PMID(sorted ascending)
multiple mutations in the para-sodium channel gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance in rhipicephalus microplus from the united states and mexico.acaricide resistant rhipicephalus microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. pyrethroid resistance in arthropods is typically associated with mutations in domains i, ii, iii, and iv of voltage-gated sodium channel genes. in r. microplus, known resistance mutations include a domain ii change (c190a) in populations from australia, africa, and south america and a domain iii mutation (t2134a) that only occurs in mexico and the u.s.201425266983
rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus aquaporin as an effective vaccine antigen to protect against cattle tick infestations.vaccination as a control method against the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus has been practiced since the introduction of two products in the mid-1990s. there is a need for a vaccine that could provide effective control of r. microplus in a more consistent fashion than existing products. during our transcriptome studies of r. microplus, several gene coding regions were discovered to encode proteins with significant amino acid similarity to aquaporins.201425306139
study of vitellogenin in boophilus annulatus tick larvae and its immunological aspects.boophilus annulatus is an important one-host tick in the mediterranean regions and iran. it can transmit the babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and anaplasma marginale to cattle. nowadays, immunization programs by tick proteins is one of the potential methods for the control and prevention of tick infestations. therefore, the characterization and identification of various tick proteins are necessary. vitellogenin is a precursor of vitellin that is produced in mid gut cells and fat bodies in ticks. ...201425382465
acaricidal effects of fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal effects of two most commonly used acaricides viz., fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus were studied using adult immersion test (ait). the lc50 values observed for fenvalerate and cypermethrin were 1570 ppm and 184 ppm respectively. the death of ticks was not an immediate process. fenvalerate caused death only after 7 days while cypermethrin after 5 days of treatment. the eggs laid by treated ticks did not hatch at all concentrations tested.201425382471
efficacy of deltamethrin, diazinon, and ivermectin on boophilus annulatus ticks (in vitro and in vivo study).tick infection is considered a cause of major concern as it is a vector for some disease transmission. the use of chemicals to control tick infection is increasing in farm systems. the efficacy of three chemicals was studied on the tick boophilus annulatus. in vitro and in vivo studies were done. the active ticks were collected from naturally infected cattle for in vitro study. they were incubated with the three chemicals which are commercially used. an in vitro study recorded that the highest e ...201525398684
functional genomics of tick vectors challenged with the cattle parasite babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites considered as vectors of animal diseases, having a huge economic impact in cattle industry. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. control of tick infestations is mainly based on the use of acaricides, which have limited efficacy reducing tick infestations, mostly due to wrong usage, and is often accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks, environmental co ...201525399115
acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston (family: vitaceae) against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (ait). the per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. the extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. peak mort ...201425436226
efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.high infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. however, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. the present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus metarhizium brunneum against the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. it demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of t ...201425468024
tick-borne haemoparasites in african buffalo (syncerus caffer) from two wildlife areas in northern botswana.the african buffalo (syncerus caffer) is a host for many pathogens known to cause economically important diseases and is often considered an important reservoir for livestock diseases. theileriosis, heartwater, babesiosis and anaplasmosis are considered the most important tick-borne diseases of livestock in sub-saharan africa, resulting in extensive economic losses to livestock farmers in endemic areas. information on the distribution of tick-borne diseases and ticks is scarce in northern botswa ...201525589064
hard tick species of livestock and their bioecology in golestan province, north of iran.a survey on tick species composition was carried out in golestan province iran during year 2010-2011.the aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics.201325629071
histoarchitecture of the ovary of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus during pre- and postengorgement period.the present communication describes the detailed day wise study of histological changes of the ovary of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus in the postengorgement period together with the systematic classification of their oocytes. the ovary of r. (b.) annulatus is panoistic type with an asynchronous development of oocytes. all the stages (ii, iii, iv, and v) of oocytes except stage i were similar to r. (b.) microplus. the stage i oocytes showed basophilia, which was not reported earlier in othe ...201525664337
