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study on the diversity of endophytic communities from rice (oryza sativa l.) and their antagonistic activities in vitro.endophytic populations were isolated from 2400 segments of oryza sativa collected from bhadra river project area, southern india during december 2005 (winter) and april 2006 (summer). overall colonization rates from surface sterilized tissues were 40.3% in roots and 25.83% in leaves during winter season, 20.15% in roots and 8.66% in leaves during summer season. nineteen different fungal taxa, a streptomyces sp. and bacterial species were isolated. streptomyces sp., chaetomium globosum, penicilli ...200917433644
first spanish case of onychomycosis caused by chaetomium globosum.members of the fungal genus chaetomium usually colonize cellulose-containing plant remains but on rare occasions may cause opportunistic mycoses and cutaneous infection in otherwise healthy individuals. to our knowledge, there have been only five credible descriptions of onychomycosis caused by members of this genus and only two of these contained information on therapy. we describe the first case of chaetomium globosum onychomycosis recorded in spain. the etiologic significance of the fungus wa ...200717464849
activation of prothrombin by two subtilisin-like serine proteases from acremonium sp.two novel subtilisin-like serine proteases (as-e1 and -e2) that activate prothrombin have been identified in a culture of the fungus acremonium sp. the enzymes were purified through repeated hydrophobic interaction chromatography. the n-terminal sequences of as-e1 (34.4 kda) and as-e2 (32 kda) showed high similarity to the internal sequences of two distinct subtilisin-like hypothetical proteins from chaetomium globosum. both enzymes proteolytically activated prothrombin to meizothrombin(desf1)-l ...200717482570
electrospray tandem mass spectrometry of epipolythiodioxopiperazines.low-energy collision-induced electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry esi-cid-ms/ms (in the positive ion mode) was used for the structural characterization of a series of five representative epioplythiodioxopipreazines: dethiotetra(methylthio)chemotin, chaetocochins a, b and c, and chemotin isolated from the fungus chaetomium cochliodes. the fragmentation pathways were elucidated by esi-it-ms(n). the elemental compositions of most of the product ions were confirmed by low-energy esi-cid- ...200717492721
growth and mycotoxin production by chaetomium globosum.chaetomium globosum, the most common species within this genus, produces chaetoglobosins a and c when cultured on building material. relatively low levels of these compounds have been shown to be lethal to various tissue culture cell lines. this study had two major objectives: (1) to determine the frequency at which chaetomium species are isolated in water-damaged buildings and (2) to examine the production of chaetoglobosins a and c in isolates of c. globosum obtained from different buildings. ...200717551849
[mycoparasites effect on reproductive ability of sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia.].the ability to parasitise sclerotinia sclerotiorum and the effect on apothecia production was evaluated for the following antagonists: trichoderma harzianum; trichoderma koningii; gliocladium roseum and chaetomium globosum. plastic trays were filled with of steam-sterilized soil. each one of them was infested with sclerotia of s. sclerotiorum and the culture of the antagonists. the trays were kept in a greenhouse and after 30, 60 and 90 days, evaluations were made. the rates of carpogenic germin ...199817655415
quantitative pcr analysis of molds in the dust from homes of asthmatic children in north carolina.the vacuum bag (vb) dust from the homes of 19 asthmatic children in north carolina (nc) was analyzed by mold specific quantitative pcr. these results were compared to the analysis of the vb dust from 176 homes in the hud, american healthy home survey of homes in the us. the environmental relative moldiness index (ermi) was calculated for each of the homes. the mean and standard deviation (sd) of the ermi values in the homes of the nc asthmatic children was 16.4 (6.77), compared to the hud survey ...200717671663
sch 213766, a novel chemokine receptor ccr-5 inhibitor from chaetomium globosum.a novel fungal secondary metabolite, sch 213766 was isolated from the fungal fermentation broth of chaetomium globosum as the chemokine receptor ccr-5 inhibitor and shown to be the methyl ester of the previously described tetramic acid sch 210972 on the basis of uv, ms and nmr spectral data analyses. sch213766 exhibited an ic(50) value of 8.6 mum in the ccr-5 receptor in vitro binding assay.200717827664
effect of selected natural dyes in reduction on colour changes of egyptian linen textiles by fungi.linen is the most historical egyptian textile fibre liable to fungal deterioration. fungal deterioration of dyed linen textiles may appear as undesirable different stains. in order to success in removing of fungal stains from biodeteriorated historical egyptian dyed linen textiles, it is necessary to understand the nature and causes of these stains, hence their subsequent removal. so this paper aims to investigate the effect of fungi on dyed linen textiles. in this study linen textile samples we ...200717867537
a heat shock protein gene (hsp22.4) from chaetomium globosum confers heat and na2co3 tolerance to yeast.a small heat shock protein gene (hsp22.4) was cloned from chaetomium globosum using rapid amplification of cdna ends (race). the 986-bp full-length hsp22.4 cdna contains a 609-bp open reading frame encoding a 202-amino-acid protein with an estimated molecular mass of 22.4 kda. the hsp22.4 gene was amplified using specific primers in the 5' and 3' untranslated regions of the hsp22.4 cdna. the temporal expression of hsp22.4 was measured in c. globosum by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase ...200717940762
[adaptation of chaetomium globosum 3250 kunze ex fr. to the rhizosphere of spring wheat and its ability to colonize the root system].the ability of the natural strain of marsupial fungus chaetomium globosum 3250 to adapt to the rhizosphere soil of the spring wheat, and to colonize its root system has been studied in the laboratory and field experiments. it is established that c. globosum 3250 adapts to the rhyzosphere soil of culture during vegetative period, actively colonizes the culture root system, forcing the agents of roots rots out of it. a preparation of khetomyk is created on the basis of the above culture for the im ...200717977453
analysis of epipolythiodioxopiperazines in fungus chaetomium cochliodes using hplc-esi-ms/ms/ms.a series of epipolythiodioxopiperazines in the fungus chaetomium cochliodes was investigated using reversed-phase liquid chromatography with diode array detection and electrospray quadrupole time-of-flight-type tandem mass spectrometry in the positive ion mode. the fragmentation of protonated molecular ions including low-abundance parent ions, [m+h]+ for five known epipolythiodioxopiperazines, dethiotetra(methylthio)chetomin, chaetocochins a-c, and chetomin, was carried out using low-energy coll ...200818052340
