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chaetomium globosum cutaneous fungal infection confirmed by molecular identification: a case report from malaysia.an 11-year-old girl presented with multiple blisters on her the right foot complicated with cellulitis. the conventional and molecular identification were performed on the culture. the internal transcribed spacer (its) region in rrna gene of the isolate was amplified by pcr. the sequence of the amplified its region matched 99 % with that of chaetomium globosum in the genbank. this is the first report describing c. globosum causing cutaneous infection in malaysia.201525894509
biological control of phytophthora palmivora causing root rot of pomelo using chaetomium spp.phytophthora diseases have become a major impediment in the citrus production in thailand. in this study, an isolate of phytophthora denominated as phy02 was proven to be causal pathogen of root rot of pomelo (citrus maxima) in thailand. the isolate phy02 was morphologically characterized and identified as phytophthora palmivora based on molecular analysis of an internal transcribed spacer rdna sequence. this work also presents in vitro evaluations of the capacities of chaetomium spp. to control ...201525892917
organic neem compounds inhibit soft-rot fungal growth and improve the strength of anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas.to examine organic neem compounds for their effective growth inhibition of saprotrophic soft-rot fungi on anthracite bricks bound with collagen and lignin for use in iron foundry cupolas as an alternative fuel source.201525857444
draft genome sequence of the cellulolytic fungus chaetomium globosum.chaetomium globosum is a filamentous fungus typically isolated from cellulosic substrates. this species also causes superficial infections of humans and, more rarely, can cause cerebral infections. here, we report the genome sequence of c. globosum isolate cbs 148.51, which will facilitate the study and comparative analysis of this fungus.201525720678
armochaeglobines a and b, two new indole-based alkaloids from the arthropod-derived fungus chaetomium globosum.armochaeglobines a (1) and b (2), two indole-based cytochalasan alkaloids with new carbon skeletons, were obtained from the fungus chaetomium globosum tw1-1, which was first isolated from the arthropod armadillidium vulgare. their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses, ecd calculation, and single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. interestingly, compound 1 featured a unique tetracyclic 5/6/7/5 fused ring system and 2 possessed a rare 12-membered carbon scaffold.201525615686
high expression level of antioxidants and pharmaceutical bioactivities of endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum jn711454.in order to maximize antioxidant activity of pharmaceutical bioactive endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum jn711454 during fermentation process, designed fermentation experiments of culture media for three levels of eight culture factors were performed using a taguchi orthogonal array (oa) design with layout l18 (2(1) × 3(7)). the agitation and the potato extract were the most significant affecting factors, and their interaction contributed significantly to fungus activity. the production of an ...201625569373
pictet-spengler reaction-based biosynthetic machinery in fungi.the pictet-spengler (ps) reaction constructs plant alkaloids such as morphine and camptothecin, but it has not yet been noticed in the fungal kingdom. here, a silent fungal pictet-spenglerase (fps) gene of chaetomium globosum 1c51 residing in epinephelus drummondhayi guts is described and ascertained to be activable by 1-methyl-l-tryptophan (1-mt). the activated fps expression enables the ps reaction between 1-mt and flavipin (fungal aldehyde) to form "unnatural" natural products with unpreceden ...201425425666
cytoglobosins h and i, new antiproliferative cytochalasans from deep-sea-derived fungus chaetomium globosum.cytoglobosins h (1) and i (2), together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (3-9), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus chaetomium globosum. the structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1d and 2d nmr and mass spectroscopic data. all the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against mda-mb-231 human breast cancer cells, lncap human prostate cancer cells, and b16f10 mouse melanoma cells. compound 6 showed significant antiproliferative ...201627999388
biochemical characterization and synergism of cellulolytic enzyme system from chaetomium globosum on rice straw saccharification.efficient hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials to sugars for conversion to biofuels and chemicals is a key step in biorefinery. designing an active saccharifying enzyme system with synergy among their components is considered a promising approach.201627871321