circulation of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in the former yugoslav republic of macedonia revealed by screening of cattle sera using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.there are only few assays available for the detection of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv)-specific antibodies in animals, and data about diagnostic sensitivity and specificity are incompletely documented for most of these tests. this is unfortunate since cchfv antibodies in animals can be used as indicator for virus circulation in a geographic area and therewith potential risk of human exposure. this paper therefore reports on a novel elisa for the detection of cchfv-specific antibo ...201525742017
proteomic screening of antigenic proteins from the hard tick, haemaphysalis longicornis (acari: ixodidae).proteomic tools allow large-scale, high-throughput analyses for the detection, identification, and functional investigation of proteome. for detection of antigens from haemaphysalis longicornis, 1-dimensional electrophoresis (1-de) quantitative immunoblotting technique combined with 2-dimensional electrophoresis (2-de) immunoblotting was used for whole body proteins from unfed and partially fed female ticks. reactivity bands and 2-de immunoblotting were performed following 2-de electrophoresis t ...201525748713
identification of 24h ixodes scapularis immunogenic tick saliva proteins.ixodes scapularis is arguably the most medically important tick species in the united states. this tick transmits 5 of the 14 human tick-borne disease (tbd) agents in the usa: borrelia burgdorferi, anaplasma phagocytophilum, b. miyamotoi, babesia microti, and powassan virus disease. except for the powassan virus disease, i. scapularis-vectored tbd agents require more than 24h post attachment to be transmitted. this study describes identification of 24h immunogenic i. scapularis tick saliva prote ...201525825233
tick species (acari: ixodida) in antalya city, turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.ticks (acari: ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. most species are known vectors of diseases including lyme disease, q fever, and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever. a 3-year research was conducted in antalya, turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. the study was carried out in five districts (aksu, dosemealtı, kepez, konyaaltı, and muratpasa) of antalya metropolitan municipality area in turkey, between may 2010 and m ...201525869959
the recent evolution of a maternally-inherited endosymbiont of ticks led to the emergence of the q fever pathogen, coxiella burnetii.q fever is a highly infectious disease with a worldwide distribution. its causative agent, the intracellular bacterium coxiella burnetii, infects a variety of vertebrate species, including humans. its evolutionary origin remains almost entirely unknown and uncertainty persists regarding the identity and lifestyle of its ancestors. a few tick species were recently found to harbor maternally-inherited coxiella-like organisms engaged in symbiotic interactions, but their relationships to the q fever ...201525978383
serological and molecular diagnostic surveys combined with examining hematological profiles suggests increased levels of infection and hematological response of cattle to babesiosis infections compared to native buffaloes in egypt.babesiosis threatens the development of the cattle and buffaloes industries in egypt and improved control is needed. the main objectives of this study are surveying the presence of bovine babesiosis in distinct selected bovine and buffalo populations in egypt using novel molecular and previously validated serological methods, while also comparing the occurrence of hematological alterations among babesia infected cattle and buffalos.201526062684
[distribution of tick species spread in kütahya vicinity].this study was performed to determine the tick species infested to the cattle and small ruminants in kütahya province and their seasonal activity and prevalence.201526081885
anaplasma infection in ticks, livestock and human in ghaemshahr, mazandaran province, iran.anaplasmosis is an important issue for animal breeders in terms of economic losses as well as a health concern to human. ticks are considered as the main vector of this disease. lack of documented information about anaplasma species in iran was the scope of this study to determine the population of ticks and the presence of anaplasma in ticks, domestic ruminants and also human beings in northern iran.201426114134
climate suitability for european ticks: assessing species distribution models against null models and projection under ar5 climate.there is increasing evidence that the geographic distribution of tick species is changing. whilst correlative species distribution models (sdms) have been used to predict areas that are potentially suitable for ticks, models have often been assessed without due consideration for spatial patterns in the data that may inflate the influence of predictor variables on species distributions. this study used null models to rigorously evaluate the role of climate and the potential for climate change to ...201526310856
molecular and parasitological survey of bovine piroplasms in the black sea region, including the first report of babesiosis associated with babesia divergens in turkey.clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine babesia and theileria parasites was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. in addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. dna isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for babesia and theileri ...201526336265
