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a field experiment to assess the rate of infestation in honey bee populations of two metarhizium anisopliae isolates on varroa destructor (acari: mesostigmata).the protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae (demi 002 and iran 437c) on the adult stage of varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.201323785691
a molecular study on theileria and babesia in cattle from isfahan province, central iran.bovine theileriosis and babesiosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. from march 2009 to july 2009, 176 blood samples of holstein and crossbred cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from isfahan province, central iran. the extracted dna from blood cells were analyzed for members of the genera theileria and babesia by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a set of primers derived from the 18 ...201224431572
analysis of immunogenic relevant proteins in rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick.considering the importance of ticks as a main group transmitting pathogen organisms, this study designed to recognize immunogenic proteins in different tissues of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick and to find out if there are common proteins in these tissues.201223293777
in-vitro assessment of the acaricidal properties of artemisia annua and zataria multiflora essential oils to control cattle ticks.the aim of this study was to investigate the 'acaricidal effect' of zataria multiflora and artemisia annua essential oils on rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.022347275
integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in usa is required to mitigate the impact of global change.the ticks rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. (b.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. they affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. the monumental scientific discovery of certain arth ...201222712018
study of vitellogenin in boophilus annulatus tick larvae and its immunological aspects.boophilus annulatus is an important one-host tick in the mediterranean regions and iran. it can transmit the babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and anaplasma marginale to cattle. nowadays, immunization programs by tick proteins is one of the potential methods for the control and prevention of tick infestations. therefore, the characterization and identification of various tick proteins are necessary. vitellogenin is a precursor of vitellin that is produced in mid gut cells and fat bodies in ticks. ...201425382465
molecular characterization of babesia and theileria species in ticks collected in the outskirt of monte romano, lazio region, central italy.in 2012-2013, an investigation was carried out in the viterbo province, lazio region, on ticks and tick-borne apicomplexan protozoa of the babesia and theileria genera. this followed the reporting of high density of ticks by soldiers operating in a military shooting range, and the signaling by owners and local veterinary authorities of several cases of babesiosis among cattle.201728361802
molecular and parasitological survey of bovine piroplasms in the black sea region, including the first report of babesiosis associated with babesia divergens in turkey.clinical cases of babesiosis were evaluated, and the frequency of bovine babesia and theileria parasites was determined in cattle. blood samples and thin blood smears were collected from 23 cattle exhibiting clinical signs of babesiosis. in addition, tick and blood samples were collected from 100 apparently healthy cattle cograzing from the same area. egg masses obtained from fully engorged female ticks were included. dna isolated from blood and tick samples was screened for babesia and theileri ...201526336265
functional genomics of tick vectors challenged with the cattle parasite babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites considered as vectors of animal diseases, having a huge economic impact in cattle industry. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. control of tick infestations is mainly based on the use of acaricides, which have limited efficacy reducing tick infestations, mostly due to wrong usage, and is often accompanied by the selection of acaricide-resistant ticks, environmental co ...201525399115
genetic polymorphism of babesia bovis merozoite surface antigens-2 (msa-2) isolates from bovine blood and rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in israel.this study demonstrated the genetic diversity among msa-2c, msa-2a1 and msa-2b proteins of babesia bovis isolates obtained from bovine blood and rhipicephalus annulatus tick samples. the least identities that were observed among the deduced amino acid sequences of msa-2c, msa-2a1 and msa-2b were 55, 63, and 71%, respectively. during the study four b. bovis calves, aged about 1 month, were found to be infected with virulent field strains and developed babesiosis. probably, the calves had received ...201425149097
distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in nuevo león, mexico, and their association with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.this study aimed to document the geographic distribution of ixodes tick species in dogs and the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in adult ticks and blood samples by amplification of the ospa region of the b. burgdorferi genome. the study area included nine localities in nuevo león state. dna amplification was performed on pools of ticks to calculate the maximum likelihood estimation (mle), and the community composition (prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infestation) was recorded. a ...201323749032
ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of kenya.biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in garissa (northeastern) and isiolo (eastern) provinces of kenya were evaluated. ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. in garissa, rhipicephalus pulchellus gerstacker (57.8%) and hyalomma truncatum koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas r. pulchellus (80.4%) and amblyomma gemma donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in isiolo. forty-four vi ...201424605478