potential allelopathic azaphilones produced by the endophytic chaetomium globosum ty1 inhabited in ginkgo biloba using the one strain-many compounds method.on the basis of the one strain-many compounds strategy, seven azaphilones, including chaetomugilin a (1), d (2), s (3), i (4), j (5), q (6) and o (7), were isolated from the endophytic chaetomium globosum ty1. their structures were identified by nmr and hresims spectrometry data. all azaphilones were evaluated for plant growth regulation using eight species of herbaceous plant seeds seedling growth bioassay, which showed the plant growth influence of the seedling. among these compounds tested, c ...201727686133
pre-contamination of new gypsum wallboard with potentially harmful fungal species.gypsum wallboard is a popular building material, but is also very frequently overgrown by stachybotrys chartarum after severe and/or undetected water damage. the purpose of this study was to determine whether stachybotrys and other fungi frequently isolated from wet gypsum wallboard are already present in the panels directly from the factory. surface-disinfected gypsum disks were wetted with sterile water, sealed, and incubated for 70 days. the results showed that neosartorya hiratsukae (≡ asper ...201726970063
chemical constituents from an endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum z1.a new ergosterol, 15beta-hydroxyl-(22e,24r)-ergosta-3, 5, 8, 22-tetraen-one (1), along with three known ergosterols, two known cytochalasins, and two known azapholines were isolated from chaetomium globosum z1. the structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods (hr-esi-ms, 1d nmr, and 2d nmr). compound 6 showed significant cytotoxic activity against a-549 and mg-63 cell lines with ic50 values of 6.96 and 1.73 microg/ml, respectively.201324273849
cytochalasin h, an active anti-angiogenic constituent of the ethanol extract of gleditsia sinensis thorns.angiogenesis, the process of new vessel formation from the pre-existing blood vasculature, is critical for continuous tumor growth and is considered to be a validated antitumor target. the results of our previous study demonstrate the anti-angiogenic potential of an extract of gleditsia sinensis thorns, which has been traditionally used in korean medicine to remedy diverse diseases, including tumors. in the present study, we attempted to identify the active anti-angiogenic constituents of the et ...201424172060
phylogenetic reassessment of the chaetomium globosum species complex.chaetomium globosum, the type species of the genus, is ubiquitous, occurring on a wide variety of substrates, in air and in marine environments. this species is recognised as a cellulolytic and/or endophytic fungus. it is also known as a source of secondary metabolites with various biological activities, having great potential in the agricultural, medicinal and industrial fields. on the negative side, c. globosum has been reported as an air contaminant causing adverse health effects and as causa ...201627616789
new on-line separation workflow of microbial metabolites via hyphenation of analytical and preparative comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography.microbial metabolites represent an important source of bioactive natural products, but always exhibit diverse of chemical structures or complicated chemical composition with low active ingredients content. traditional separation methods rely mainly on off-line combination of open-column chromatography and preparative high performance liquid chromatography (hplc). however, the multi-step and prolonged separation procedure might lead to exposure to oxygen and structural transformation of metabolit ...201627517521
chaephilones a and b, two new azaphilone derivatives isolated from chaetomium globosum.two new azaphilone derivatives, chaephilones a (1) and b (2), were isolated from the fungus chaetomium globosum, together with four structurally related analogs 3 - 6. the structures of 1 and 2 were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analyses including hr-esi-ms and nmr. the known compounds were identified as chaetomugilin q (3), chaetomugilin d (4), 11-epichaetomugilin a (5), and chaetomugilin s (6) by comparing their nmr data and optical rotation values with those reported. compound 2 r ...201626938138
potentially harmful secondary metabolites produced by indoor chaetomium species on artificially and naturally contaminated building materials.the presence of the fungal genus chaetomium and its secondary metabolites in indoor environments is suspected to have a negative impact on human health and well-being. about 200 metabolites have been currently described from chaetomium spp., but only the bioactive compound group, chaetoglobosins, have been screened for and thus detected in buildings. in this study, we used a liquid chromatography high-resolution mass spectrometry approach to screen both artificially and naturally infected buildi ...201726880675
