TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
post infection changes in the carbohydrate contents of banana fruits caused by botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 196514291222
botryodiplodin--a new antibiotic from botryodiplodia theobromae. ii. production, isolation and biological properties. 19665969953
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination. i. characteristics of an in vitro phenylalanine incorporating system prepared from germinated spores of botryodiplodia theobromae. 19685649510
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination. ii. aminoacyl-soluble ribonucleic acid synthetase activities during germination of botryodiplodia theobromae spores.the specific activities of 13 aminoacyl-soluble ribonucleic acid (srna) synthetases were measured at various time intervals during the germination of botryodiplodia theobromae conidiospores. the enzyme activities were low or absent in ungerminated spores, and they increased rapidly as germination proceeded. when extracts of the ungerminated spores were prepared with mortar and pestle, very little or no enzyme activity was detected. when the extracts were prepared with a mechanical homogenizer, h ...19685685990
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination. iv. transfer ribonucleic acid from germinated and ungerminated spores.transfer ribonucleic acid (trna) fractions isolated from germinated and ungerminated spores of botryodiplodia theobromae and rhizopus stolonifer had acceptor activity for all 20 amino acids commonly found in protein, when tested with an enzyme fraction from germinated spores. accordingly, it is unlikely that the absence of trna for a particular amino acid limits protein synthesis in fungal spores.19695364287
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination. 3. transfer activity during germination of botryodiplodia theobromae spores. 19695377752
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination. v. evidence that the ungerminated conidiospores of botryodiplodia theobromae contain messenger ribonucleic acid. 19705439306
the purification and properties of extracellular beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 19715550826
kinetic properties of -glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 19715168882
protein synthesis during fungal spore germination: differential protein synthesis during germination of botryodiplodia theobromae spores.the preformed messenger ribonucleic acid in botryodiplodia theobromae spores directs the synthesis of several relatively stable polypeptides19725086656
uptake of 14c-glucose by botryodiplodia theobromae pat and changes in its carbohydrate content during growth. 19734748160
microscopic observations of germination and septum formation in pycnidiospores of botryodiplodia theobromae. 19734789691
kinetic analysis of the mechanism of action of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat.1. the kinetic mechanism of beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. has been studied in the presence of competing glucosyl acceptors. 2. glycerol, fructose, sucrose, cellobiose and to a much lesser extent, maltose can act as glucosyl acceptors, apart from water. 3. evidence confirming and supporting the kinetic mechanism previously postulated (umezurike, g.m. (1971) biochim. biophys. acta. 250, 182-191) is presented. 4. a theoretical kine ...19751148258
a corneal abscess due to the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae. 19751148913
presence of polyribosomes in condiospores of botryodiplodia theobromae harvested with nonaqueous solvents.polyribosomes detected in extracts of spores harvested with water also were found in extracts prepared from spores harvested with nonaqueous fluids.19751150620
the subunit structure of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat.1. a homologous series of beta-glcosidase (beta-d-glcoside glcohydrolase, ec, which varied in relative amounts in different preparations from cultures of similar and different age, was observed in cultures od botryodiplodia theobromae pat grown for 4-8 week on cotton flock (cellulose) as carbon source. 2. aging of the purified high-molecular-weight species led to some amount of siddociation into a homolous series of lower-molecular-weight speices. 3. rough molecular-weight estimates, b ...19751156365
characteristics of developing mitochondrial genetic and respiratory functions in germinating fungal spores.spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae began a cyanide-sensitive oxygen consumption immediately upon exposure to a liquid medium, and spore germination and respiration were not affected by ethidium bromide, d-threochloramphenicol, and acriflavin until later during germ tube emergence. these inhibitors of the mitochondrial genetic system all inhibited total cell protein synthesis to the same intermediate degree from the outset of incubation. when spores were incubated in water under non-g ...19751156580
the isolation of botryodiplodia theobromae from a nail lesion.botryodiplodia theobromae not known to produce onychomycosis was repeatedly recovered from a healthy woman with evident lesions in a toe nail. mycelial fragments were observed in the scales and the fungus was isolated in cycloheximide-free culture media. the report indicates that many fungi, hitherto considered non-pathogens, may still be able to colonize a vaiety of human tissues.19761265567
synthesis of ribonucleic acids during the germination of botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores.during the initial phases of germination of botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores, protein synthesis was initiated in the absence of detectable ribonucleic acid (rna) synthesis. the lack of rna synthesis during the early stages of germination was not an artefact due to reduced precursor permeability or to changes in the nucleotide pool. further studies showed that the synthesis of messenger rna and transfer rna began about 30 min after the initiation of germination and that of 5s rna after 45 ...1976956784
characteristics of ribonucleic acids isolated for botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores.nucleic acids isolated for dormant and germinated botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores contain five distinct species of rna. they include two ribosomal species, two "ribosomal-associated" species and transfer rnas. sedimentation coefficients of 25.1s and 18s were obtained for the two ribosomal rna species and 5.8s and 5s for the two "ribosomal-associated" rna components. molecular weights of 1.20,0.67,0.054 and 0.035x106 daltons were obtained after formaldehyde treatment and electrophoresis ...1976962472