efficacy of attractive toxic sugar baits (atsb) against aedes albopictus with garlic oil encapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as the active ingredient.we tested the efficacy of attractive toxic sugar bait (atsb) with garlic oil microencapsulated in beta-cyclodextrin as active ingredient against aedes albopictus in suburban haifa, israel. two three-acre gardens with high numbers of ae. albopictus were selected for perimeter spray treatment with atsb and asb (bait containing no active ingredient). baits were colored with food dye to verify feeding of the mosquitoes. the mosquito population was monitored by human landing catches and sweep net cat ...201526403337
mutual medication in capuchin monkeys - social anointing improves coverage of topically applied anti-parasite medicines.wild and captive capuchin monkeys will anoint themselves with a range of strong smelling substances including millipedes, ants, limes and onions. hypotheses for the function of the behaviour range from medicinal to social. however, capuchin monkeys may anoint in contact with other individuals, as well as individually. the function of social anointing has also been explained as either medicinal or to enhance social bonding. by manipulating the abundance of an anointing resource given to two group ...201526456539
action on the surface: entomopathogenic fungi versus the insect cuticle.infections mediated by broad host range entomopathogenic fungi represent seminal observations that led to one of the first germ theories of disease and are a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between a pathogen and target hosts. these fungi are able to parasitize susceptible hosts via direct penetration of the cuticle with the initial and potentially determining interaction occurring between the fungal spore and the insect epicuticle. entomogenous fungi have evolved mechanisms for a ...201326462424
genetic diversity and population structure of theileria annulata in oman.theileriosis, caused by a number of species within the genus theileria, is a common disease of livestock in oman. it is a major constraint to the development of the livestock industry due to a high rate of morbidity and mortality in both cattle and sheep. since little is currently known about the genetic diversity of the parasites causing theileriosis in oman, the present study was designed to address this issue with specific regard to t. annulata in cattle.201526469349
evaluation of prognostic values of tissue plasminogen activator and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever patients.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a widespread disease in turkey, and was responsible for many deaths in endemic regions during the last decade. the pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood yet.201526587219
identification and characterization of a cathepsin l-like cysteine protease from rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines and is responsible for the transmission of different pathogens such as babesia and anaplasma. cysteine proteases are involved in several host-tick interactions including invasion of host tissues, immune evasion, pathogen transmission, embryogenesis and blood digestion. in this study, the gene encoding r. annulatus cathepsin l-like enzyme (racl1) was cloned into ptz57r/t vector, sequenced and analyz ...201626597589
molecular methods routinely used to detect coxiella burnetii in ticks cross-react with coxiella-like bacteria.q fever is a widespread zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. ticks may act as vectors, and many epidemiological studies aim to assess c. burnetii prevalence in ticks. because ticks may also be infected with coxiella-like bacteria, screening tools that differentiate between c. burnetii and coxiella-like bacteria are essential.201526609691
vectors of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus in iran.ticks are important vectors and reservoirs of crimean congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) virus. human beings may be infected whenever the normal life cycle of the infected ticks on non-human vertebrate hosts is interrupted by the undesirable presence of humans in the cycle. a total of 26 species of argasid and ixodid ticks have been recorded in iran; including nine hyalomma, two rhipicephalus, two dermacentor, five haemaphysalis, two boophilus, one ixodes and two argas as well as three ornithodoros ...201526623426
multiple pathogens including potential new species in tick vectors in côte d'ivoire.our study aimed to assess the presence of different pathogens in ticks collected in two regions in côte d'ivoire.201626771308
first report of pyrethroid resistance in rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus larvae (say, 1821) from iran.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern iran. the aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from nur county, northern iran. the hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female r. (b.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. seventeen populations of the hard ticks we ...201626772446
bumped kinase inhibitor prohibits egression in babesia bovis.babesiosis is a global zoonotic disease acquired by the bite of a babesia-infected ixodes tick or through blood transfusion with clinical relevance affecting humans and animals. in this study, we evaluated a series of small molecule compounds that have previously been shown to target specific apicomplexan enzymes in plasmodium, toxoplasma and cryptosporidium. the compounds, bumped kinase inhibitors (bkis), have strong therapeutic potential targeting apicomplexa-specific calcium dependent protein ...201526790733
tick salivary cholinesterase: a probable immunomodulator of host-parasite interactions.the southern cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini), is the most economically important cattle ectoparasite in the world. rhipicephalus microplus and rhipicephalus annulatus (say) continue to threaten u.s. cattle producers despite eradication and an importation barrier based on inspection, dipping of imported cattle in organophosphate (op) acaricide, and quarantine of infested premises. op acaricides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ache), essential to tick central nervous sy ...201626794231