biological evaluation of endophytic fungus, chaetomium globosum jn711454, as potential candidate for improving drug discovery.the main objective of this research work focused on investigating the biological and chemical aspects of endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum, for pharmaceutical purposes to improve the drug discovery process. the endophytic c. globosum was isolated from healthy leaves of egyptian medicinal plant adiantum capillus-veneris collected from saint katherine protectorate, sinai, egypt. the identification of c. globosum was on the basis of classical and molecular taxonomy. gene encoding for 18s rrna w ...201423775636
flavipin in chaetomium globosum cdw7, an endophytic fungus from ginkgo biloba, contributes to antioxidant activity.1,2-benzenedicarboxaldehyde-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-methyl (flavipin) was found to be antagonistic against nematodes and fungi. here we demonstrated that flavipin is a potent antioxidant in vitro and in vivo, which has great potential in the therapy for free radical-associated diseases. therefore, flavipin-producing bio-source was screened from 80 endophytes in ginkgo biloba. seven endophytic fungi were able to synthesize antioxidant substances and identified by its rdna sequences. among them, chaeto ...201323740314
industrial textile effluent decolourization in stirred and static batch cultures of a new fungal strain chaetomium globosum ima1 kj472923.the treatment of an industrial textile effluent (ite) was investigated by using a mono-culture of a novel fungal strain chaetomium globosum ima1. this filamentous fungus was selected based on its capacity for dye removal via the biodegradation mechanism. the respirometric analysis showed that c. globosum ima1 was resistant to an indigo concentration up to 700 mg equivalent cod/l. the decolourization of the ite by c. globosum was performed in static and stirred batch systems. the better lignin pe ...201626775156
anti-phytopathogen, multi-target acetylcholinesterase inhibitory and antioxidant activities of metabolites from endophytic chaetomium globosum.fourteen metabolites with various structure types were isolated from endophytic chaetomium globosum. five compounds were separated from genus chaetomium for the first time. some compounds exhibited remarkable inhibition against phytopathogenic fungi causing root rot of panax notoginseng. compounds 1-5 had significant dpph-free radical-scavenging activity. compounds 3 and 5 indicated significant inhibitions against the acetylcholinesterase (ache). from preliminary structure-activity relationship, ...201626744178
nine new cytochalasan alkaloids from chaetomium globosum tw1-1 (ascomycota, sordariales).chemical investigation on the methanol extract of chaetomium globosum tw1-1, a fungus isolated from the common pillbug (armadillidium vulgare), has resulted in the isolation of nine new highly oxygenated cytochalasan alkaloids, armochaetoglobins s-z (1 and 3-9) and 7-o-acetylarmochaetoglobin s (2), together with eight structurally related known analogues (10-17). their structures and absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic analyses. among them, compound 2 presents to be the firs ...201626739896
prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in shelley idaho, usa and identified as chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, fusarium tricinctum, microdochium bolleyi, purpureocillium lilacinum, and plectosphaerella cucumerina. their ability to reduce infection by g. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-rocs). all fungi reduced g. pallida infecti ...201728375550
identification of antifungal principle in the solvent extract of an endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum from withania somnifera.extracts of chaetomium globosum ef18, isolated as endophytic fungus from withania somnifera, were found effective against sclerotinia sclerotiorum. ethyl acetate and methanol extracts were more effective than hexane extract showing >80% growth inhibition. bioactive compound (antibiotic sch 210971, m/z 445 and λmax 290) having antifungal activity against s. sclerotiorum has been isolated in pure form from the ethyl acetate extract following bioassay guided fractionation. apart from this compound ...201323519550
molecular epigenetic approach activates silent gene cluster producing dimeric bis-spiro-azaphilones in chaetomium globosum cbs148.51. 201728246383
new production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin a using cornstalks.chaetoglobosin a is an antibacterial compound produced by chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. the aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin a by c. globosum w7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. the output of chaetoglobosin a from the cornstalks was 0.34mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. purification co ...201728223029