lasiodiplodia theobromae as a cause of keratomycoses.four cases of human keratitis caused by the tropical fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae have been encountered in miami, florida bringing to 8 the number of cases reported in the world literature. two of the ulcers were mild. three patients recovered without severe impairment of vision after topical polyene treatment, but 1 patient with a severe ulcer required therapeutic keratoplasty after 11 days of topical natamycin. histopathology revealed fungus deep in the cornea, invading descemet's membrane. ...19761085494
the active site of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae. effects of ph and dioxan on enzyme-catalysed reactions.1. the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside by the high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec of botryodiplodia theobromae pat in the absence or presence of added dioxan was found to be dependent on the ionization of two groups, which appeared to be a carboxyl group and an imidazole group. 2. dioxan increased the michaelis constant, km, but decreased the maximum velocity, v.197723767
mitochondrial biogenesis during fungal spore germination: respiratory cytochromes of dormant and germinating spores of botryodiplodia.the mitochondrial respiratory cytochrome contents of dormant and germinating conidia of botryodiplodia theobromae were examined. oxidized versus reduced difference spectra at 77 degrees k of whole mitochondria from physiologically mature germinated spores showed a typical a-band pattern for cytochromes c, b, and a, with absorption maxima at 549, 554 + 559, and 604 nm, respectively, whereas the difference spectrum of the counterpart mitochondrial fraction from dormant spores showed no cytochrome ...1977187569
in vitro translation of polyadenylate-containing rnas from dormant and germinating spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae.polyadenylated rna isolated by oligodeoxythymidylate-cellulose chromatography from spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae was translated in a cell-free protein-synthesizing system derived from wheat embryo. reaction conditions which would yield efficient and accurate in vitro translation of the spore rna were established. dual isotopically labeled mixtures of in vitro translation products from germinated and dormant spore polyadenylated rna, as well as polyadenylated rnas from intermedia ...1978670146
mitochondrial biogenesis during fungal spore germination: effects of the antilipogenic antibiotic cerulenin upon botryodiplodia spores.germination of spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae was inhibited by the antilipogenic antibiotic cerulenin. the spores remained viable in the presence of the antibiotic, however, and after prolonged incubation they were able to overcome the inhibition. cerulenin inhibition of germination was reversed by tween 40 and tween 60 (derivatives of palmitate and stearate, respectively), but not by representatives of a range of free fatty acids or their soaps. cerulenin abolished incorporation ...1978681274
efficacy of fungicides in vitro against some isolates of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 1978751995
the beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat. kinetics of enzyme-catalysed hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside in dioxan/water.1. the hydrolysis of o-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside by the high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec from botryodiplodia theobromae pat. has been studied in the presence of added dioxan. 2. at donor saturation, the maximum rate of hydrolysis in the presence of up to 50%(v/v) dioxan was ph4.3-4.5 (ph of the buffer system in water) in mcilvaine's buffer. 3. increasing dioxan concentrations progressively decreased the maximum rate of hydrolysis. 4. ...1978105720
the cellulolytic enzymes of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. separation and characterization of cellulases and beta-glucosidases.1. filtrates from cultures of different ages of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. were fractionated by gel filtration, ion-exchange chromatography and polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. 2. five cellulases (c1, c2, c3, c4 and c5) were found, and their molecular weights, estimated by gel filtration, were 46000-48000 (c1), 30000-35000 (c2), 15000-18000 (c3), 10000-11000 (c4) and 4800-5500 (c5). 3. cellulase c5 was absent from old culture filtrates. 4. cellulase c1 had little or no activity on cm-cell ...1979106849
the beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae. mechanism of enzyme-catalysed reactions.the effects of ph and temperature on michaelis constant (km) and maximum velocity (vmax.) and of nacl on the activity of the high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase ec from cultures of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. have been studied. 2. donor binding and inhibition of activity by glucose were dependent on the ionization of a group (pk 6.0) that appeared to be an imidazole group. 3. catalytic activity and the stimulation of activity by glycerol were depe ...197938775
presence of a major (storage?) protein in dormant spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae.approximately 23% of the protein isolated from dormant spores of botryodiplodia theobromae consisted of a single polypeptide; the polypeptide is probably degraded during germination.1979438139
polyadenylate-containing rna in dormant and germinating botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores.hybridization of [3h]polyuridylic acid to rna isolated from botryodiplodia theobromae pycnidiospores yielded an estimate of about 6.25 x 10(5) polyadenylate-containing rna (poly a(+) rna) molecules per dormant spore. the number increased about fourfold by the time of germ tube emergence at 3 h. the average size of this presumed mrna was about 4.1 x 10(5) daltons (1275 nucleotides), with an average polyadenylate segment length of 26 nucleotides. neither of these values changed significantly durin ...1979455153