production of lethal mutations in the fungus chaetomium globosum by monochromatic ultraviolet irradiation. 194918120002
chetomin an antibiotic substance from chaetomium cochliodes; composition and functional groups. 194918124507
mutants produced by x-irradiation of spores of chaetomium globosum and a comparison with those produced by ultraviolet irradiation.1. mutants produced by x-irradiation of fungal spores of chaetomium globosum have been compared with those produced by ultraviolet irradiation. 2. the most striking difference between the mutants produced by x-irradiation and ultraviolet irradiation is the absence in x-ray experiments of the k mutant which is produced in large numbers at short ultraviolet wave lengths. 3. a comparison is made of the relation between x-ray dose and numbers of lethal mutants, and the relation between the short ult ...194918131868
evidence for horizontal transfer of a secondary metabolite gene cluster between fungi.filamentous fungi synthesize many secondary metabolites and are rich in genes encoding proteins involved in their biosynthesis. genes from the same pathway are often clustered and co-expressed in particular conditions. such secondary metabolism gene clusters evolve rapidly through multiple rearrangements, duplications and losses. it has long been suspected that clusters can be transferred horizontally between species, but few concrete examples have been described so far.200818218086
prevalence of allergic sensitization to indoor fungi in west virginia.exposure to indoor fungi is of growing concern in residential and occupational environments in the united states. the purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of sensitization to common indoor fungal species in an atopic population. we evaluated 102 patients (73 female and 29 male patients) for immunoglobulin e (ige) reactivity to a panel of skin-prick test (spt) reagents used for routine allergy testing. patients also were tested for six additional fungi that are common indoor cont ...200818302835
heat stability of chaetoglobosins a and c.chaetomium globosum is commonly found in water-damaged buildings and produces the mycotoxins chaetoglobosin a and chaetoglobosin c (ch-a and ch-c, respectively). while attempting to purify ch-a and ch-c, we observed that these mycotoxins were broken down after heating. the objective of this study was to determine the temperature and the amount of time necessary to break down ch-a and ch-c. we demonstrated that the amounts of ch-a were significantly reduced when exposed to 75 degrees c for 24 h a ...200818449228
contamination of peritoneal dialysis fluid by filamentous fungi.peritonitis is a frequent complication in peritoneal dialysis. it may be caused by contamination of the dialysis tubing or by extension of the catheter exit site. gram-positive bacteria are the most common organism, accounting for 60% of all documented cases of continuous ambulatorial peritonitis dialysis. fungi are isolated from to 1-15% of cases. forty-nine out of 490 bottles containing fluid for peritoneal dialysis were randomly selected for microbiological analysis in são paulo, brazil. in t ...199918473556
differential sensitivity of fungi to lithium chloride in culture media.forty species of fungi, representing a range of ecological and taxonomic groups, were tested for their ability to grow on agar media amended with lithium chloride (licl) at 1.5, 3 and 6 g l(-1). species of trichoderma varied considerably in their sensitivity to licl; at one week on 6 g l(-1) licl medium, the growth of seven species of trichoderma was considerably inhibited; however, by three weeks at this level, four of the species tested were able to attain > or =30% of control growth. of the s ...200818495451
cloning and characterization of a novel chitinase gene (chi46) from chaetomium globosum and identification of its biological activity.chitinases play a major role in the defensive strategies of plants against fungal pathogens. in the current study, the gene for a 46-kda endochitinase (chi46) was cloned from chaetomium globosum, an important biocontrol fungus. the corresponding complementary deoxyribonucleic acid sequence was 1,350 bp in length, encoding 449 amino acid residues. the temporal expression of chi46, in response to the treatments of cell walls of six pathogens and confrontation against two fungal pathogens, was meas ...200818563407
three isolations of chaetomium globosum from erythematous epilation of canine skin.chaetomium globosum is commonly found in natural environments worldwide and is known to be a causative agent for emerging fungal infections. the present study describes a case of erythematous epilation of a dog caused by c. globosum. a mixed-breed young dog, a 4-months-old male, weighing 7.25 kg, showed depilation, scales, and dermatitis with slightly itchiness on his skin. the main symptom was an erythematous epilation on the left subocular skin 7.5 cm in diameter, accompanied by elephantiasis- ...200818608918
interaction of four antagonistic fungi with botrytis aclada in dead onion leaves: a comparative microscopic and ultrastructural study.abstract the colonization of dead onion leaves by botrytis aclada and the fungal antagonists aureobasidium pullulans, chaetomium globosum, glio-cladium catenulatum, and ulocladium atrum and the interactions between b. aclada and each of the four antagonists were studied at the microscopic and ultrastructural level. this approach was used in an attempt to understand the colonization pattern of these fungi and the nature of the biocontrol activity of the antagonists that have shown a potential to ...199718945082
production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody raised against surface antigens from mycelium of gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici: evidence for an extracellular polyphenol oxidase.abstract a murine monoclonal antibody (mab) of immunoglobulin class m (igm) was raised against surface antigens from gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici and, by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, recognized isolates of g. graminis var. tritici, g. graminis var. avenae and g. graminis var. graminis. characterization of the antigen by heat and protease treatments showed that the epitope recognized by the mab was a protein. antigen production was detected only in live mycelia. immunofluorescence s ...199718945163
chaetoglobins a and b, two unusual alkaloids from endophytic chaetomium globosum culture.chaetoglobins a (1) and b (2), two azaphilone alkaloid dimers with an unprecedented skeleton, were characterized from an endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum with the former ascertained to be a significant cytotoxin valuable for anti-tumor drug discovery.200819030558