nematicidal activity of chaetoglobosin a poduced by chaetomium globosum nk102 against meloidogyne incognita.the nematicidal activity of chaetomium globosum nk102, culture filtrates, and chaetoglobosin a (cha) purified by hplc was evaluated on meloidogyne incognita . the results showed that c. globosum nk102 significantly repelled second-stage juveniles (j2s). both filtrates and cha demonstrated strong adverse effects on j2 mortality with 99.8% at 300 μg cha/ml (lc(50) = 77.0 μg/ml) at 72 h. cha and filtrates did not affect egg hatch until 72 h of exposure. all filtrate treatments inhibited the j2 pene ...201323214998
visualization of the structural changes in plywood and gypsum board during the growth of chaetomium globosum and stachybotrys chartarum.fungal growth in indoor environments is associated with many negative health effects. many studies focus on brown- and white-rot fungi and their effect on wood, but there is none that reveals the influence of soft-rot fungi, such as stachybotrys spp. and chaetomium spp., on the structure of building materials such as plywood and gypsum wallboard. this study focuses on using micro-computed tomography (microct) to investigate changes of the structure of plywood and gypsum wallboard during fungal d ...201627476483
invasive pulmonary mycosis due to chaetomium globosum with false-positive galactomannan test: a case report and literature review.in this case, the authors report chaetomium globosum as a cause of invasive pulmonary infection in a patient with wegener's granulomatosis. fungal hyphae (koh and calcofluor) were seen on direct microscopy of lung biopsy sample and bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) sample. c. globosum isolated on culture clinched the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary infection by chaetomium spp. a positive galactomannan of serum and bal was repeatedly seen and was utilised for follow-up and as prognostic marker in pati ...201626691935
efficacy of chaetomium species as biological control agents against phytophthora nicotianae root rot in citrus.thailand is one of the largest citrus producers in southeast asia. pathogenic infection by phytophthora, however, has become one of major impediments to production. this study identified a pathogenic oomycete isolated from rotted roots of pomelo (citrus maxima) in thailand as phytophthora nicotianae by the internal transcribed spacer ribosomal dna sequence analysis. then, we examined the in vitro and in vivo effects of chaetomium globosum, chaetomium lucknowense, chaetomium cupreum and their cru ...201526539045
characterization of an antigenic chitosanase from the cellulolytic fungus chaetomium globosum.we are interested in identifying human fungal allergens and antigens from species common on water-damaged or damp building materials for use as marker proteins and diagnostic tests. the cellulolytic fungus chaetomium globosum is common on damp materials in the building environment worldwide. elisa and immunoblotting tests identified two related proteins of molecular weights 45 and 47 kda which were identified as fungal antigens found on spore surfaces and in culture filtrate. the sequences were ...201322985087
electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry of chaetoglobosins.chaetoglobosins are a family of macrocyclic polyketide alkaloids. they possess many similar isomers and exhibit a wide range of biological activities. thus, there is a need for reliable, fast, and low-cost analysis of this class of compounds.201222886807
determination of the absolute configuration of chaetoviridins and other bioactive azaphilones from the endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum.chemical investigation of an endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum isolated from leaves of wikstroemia uva-ursi led to the isolation of two new azaphilones, chaetoviridins j and k (1 and 3), along with five known derivatives (2 and 4-7). the structures of azaphilones were determined by nmr, x-ray diffraction, mosher's method, and cd analysis. the isolated compounds were evaluated for their cancer chemopreventive-potential based on their abilities to inhibit tumor necrosis factor alpha (tnf-α)-in ...201526343828
chaetoglobosins from chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus in ginkgo biloba, and their phytotoxic and cytotoxic activities.in preceding studies, cultivation of chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus in ginkgo biloba, produced five cytochalasan mycotoxins, chaetoglobosins a, g, v, vb, and c (1-5), in three media. in the present work, five known chaetoglobosins, c, e, f, fex, and 20-dihydrochaetoglobosin a (5-9), together with the four known compounds (11-14), were isolated from the meoh extracts of the solid culture of the same endophyte. the structures of these metabolites were elucidated on the basis of spectros ...201424708412