mitochondrial biogenesis during fungal spore germination. purification, properties and biosynthesis of cytochrome c oxidase from botryodiplodia theobromae.1. cytochrome c oxidase (ferrocytochrome c:oxygen oxidoreductase, ec was purified from the mycelial fungus botryodiplodia theobromae by sodium cholate and ammonium sulfate solubilization, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and deae-cellulose chromatography. the purified enzyme contained 6--7 nmol heme a/mg of protein. the specific activity of the purified enzyme was 2.1--2.3 . 10(3) k (min-1) per mg of protein with 15 mumol ferrocytochrome c and at ph 5.9 and optimal phosphate and tween 80 ...19806243487
mitochondrial biogenesis during fungal spore germination. biosynthesis and assembly of cytochrome c oxidase in botryodiplodia theobromae. 19806249808
carbon and nitrogen nutrition of plant pathogenic fungi associated with basal stem rots of cowpeas, vigna unguiculata (l) walp in nigeria.pythium aphanidermatum, rhizoctonia bataticola (syn. = macrophomina phaseolina), botryodiplodia theobromae, and two strains of sclerotium rolfsii readily utilized for growth the monosaccharides glucose, fructose and mannose, the disaccharides sucrose and maltose and the polysaccharides dextrin and starch. in addition, s. rolfsii grew appreciably well on carboxymethylcellulose (cmc). when filter paper (nature cellulose) was supplied as sole carbon source, it was decomposed by b. theobromae, s. ro ...19807376690
effects of the mycotoxin botryodiplodin on mammalian cells in culture.the effects of botryodiplodia, a mycotoxin synthesized by botryodiplodia theobromae and by some strains of penicillium roqueforti. the toxin inhibited cell multiplication in growing cultures at concentrations which were without toxic effect on cultures nearing or at confluence. in growing cultures the toxin affected dna, rna and protein synthesis, the effect on dna synthesis being the greatest. the removal of mycotoxin from the culture medium brought about partial recovery of the synthetic activ ...19817285241
the beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae. mechanism of enzyme action.1. in the presence of a high concentration of p-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside (donor) the rates of production of p-nitrophenol and a transglucosylation product (1-glyceryl beta-d-glucopyranoside) increased, whereas the rate of production of glucose decreased with increasing concentration of glycerol in reactions catalysed by the high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec obtained from culture filtrates of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 2. when [don ...19816802133
studies on the etiology and symptomatology of root and storage rot disease of cocoyam in nigeria.the losses caused by root and storage rot of cocoyam in nigeria are estimated as 40 to 45%. field symptoms of the disease include inhibited growth, leaf chlorosis followed by necrosis and shrivelling of affected parts, and finally premature death of the aerial portions of the plant. a large proportion of the roots are destroyed. poor production of cormels and reduced corm size are other field symptoms of the disease, differing according to the type of causal agent. botryodiplodia theobromae, fus ...19826891209
chemical control of mandarin fruit rot caused by botryodiplodia theobromae pat. 19827107312
biosynthesis and degradation of storage protein in spores of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae.muiridin, a spore-specific protein of the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae, comprises about 25% of the mature pycnidiospore protein. it has an apparent molecular weight of 16,000 to 17,000 and is rich in glutamine, asparagine, and arginine. muiridin is synthesized in developing spores via a precursor with an apparent molecular weight of 24,000. two other polypeptides present in young developing spores with apparent molecular weights of 18,000 and 15,000 are immunologically related to muiridin. w ...19836874639
cellulolytic enzymes associated with the fruit rots of citrus sinensis caused by aspergillus aculeatus and botryodiplodia theobromae.botryodiplodia theobromae and aspergillus aculeatus were inoculated in carboxymethylcellulose (cmc) medium and on filter papers. hydrolysis of the cmc medium and degradation of the filter papers were observed, indicating the production of c1 and cx cellulases by the two rot pathogens. the c1 and cx enzymes were also detected in filtrates of rotted orange fruits obtained by infection with the two pathogens. the cellulases could not induce rot development on their own. however, when they were adde ...19836624142
inhibitors of certain enzymes (of botryodiplodia theobromae) in piper betle leaf extracts. 19846746311
microbial transformations of some monoterpenoids and sesquiterpenoids.the absolute configurations of fragrances, flavours and drugs are often important for their special properties. the growing interest of organic chemists in chiral synthons has stimulated work on biotransformations, for which readily available and inexpensive compounds can be used as substrates. microbial transformations of 1-menthenes like gamma-terpinene, alpha-terpinene, limonene and alpha-phellandrene give the corresponding 1,2-trans-diols with high stereospecificity. because of the volatilit ...19853848377
lasiodiplodia theobromae panophthalmitis.lasiodiplodia theobromae is a rare ocular pathogen. we report a case of panophthalmitis caused by this fungus. the patient was a healthy 62-year-old janitor with no history of ocular trauma in whom keratitis developed. cultures of corneal scrapings identified the fungus. despite treatment with appropriate antimycotics the keratitis progressed to infectious scleritis and then spontaneous perforation of the globe, which necessitated enucleation. the ultrasonographic, microbiologic and histologic f ...19853904960
mycotoxicological investigations on maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease in kwazulu.samples of home-grown maize and groundnuts from the endemic area of mseleni joint disease (mjd) during four seasons (1980-1983) were examined mycologically. the mycoflora of these dietary staples included fusarium poae and f. oxysporum, which have been implicated in the aetiology of kashin-beck or urov disease, another osteo-arthrosis endemic in siberia and china. two other species of fusarium, i.e. f. moniliforme and f. equiseti, implicated in syndromes of abnormal bone development in animals, ...19863961620