cattle tick vaccine researchers join forces in catvac.a meeting sponsored by the bill & melinda gates foundation was held at the avanti hotel, mohammedia, morocco, july 14-15, 2015. the meeting resulted in the formation of the cattle tick vaccine consortium (catvac).201626911668
perspectives on modelling the distribution of ticks for large areas: so far so good?this paper aims to illustrate the steps needed to produce reliable correlative modelling for arthropod vectors, when process-driven models are unavailable. we use ticks as examples because of the (re)emerging interest in the pathogens they transmit. we argue that many scientific publications on the topic focus on: (i) the use of explanatory variables that do not adequately describe tick habitats; (ii) the automatic removal of variables causing internal (statistical) problems in the models withou ...201627030357
tick-borne infections in human and animal population worldwide.the abundance and activity of ectoparasites and its hosts are affected by various abiotic factors, such as climate and other organisms (predators, pathogens and competitors) presenting thus multiples forms of association (obligate to facultative, permanent to intermittent and superficial to subcutaneous) developed during long co-evolving processes. ticks are ectoparasites widespread globally and its eco epidemiology are closely related to the environmental conditions. they are obligatory hematop ...201527047089
tick-borne pathogens of zoonotic and veterinary importance in nigerian cattle.ticks and tick-borne diseases undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. in this west african country, cattle are challenged by numerous tick species, especially during the wet season. consequently, several tbds are known to be endemic in nigerian cattle, including anaplasmosis, babesiosis, cowdriosis and theilerioris (by theileria mutans and theileria velifera). to date, all investigations on cattle tbds in nigeria have been based on cytolog ...201627090756
an evidence-based review on medicinal plants used as insecticide and insect repellent in traditional iranian medicine.insects can be the cause of major ecological problems; they can transmit microbes and parasites that affect humans, and damage food crops, trees, and homes. the total economic cost of insect-related damage and disease is immeasurable. in traditional iranian medicine (tim), several medicinal plants have been identified as insecticides or insect repellents, but many of them are still unknown. therefore, the aim of this study was to review the insecticidal or insect repellent activity of certain me ...201627186389
climate change and species distribution: possible scenarios for thermophilic ticks in romania.several zoonotic tick-borne diseases are emerging in europe due to various factors, including changes of the cultural landscape, increasing human populations, variation of social habits and climate change. we have modelled the potential range changes for two thermophilic tick species (hyalomma marginatum and rhipicephalus annulatus) by use of maxent® and 15 climatic predictors, taking into account the aptitude for future climatic change in romania. current models predict increased temperatures, ...201627245802
rhipicephalus annulatus (acari: ixodidae) control by nigella sativa, thyme and spinosad preparations.several compounds obtained from plants have potential insecticidal, growth deterrent or repellent characteristics. the control of hard ticks by non-chemical substances was targeted in this study.201627308273
immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extracts.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick is one of the most important ectoparasite of cattle. recently, several laboratories in the world have been concentrated on immunizing cattle against tick using various types of tissue extracts of ticks. the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of immunization of cattle with tick salivary gland extract on biological parameters of ticks and humoral immune responses of cattle.201627308287
tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations in cattle along geba river basin in guinea-bissau.tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. the present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the geba river basin, guinea-bissau. interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. however, insuf ...201727825658
ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting cattle and some other domestic and wild hosts on the french mediterranean island of is a mountainous french island in the north-western mediterranean presenting a large diversity of natural environments where many interactions between domestic animals and wild fauna occur. despite a favourable context for ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds), the tick fauna of corsica has not systematically been investigated.201627842608
tick-borne diseases in turkey: a review based on one health perspective.the importance of tick-borne diseases is increasing all over the world, including turkey. global warming, environmental and ecological changes and the existence of suitable habitats increase the impact of ticks and result in frequent emergence or re-emergence of tick-borne diseases (tbds) with zoonotic characteristics. in turkey, almost 19 tbds have been reported in animals and men, involving four protozoa (babesiosis, theileriosis, cytauxzoonosis, hepatozoonosis), one filarial nematode (acantho ...201627977689