improved sanguinarine production via biotic and abiotic elicitations and precursor feeding in cell suspensions of latex-less variety of papaver somniferum with their gene expression studies and upscaling in bioreactor.elicitors play an important role in challenging the plant defense system through plant-environment interaction and thus altering the secondary metabolite production. culture filtrates of four endophytic fungi, namely, chaetomium globosum, aspergillus niveoglaucus, paecilomyces lilacinus, and trichoderma harzianum were tested on embryogenic cell suspensions of latex-less papaver somniferum in dose-dependent kinetics. besides this, abiotic elicitors salicylic acid, hydrogen peroxide, and carbon di ...201424677097
expression and characterization of a novel antifungal exo-β-1,3-glucanase from chaetomium cupreum.a novel β-1,3-glucanase gene, designated ccglu17a, was cloned from the biological control fungus chaetomium cupreum ame. its 1626-bp open reading frame encoded 541 amino acids. the corresponding amino acid sequence showed highest identity (67 %) with a glycoside hydrolase family 17 β-1,3-glucanase from chaetomium globosum. the recombinant protein ccglu17a was successfully expressed in pichia pastoris, and the enzyme was purified to homogeneity with 10.1-fold purification and 47.8 % recovery yiel ...201627854040
overexpression of the global regulator laea in chaetomium globosum leads to the biosynthesis of chaetoglobosin z.overexpression of laea in chaetomium globosum cbs148.51 up-regulated expression of the chaetoglobosin gene cluster and resulted in the isolation of a new cytochalasan, chaetoglobosin z (1), together with six known analogues, chaetoglobosins a (2), b (3), d (4), e (5), o (6), and v (7). rt-pcr analysis confirmed that the key genes in the chaetoglobosin gene cluster were significantly up-regulated. the structure of the new compound chaetoglobosin z (1) was elucidated using nmr data. the relative a ...201627759375
overexpressing transcriptional regulator in chaetomium globosum activates a silent biosynthetic pathway: evaluation of shanorellin biosynthesis. 201222569160
biotransformation of gambogenic acid by chaetomium globosum cicc 2445.microbial transformation of gambogenic acid (1), a caged polyprenylated xanthone isolated from the resin of garcinia hanburyi, was carried out with chaetomium globosum cicc 2445, after screening forty-six strains of filamentous fungi. a new caged polyprenylated xanthone, 16,17-dihydroxygambogenic acid (2), was specifically obtained, as a result of hydroxylation at c-16, and c-17. its structure was elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. the cytotoxicity of compounds 1 and 2 against hel ...201222474955
chaeoglobosin fex inhibits poly(i:c)-induced activation of bone marrow-derived dendritic cells.dendritic cells (dcs) are implicated in the induction of autoimmune diseases and exist in lesions associated with several autoimmune inflammatory diseases. chaeoglobosin fex (cha fex), a cytochalasan-based alkaloid, was isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum qen-14. in the present study, we evaluated the effect of cha fex on poly(i:c)-induced bone marrow-derived dcs. the results showed that cha fex attenuated the production of ifn-β both at the mrna and protein level ...201222424786
improvement of activated sludge resistance to shock loading by fungal enzyme addition during textile wastewater treatment.the effects of the additions of the fungal enzymatic extract were investigated in relation to the treatment of real textile wastewater (rtw) by the activated sludge process (asp). the used enzyme cocktail was produced by a new isolated fungal chaetomium globosum ima1. the system that was operated with enzyme addition showed a better chemical oxygen demand (cod) removal efficiency (95%) compared to the control system (75%). in addition, the improvement of color removal (od620) efficiencies was ar ...201727456712
onychomycosis due to chaetomium globosum with yellowish black discoloration and periungual inflammation.onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, although also other filamentous and yeast-like fungi are associated with nail invasion. chaetomium is an environmental genus of ascomycetes exhibiting a certain degree of extremotolerance. we report the first case of onychomycosis in a 46-year-old woman in china caused by chaetomium globosum. the patient showed yellowish black discoloration with periungual inflammation on the left first toenail. we confirmed the causative agent, c. globosum, by k ...201627699147
the fungal endophyte chaetomium globosum negatively affects both above- and belowground herbivores in cotton.mutualistic plant-endophyte symbioses can benefit plants by increasing host fitness through reductions in herbivory. the fungus, chaetomium globosum strain tamu 520, was previously isolated as an endophyte from cotton (gossypium hirsutum) and can be re-inoculated to systemically colonize cotton plants via seed treatment. we evaluated the potential impacts of the endophyte in cotton on plant parasitic nematodes belowground, along with piercing-sucking and chewing insects aboveground. endophytic c ...201627451418