microbial 7alpha-hydroxylation of 3-ketobisnorcholenol.the transformation of 22-hydroxy-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-3-one to 7alpha-22-dihydroxy-23,24-bisnorchol-4-en-3-one by botryodiploida theobromae, lasiodiplodia theobromae, and various botryosphaeria strains is described. factors affecting the reaction were incubation temperature, sonication of the substrate, and addition of 2,2'-dipyridyl, extra carbohydrate, and amberlite xad-7. the enzyme responsible for the reaction appeared to be very specific and was not characteristic of all members of the gen ...198616347069
the mechanism of action of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat.the activity of the high-molecular-weight beta-glucosidase (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec obtained from culture filtrates of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. was affected by added nacl in such a way that an initial phase of stimulation was followed by a phase of rapid non-linear decrease in velocity and finally by a phase of slow linear decrease in velocity as the concentration of nacl was increased. in the presence of 0.014 m-sodium acetate/acetic acid buffer (ph 5.0) there was a ...19873109376
mycoflora and vitamin content of sun-dried food condiments in nigeria.the fungi most frequently isolated (of 20-100% incidence) from fresh okra, pepper fruits and melon seeds are botryodiplodia theobromae, rhizopus stolonifer, trichoderma harzianum, mucor mucedo and fusarium oxysporum. the major mycoflora of the fruits which had been sun-dried for twenty days are comprised of aspergillus spp and penicillium spp which initially had formed the minor components (of less than 20% incidence) of the colonising population. the effect of sun-drying on the fruits was a sta ...19873507682
the effect of glycerol on the activity of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat.1. in the activity of the high-mr beta-glucosidase a (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec obtained from culture filtrates of botryodiplodia theobromae pat. on o-nitrophenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside as substrate, both vmax. and km increased non-linearly with increasing concentration of glycerol, and the vmax./km(app.) ratio decreased non-linearly with increasing concentration of glycerol. 2. no increase in rate was observed with phenyl beta-d-glucopyranoside as substrate in the presence o ...19883140799
microorganisms associated with mouldiness of dried yam chips and their prevention.the broad objective of this study was to isolate and identify the microorganisms causing mouldiness of stored yam chips and to look for ways of preventing the problem. microorganisms isolated included aspergillus flavus, a. glaucus, a. nidulans, a. niger, a. ochraceous, a. tamarii, a. candidus, penicillium oxalicum, trichoderma longibrachyatum, rhizopus nigricans, cylindrocarpon radicicola, neurospora crassa, botryodiplodia theobromae, bacillus subtilis, bacillus cereus, erwinia carotovora and s ...19883231261
production of amylolytic enzymes in culture by botryodiplodia theobromae and sclerotium rolfsii associated with the corm rots of colocasia esculenta.extracellular amylase was detected in culture filtrates of botryodiplodia theobromae and sclerotium rolfsii. during 10 days incubation s. rolfsii produced more amylase than b. theobromae. b. theobromae produced the greatest amount of amylase at 25 degrees c, while s. rolfsii at 30 degrees c. both organism exerted the highest amylase activity at ph 6-7. in starch-free medium extracellular amylase was in very low quantities. there was a positive correlation between increase in starch concentration ...19882469279
antimicrobial effectiveness of six paradols. 1: a structure-activity relationship study.the pattern of antimicrobial effectiveness of (0)-, (2)-, (3)-, (4)-, (8)- and (9)-paradols was studied. (3)- paradol was more active than the other homologues with a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) of 1 mg/ml when tested against proteus vulgaris, pseudomonas aeruginosa, staphylococcus aureus and botryodiplodia theobromae. at 0.2 mg/ml, (3)-paradol completely inhibited the spore germination of trichophyton mentagrophytes and after 3 h of exposure at 0.5 mg/ml, it inhibited the growth of a ...19892497275
changes in nutritional value of guava fruits infected by major post-harvest changes in ascorbic acid, sugars, proteins and phenols were studied in guava fruits infected by major post-harvest pathogens which in order of importance were colletotrichum gloeosporioides, (penz.), botryodiplodia theobromae, pat., rhizopus arrhizus fischer., phomopsis psidii nag raj and ponnappa apud ponnappa and nag raj, and pestalotiopsis versicolor (speg.) steyaert. contents of ascorbic acid, sugars and proteins declined in the fruits infected by botryodiplodia theobromae, co ...19892631087
the effect of beta-sitosterol on spore germination and germ-tube elongation of aspergillus niger and botryodiplodia theobromae.the effect of beta-sitosterol on spore germination and prevention of elongation of germ-tube of aspergillus niger and botryodiplodia theobromae was studied. the antifungal activity of the compound showed a percentage inhibition, of the fungal spore germination, of about 40% at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml while inhibition on the elongation of germ-tubes was as high as 65% at the same concentration. the ed50 for inhibition of germ-tube elongation in a. niger was about 31 micrograms/ml. the ...19892641488
microbial transformations of steroids--iv. 6,7-dehydrogenation; a new class of fungal steroid transformation product.microbial steroid dehydrogenation is quite common. the reaction seems to occur mainly in bacteria and usually results in hydrogen abstraction from positions c(1)-c(2) and/or c(4)-c(5) with occasional aromatisation of ring a. we have screened large numbers of fungal cultures for their ability to monohydroxylate steroids at unusual sites and in the course of our investigations we have identified seven fungal strains capable of dehydrogenating ring b of progesterone and androstenedione at positions ...19892770300