infectivity of entomopathogenic nematodes (steinernematidae and heterorhabditidae) to female ticks of boophilus annulatus (arachnida: ixodidae).exposing boophilus annulatus (say) to different concentrations of steinernema carpocapsae (filipjev) infective juveniles in petri dishes (50-10,000 nematodes per dish) resulted in high mortality (greater than 90%) at nematode concentrations as low as 500 nematodes per dish within 8 d. at a concentration of 10,000 nematodes per dish, 100% of the ticks died within 2 d after infestation. after exposure to 500 nematodes per dish, complete mortality was achieved with the heterorhabditis bacteriophora ...19921495070
resistant ticks inhibit metarhizium infection prior to haemocoel invasion by reducing fungal viability on the cuticle surface.we studied disease progression of, and host responses to, four species in the metarhizium anisopliae complex expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). we compared development and determined their relative levels of virulence against two susceptible arthropods, the cattle tick rhipicephalus annulatus and the lepidopteran galleria mellonella, and two resistant ticks, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus. metarhizium brunneum ma7 caused the greatest mortality of r. annulatus, metarhizi ...201222507442
molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in egypt.tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. the aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in egypt. ticks were collected from 6 different localities: qina, giza, qalet el nakhl, new valley, el arish, and minufia, from july to october 2008. species were identified using pcr, followed by sequencing. the glta and rompa ...201222217182
effect of allium sativum and allium cepa oils on different stages of boophilus annulatus.the study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of allium sativum (garlic) and allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of boophilus annulatus hard tick. engorged b. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. a number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °c and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. the used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromat ...201323435922
the ticks (acari: ixodida: argasidae, ixodidae) of bolivia.the tick species reported in bolivia are reviewed here as (1) endemic or established: ornithodoros echimys, o. guaporensis, o. hasei, o. kohlsi, o. mimon, o. peropteryx, o. rostratus, otobius megnini, amblyomma auricularium, a. cajennense, a. calcaratum, a. coelebs, a. dubitatum, a. humerale, a. incisum, a. longirostre, a. naponense, a. nodosum, a. oblongoguttatum, a. ovale, a. parvitarsum, a. parvum, a. pecarium, a. pseudoconcolor, a. rotundatum, a. scalpturatum, a. tigrinum, a. triste, dermace ...201424406053
tick (acari: ixodidae) infestations in cattle along geba river basin in guinea-bissau.tick infestations are a major problem for animal production in tropical areas where prevention and control remain deficient. the present study sought to assess the awareness of traditional cattle producers towards the importance of ticks and aimed at the identification of tick species infesting bovines within the geba river basin, guinea-bissau. interviews with producers revealed that the majority directly correlates the presence of ticks with the occurrence of diseases in cattle. however, insuf ...201727825658
identification and characterization of a cathepsin l-like cysteine protease from rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important ectoparasites of bovines and is responsible for the transmission of different pathogens such as babesia and anaplasma. cysteine proteases are involved in several host-tick interactions including invasion of host tissues, immune evasion, pathogen transmission, embryogenesis and blood digestion. in this study, the gene encoding r. annulatus cathepsin l-like enzyme (racl1) was cloned into ptz57r/t vector, sequenced and analyz ...201626597589
tick species (acari: ixodida) in antalya city, turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.ticks (acari: ixodida) are an important group of ectoparasites of vertebrates. most species are known vectors of diseases including lyme disease, q fever, and crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever. a 3-year research was conducted in antalya, turkey, to determine tick species composition, seasonal abundance, and spatial distribution. the study was carried out in five districts (aksu, dosemealtı, kepez, konyaaltı, and muratpasa) of antalya metropolitan municipality area in turkey, between may 2010 and m ...201525869959
molecular and functional characterization of bm05br antigen from rhipicephalus microplus.rhipicephalus microplus is a cattle-specific tick, causing considerable losses in the livestock industry. the identification of molecules responsible for modulation of host defenses during different parasite stages can help in the development of alternative methods, such as vaccination, to control tick infestations. hq05, a protein of unknown function identified in the tick haemaphysalis qinghaiensis, induced a significant protective immune response when used as a vaccine in sheep. in the presen ...201728043800
first report of pyrethroid resistance in rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus larvae (say, 1821) from iran.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is one of the most important hard ticks parasitizing cattle in northern iran. the aim of this study was to evaluate pyrethroid resistance levels of this species from nur county, northern iran. the hard ticks were collected through a multistage cluster randomized sampling method from the study area and fully engorged female r. (b.) annulatus were reared in a controlled insectary until they produced larvae for bioassay. seventeen populations of the hard ticks we ...201626772446