[chemical constituents from endophyte chaetomium globosum in imperata cylindrical].isolation and purification of chemical constituents from solid culture of endophyte chaetomium globosum in imperata cylindrical was performed through silica gel column chromatography, gel filtration over sephadex lh-20 and preparative hplc. nine compounds were obtained and their structures were determined as chaetoglobosin f(1), chaetoglobosin fex(2), chaetoglobosin e(3) cytoglobosin a(4), penochalasin c(s), isochaetoglobosin d (6), n-benzoylphenylalaninyl-n-benzoyphenylalaninate(7), uracil(8) a ...201527141677
monitoring the effects of different conservation treatments on paper-infecting fungi.fungi are among the most degradative organisms inducing biodeterioration of paper-based items of cultural heritage. appropriate conservation measures and restoration treatments to deal with fungal infections include mechanical, chemical, and biological methods, which entail effects on the paper itself and health hazards for humans. three different conservation treatments, namely freeze-drying, gamma rays, and ethylene oxide fumigation, were compared and monitored to assess their short- (one mont ...201324092956
targeted disruption of transcriptional regulators in chaetomium globosum activates biosynthetic pathways and reveals transcriptional regulator-like behavior of aureonitol.postgenomic analysis revealed that many microorganisms carry numerous secondary metabolite biosynthetic genes on their genome. however, activities of those putative genes are not clearly reflected in the metabolic profile of the microorganisms, especially in fungi. a recent genome mining effort is promising in discovering new natural products. however, many fungi and other organisms are not amenable to molecular genetics manipulations, making the study difficult. here we report successful engine ...201323941144
[genes for cellulose-degradation and their expression conditions in chaetomium globosum nk102].use of renewable plant biomass is an active area in current biotechnology research. this report explores the cellulose-degradation system and the factors affecting cellulase gene expression in chaetomium globosum nk102.201323858710
spatial and temporal variation in fungal endophyte communities isolated from cultivated cotton (gossypium hirsutum).studies of fungi in upland cotton (gossypium hirsutum) cultivated in the united states have largely focused on monitoring and controlling plant pathogens. given increasing interest in asymptomatic fungal endophytes as potential biological control agents, surveys are needed to better characterize their diversity, distribution patterns and possible applications in integrated pest management. we sampled multiple varieties of cotton in texas, usa and tested for temporal and spatial variation in fung ...201323776604
onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum.onychomycosis is usually caused by dermatophytes, but some nondermatophytic molds and yeasts are also associated with invasion of nails. the genus chaetomium is a dematiaceous nondermatophytic mold found in soil and plant debris as a saprophytic fungus. we report the first korean case of onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum in a 35-year-old male. the patient showed brownish-yellow discoloration and subungual hyperkeratosis on the right toenails (1st and 5th) and left toenails (1st and 4th ...201323717019
combinatorial generation of complexity by redox enzymes in the chaetoglobosin a biosynthesis.redox enzymes play a central role in generating structural complexity during natural product biosynthesis. in the postassembly tailoring steps, redox cascades can transform nascent chemical scaffolds into structurally complex final products. chaetoglobosin a (1) is biosynthesized by a hybrid polyketide synthase-nonribosomal peptide synthetase. it belongs to the chaetoglobosin family of natural products, comprising many analogs having different degrees of oxidation introduced during their biosynt ...201323611317
intracellular targeting of ascomycetous catalase-peroxidases (katg1s).bifunctional catalase-peroxidases (katgs) are heme oxidoreductases widely spread among bacteria, archaea and among lower eukaryotes. in fungi, two katg groups with different localization have evolved, intracellular (katg1) and extracellular (katg2) proteins. here, the cloning, expression analysis and subcellular localization of two novel katg1 genes from the soil fungi chaetomium globosum and chaetomium cochliodes are reported. whereas, the metalloenzyme from ch. globosum is expressed constituti ...201323589225