chaetomugilins, new selectively cytotoxic metabolites, produced by a marine fish-derived chaetomium species.chaetomugilins a-f have been isolated from a strain of chaetomium globosum originally isolated from the marine fish mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures have been elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques, some chemical transformations and an x-ray analysis. these compounds exhibited significant growth inhibition against cultured p388 cells and hl-60 cells. in addition, chaetomugilins a, c and f showed selective cytotoxic activities agai ...200819168975
bioactive metabolites produced by chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus isolated from ginkgo biloba.a novel cytotoxic chlorinated azaphilone derivative named chaetomugilin d (1), together with three known metabolites, chaetomugilin a (2), chaetoglobosins a (3) and c (4), has been isolated by a bioassay-guided fractionation from the etoac extract of the cultures of chaetomium globosum, an endophytic fungus found in the leaves of ginkgo biloba. structure of 1 was established by analyses of spectroscopic methods, including 2d-nmr experiments (cosy, noesy, hmqc, and hmbc). compounds 1-4 displayed ...200919246197
fungal parasitism of heterodera glycines eggs as influenced by egg age and pre-colonization of cysts by other fungi.the objective of this study was to determine the effect of egg age and pre-colonization of cysts by a saprophytic or parasitic fungus on parasitism of heterodera glycines eggs by other parasitic fungi. in agar and in soil tests, fungi generally parasitized more eggs in early developmental stages than eggs containing a juvenile. the effect of pre-colonization of cysts by a fungus on parasitism of eggs by other fungi depended on the fungi involved. in most cases, pre-colonization of cysts by an un ...200319262761
growth and mycotoxin production by chaetomium globosum is favored in a neutral ph.chaetomium globosum is frequently isolated in water-damaged buildings and produces two mycotoxins called chaetoglobosins a and c when cultured on building material. in this study, the influence of ambient ph on the growth of c. globosum was examined on an artificial medium. this fungus was capable of growth on potato dextrose agar ranging in ph from 4.3 to 9.4 with optimal growth and chaetoglobosin c production occurring at a neutral ph. in addition, our results show that sporulation is favored ...200819330080
polyhydroxylated steroids from an endophytic fungus, chaetomium globosum zy-22 isolated from ginkgo biloba.a novel polyhydroxylated c(29)-sterol, 25xi-methyl-22-homo-5alpha-cholest-7,22-diene-3beta,6beta,9alpha-triol, designated globosterol (1), together with one known tetrahydroxylated ergosterol (22e, 24r)-ergosta-7,22-diene-3beta,5alpha,6beta,9alpha-tetraol (2) has been isolated from the cultures of an endophytic fungus, chaetomium globosum zy-22 originated from the plant ginkgo biloba. the structures and relative configurations of 1 and 2 were established on the basis of extensive spectroscopic a ...200919427327
purification, characterization and mass spectrometric sequencing of a thermophilic glucuronoyl esterase from sporotrichum thermophile.the cellulolytic system of the thermophilic fungus sporotrichum thermophile contains a recently discovered esterase that may hydrolyze the ester linkage between the 4-o-methyl-d-glucuronic acid of glucuronoxylan and lignin alcohols. the glucuronoyl esterase named stge1 was purified to homogeneity with a molecular mass of m(r) 58 kda and pi 6.7. the enzyme activity was optimal at ph 6.0 and 60 degrees c. the esterase displayed a narrow ph range stability at ph 8.0 and retained 50% of its activity ...200919459957
absolute stereostructures of chaetomugilins g and h produced by a marine-fish-derived chaetomium species.chaetomugilins g and h were isolated from a strain of chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish, mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques, and chemical transformation. in addition, the absolute configuration of chaetoviridin c was established by derivatization from chaetomugilin a. these compounds exhibited a growth inhibitory activity against cultured p388, hl-60, l1 ...200919461670
new azaphilones, seco-chaetomugilins a and d, produced by a marine-fish-derived chaetomium globosum.seco-chaetomugilins a and d were isolated from a strain of chaetomium globosum that was originally isolated from the marine fish mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques, along with the chemical transformation from known chaetomugilins a and d. seco-chaetomugilin d exhibited growth inhibitory activity against cultured p388, hl-60, l1210, and kb cells.200919597583
study of codon bias perspective of fungal xylanase gene by multivariate analysis.fungal xylanases has important applications in food, baking, pulp and paper industries in addition to various other industries. xylanases are produced extensively by both bacterial and fungal sources and has tremendous potential of being active at extremes of temperature and ph. in the present study an effort has been made to explore the codon bias perspective of this potential enzyme using bioinformatics tools. multivariate analysis has been used as a tool to study codon bias perspectives of xy ...200919759864
cytotoxic activities of endophytic fungi isolated from the endangered, chinese endemic species dysosma pleiantha.eleven strains of endophytic fungi which habitat in an endangered, chinese endemic medicinal plant, dysosma pleiantha (hance) woodson, were isolated and tested for their cytotoxic activity using the brine shrimp lethality bioassay. six isolates were found to exhibit some cytotoxic activity. extracts of f1273, f1276, and f1280, which were identified as trichoderma citrinoviride, chaetomium globosum and ascomycete sp., in particular, showed most potent activity with lc50 values of 4.86, 7.71, and ...200919791503
saltant production by wave lengths of visible and long ultraviolet monochromatic irradiation, and a comparison with saltants produced by short wave lengths of monochromatic ultraviolet irradiation in the fungus chaetomium globosum.1. saltants have been produced in the fungus chaetomium globosum by longer wave lengths than previously reported-by 365 mmicro and by a visible line 404 mmicro. 2. absence at these wave lengths of the k saltant, which is so abundant at short wave lengths, is marked. 3. ratio of percentage irradiated spores germinating to control spores germinating decreases from 83 per cent at 265 mmicro, a short ultraviolet wave length, to 57 per cent at 404 mmicro, a visible violet wave length.194719873488
cytoglobosins a-g, cytochalasans from a marine-derived endophytic fungus, chaetomium globosum qen-14.cytoglobosins a-g (1-7), seven new cytochalasan derivatives, along with two structurally related known compounds, isochaetoglobosin d (8) and chaetoglobosin f(ex) (9), were isolated and identified from the cultures of chaetomium globosum qen-14, an endophytic fungus derived from the marine green alga ulva pertusa. the structures of the new natural products as well as their relative configurations were elucidated on the basis of 1d and 2d nmr spectra (cosy, hsqc, hmbc, and noesy) and hresims data ...201020225834