[distribution of tick species spread in kütahya vicinity].this study was performed to determine the tick species infested to the cattle and small ruminants in kütahya province and their seasonal activity and prevalence.201526081885
efficacy of deltamethrin, diazinon, and ivermectin on boophilus annulatus ticks (in vitro and in vivo study).tick infection is considered a cause of major concern as it is a vector for some disease transmission. the use of chemicals to control tick infection is increasing in farm systems. the efficacy of three chemicals was studied on the tick boophilus annulatus. in vitro and in vivo studies were done. the active ticks were collected from naturally infected cattle for in vitro study. they were incubated with the three chemicals which are commercially used. an in vitro study recorded that the highest e ...201525398684
assessment and partial purification of serine protease inhibitors from rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus larvae.ticks are rich sources of serine protease inhibitors, particularly those that prevent blood clotting and inflammatory responses during blood feeding. the tick rhipicephalus (boophlus) annulatus is an important ectoparasite of cattle. the aims of this study were to characterize and purify the serine protease inhibitors present in r. (b.) annulatus larval extract. the inhibitors were characterized by means of one and two-dimensional reverse zymography, and purified using affinity chromatography on ...201425054497
low level deltamethrin resistance in ticks from cattle of kerala, a south indian state.the deltamethrin resistance status in rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. (b.) microplus ticks collected from cattle of five organized farms of kerala, south india was evaluated. resistance was characterized using biological (larval packet test), biochemical (esterase enzyme activity assay) and molecular tools (pcr amplification and sequencing of deltamethrin resistance-associated genes). characterization of field isolates revealed level i resistance in ticks collected from four out of fi ...201424877788
molecular cloning of ra-shspi, a novel member of the hsp20 family from rhipicephalus annulatus salivary glands.infestation of cattle by ticks of rhipicephalus spp. results in severe veterinary and economical losses. identification of novel proteins from tick salivary glands will enhance our understanding of several aspects of tick physiology and will aid in the development of anti-tick vaccines. small heat shock proteins (hsps) have important roles in infection and immunity, especially between invertebrate vectors and mammalian hosts while initially performing their molecular chaperone activity. here, we ...201424625965
lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher bm86 tick vaccine efficacy in rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to rhipicephalus microplus.infestations with cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. vaccines containing the recombinant r. microplus bm86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. these vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selecti ...201323973246
identification of four novel rhipicephalus annulatus upregulated salivary gland proteins as candidate vaccines.the control of rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in egypt and other countries relies principally on the application of acaricides which have many drawbacks. recently, cattle vaccination against ticks showed a potential unconventional approach to control ticks. as a target, salivary glands contain various proteins that may play specific roles during attachment, feeding and may modulate the immune system of the host. we have performed immunoscreening on expression normalized cdna library to identify u ...201323775170
exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the united states. it was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the cattle fever tick eradication program (cftep), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (pqz) in south texas along the border with mexico. keeping the u.s. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical na ...201222687762
acaricidal effect of cassia fistula linn. leaf ethanolic extract against rhipicephlaus (boophilus) annulatus.the present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of cassia fistula leaves for controlling rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (ait). the percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. the results were compared using one-way anova. the extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 8 ...201323959488
a comparative test of ixodid tick identification by a network of european researchers.this study reports the results of a comparative test of identification of ticks occurring in western europe and northern africa. a total of 14 laboratories were voluntarily enrolled in the test. each participant received between 22 and 25 specimens of adult and nymphal ticks of 11 species: dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, hyalomma lusitanicum, hy. marginatum, ixodes ricinus, i. hexagonus, rhipicephalus annulatus, r. bursa, r. rossicus, and/or r. sanguineus s.l. tic ...201728320640
pyrosequencing based assessment of bacterial diversity in turkish rhipicephalus annulatus and dermacentor marginatus ticks (acari: ixodidae).ticks continue to be a threat to human and animal health in turkey, as they are considered important vectors of human and animal diseases. the objectives of this investigation are to characterize the microbial communities of two tick species, rhipicephalus annulatus and dermacenter marginatus, analyze patterns of co-occurrence among microbial taxa, identify and compare pathogens contributing human diseases, and determine whether avirulent symbionts could exclude human pathogens from tick communi ...201728111714