cytotoxic azaphilone alkaloids from chaetomium globosum ty1.three novel azaphilone alkaloids, namely chaetomugilides a-c (1-3), together with three related compounds (4-6) were isolated from the methanol extract of chaetomium globosum ty1, an endophytic fungus isolated from ginkgo biloba. their structures were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1d and 2d nmr as well as hresi-ms spectroscopic data analysis. the isolated compounds exhibited highly cytotoxic activities against human cancer cell line hepg2 with the ic50 values range from 1.7 to 53.4μm.201323562244
antifungal screening of endophytic fungi from ginkgo biloba for discovery of potent anti-phytopathogenic fungicides.many endophytic fungi have been found to synthesize bioactive compounds to defend host plants against pathogenic organisms. here we performed anti-fungal bioassay of 80 endophytic fungi isolated from ginkgo biloba. fifteen endophytes were active against at least one of the selected fungi, fusarium graminearum, sclerotinia sclerotiorum and phytophthora capsici, using the agar diffusion method. the most bioactive strain cdw7 was identified as chaetomium globosum by microscopic examination and its ...201323240805
a pks gene, pks-1, is involved in chaetoglobosin biosynthesis, pigmentation and sporulation in chaetomium globosum.chaetomium globosum is one of the most common fungi in nature. it is best known for producing chaetoglobosins; however, the molecular basis of chaetoglobosin biosynthesis is poorly understood in this fungus. in this study, we utilized rna interference (rnai) to characterize a polyketide synthase gene, pks-1, in c. globosum that is involved in the production of chaetoglobosin a. when pks-1 was knocked down by rnai, the production of chaetoglobosin a dramatically decreased. knock-down mutants also ...201223233225
molecular cloning and characterization of a gh11 endoxylanase from chaetomium globosum, and its use in enzymatic pretreatment of biomass.an endo-1,4-β-xylanase gene, xylcg, was cloned from chaetomium globosum and successfully expressed in escherichia coli. the complete gene of 675 bp was amplified, cloned into the pet 28(a) vector, and expressed. the optimal conditions for the highest activity of the purified recombinant xylcg were observed at a temperature of 40 °c and ph of 5.5. using oat-spelt xylan, the determined k m, v max, and k cat/k m values were 0.243 mg ml⁻¹, 4,530 u mg⁻¹ protein, and 7,640 ml s⁻¹ mg⁻¹, respectively. a ...201323184220
identification and characterization of the chaetoviridin and chaetomugilin gene cluster in chaetomium globosum reveal dual functions of an iterative highly-reducing polyketide synthase.we report the identification and characterization of the caz biosynthetic cluster from chaetomium globosum and the characterization of a highly reducing polyketide synthase (pks) that acts in both a sequential and convergent manner with a nonreducing pks to form the chaetomugilin and chaetoviridin azaphilones. genetic inactivation studies verified the involvement of individual caz genes in the biosynthesis of the azaphilones. through in vitro reconstitution, we demonstrated the in vitro synthesi ...201223072467
probing the role of sigma π interaction and energetics in the catalytic efficiency of endo-1,4-β-xylanase.chaetomium globosum endo-1,4-β-xylanase (xylcg) is distinguished from other xylanases by its high turnover rate (1,860 s(-1)), the highest ever reported for fungal xylanases. one conserved amino acid, w48, in the substrate binding pocket of wild-type xylcg was identified as an important residue affecting xylcg's catalytic efficiency.201223023743
chaetoglobosin f, a small molecule compound, possesses immunomodulatory properties on bone marrow-derived dendritic cells via tlr9 signaling pathway.chaetoglobosin f (cha f), a cytochalasan-based alkaloid, was obtained from the etoac extract of a solid culture of chaetomium globosum ifb-e019. dendritic cells (dcs), the most potent antigen presenting cells, are considered as the major target in the modulation of excessive immune responses. recognition of cpg-dna by toll-like receptor 9 (tlr9) on dcs is an important step in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases. however, the effect of cha f on the maturation and immunostimulatory function of ...201322739238
endophytic chaetomium globosum enhances maize seedling copper stress tolerance.this study aims at characterisation of the impact of chaetomium globosum on copper stress resistance of maize seedlings. higher levels of copper treatment decreased maize dry weight and induced a marked increase in osmotic solutes, antioxidant enzyme activity and the level of lipid peroxidation. on the other hand, addition of the endophytic c. globosum alleviated the toxic effect of copper on maize growth. the combination of copper sulphate and chaetomium increased seedling dry weight, osmotic s ...201222672065