morphological, inheritance and growth studies of the k saltation produced selectively by short wave lengths of ultra-violet irradiation in the fungus chaetomium globosum kunze (ascomycetes, sphaeriales). 194620273981
cytotoxic chaetoglobosins from the endophyte chaetomium globosum.two new alkaloids chaetoglobosins v (1) and w (2), together with the six known congeners 3-8, were isolated through bioassay-guided fractionations from the etoac extract of a solid culture of chaetomium globosum ifb-e041. the structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including mainly 1d and 2d nmr techniques. chaetoglobosin w (2) was unique in its possession of an oxolane ring formed via an oxygen bridge between c-3 and c-6. the isolated fungal metabolites exhibited moderate cytotoxic ...201020486076
[the effect of different endophytic fungi on chrysanthemum morifolium output and quality].to enhance the flowers yield of chrysanthemum morifolium by endophytic fungi.201020518295
antimicrobial/antimold polymer-grafted starches for recycled cellulose fibers.in this work, an antimicrobial guanidine polymer (phgh) was grafted onto starch as a carrier to form branched or grafted chains along the starch backbone. this grafting improved the antimicrobial properties and the adsorption of the starch on recycled cellulose fibers. similar work was also conducted on bleached sulfite fibers for comparison. the results showed that the starch, grafted with 12 wt% phgh, adsorbed more on recycled fibers than on sulfite fibers. by applying the antimicrobial-modifi ...201020534190
a comparative study of activity and apparent inhibition of fungal β-glucosidases.β-glucosidases (bgs) from aspergillus fumigates, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, chaetomium globosum, emericella nidulans, magnaporthe grisea, neurospora crassa, and penicillium brasilianum were purified to homogeneity, and analyzed by isothermal titration calorimetry with respect to their hydrolytic activity and its sensitivity to glucose (product) using cellobiose as substrate. global non-linear regression of several reactions, with or without added glucose, to a product inhibition equa ...201020677177
onychomycosis due to ascomycete chaetomium globosum: a case report. 201020699530
the human ku autoantigen shares amino acid sequence homology with fungal, but not bacterial and viral, proteins.context: molecular mimicry between autoantigens and microbial antigens is a possible triggering mechanism of autoimmunity. human ku is a dna-associated autoantigen targeted by autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders; available data are consistent with a role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of anti-ku autoimmunity, but no research exist on this topic. objective: we aimed to define the most probable microbial triggers of anti-ku autoimmunity via ...201120718578
chaetoglocins a-d, four new metabolites from the endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum.chaetoglocins a-d (1- 4), four new secondary metabolites, were isolated from the solid-fermentation culture of chaetomium globosum (strain no. ifb-e036), an endophytic fungus residing inside the root of cynodon dactylon. the structures of these compounds were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic evidence and by comparing spectroscopic data with those in the literature. compounds 1 and 2 displayed antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacteria with minimum inhibitory conce ...201120814854
genomic evidence of repeat-induced point mutation (rip) in filamentous ascomycetes.the genomes of 49 filamentous ascomycetes (subphylum pezizomycotina) were examined by two independent methods for evidence of multiple c→t transitions typical of rip. at least one transposable element or other repeat family was identified in each genome, and members were assessed for transition and transversion mutations relative to a model of their intact progenitor. occurrence of rip was indicated where family members differed by excess of directional transitions over transversions. transition ...201120854921
non-dermatophyte moulds as skin and nail foot mycosis agents: phoma herbarum, chaetomium globosum and microascus cinereus.the increased prevalence of dermatomycoses along with the wide range of organisms now recognized as potential pathogens needs accurate laboratory isolation and identification of the aetiological agents. in this report three cases of foot dermatomycoses due to filamentous fungi commonly present in the environment with ubiquitous distribution are described in immunocompetent subjects. skin and nail samples were collected, suspended in 20% koh solution, examined under a light microscope and culture ...201020943144
cleavage of resveratrol in fungi: characterization of the enzyme rco1 from ustilago maydis.ustilago maydis, the causative agent of corn smut disease, contains two genes encoding members of the carotenoid cleavage oxygenase family, a group of enzymes that cleave double bonds in different substrates. one of them, cco1, was formerly identified as a β-carotene cleaving enzyme. here we elucidate the function of the protein encoded by the second gene, termed here as ustilago maydis resveratrol cleavage oxygenase 1 (um rco1). in vitro incubations of heterologously expressed and purified um r ...201021073977
lc-ms-ms determination of ibuprofen, 2-hydroxyibuprofen enantiomers, and carboxyibuprofen stereoisomers for application in biotransformation studies employing endophytic fungi.the purpose of this study was the development and validation of an lc-ms-ms method for simultaneous analysis of ibuprofen (ibp), 2-hydroxyibuprofen (2-oh-ibp) enantiomers, and carboxyibuprofen (cooh-ibp) stereoisomers in fungi culture medium, to investigate the ability of some endophytic fungi to biotransform the chiral drug ibp into its metabolites. resolution of ibp and the stereoisomers of its main metabolites was achieved by use of a chiralpak as-h column (150 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), ...201021079932
precursor-directed fungal generation of novel halogenated chaetoglobosins with more preferable immunosuppressive action.precursor-fed cultivation of endophytic chaetomium globosum 1c51 afforded nine novel "unnatural" halogenated chaetoglobosins including those with more preferable immunosuppressive activity.201021152613
the possible role of fungal contamination in sick building syndrome.the following is a review of some of the work that we have done since 2007 regarding the importance of molds in the phenomenon of sick building syndrome (sbs). in these studies we first examined mold contamination in air handling units (ahu). our results showed that cladosporium sp. were commonly recovered in ahu as growth sites and free spores. they were found mainly on the blower wheel fan blades, the ductwork, and cooling coil fans. our results showed that the presence of species of molds oth ...201121196335