the octameric structure of beta-glucosidase from botryodiplodia theobromae pat.1. whereas only beta-glucosidase a (beta-d-glucoside glucohydrolase, ec was produced by the tropical fungus botryodiplodia theobromae pat. (i.m.i. 115626; a.t.c.c. 26123) in young cultures containing d-cellobiose as carbon source, lower-mr forms (b, c and d) were found in older cultures when the ph had drifted from the initial value of ph 6.2 to ph 7.9. 2. the michaelis constants (km) of the various molecular forms of the enzyme were 0.30 +/- 0.03 mm-, 0.26 +/- 0.01 mm-, 0.20 +/- 0.02 ...19911903926
intrahyphal hyphae in corneal tissue from a case of keratitis due to lasiodiplodia theobromae.lasiodiplodia theobromae, a recognized plant pathogen, was isolated in culture from a case of human mycotic keratitis. chemotherapy with a variety of azoles was unsuccessful and the lesion was removed surgically. electron microscopy of thin sections of the excised corneal tissue revealed several examples of intrahyphal hyphae, a unique process described previously in in vitro cultures of various zoopathogenic fungi. we believe this to be the first report of the presence of intrahyphal hyphae in ...19911941432
the normal mycoflora of commodities from thailand. 1. nuts and oilseeds.a comprehensive study was carried out of the fungi occurring in commodities normally traded in thailand. samples of major commodities were obtained from farmers' stocks and middlemen in major producing areas throughout the country. retail samples were obtained from outlets in and around bankok. samples were divided into two portions, one being examined in bangkok, and the second in sydney. after surface disinfection, fungi were enumerated by direct plating on dichloran rose bengal chloramphenico ...19938110599
the normal mycoflora of commodities from thailand. 2. beans, rice, small grains and other commodities.part of a comprehensive study of fungi occurring in commodities in thailand, this paper reports results from 276 samples of mung beans, rice, sorghum and soybeans as well as other minor crops. samples for major commodities were taken from farmers' stocks, middlemen and retail outlets, while those for minor crops were mostly from retail. each sample was divided into two portions, one being examined in bangkok and the second at north ryde. mycological examinations were carried out by direct platin ...19947811571
survey of mycotic and bacterial keratitis in sri lanka.over a two-year period (1976-1977 and 1980-1981), 66 cases of bacterial and mycotic cases of keratitis were diagnosed in the eye clinic of the general hospital in kandy, sri lanka. the clinical and microbiologic aspects of these cases are described. noteworthy was the first known human case caused by paecilomyces farinosus, a geophilic species, commonly encountered as an insect parasite throughout the world. the bacterial and the other fungal etiologic agents isolated and identified were: pseudo ...19947984216
mycoflora and aflatoxin production in pigeon pea stored in jute sacks and iron bins.the mycoflora, moisture content and aflatoxin contamination of pigeon pea (cajanus cajan (l.) millisp) stored in jute sacks and iron bins were determined at monthly intervals for a year. the predominant fungi on freshly harvested seeds were alternaria spp., botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium spp. and phoma spp. these fungi gradually disappeared from stored seeds with time and by 5-6 months, most were not isolated. the fungi that succeeded the initially dominant ones were mainly members of the g ...19958684429
influence of fungi associated with bananas on nutritional content during storage.botryodiplodia theobromae, rhizopus oryzae, aspergillus niger, a. flavus and fusarium equiseti were found to be associated with the ripening of bananas and also caused rot during storage. bananas stored in baskets with ash fire wood ripened 2-3 days earlier than bananas stored in fibre sacks and under constant light. the infected bananas showed a decrease in the quantity of total soluble sugars, protein, lipid, crude fibre, ash, ascorbic acid and mineral elements when compared with the control f ...19968711953
lasiodiplodia theobromae isolated from a subcutaneous abscess in a cambodian immigrant to australia.a patient from cambodia presented at a hospital in melbourne with a persistent subcutaneous abscess of the right buttock. septate fungal hyphae were seen in biopsy tissue. lasiodiplodia theobromae was isolated and identified by the formation of pycnidia that produced typical conidia. the abscess was managed by drainage and debridement only. we briefly review the history and importance of the fungus as a wound parasite in tropical horticulture and its relatively rare occurrence in human infection ...19968873888
fungi associated with post-harvest rot of black plum (vitex doniana) in nigeria.the fungi associated with rot of vitex doniana fruits (blackplum) were isolated and identified. aspergillus niger, botryodiplodia theobromae, candida spp. penicillium chrysogenum, rhizopus stolonifer, fusarium pallidoroseum f. oxysporum and mucor mucedo were the primary rot causing fungi in contrast to cladosporium herbarum and mucor circinelloides which were just present as secondary colonizers. the rot fungi penetrated mainly through wounds and bruises on the surface of fruits. mature green fr ...19969208478
fungi associated with storage rots of cocoyams (colocasia spp.) in nsukka, nigeria.cocoyam (colocasia spp.) corms and cormels showing spoilage symptoms were collected from many stores in nsukka locality and examined for rot and associated fungal pathogens. aspergillus niger, botryodiplodia theobromae, corticium rolfsii, geotrichum candidum, fusarium oxysporum, and f. solani were recovered from rotten cocoyams. the representative isolates of these species caused cocoyam rot in pathogenicity tests. the rot due to a. niger, b. theobromae and c. rolfsii was extensive resulting in ...199620882465
partial purification and characterization of a jasmonic acid conjugate cleaving amidohydrolase from the fungus botryodiplodia theobromae.a protein preparation from the mycelium of the tropical pathogenic fungus botryodiplodia theobromae revealed a novel peptidase activity. this enzyme was capable of cleaving conjugates of jasmonic acid with alpha-amino acids. the protein was enriched 108-fold by gel filtration, ion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the enzyme was found to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of about 107 kda. the amidohydrolase seems to be very specific with regard to (-)-jasmonic acid and a ...19979141491
