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molecular cloning, expression and characterization of a functional gstmu class from the cattle tick boophilus annulatus.a full-length cdna of a glutathione s-transferase (gst) was cloned from a cdna library of the local egyptian cattle tick boophilus annulatus. the 672 bp cloned fragment was sequenced and showed an open reading frame encoding a protein of 223 amino acids. comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with gsts from other species revealed that the sequence is closely related to the mammalian mu-class gst. the cloned gene was expressed in e. coli under t7 promotor of pet-30b vector, and purified un ...200818241993
expression of recombinant rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, r. annulatus and r. decoloratus bm86 orthologs as secreted proteins in pichia pastoris.rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp. ticks economically impact on cattle production in africa and other tropical and subtropical regions of the world. tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. the r. microplus bm86 protective antigen has been produced by recombinant dna technology and shown to protect cattle against tick infestations.200818275601
cellular and molecular characterization of an embryonic cell line (bme26) from the tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cellular and molecular characteristics of a cell line (bme26) derived from embryos of the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus were studied. the cells contained glycogen inclusions, numerous mitochondria, and vesicles with heterogeneous electron densities dispersed throughout the cytoplasm. vesicles contained lipids and sequestered palladium meso-porphyrin (pd-mp) and rhodamine-hemoglobin, suggesting their involvement in the autophagic and endocytic pathways. the cells phagocytose ...200818405834
a molecular survey of theileria and babesia parasites in cattle, with a note on the distribution of ticks in tunisia.between october and november 2006, a total of 278 bovine blood samples were examined, and 104 (37.4%) were positive for piroplasms by microscopy. a reverse line blot hybridisation with polymerase chain reaction detected theileria annulata, t. buffeli, babesia bovis and b. bigemina in cattle accounting for 48.6% of positive samples. the most frequently found species was t. buffeli, which was present in 39.2% of the samples. t. annulata was found in 48 samples (17.3%). babesia infections were less ...200818458949
reliminary survey of ticks (acari: ixodidae) on cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan.in a preliminary survey conducted in 2005, the species composition and seasonality of ticks infesting cattle in central equatoria state, southern sudan was determined. three locations were selected (gumbo, khor rumla and nyaing) and surveyed every 3 months. two cattle herds in each of the three locations were visited four times during the study period. total body collections of ticks were made from each of five cattle (nilotic zebu breed) kept in six different herds. four tick genera and ten spe ...200818575063
ticks infesting domestic animals in northern greece.the tick species infesting grazing animals in the countryside of 11 prefectures in northern greece were investigated during april-july and september-december of consecutive years 2003-2006. a total of 3,249 (1,952 males, 1,297 females) adult ticks were collected from goats, sheep, cattle and dogs. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus (44.57%), ixodes gibbosus (4.09%), rhipicephalus bursa (19.14%), rhipicephalus sanguineus, rhipicephalus turanicus (5.79%), hyalomma marginatum marginatum (12.40 ...200818563592
competitive exclusion between piroplasmosis and anaplasmosis agents within cattle. 200818225951
greek goat encephalitis virus strain isolated from ixodes ricinus, greece.a strain of greek goat encephaltitis virus was isolated from engorged ixodes ricinus ticks that had fed on goats in northern greece. the strain was almost identical to the prototype strain isolated 35 years ago.200818258134
human babesiosis.human babesiosis is an emerging intraerythrocytic infection caused by protozoal parasites transmitted by ixodid ticks. babesiosis is endemic in the northeastern and upper midwestern regions of the united states and is found sporadically in other parts of the united states, europe, asia, africa, and south america. babesial infections range from asymptomatic to severe and occasionally are fatal. specific laboratory diagnosis of babesial infection is made by morphologic examination of giemsa-staine ...200818755385
prevalence and genotypes of anaplasma species and habitat suitability for ticks in a mediterranean ecosystem.anaplasma species are tick-transmitted pathogens that impact veterinary and human health. sicily is one of the locations where these pathogens are endemic. sicily represents a typical mediterranean ecosystem to study anaplasma infection and tick habitat suitability. the aims of this study were (i) to characterize by 16s rrna and species-specific msp4 gene pcr the prevalence and genotypes of a. marginale, a. phagocytophilum, and a. ovis in the most abundant host species in sicilian provinces and ...200818978093
allopatric speciation in ticks: genetic and reproductive divergence between geographic strains of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus.the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, economically impact cattle industry in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. the morphological and genetic differences among r. microplus strains have been documented in the literature, suggesting that biogeographical and ecological separation may have resulted in boophilid ticks from america/africa and those from australia being different species. to test the hypothesis of the presence of different boophilid species, herein we perfo ...200919243585
vaccination with recombinant boophilus annulatus bm86 ortholog protein, ba86, protects cattle against b. annulatus and b. microplus infestations.the cattle ticks, boophilus spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. the recombinant b. microplus bm86 protective antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. recently, the gene coding for b. annulatus bm86 ortholog, ba86, was cloned and the recombinant protein was secreted and purified from the yeast pichia pastoris.200919335900
experimental transmission of field anaplasma marginale and the a. centrale vaccine strain by hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks.the cattle rickettsia anaplasma marginale is distributed worldwide and is transmitted by about 20 tick species, but only rhipicephalus simus, a strictly african tick species, has been shown to transmit the vaccine strain of a. centrale. the aim of the present study was to examine transmission of field strains of a. marginale and of the vaccine strain of a. centrale by three tick species -hyalomma excavatum, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus - to susceptible calves. ...200918823724