indoor air mycoflora of residential dwellings in jos metropolis.the quality of air in the environment where one lives or works can have potential effects on human health. there are strong indications that in many parts of the world, our homes, schools and workplaces are heavily contaminated with air-borne molds and other biological contaminants.201021326971
controlling myzus persicae with recombinant endophytic fungi chaetomium globosum expressing pinellia ternata agglutinin: using recombinant endophytic fungi to control aphids.sap-sucking insect pests have become the major threats to many crops in recent years; however, only a few biopesticides have been developed for controlling those pests. here, we developed a novel pest management strategy, which uses endophytes to express anti-pest plant lectins.201121414115
phaeohyphomycosis and onychomycosis due to chaetomium spp., including the first report of chaetomium brasiliense infection.chaetomium species have been rarely described as aetiological agents of invasive and dermatomycotic infections in humans. the majority of cases have been reported within the last two decades. treatment failed in most of these cases. in this paper we present two cases in which chaetomium spp. can be clearly identified as an aetiological agent in pathological conditions. in the first report, we describe a new aetiological agent, chaetomium brasiliense, which was implicated in a case of otitis exte ...201121466265
azaphilones from the endophyte chaetomium globosum.six new azaphilones, 5'-epichaetoviridin a (7), 4'-epichaetoviridin f (9), 12β-hydroxychaetoviridin c (10), and chaetoviridins g-i (11-13), and six known azaphilones, chaetoviridins a-e (1-5) and 4'-epichaetoviridin a (8), were isolated from the endophytic fungus chaetomium globosum cultivated in pdb medium for 21 days. the structure elucidation and the assignment of the relative configurations of the new natural products were based on detailed nmr and ms spectroscopic analyses. the structure of ...201121548578
fungal communities in herbaceous medicinal plants from the malnad region, southern india.fungal communities were isolated from surface sterilized leaf segments of nine ethnopharmaceutically important medicinal herbs collected from the bhadra river project area, the malnad region, southern india. a total of 2159 isolates belonging to 55 different fungal species were isolated from 3600 leaf segments collected during the wet and dry seasons. chaetomium globosum (7.3%), aureobasidium pullulans (6.1%), cladosporium cladosporioides (3.9%), curvularia lunata (1.9%), nigrospora oryzae (1.7% ...200821558683
[effect of peg stress on plantlets of chrysanthemum morifolium induced by endophytic botrytis sp. (c1) and chaetomium globosum (c4)].the effect of the endophytic fungi botrytis sp. (c1) or chaetomium globosum (c4) on the drought resistance of chrysanthemum morifolium was studied. ch. morifolium plantlets were inoculated with c1, c4 and cultured in the pots for 60 days, then the plantlets were stressed by 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% peg6000 respectively in order to simulate different drought conditions. biomass, the activities of sod, pod, pal, the contents of mda and soluble protein of each group were determined. the results showe ...201121585031
new class azaphilone produced by a marine fish-derived chaetomiumglobosum. the stereochemistry and biological activities.four new metabolites, chaetomugilins p-r and 11-epi-chaetomugilin i, were isolated from a strain of chaetomium globosum originally obtained from the marine fish mugil cephalus, and their absolute stereostructures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analyses, including 1d and 2d nmr techniques and various chemical transformations. particularly, the skeleton of chaetomugilin p is different from that of other azaphilones isolated from this fungal strain to date. in addition, these compoun ...201121640594
evolution of multicopper oxidase genes in coprophilous and non-coprophilous members of the order sordariales.multicopper oxidases (mco) catalyze the biological oxidation of various aromatic substrates and have been identified in plants, insects, bacteria, and wood rotting fungi. in nature, they are involved in biodegradation of biopolymers such as lignin and humic compounds, but have also been tested for various industrial applications. in fungi, mcos have been shown to play important roles during their life cycles, such as in fruiting body formation, pigment formation and pathogenicity. coprophilous f ...201121966247
Chaetoglobosin Fex from the Marine-Derived Endophytic Fungus Inhibits Induction of Inflammatory Mediators via Toll-Like Receptor 4 Signaling in Macrophages.Chaetoglobosin Fex (Cha Fex), a cytochalasan-based alkaloid, was isolated from marine-derived endophytic fungus Chaetomium globosum QEN-14. The knowledge of its biological function is still limited. We investigated the effects and mechanism of Cha Fex on inflammatory mediators via Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) signaling in macrophages. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), TLR4 ligand, was therefore designed to active TLR4 signaling pathway, and Cha Fex significantly inhibited the LPS-induced production of tu ...201122130243
composition and antifungal activities of the leaf essential oil of neolitsea parvigemma from taiwan.the hydrodistillated leaf essential oil of neolitsea parvigemma was analyzed to determine its composition and yield. sixty-two compounds were identified, the main components being beta-caryophyllene (14.2%), beta-eudesmol (12.9%), alpha-cadinol (10.2%) and tau-cadinol (8.8%). oxygenated sesquiterpenes (48.9%) and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (48.8%) were the predominant groups of compounds. the antifungal indexes of the leaf oil against the 7 fungi, aspergillus clavatus, a. niger, chaetomium globo ...201121941915
bioactive metabolites from chaetomium globosum l18, an endophytic fungus in the medicinal plant curcuma wenyujin.an endophytic fungus, strain l18, isolated from the medicinal plant curcuma wenyujin y.h. chen et c. ling was identified as chaetomium globosum kunze based on morphological characteristics and sequence data for the internal transcribed spacer (its-5.8s-its2) of the nuclear ribosomal dna. a new metabolite named chaetoglobosin x (1), together with three known compounds erogosterol (2), ergosterol 5α,8-peroside (3) and 2-methyl-3-hydroxy indole (4), were isolated from c. globosum l18. their structu ...201122112725
Differential effects of foliar endophytic fungi on insect herbivores attacking a herbaceous plant.Foliar endophytic fungi appear to be ubiquitous in nature, occurring in a very wide range of herbaceous plants. However, their ecological role within forbs is very poorly known and interactions with foliar-feeding insects virtually unexplored. In this study, leaves of Cirsium arvense were infected with different combinations of endophyte fungi that had been previously isolated from this plant species. Two months later, leaf material was fed to larvae of a generalist insect, Mamestra brassicae, a ...201121989607