endophthalmitis after lasiodiplodia theobromae corneal abscess.lasiodiplodia theobromae is an exceptional cause of human keratomycosis.19979143896
novel cyclohexene compound from lasiodiplodia theobromae ifo 31059.a novel cyclohexene compound (1), which is structurally related to theobroxide (2), was isolated from a culture filtrate of the fungus, lasiodiplodia theobromae ifo 31059. the potato micro-tuber-inducing activity of this compound was observed at a concentration of 10(-3) m in the medium, whereas theobroxide (2) showed its activity at 10(-5) m.199827392405
fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in jute sacks and polyethylene bags in ago-iwoye, southwestern nigeria.laboratory studies were carried out in the department of biological sciences, ogun state university, ago-iwoye, southwestern nigeria, to determine the extent of fungal deterioration of melon seeds stored in two types of storage bags viz; jute and polyethylene bags. melon seeds of varieties tc139 and v2 were stored in jute and polyethylene bags under ambient conditions using the 2 x 2 factorial design (variety vs type of bag) for 12 months. the moisture content (mc), incidence of visible mouldine ...199916284865
potato micro-tuber inducing hydroxylasiodiplodins from lasiodiplodia theobromae.three hydroxylasiodiplodins were isolated from the mycelium extracts of lasiodiplodia theobromae ifo 31059; and their structures were identified as (3r),(4s)-4-hydroxylasiodiplodin, (3r),(6r)-6-hydroxy-de-o-methyllasiodiplodin and (3r),(5r)-5-hydroxy-de-o-methyllasiodiplodin. all showed potato micro-tuber inducing activity.200010939352
exopolysaccharide production from sclerotium glucanicum nrrl 3006 and botryosphaeria rhodina dabac-p82 on raw and hydrolysed starchy materials.evaluation of fermentative usage of raw starchy materials for exopolysaccharide (eps) production by sclerotium glucanicum nrrl 3006 and botryosphaeria rhodina dabac-p82.200211849493
fungicidal activity of essential oils of cinnamomum zeylanicum (l.) and syzygium aromaticum (l.) merr et l.m. perry against crown rot and anthracnose pathogens isolated from develop a post-harvest treatment system against post-harvest fungal pathogens of banana using natural products.200212180942
exopolysaccharide production by filamentous fungi: the example of botryosphaeria and five fungal strains, belonging to 46 different species, were screened for exopolysaccharide production. phytopathogenicity and, in particular, inability to produce conidia, were physiological characteristics positively associated and correlated with the fungal ability to produce polysaccharides. among the 29 positive strains, botryosphaeria rhodina dabac-p82 was the most interesting reaching, when grown on optimal nitrogen source and concentration (nano3 and 2.0 g l(-1), respecti ...200314533717
current perspectives on ophthalmic mycoses.fungi may infect the cornea, orbit and other ocular structures. species of fusarium, aspergillus, candida, dematiaceous fungi, and scedosporium predominate. diagnosis is aided by recognition of typical clinical features and by direct microscopic detection of fungi in scrapes, biopsy specimens, and other samples. culture confirms the diagnosis. histopathological, immunohistochemical, or dna-based tests may also be needed. pathogenesis involves agent (invasiveness, toxigenicity) and host factors. ...200314557297
beta-glucan production by botryosphaeria rhodina on undiluted olive-mill wastewaters.botryosphaeria rhodina produced beta-glucan when grown on undiluted olive-mill wastewaters (omw). the production of exopolysaccharide increased with the cod up to 17.2 g l(-1) on the most loaded omw (151 and 66 g l(-1) of cod and total sugar, respectively). the total phenol content of omw was reduced from 8 to 4.1 g l(-1).200314719815
[a survey of temperature and ph effect on colonial growth of botryodiplodia theobromae rc1].study of fungal colonial growth is a basic method to examine their behaviour in different cultivation conditions. the influence of temperature and initial ph on growth radial velocity and growth density of botryodiplodia theobromae rc1, was studied in order to show the growth characteristics of this fungus. both temperature and culture medium influenced growth density, but radial velocity of growth was only affected by temperatures above 40 degrees c. in addition, initial ph of culture media did ...200315456358
isolation of an alpha-methylene-gamma-butyrolactone derivative, a toxin from the plant pathogen lasiodiplodia theobromae.lasiodiplodia theobromae is known as a multi-infectious microorganism that causes considerable crop damage, particularly to tropical fruits. when the fruits are infected by l. theobromae, the typical symptom is the appearance of black spots on the surface of the infected fruit. when injected in to the peel of banana, the culture filtrate of l. theobromae induced formation of black spots. the structure of the isolated compound responsible for this effect was determined to be (3s,4r)-3-carboxy-2-m ...200415474567
subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis caused by lasiodiplodia theobromae and successfully treated surgically.while visiting jamaica, a 50-year-old woman stumbled on an outdoor wooden staircase and sustained an injury to the right leg. the wound was cleaned topically and the patient was given antibacterial therapy. five weeks later, in canada, she presented with an ulcer at the injury site. an excisional biopsy showed copious broad, septate, melanized fungal filaments penetrating into tissue. culture yielded a nonsporulating melanized mycelium. the isolate was strongly inhibited by cycloheximide and ben ...200415682643
antimicrobial and insecticidal protein isolated from seeds of clitoria ternatea, a tropical forage legume.the tropical forage legume clitoria ternatea (l.) has important agronomic traits such as adaptation to a wide range of soil conditions and resistance to drought. it is resistant to a number of pathogens and pests. these important traits gave us reasons to look more closely at the plant. a highly basic small protein was purified from seeds of c. ternatea to homogeneity by using ultrafiltration with centricon-3 membrane tubes and preparative granulated-bed isoelectric focusing (ief). a single prot ...200415694280