three new azaphilones produced by a marine fish-derived chaetomium globosum.three new metabolites, chaetomugilin s, dechloro-chaetomugilin a and dechloro-chaetomugilin d, were isolated from a strain of chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marine fish mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated based on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques and some chemical transformations. particularly, chaetomugilins t and u are the first compounds without a chlorine atom in azaphilones isolated from this fungal str ...201222617549
chaetoglobosin vb from endophytic chaetomium globosum: absolute configuration of chaetoglobosins.one new cytochalasan alkaloid, chaetoglobosin v(b) (1), together with two structurally related known compounds, chaetoglobosin v (2) and chaetoglobosin g (3), was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of a culture of the endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum, associated with the leaves of ginkgo biloba tree. the structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1d and 2d nmr and mass spectrometry. the absolute configuration of chaetoglobosin v(b) (1) was e ...201222593034
antifungal metabolites produced by chaetomium globosum no.04, an endophytic fungus isolated from ginkgo biloba.the fungal endophyte chaetomium globosum no.04 was isolated from the medicinal plant ginkgo biloba. the crude extract of the fungus fermentation were active in the agar-diffusion tests against the phytopathogenic fungi rhizopus stolonifer and coniothyrium diplodiella. further bioassay-guided chemical investigation led to the isolation and purification of six alkaloids and three non-targeted compounds from 50 l fermentation of this endophytic fungus and their structures were elucidated as chaetog ...201324426105
onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds.although there have been many studies about onychomycosis due to nondermatophytic molds (ndm), few studies about etiologic agents including ndm in onychomycosis have been reported in korea.201222577268
functional analysis of the degradation of cellulosic substrates by a chaetomium globosum endophytic isolate.most photosynthetically fixed carbon is contained in cell wall polymers present in plant biomasses, the largest organic carbon source in the biosphere. the degradation of these polymers for biotechnological purposes requires the combined action of several enzymes. to identify new activities, we examined which enzymes are activated by an endophytic strain of chaetomium globosum to degrade cellulose-containing substrates. after biochemical analyses of the secretome of the fungus grown on cellulose ...201222389369
a case report of a mixed chaetomium globosum/trichophyton mentagrophytes onychomycosis.recently, an increasing prevalence of nondermatophyte mold onychomycosis was observed, in which chaetomium globosum was rarely involved as primary pathogenic agent. besides this, reports of mixed infection associating a dermatophyte and a nondermatophyte mold have become more frequent. here, we present a clinical case of a mixed onychomycosis infection of a toenail caused by chaetomium globosum and trichophyton mentagrophytes. to our knowledge, this specific association is reported for the first ...201224371744
in vitro antagonism of cotton seedlings fungi and characterization of chitinase isozyme activities in trichoderma harzianum.the antagonistic fungus trichoderma harzianum is widely recognized as a potential biocontrol agent against several soil-borne plant pathogens. t. harzinum is rich source of chitinoltic enzymes. in vitro screening of 5 isolates of t. harzinum, one isolate of chaetomium globosum and one isolate of conetherium mentance, revealed that all of them had reduced growth area of macrophomina phaseolina, fusarium solani and rhizoctonia solani on pda medium, significantly. the inhibition percentage ranged f ...201023961072
chaetoglobosin y, a new cytochalasan from chaetomium globosum.chaetoglobosin y (1), was isolated from the endolichenic fungal strain chaetomium globosum (no. 64-5-8-2), along with related six known cytochalasans, chaetoglobosin fex (2), chaetoglobosin e (3), isochaetoglobosin d (4), chaetoglobosin g (5), cytoglobosin b (6), and cytoglobosin c (7). their structures were determined by detailed spectroscopic analyses and comparison with those of the closely related compounds previously reported. the cytotoxicity to hct-116 cell line of 2-7 was evaluated in vi ...201424418656
mycotoxins from mould infested building materials.only limited documentation of non-allergenic, especially toxic reactions after inhalation of microfungal spores in water damaged buildings exists. recently attention has been drawn to the mycotoxins as causal compounds, as some the dominating genera found in buildings are well known mycotoxin producers.penicillium chrysogenum and a. ustus do not seem to produce any known mycotoxins when growing on building materials, whereasp. brevicompactum produces mycophenolic acid, somep. polonicum produces ...200023605430
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