolites constitute nearly half of the pharmaceuticals in ...201626338072
antiproliferative and pro-apoptotic effects of three fungal exocellular β-glucans in mcf-7 breast cancer cells is mediated by oxidative stress, amp-activated protein kinase (ampk) and the forkhead transcription factor, foxo3a.fungal β-d-glucans of the (1→3)-type are known to exhibit direct antitumor effects, and can also indirectly decrease tumor proliferation through immunomodulatory responses. the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in decreasing tumor formation, however, are not well understood. in this study, we examined the antiproliferative role and mechanism of action of three different fungal exocellular β-glucans in mcf-7 breast cancer cells. the β-glucans were obtained from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb- ...201526255117
caulicolous botryosphaeriales from thailand.members of botryosphaeriales are commonly encountered as endophytes or pathogens of various plant hosts. the botryosphaeriaceae represents the predominant family within this order, containing numerous species associated with canker and dieback disease on a wide range of woody hosts. during the course of routine surveys from various plant hosts in thailand, numerous isolates of botryosphaeriaceae, including aplosporellaceae were collected. isolates were subsequently identified based on a combinat ...201526240447
carboxymethylation of (1 → 6)-β-glucan (lasiodiplodan): preparation, characterization and antioxidant evaluation.d-glucans possess immunomodulatory activities and potential for the development of new therapeutic agents. biological activities can be enhanced in these biopolymers through chemical derivatization, e.g., carboxymethylation. this work presents the carboxymethylation, characterization and the evaluation of antioxidant activities of the exocellular (1 → 6)-β-d-glucan produced by lasiodiplodia theobromae mmpi. thermal analysis indicated that the native and carboxymethylated polysaccharides presente ...201525965498
an unusual skin lesion caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae.we describe a case of subcutaneous infection as a result of traumatic implantation caused by the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae. it was isolated in multiple swabs from the foot of an active healthy male. the fungus was identified by traditional mycology culture methods though this was slow with much time required for sporulation on only one of the agars used. identification was confirmed by dna sequencing. the patient was successfully treated with voriconizole.201525893164
modulation of gene expression and cell cycle by botryosphaeran, a (1→3)(1→6)-β-d-glucan in human lymphocytes.there is growing interest in the anticancer and immunomodulatory potential of fungal β-d-glucans. in the present study, the modulation of gene expression via rt-qpcr and cell cycle kinetics via flow cytometry were assessed in human normal and tumor (jurkat) lymphocytes after treatment with botryosphaeran (a fungal (1→3)(1→6)-β-d-glucan) from botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05. cell cultures were treated with botryosphaeran either alone, or in combination with doxorubicin (dxr), in a post-treatment p ...201525795388
characterisation of the metabolites of an antibacterial endophyte botryodiplodia theobromae pat. of dracaena draco l. by lc-ms/ms.botryodiplodia theobromae pat. belongs to the endophytic fungi that live within the tissues of medicinal plants and produce bioactive natural products. the endophyte was isolated from the leaves of dracaena draco l. the lc-ms-based metabolite fingerprinting of the ethyl acetate extract of b. theobromae with antibacterial activity led to the identification of 13 metabolites pertaining to various classes: dipeptides (maculosin and l,l-cyclo(leucylprolyl), alkaloid (norharman), coumarin and isocoum ...201525693860
[keratitis by lasiodiplodia theobromae: a case report and literature review].we report a case of mycotic keratitis caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae in a 60-year-old man with a history of ocular trauma with vegetable matter. ophthalmological assessment with slit-lamp and microbiological evaluation of the corneal ulcer by conventional microbiological techniques were performed. mycology study of the corneal scraping showed the presence of fungal filaments and the isolate was identified as lasiodiplodia theobromae. patient was treated with natamycin 5% and fluconazole 0.2% ...201425679935
treatment with intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole in 2 eyes with lasiodiplodia theobromae keratitis: case report the clinical presentation and the role of intrastromal and intracameral voriconazole injection in the management of rare cases of fungal keratitis caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae.two eyes of 2 patients with lasiodiplodia keratitis unresponsive to topical and oral antifungal medications were included in this study. diagnosis of lasiodiplodia keratitis was confirmed by microbiological analysis, including culture-based (case 1 and 2) and dna sequencing techniques (case 2 only).the firs ...201525674759
high incidence of preharvest colonization of huanglongbing-symptomatic citrus sinensis fruit by lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia natalensis) and exacerbation of postharvest fruit decay by that fungus.huanglongbing (hlb), presumably caused by the bacterium "candidatus liberibacter asiaticus," is a devastating citrus disease associated with excessive preharvest fruit drop. lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia) is the causal organism of citrus stem end rot (ser). the pathogen infects citrus fruit under the calyx abscission zone (az-c) and is associated with cell wall hydrolytic enzymes similar to plant enzymes involved in abscission. by means of dna sequencing, diplodia was found in "ca. liberiba ...201525344245
purification, characterization and application of lipoxygenase isoenzymes from lasiodiplodia theobromae.lipoxygenase oxidizes linoleic acid into hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (hpod), which is important in food and flavour industries for production of bread and flavouring compounds. as lasiodiplodia theobromae is an unexplored, good source of lipoxygenase, it was purified from it by size-exclusion (sephadex g100) and ion-exchange (deae-cellulose) chromatography and characterized. upon purification, l. theobromae was found to contain two different lipoxygenases, one of 93 kda (lox1) and another o ...201525326184
proteomic analysis of responsive stem proteins of resistant and susceptible cashew plants after lasiodiplodia theobromae infection.gummosis is an aggressive disease caused by the necrotrophic fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae (pat.) griffon & maubl that threatens commercial cashew orchads in brazil. to study the molecular mechanisms involved in the cashew response to l. theobromae, a proteomic analysis of stems from the commercial cashew clone brs 226 (resistant) was conducted at early times post-artificial infection. in addition, changes in the stem proteome profiles of gummosis resistant and susceptible cashew plants grown ...201525289588
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