extracellular amylase(s) production by fungi botryodiplodia theobromae and rhizopus oryzae grown on cassava starch residue.the fungi botryodiplodia theobromae and rhizopus oryzae produce extracellular amylase when grown on a liquid medium containing 2% (wn) soluble starch or cassava starch residue(csr) (as starch equivalent), a waste generated after extraction of starch from cassava, as the sole carbon source. using csr as the sole carbon source, the highest amylase activity of 3.25 and 3.8 units (mg, glucose released x ml(-1) x h(-1)) were obtained in shake flask cultures during the late stationary phase of growth ...200415907080
fungal pathogens associated with banana fruit in sri lanka, and their treatment with essential oils.the crown rot pathogens isolated from banana samples collected from 12 localities in sri lanka were lasiodiplodia theobromae, fusarium proliferatum and colletotrichum musae. fungal pathogens isolated were able to cause crown rot disease alone or in combination. disease severity was higher when combinations of virulent pathogens were used. cymbopogon nardus and ocimum basilicum oils displayed fungicidal activity against c. musae and f. proliferatum between 0.2-0.6% (v/v) in a poisoned food bioass ...200415008351
beta-glucan production by botryosphaeria rhodina in different bench-top bioreactors.evaluation of the technical feasibility of transferring beta-glucan production by botryosphaeria rhodina dabac-p82 from shaken flasks to bench-top bioreactors.200415078524
a new antifungal metabolite from penicillium expansum.a new antifungal compound, (3s)-4,6-dihydro-8-methoxy-3,5-dimethyl-6-oxo-3h-2-benzopyran (4), was isolated from penicillium expansum. during the isolation procedure 4 was determined to be unstable and readily reacted with methanol, ethanol, and water, forming three new isochromans, (1s,3s)-6-hydroxy-1,8-dimethoxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman (1), 1-ethoxy-6-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman (2), and 1,6-dihydroxy-8-methoxy-3,5-dimethylisochroman (3), respectively. (3s)-6-hydroxy-8-methoxy-3,5-d ...200415270557
culture filtrate of lasiodiplodia theobromae restricts the development of natural resistance in brassica nigra plants.culture filtrate of lasiodiplodia theobromae increased respiration rate, phenylalanine ammonia lyase activity, and levels of hydrogen peroxide, lipid peroxides and salicylic acid in b. nigra plants. salicylic acid (sa) level increased for 1 hr of interaction and reduced later. development of systemic acquired resistance (sar) was found restricted in plants infected with l. theobromae due to deficiency of sa, which is a major signal for development of sar. exogenously supplied sa did develop resi ...200415274491
effect of the lactoperoxidase system against three major causal agents of disease in mangoes.the antibacterial activity of the lactoperoxidase system (lps) on the growth of xanthomonas campestris, the causal agent of bacterial black spot in mangoes, botryodiplodia theobromae, the causal agent of stem-end rot disease in mangoes, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides, the causal agent of anthracnose disease in mangoes, was determined during culture at 30 degrees c and at several ph values (4.5, 5.5, and 6.5). when the results of using the lps were compared with those from control cultures wi ...200516013395
biodegradation of crude petroleum and petroleum products by fungi isolated from two oil seeds (melon and soybean).crude petroleum oil degrading fungi were isolated from two oil seeds, cucumeropsis mannii (melon) and glycine max (soybean) seeds in the presence and absence of petroleum fumes. an assessment of the relative ability of each fungus to degrade crude petroleum, diesel and kerosene on minimum salt solution was done using change in optical density read on spectrophotometer. twenty-one fungal species (14 genera) were isolated altogether during this experiment. these include eight species of aspergillu ...200516114459
novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound, (3r,6s)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin, from a strain of lasiodiplodia theobromae.a novel potato micro-tuber-inducing compound was isolated from the culture broth of lasiodiplodia theobromae shimokita 2. the structure of the isolated compound was determined as (3r,6s)-6-hydroxylasiodiplodin by means of spectroscopic analyses, the modified mosher method, and chemical conversion. the compound showed potato micro-tuber-inducing activity at a concentration of 10(-4) m, using the culture of single-node segments of potato stems in vitro.200516116294
highly efficient production of nootkatone, the grapefruit aroma from valencene, by biotransformation.nootkatone, the most important and expensive aromatic of grapefruit, decreases the somatic fat ratio, and thus its demand is increasing in the cosmetic and fiber sectors. a sesquiterpene hydrocarbon, (+)-valencene, which is cheaply obtained from valencia orange, was biotransformed by the green algae chlorella species and fungi such as mucor species, botryosphaeria dothidea, and botryodiplodia theobromae to afford nootkatone in high yield.200516272746
levels of common antigens in determining pathogenicity of curvularia eragrostidis in different tea varieties.pathogenicity of curvularia eragrostidis, a foliar fungal pathogen of tea was studied in 24 commercially cultivated tea varieties by analysing the antigenic patterns of host and pathogen with the help of immunoserological techniques.200515836477
assessment of laboratory methods for evaluating cassava genotypes for resistance to root rot disease.field evaluation of six cassava genotypes for resistance to root rot disease was compared with three rapid laboratory methods (whole root inoculation, root slice inoculation, and stem inoculation) for resistance screening. both the field evaluation and the three laboratory methods separated the varieties into resistant and susceptible groups. genotypes 30572 and 91/02324 were resistant while 92/0247, 92/0057 and tme-1 were susceptible. one genotype (30001) was not consistent in its reaction betw ...200515883733
post harvest spoilage of sweetpotato in tropics and control measures.sweetpotato storage roots are subjected to several forms of post harvest spoilage in the tropical climate during transportation from farmers' field to market and in storage. these are due to mechanical injury, weight loss, sprouting, and pests and diseases. sweetpotato weevil is the single most important storage pest in tropical regions for which no control measures or resistant variety are yet available. several microorganisms (mostly fungi) have been found to induce spoilage in stored sweetpot ...200516371331