insecticide and repellent mixture pour-on protects cattle against animal trypanosomosis.african animal trypanosomosis (aat), transmitted by tsetse flies and tick-borne diseases are the main constraints to livestock production in sub-saharan africa. vector control methods such as pour-on offer individual protection against ticks but not against tsetse so far, for which protection has always been communal, through a reduction of their density. the latter requires the treatment of a large part of the herd in a given landscape and is not instantaneous.201628027324
molecular and functional characterization of bm05br antigen from rhipicephalus microplus.rhipicephalus microplus is a cattle-specific tick, causing considerable losses in the livestock industry. the identification of molecules responsible for modulation of host defenses during different parasite stages can help in the development of alternative methods, such as vaccination, to control tick infestations. hq05, a protein of unknown function identified in the tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, induced a significant protective immune response when used as a vaccine in sheep. in the presen ...201728043800
in vitro effects of caffeic acid, nortriptyline, precocene i and quercetin against rhipicephalus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).in the present study, the acaricidal effects of caffeic acid, nortriptyline, precocene i and quercetin against rhipicephalus annulatus (syn. boophilus annulatus) say (acari: ixodidae) were evaluated. adult immersion technique (24 ticks immersed for 2 min in one dilution of the compound) was used for the assessment of the effects of caffeic acid (0.39-100 mg/ml), nortriptyline (0.625-50 mg/l), precocene i (0.004488-5 mg/ml) and quercetin (6.25-100 mg/ml) against r. annulatus. adult tick mortality ...201728110429
pyrosequencing based assessment of bacterial diversity in turkish rhipicephalus annulatus and dermacentor marginatus ticks (acari: ixodidae).ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. the objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, rhipicephalus annulatus and dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communi ...201728111714
pyrethroid resistance in iranian field populations of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.resistance to acaricides in ticks is becoming increasingly widespread throughout the world; therefore, tick control requires resistance monitoring for each tick species. the aims of this study were to monitor the susceptibility status of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (acari: ixodidae), against pyrethroid acaricides from mazandaran province, northern iran, and where resistance was evident, and establish the possible underlying mechanisms. fully engorged adult r. (b.) annula ...201728187834
a comparative test of ixodid tick identification by a network of european researchers.this study reports the results of a comparative test of identification of ticks occurring in western europe and northern africa. a total of 14 laboratories were voluntarily enrolled in the test. each participant received between 22 and 25 specimens of adult and nymphal ticks of 11 species: dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma lusitanicum, hy. marginatum, ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, rhipicephalus annulatus, r. bursa, r. rossicus, and/or r. sanguineus s.l. tic ...201728320640
molecular characterization of babesia and theileria species in ticks collected in the outskirt of monte romano, lazio region, central 2012-2013, an investigation was carried out in the viterbo province, lazio region, on ticks and tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa of the babesia and theileria genera. this followed the reporting of high density of ticks by soldiers operating in a military shooting range, and the signaling by owners and local veterinary authorities of several cases of babesiosis among cattle.201728361802
diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in lebanon.ticks (acari: ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. a deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in lebanon. the study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in lebanon ...201728675252
identification and molecular characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from farm ruminants in lebanon.tick-borne diseases have become a world health concern, emerging with increasing incidence in recent decades. spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae are tick-borne pathogens recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide. in this study, 88 adult ticks from the species hyalomma anatolicum, rhipicephalus annulatus, rh. bursa, rh. sanguineus sensu lato, and rh. turanicus, were collected from farm ruminants in lebanon, and sfg rickettsiae were molecularly identified and charact ...201829054546
ultrastructural analysis of oocytes of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus during postengorgement period as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of amitraz and deltamethrin on the germinative cells.the present study utilizes the ultrastructural analysis of the fully engorged female rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks, as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of deltamethrin and amitraz on the germinative cells. the ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the normal (untreated) r (b.) annulatus revealed, oocytes in different stages of development, attached to the ovary wall by pedicel cells. the attachment site of oocyte to the pedicel cell was characterized by indentations of t ...201729080757
seasonal distribution and faunistic of ticks in the alashtar county (lorestan province), iran.ticks are non-permanent obligate parasites that have considerable medical-veterinary and zoonosis importance. in this regard a study designed to investigate the distribution and fauna of ticks in the alashtar county in iran from april and march 2014.201729187953
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