fungal life in the dead sea.the waters of the dead sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 m mg(2+), 0.5 m ca(2+), 1.5 m na(+), 0.2 m k(+), 6.5 m cl(-), 0.1 m br(-)). the ph is about 6.0. after rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. the 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga dunaliella and red archaea. at least 70 species (in 26 genera) of oomycota (chromista), mucoromycotina, ascomycota, and basidiomycota (fungi) were isolated from near- ...201222222829
endophytic fungal flora from roots and fruits of an indian neem plant azadirachta indica a. juss., and impact of culture media on their isolation.azadirachta indica a. juss. (neem), native to india, is well known worldwide for its insecticidal and ethanopharmacological properties. although endophytic microbes are known from this plant as only leaves and stems were the subjects of past reports. now, a variety of procedures and a number of different media were used to isolate the maximum number of endophytic fungi from unripe fruits and roots. a total of 272 isolates of 29 filamentous fungal taxa were isolated at rate of 68.0% from 400 samp ...201123024409
[two optimized transformation protocols for a cellulose-utilizing fungus chaetomium globosum nk-102].we developed the transformation methods of the strain chaetomium globosum nk-102.201122260047
[fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato].continuous cropping obstacle is one of the main restriction factors in potato industry. in order to explore the mechanisms of potato's continuous cropping obstacle and to reduce the impact on potato's tuber yield, a field experiment combined with pcr-dgge molecular fingerprinting was conducted to investigate the fungal population structure and its biological effect in rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped potato. with the increasing year of potato' s continuous cropping, the numbers of visibl ...201223431794
chaetoglobosins and azaphilones produced by canadian strains of chaetomium globosum isolated from the indoor environment.chaetomium globosum is one of the most common species of fungi found growing on damp building materials in north america and europe. at doses that could be experienced in a building with some mould damage, exposure to metabolites from other fungi results in inflammatory changes in vivo and in vitro. this research requires knowledge of the dominant toxins produced by fungal strains from the built environment and characterization of pure compounds for toxicity testing. we examined 25 strains of c. ...201223334724
cloning and expression of a small heat and salt tolerant protein (hsp22) from chaetomium globosum.the present study reports molecular characterization of small heat shock protein gene in indian isolates of chaetomium globosum, c. perlucidum, c. reflexum, c. cochlioides and c. cupreum. six isolates of c. globosum and other species showed a band of 630bp using specific primers. amplified cdna product of c. globosum (cg 1) cloned and sequenced showed 603bp open reading frame encoding 200 amino-acids. the protein sequence had a molecular mass of 22 kda and was therefore, named hsp22. blastx anal ...201223305034
the application of bioactive compounds from the food industry to control mold growth in indoor waterborne coatings.microbial growth in indoor environments creates health problems, especially in people with asthma; approximately 80% of these patients are allergic to mold. antimicrobial coatings are formulated to generate surfaces that are easy to clean and may also incorporate active agents, commonly called biocides, which inhibit microbial colonization, subsequent growth and bio-deterioration of the substrates. some research lines seek to replace traditional organometallic and organochlorines biocides with e ...201223298599
evaluation of a parchment document, the 13th century incorporation charter for the city of krakow, poland, for microbial hazards.the literature of environmental microbiology broadly discusses issues associated with microbial hazards in archives, but these publications are mainly devoted to paper documents. there are few articles on historical parchment documents, which used to be very important for the development of literature and the art of writing. these studies present a broad spectrum of methods for the assessment of biodeterioration hazards of the parchment document in question. they are based on both conventional m ...201626896133
production of a chaetomium globosum enolase monoclonal antibody.chaetomium globosum is a hydrophilic fungal species and a contaminant of water-damaged building materials in north america. methods to detect chaetomium species include subjective identification of ascospores, viable culture, or molecular-based detection methods. in this study, we describe the production and initial characterization of a monoclonal antibody (mab) for c. globosum enolase. mab 1c7, a murine igg1 isotype mab, was produced and reacted with recombinant c. globosum enolase (rcgeno) in ...201425495488
anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic chaetomium globosum.the aim of the present study was to investigate the anti-rheumatoid activity of secondary metabolites produced by endophytic mycobiota in egypt. a total of 27 endophytic fungi were isolated from 10 dominant medicinal plant host species in wadi tala, saint katherine protectorate, arid sinai, egypt. of those taxa, seven isolates of chaetomium globosum (cg1-cg7), being the most frequent taxon, were recovered from seven different host plants and screened for production of active anti-inflammatory me ...201627703452
microbial diversity and dynamics during the production of may bryndza cheese.diversity and dynamics of microbial cultures were studied during the production of may bryndza cheese, a traditional slovak cheese produced from unpasteurized ewes' milk. quantitative culture-based data were obtained for lactobacilli, lactococci, total mesophilic aerobic counts, coliforms, e. coli, staphylococci, coagulase-positive staphylococci, yeasts, fungi and geotrichum spp. in ewes' milk, curd produced from it and ripened for 0 - 10 days, and in bryndza cheese produced from the curd, in th ...201424291178
optimization of headspace solid phase microextraction for the analysis of microbial volatile organic compounds emitted by fungi: application to historical objects.the main goal of this work was to optimize the spme sampling method for measuring microbial volatile organic compounds (mvocs) emitted by active molds that may deteriorate historical objects. a series of artificially aged model materials that resemble those found in historical objects was prepared and evaluated after exposure to four different types of fungi. the investigated pairs consisted of: alternaria alternata on silk, aspergillus niger on parchment, chaetomium globosum on paper and wool, ...201526209190
quantification of c. globosum spores in house dust samples.chaetomium globosum is one of the most common fungi that grows in damp buildings and occurs in agricultural and forestry workplaces. using sera from atopic patients, we characterized and purified an extracellular chitosanase (chg47) from c. globosum that is antigenic to humans. the study reports the production of monoclonal antibodies to the protein. three capture elisas were developed for chg47 for detection of spores and spore and mycelial fragments in dust samples using different mono- and po ...201425292122