growth and production of laccases by the ligninolytic fungi, pleurotus ostreatus and botryosphaeria rhodina , cultured on basal medium containing the herbicide, scepter (imazaquin).the herbicide, scepter, whose active principle is imazaquin, is commonly used in soybean farming to combat wide-leaf weeds. the basidiomycete, pleurotus ostreatus , and the ascomycete, botryosphaeria rhodina , were evaluated for their growth and laccase production when cultured on basal media containing scepter. both fungi could grow on the herbicide when cultivated in solid and submerged liquid culture in the presence of scepter at concentrations of 0-6% (v/v) for p. ostreatus , and up to 0-50% ...200516304708
evaluation of lactoperoxidase system treatment to reduce anthracnose, stem-end rot, and bacterial black spot development during storage of mangoes.the lactoperoxidase system (lps) was evaluated for the prevention of postharvest diseases caused by xanthomonas campestris, botryodiplodia theobromae, and colletotrichum gloeosporioides in 'keitt' and 'kent' mangoes. the lps treatment significantly reduced the disease development on both cultivars after storage at 12 degrees c for 2 weeks, which was followed by a ripening at 25 degrees c. the lps treatment did not alter the sensory quality of mango fruits (color, firmness, titrable acidity, and ...200521132977
ceratocystis omanensis, a new species from diseased mango trees in (mangifera indica) sudden decline is an important disease in oman, which is closely associated with infections by ceratocystis fimbriata and lasiodiplodia theobromae. another ceratocystis species has also been found associated with symptoms on diseased trees. in this study, we identify that ceratocystis based on morphology and dna sequences. morphological comparisons showed that the fungus from dying mango trees in oman is similar to c. moniliformis. both fungi have distinct hat-shaped asc ...200616388939
[mycotic keratitis and endophthalmitis caused by unusual fungi: lasiodiplodia theobromae].we report a case of endophthalmitis caused by the fungus lasiodiplodia theobromae. a 68-year-old man was referred to the hospital for right ocular pain since experiencing right ocular branch trauma 2 weeks before. the best-corrected acuity was limited to hand motion. slit-lamp examination showed a large corneal abscess and an anterior chamber reaction. the patient underwent systemic and local antibiotic therapy, and corneal scraping for microbiological diagnosis. sabouraud-chloramphenicol-gentam ...200616523150
three new lasiodiplodia spp. from the tropics, recognized based on dna sequence comparisons and morphology.botryosphaeria rhodina (anamorph lasiodiplodia theobromae) is a common endophyte and opportunistic pathogen on more than 500 tree species in the tropics and subtropics. during routine disease surveys of plantations in australia and venezuela several isolates differing from l. theobromae were identified and subsequently characterized based upon morphology and its and ef1-alpha nucleotide sequences. these isolates grouped into three strongly supported clades related to but different from the known ...200617040071
fusarium species from the cassava root rot complex in west africa.abstract fusarium species are a significant component of the set of fungi associated with cassava root rot. yield losses due to root rot average 0.5 to 1 ton/ha but losses >3 ton/ha, an equivalent of 15 to 20% yield, often occur. this paper reviews previous work on cassava root rot and summarizes a few recent studies on fusarium species associated with the disease. our studies in cameroon showed that 30% of rotted tubers were infected by fusarium spp. 12 months after planting and represented 25% ...200618943189
influence of nutrients on enhancing laccase production by botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05.the physiological requirements needed to enhance the production of laccases by the ascomycete botryosphaeria rhodina mamb-05 in submerged cultivation were examined under non-induced and induced (veratryl alcohol, va) conditions. under non-induced conditions (-va), the initial ph, c:n ratio, and inorganic n source did not influence laccase production, in contrast to tween 80, soybean oil, and copper, which significantly increased laccase production, and proline and urea, which suppressed laccase ...200718075999
leaching and microbial treatment of a soil contaminated by sulphide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons.contaminated soil from a historical industrial site and containing sulfide ore ashes and aromatic hydrocarbons underwent sequential leaching by 0.5 m citrate and microbial treatments. heavy metals leaching was with the following efficiency scale: cu (58.7%) > pb (55.1%) > zn (44.5%) > cd (42.9%) > cr (26.4%) > ni (17.7%) > co (14.0%) > as (12.4%) > fe (5.3%) > hg (1.1%) and was accompanied by concomitant removal of organic contaminants (about 13%). leached metals were concentrated into an iron g ...200717136366
evaluation of chenopodium ambrosioides oil as a potential source of antifungal, antiaflatoxigenic and antioxidant activity.essential oil extracted from the leaves of chenopodium ambrosioides linn. (chenopodiaceae) was tested against the aflatoxigenic strain of test fungus aspergillus flavus link. the oil completely inhibited the mycelial growth at 100 microg/ml. the oil exhibited broad fungitoxic spectrum against aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, botryodiplodia theobromae, fusarium oxysporum, sclerotium rolfsii, macrophomina phaseolina, cladosporium cladosporioides, helminthosporium oryzae and pythium debary ...200717174000
soybean charcoal rot disease fungus macrophomina phaseolina in mississippi produces the phytotoxin (-)-botryodiplodin but no detectable phaseolinone.research on charcoal rot disease in soybeans, and approximately 500 other plant diseases caused by the fungus macrophomina phaseolina, has been severely hampered by unavailability of phaseolinone (1), an eremophilane sesquiterpenoid phytotoxin proposed to facilitate initial infection. phytotoxin produced in cultures of disease-causing m. phaseolina isolated in mississippi, and purified in a manner similar to that reported for 1, was shown to be (-)-botryodiplodin (2), a readily synthesized mycot ...200717253865
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