efficacy of the entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium brunneum in controlling the tick rhipicephalus annulatus under field conditions.high infectivity of entomopathogenic fungi to ticks under laboratory conditions has been demonstrated in many studies. however, the few reports on their use under field conditions demonstrate large variations in their success, often with no clear explanation. the present study evaluated the factors affecting the efficacy of the fungus metarhizium brunneum against the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. it demonstrates how environmental conditions and ground cover affect the efficiency of t ...201425468024
inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus glutathione s-transferase.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. this study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (gst inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione s-transferase enzyme of the egyptian cattle tick r. annulatus (rragst), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione s-transfe ...201424953796
seasonal distribution and faunistic of ticks in the alashtar county (lorestan province), iran.ticks are non-permanent obligate parasites that have considerable medical-veterinary and zoonosis importance. in this regard a study designed to investigate the distribution and fauna of ticks in the alashtar county in iran from april and march 2014.201729187953
diversity and distribution of ticks from domestic ruminants in lebanon.ticks (acari: ixodidae) are ectoparasites infesting livestock in every geographic area in the world and they are vectors of several viral, bacterial, and protozoan pathogens to animals and humans worldwide. a deep knowledge of the geographical distribution of these arthropods would have a key role in the control of tick-borne diseases. few data are available about tick presence in domestic ruminants in lebanon. the study aimed at providing an analysis of tick presence and distribution in lebanon ...201728675252
identification and molecular characterization of spotted fever group rickettsiae in ticks collected from farm ruminants in lebanon.tick-borne diseases have become a world health concern, emerging with increasing incidence in recent decades. spotted fever group (sfg) rickettsiae are tick-borne pathogens recognized as important agents of human tick-borne diseases worldwide. in this study, 88 adult ticks from the species hyalomma anatolicum, rhipicephalus annulatus, rh. bursa, rh. sanguineus sensu lato, and rh. turanicus, were collected from farm ruminants in lebanon, and sfg rickettsiae were molecularly identified and charact ...201829054546
climate change and species distribution: possible scenarios for thermophilic ticks in romania.several zoonotic tick-borne diseases are emerging in europe due to various factors, including changes of the cultural landscape, increasing human populations, variation of social habits and climate change. we have modelled the potential range changes for two thermophilic tick species (hyalomma marginatum and rhipicephalus annulatus) by use of maxent® and 15 climatic predictors, taking into account the aptitude for future climatic change in romania. current models predict increased temperatures, ...201627245802
tick salivary cholinesterase: a probable immunomodulator of host-parasite interactions.the southern cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini), is the most economically important cattle ectoparasite in the world. rhipicephalus microplus and rhipicephalus annulatus (say) continue to threaten u.s. cattle producers despite eradication and an importation barrier based on inspection, dipping of imported cattle in organophosphate (op) acaricide, and quarantine of infested premises. op acaricides inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ache), essential to tick central nervous sy ...201626794231
ultrastructural analysis of oocytes of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus during postengorgement period as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic effects of amitraz and deltamethrin on the germinative cells.the present study utilizes the ultrastructural analysis of the fully engorged female rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks, as a tool to evaluate the cytotoxic potential of deltamethrin and amitraz on the germinative cells. the ultrastructural analysis of the ovary of the normal (untreated) r (b.) annulatus revealed, oocytes in different stages of development, attached to the ovary wall by pedicel cells. the attachment site of oocyte to the pedicel cell was characterized by indentations of t ...201729080757
pyrethroid resistance in iranian field populations of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.resistance to acaricides in ticks is becoming increasingly widespread throughout the world; therefore, tick control requires resistance monitoring for each tick species. the aims of this study were to monitor the susceptibility status of the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (acari: ixodidae), against pyrethroid acaricides from mazandaran province, northern iran, and where resistance was evident, and establish the possible underlying mechanisms. fully engorged adult r. (b.) annula ...201728187834
in vitro effects of caffeic acid, nortriptyline, precocene i and quercetin against rhipicephalus annulatus (acari: ixodidae).in the present study, the acaricidal effects of caffeic acid, nortriptyline, precocene i and quercetin against rhipicephalus annulatus (syn. boophilus annulatus) say (acari: ixodidae) were evaluated. adult immersion technique (24 ticks immersed for 2 min in one dilution of the compound) was used for the assessment of the effects of caffeic acid (0.39-100 mg/ml), nortriptyline (0.625-50 mg/l), precocene i (0.004488-5 mg/ml) and quercetin (6.25-100 mg/ml) against r. annulatus. adult tick mortality ...201728110429