season and tissue type affect fungal endophyte communities of the indian medicinal plant tinospora cordifolia more strongly than geographic location.a total of 1,151 endophytic fungal isolates representing 29 taxa were isolated from symptom-less, surface-sterilized segments of stem, leaf, petiole, and root of tinospora cordifolia which had been collected at three locations differing in air pollution in india (ramnagar, banaras hindu university, maruadih) during three seasons (summer, monsoon, winter). endophytes were most abundant in leaf tissues (29.38% of all isolates), followed by stem (18.16%), petiole (10.11%), and root segments (6.27%) ...201222430503
ecological and physiological studies on soil fungi at western region, libya.sixty three species and 5 varieties belonging to 30 fungal genera were collected from 75 soil samples. cultivated (29 genera and 58 species + 5 var.), desert (22 and 35 + 2 var.) and saline soil (21 and 41 + 1 var.) fungi were recovered on glucose-, cellulose- and 50% sucrose-czapek's agar at 28℃. the most common genera were alternaria, aspergillus, emericella, fusarium, mycosphaerella, nectria and penicillium. the most prevalent species from the three types of soils on the three types of media ...200823997599
free tropospheric transport of microorganisms from asia to north america.microorganisms are abundant in the troposphere and can be transported vast distances on prevailing winds. this study measures the abundance and diversity of airborne bacteria and fungi sampled at the mt. bachelor observatory (located 2.7 km above sea level in north america) where incoming free tropospheric air routinely arrives from distant sources across the pacific ocean, including asia. overall deoxyribonucleic acid (dna) concentrations for microorganisms in the free troposphere, derived from ...201222760734
variation of soil mycoflora in decomposition of rice stubble from rice-wheat cropping system.the colonization pattern and extent of decay produced in paddy stubble by soil inhabiting mycoflora were done by using nylon net bag technique. among the three methods used for isolation of fungi, dilution plate technique recorded the highest number of fungi followed by damp chamber and direct observation method. nutrient availability and climatic conditions (temperature, humidity and rainfall) influenced the occurrence and colonization pattern of fungi. maximum fungal population was recorded in ...200724015096
the evolution of water extractable organic matter and its association with microbial community dynamics during municipal solid waste composting.the humification of water extractable organic matter (weom) by microorganisms is widely used for assessing compost maturity and quality. however, the effect of bacterial and fungal community dynamics on humification of weom was not yet explored fully. here, we used canonical correspondence analysis (cca) and redundancy analysis (rda) to investigate the link between bacterial and fungal community dynamics and humification process of weom, respectively. results showed that water-soluble carbon (ws ...201627425858
quaternary ammonium biocides as antimicrobial agents protecting historical wood and brick.quaternary ammonium compounds (qacs) are widely used in disinfection of water, surfaces and instruments as well as in textile, leather and food industries because of their relatively low toxicity, broad antimicrobial spectrum, non-volatility and chemical stability. due to these advantages, qacs are also used in restoration and can be applied on historical material. the aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of biocides based on quaternary ammonium salts and containing various excipien ...201626629794
photodynamic activity of nanostructured fabrics grafted with xanthene and thiazine dyes against opportunistic fungi.fungi are an important class of human pathogens for which considerable research has gone into defeating them. the photodynamic effects of rose bengal (rb), phloxine b (pb), azure a (aa), and toluidine blue o (tbo) dyes to inhibit aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, trichoderma viride, penicillium funiculosum, and chaetomium globosum were investigated grafted to nano- and micro-structured fabrics. three antifungal tests conducted: broth microdilution test of free dyes, zone of inhibition an ...201525972050
antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles against indoor mould growth.the presence of moulds in indoor environments causes serious diseases and acute or chronic toxicological syndromes. in order to inhibit or prevent the growth of microorganisms on building materials, the disruption of their vital processes or the reduction of reproduction is required. the development of novel techniques that impair the growth of microorganisms on building materials is usually based on silver nanoparticles (agnps). it makes them an alternative to other biocides. agnps have proven ...201525847174
generation and characterization of indoor fungal aerosols for inhalation studies.in the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. to examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. the aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. indoor airborne fungi were sampled ...201626921421
indole alkaloids from chaetomium globosum.two new indole alkaloids chaetocochin j (1) and chaetoglobinol a (8), along with chetomin (2), chetoseminudin a (3), cochliodinol (9), and semicochliodinol (10), were isolated from the rice culture of the fungus chaetomium globosum. their structures were elucidated by spectral analysis. three new epipolythiodioxopiperazines, chaetocochins g-i (5-7), were identified by the combination of uplc and mass spectrometric analysis. chaetocochin i contained two sulfur bridges, one formed by three sulfur ...201526125976
characterisation and functional properties of antimicrobial bio-barriers formed by natural fibres.antimicrobial bio-barriers formed on cotton (co), silk (se), and woollen (wo) fabrics were prepared by the application of 3-(trimethoxysilyl)-propyldimethyloctadecyl ammonium chloride (si-qac) at 11 concentrations ranging from 0.5% to 20% using an exhaustion method. the presence of the si-qac coating on the treated fabric samples was detected by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. the bromophenol blue reagent was used to determine the concentration of quaternary ammonium groups in the coating. the ...201425024108
differential chlorate inhibition of chaetomium globosum germination, hyphal growth, and perithecia synthesis.chaetomium globosum kunze:fr is a dermatophytic, dematiaceous fungus that is ubiquitous in soils, grows readily on cellulolytic materials, and is commonly found on water-damaged building materials. chlorate affects nitrogen metabolism in fungi and is used to study compatibility among anamorphic fungi by inducing nit mutants. the effect of chlorate toxicity on c. globosum was investigated by amending a modified malt extract agar (mea), oat agar, and carboxymethyl cellulose agar (cmc) with various ...201222903379