acaricidal effects of fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal effects of two most commonly used acaricides viz., fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus were studied using adult immersion test (ait). the lc50 values observed for fenvalerate and cypermethrin were 1570 ppm and 184 ppm respectively. the death of ticks was not an immediate process. fenvalerate caused death only after 7 days while cypermethrin after 5 days of treatment. the eggs laid by treated ticks did not hatch at all concentrations tested.201425382471
acaricidal activity of alkaloid fractions of leucas indica spreng against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick.the acaricidal activity from alkaloid and non-alkaloid fractions of leucas indica were studied against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick using adult immersion test under laboratory conditions. for this purpose, the engorged female r.(b.) annulatus tick were exposed to two fold serial dilutions of alkaloid extract (50 mg/ml, 25 mg/ml, 12.5 mg/ml, 6 mg/ml and 3 mg/ml) using 'dipping method' in vitro. the efficacy was assessed by measuring the percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fec ...201424862044
phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial genome sequences indicates that the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, contains a cryptic species.cattle ticks of the subgenus rhipicephalus (boophilus) are major agricultural pests worldwide, causing billions of dollars in losses annually. rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. microplus are the most well-known and widespread species, and a third species, r. australis, was recently reinstated for 'r. microplus' from australia and parts of southeast asia. we use mitochondrial genome sequences to address the phylogenetic relationships among the species of the subgenus boophilus. we sequen ...201424685498
comparative analysis of mitochondrial markers from four species of rhipicephalus (acari: ixodidae).mitochondrial sequences of four mitochondrial markers: 12s rrna, 16s rrna, cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) from four rhipicephalus species were analyzed to establish genetic relationships and enable molecular identification. field-collected samples from the species rhipicephalus annulatus, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus turanicus were amplified by pcr and compared with genbank™ annotated sequences. pcr products were obtained using pr ...201324091196
geographic distribution of the invasive cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus, a country-wide survey in benin.the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus is currently invading the west african region, and little information is available on the spread of this exotic tick in this region. we set out a country-wide field survey to determine its current distribution in benin. ticks were collected on cattle from 106 farms selected by random sampling covering all regions of the country. rhipicephalus annulatus was found on 70 % of all farms, r. decoloratus on 42 %, r. geigyi on 58 %, and r. microplus on 49 %. ther ...201222689006
efficacy of entomopathogenic nematode strains against engorged boophilus annulatus females (acari: ixodidae) under simulated field conditions.the biocidal efficacy of entompathogenic nematodes against engorged females of boophilus annulatus (say) was evaluated in soil-filled buckets in a greenhouse, where conditions resemble nature. the 9 tested nematode strains differed markedly in their effect upon tick mortality. the mexican strain of steinernema carpocapsae was most efficient, inducing 100% tick mortality at a concentration of 50 nematodes per square centimeter. an increase in the concentration of the s. carpocapsae dt strain to > ...199910593073
homology within the x chromosomes of boophilus microplus (canestrini) and b. annulatus (say).chromosome banding patterns of the x chromosomes of boophilus annulatus (say) and b. microplus (canestrini) indicate considerable homology between the two species. all bands of the small x chromosome of b. microplus are represented in the large x chromosome of b. annulatus with the exception of one medially located dark band. a large region of material proximal to the centromere and a small segment located at the telomere of the large x chromosome of b. annulatus are not represented in the small ...20078228176
survival of larvae of boophilus annulatus, boophilus microplus, and boophilus hybrids (acari: ixodidae) in different temperature and humidity regimes in the laboratory.the survival period for larvae of boophilus annulatus (say), boophilus microplus (canestrini) and hybridized boophilus ticks was determined by exposure to various combinations of temperature (20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees c) and relative humidity (32, 63, 75, 84 and 97% rh) in the laboratory. results indicated that within a given temperature and rh regime, there was no difference (p greater than 0.05) in larval survival among the three species tested, indicating that these ticks respond similarly ov ...19911788937
effects of certain pesticides on the embryogenesis of boophilus annulatus (say). ixodoidea. ixodidae. 19873693956
the effects of temperature, humidity, photoperiod and weight of the engorged female on oviposition of boophilus annulatus (say, 1821).at a constant temperature of 25 degrees c and 84% relative humidity the pre-oviposition period of boophilus annulatus was 2-5 days (mean 2.7 days) and the oviposition lasted 11-17 days (mean 15 days). the peak egg laying occurred 1-6 days (mean 3.5 days) after the start of oviposition. the daily egg output was 135 (range 90-190) and the total egg production was 2004 (range 1432-2664). light had no significant effect on oviposition. there was a highly significant correlation between the weight of ...19826891854
implication of white-tailed deer in the boophilus annulatus tick eradication program. 1979298937
cross-mating experiments with boophilus annulatus and b. microplus (acarina: ixodidae). 19724654687
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