cellulose degradation and cellulase activity of five cellulolytic fungi.biodegradation of pure cellulose powder, bagasse and wheatstraw by five cellulolytic fungi,aspergillus niger, chaetomium globosum, scopulariopsis brevicaulis, trichoderma koningii andtrichothecium roseum, was studied in solid culture conditions. minimum degradation was with pure cellulose. bagasse and wheatstraw were the most suitable for growth and activity of cellulolytic fungi. all fungi contained cellulase activity.199024429892
bioassays guided isolation of compounds from chaetomium globosum.the aim of the present study was to evaluate different biological activities of the fungus chaetomium globosum (family chaetomiaceae). the evaluation was done through testing its antimicrobial, antioxidant and anticancer effects. c. globosum was isolated from the cucumber soil (rhizosphere) and caused inhibition of the mycelial growth of fusarium solani, rhizoctonia solani and sclerotium rolfsii in the biculture test. petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts of the liquid culture of c. globosu ...201424361402
endophytic fungus strain 28 isolated from houttuynia cordata possesses wide-spectrum antifungal activity.the aim of this paper is to identify and investigate an endophytic fungus (strain 28) that was isolated from houttuynia cordata thunb, a famous and widely-used traditional chinese medicine. based on morphological methods and a phylogenetic analysis of its sequences, this strain was identified as chaetomium globosum. an antifungal activity bioassay demonstrated that the crude ethyl acetate (etoac) extracts of strain 28 had a wide antifungal spectrum and strong antimicrobial activity, particularly ...201726991297
method for rapid detection and identification of chaetomium and evaluation of resistance to peracetic acid.in the beverage industry, peracetic acid has been increasingly used as a disinfectant for the filling machinery and environment due to merits of leaving no residue, it is safe for humans, and its antiseptic effect against fungi and endospores of bacteria. recently, chaetomium globosum and chaetomium funicola were reported resistant to peracetic acid; however, little is known concerning the detail of peracetic acid resistance. therefore, we assessed the peracetic acid resistance of the species of ...201323726195
prospecting fungal parasites of the potato cyst nematode globodera pallida using a rapid screening technique.seven filamentous fungal species were isolated from individual eggs of globodera pallida cysts collected from infested fields in shelley idaho, usa and identified as chaetomium globosum, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, fusarium tricinctum, microdochium bolleyi, purpureocillium lilacinum, and plectosphaerella cucumerina. their ability to reduce infection by g. pallida in planta were assessed in simple, reproducible micro-rhizosphere chambers (micro-rocs). all fungi reduced g. pallida infecti ...201728375550
molecular epigenetic approach activates silent gene cluster producing dimeric bis-spiro-azaphilones in chaetomium globosum cbs148.51. 201728246383
new production process of the antifungal chaetoglobosin a using cornstalks.chaetoglobosin a is an antibacterial compound produced by chaetomium globosum, with potential application as a biopesticide and cancer treatment drug. the aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of utilizing cornstalks to produce chaetoglobosin a by c. globosum w7 in solid-batch fermentation and to determine an optimal method for purification of the products. the output of chaetoglobosin a from the cornstalks was 0.34mg/g, and its content in the crude extract was 4.80%. purification co ...201728223029
a peroxygenase from chaetomium globosum catalyzes the selective oxygenation of testosterone.unspecific peroxygenases (upo, ec 1.11.2.1) secreted by fungi open an efficient way to selectively oxyfunctionalize diverse organic substrates, including less-activated hydrocarbons, by transferring peroxide-borne oxygen. we investigated a cell-free approach to incorporate epoxy and hydroxyl functionalities directly into the bulky molecule testosterone by a novel unspecific peroxygenase (upo) that is produced by the ascomycetous fungus chaetomium globosum in a complex medium rich in carbon and n ...201728103392
diversity and taxonomy of chaetomium and chaetomium-like fungi from indoor environments.during a study of indoor fungi, 145 isolates belonging to chaetomiaceae were cultured from air, swab and dust samples from 19 countries. based on the phylogenetic analyses of dna-directed rna polymerase ii second largest subunit (rpb2), β-tubulin (tub2), its and 28s large subunit (lsu) nrdna sequences, together with morphological comparisons with related genera and species, 30 indoor taxa are recognised, of which 22 represent known species, seven are described as new, and one remains to be ident ...201628082757
the use of gamma radiation for the treatment of cultural heritage in the argentine national atomic energy commission: past, present, and future.the use of gamma radiation for treating biodeteriorated cultural heritage on paper has been studied at the comisión nacional de energía atómica-cnea (argentina) since 2001. in order to preserve books, publications, and documents that have been attacked by insects or fungi, gamma radiation techniques have been used at cnea. the activities include basic research as well as their applications in infected documents and papers currently used in libraries and archives. new papers were subjected to acc ...201728044280
chaetomium globosum cdw7, a potential biological control strain and its antifungal metabolites.screening for endophytic fungi with antifungal activity is an effective strategy for the discovery of novel biopesticides. our previous work indicated that chaetomium globosum cdw7, an endophyte from ginkgo biloba, exhibited strong inhibitory activity against plant pathogenic fungi in vitro. in this study, we evaluated the cdw7 strain for its antifungal activities against nine phytopathogenic fungi and its biocontrol potential against rape sclerotinia rot caused by sclerotinia sclerotiorum. the ...201728011695
cytoglobosins h and i, new antiproliferative cytochalasans from deep-sea-derived fungus chaetomium globosum.cytoglobosins h (1) and i (2), together with seven known cytochalasan alkaloids (3-9), were isolated from the deep-sea-derived fungus chaetomium globosum. the structures of new compounds 1 and 2 were elucidated by extensive 1d and 2d nmr and mass spectroscopic data. all the compounds were evaluated for their antiproliferative activities against mda-mb-231 human breast cancer cells, lncap human prostate cancer cells, and b16f10 mouse melanoma cells. compound 6 showed significant antiproliferative ...201627999388
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