acaricidal effect of pelargonium roseum and eucalyptus globulus essential oils against adult stage of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus in vitro.in a laboratory trial, in west-central iran, the acaricidal effects of the essential oils (eos) prepared from two medicinal plants, i.e. pelargonium roseum and eucalyptus globulus on the adult stage of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus were evaluated. for this purpose, the engorged females of r. (b) annulatus were exposed to two-fold serial dilutions of oils (0.31-5.0%) using a "dipping method" in vitro. the engorged ticks were immersed in different plant dilutions (eight per dilution) for 1mi ...200919356854
detection of tick blood parasites in egypt using pcr assay i--babesia bovis and babesia bigemina.babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are distributed all over the world; the etiologic agents of the animal babesiosis are considered the most important tick-borne disease. the present research work was the first attempt to determine the prevalence of b. bovis and b. bigemina infection in ticks, in egypt, by using polymerase chain reaction (pcr). questing 5,243 hard and soft ticks were collected from different localities throughout the giza governorate. furthermore, dna from 500 different individu ...200919415329
pathogenicity of metarhizium anisopliae (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) to tick eggs and the effect of egg cuticular lipids on conidia development.the ovicidal efficacy of two entomopathogenic hyphomycetes fungi--metarhizium anisopliae variety acridum (m. an. ac.) driver and milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and metarhizium anisopliae variety anisopliae (m. an. an.) (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae)--was evaluated against eggs of three tick species (acari: ixodidae)--hyalomma excavatum (koch), rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (say), and rhipicephalus sanguineus (latereille)--by placing eggs, laid by surface-sterilize ...200919496424
the first clinical case due to ap92 like strain of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus and a field survey.crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) is a fatal infection, but no clinical case due to ap92 strain was reported. we described the first clinical case due to ap92 like cchfv.200919515251
isolation of entomopathogenic fungi from soils and ixodes scapularis (acari: ixodidae) ticks: prevalence and methods.entomopathogenic fungi are commonly found in forested soils that provide tick habitat, and many species are pathogenic to ixodes scapularis say, the blacklegged tick. as a first step to developing effective biocontrol strategies, the objective of this study was to determine the best methods to isolate entomopathogenic fungal species from field-collected samples of soils and ticks from an eastern deciduous forest where i. scapularis is common. several methods were assessed: (1) soils, leaf litter ...200919496427
[construction of cdna expression library of unfed female haemaphysalis longicornis and immuno-screening].to construct a cdna expression library from unfed female tick haemaphysalis longicornis for screening and cloning potential antigenic genes.200919459491
selection of reference genes for quantitative rt-pcr studies in rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus appendiculatus ticks and determination of the expression profile of bm86.for accurate and reliable gene expression analysis, normalization of gene expression data against reference genes is essential. in most studies on ticks where (semi-)quantitative rt-pcr is employed, normalization occurs with a single reference gene, usually beta-actin, without validation of its presumed expression stability. the first goal of this study was to evaluate the expression stability of commonly used reference genes in rhipicephalus appendiculatus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplu ...200920040102
characterization of ferritin 2 for the control of tick infestations.ixodes ricinus is one the most abundant tick species in europe and these ticks transmit pathogens causing human and animal diseases. the cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. development of vaccines directed against tick proteins may reduce tick infestations and the transmission of tick-borne pathogens. however, a limiting step in tick vaccine development has been the identification of tick protective antigens. he ...201020171306
biogeography of tick-borne bhanja virus (bunyaviridae) in europe.bhanja virus (bhav) is pathogenic for young domestic ruminants and also for humans, causing fever and affections of the central nervous system. this generally neglected arbovirus of the family bunyaviridae is transmitted by metastriate ticks of the genera haemaphysalis, dermacentor, hyalomma, rhipicephalus, boophilus, and amblyomma. geographic distribution of bhav covers southern and central asia, africa, and southern (partially also central) europe. comparative biogeographic study of eight know ...201020182535
tick-borne rickettsioses, neglected emerging diseases in rural senegal.rickettsioses are one of the most important causes of systemic febrile illness among travelers from developed countries, but little is known about their incidence in indigenous populations, especially in west africa.201020856858
association of pathogen strain-specific gene transcription and transmission efficiency phenotype of anaplasma marginale.efficient transmission of pathogens by an arthropod vector is influenced by the ability of the pathogen to replicate and develop infectiousness within the arthropod host. while the basic life cycle of development within and transmission from the arthropod vector are known for many bacterial and protozoan pathogens, the determinants of transmission efficiency are largely unknown and represent a significant gap in our knowledge. the st. maries strain of anaplasma marginale is a high-transmission-e ...201020308303
coxiella burnetii in humans and ticks in rural senegal.q fever is a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by coxiella burnetii. epidemiologically, animals are considered reservoirs and humans incidental hosts.201020386603
evidence for role of white-tailed deer (artiodactyla: cervidae) in epizootiology of cattle ticks and southern cattle ticks (acari: ixodidae) in reinfestations along the texas/mexico border in south texas: a review and update.from 1907 when the fever tick eradication campaign began until 1933, the tick eradication methods of dipping cattle in an acaricide or "pasture vacation" were enormously successful in eradicating southern cattle ticks [rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus (canestrini)], until failures began to occur in some areas of florida. regarding the failures in florida, the consensus was that populations of white-tailed deer [odocoileus virginianus (zimmermann)] infested with southern cattle ticks were resp ...201020429430
meeting the challenges of on-host and off-host water balance in blood-feeding arthropods.in this review, we describe water balance requirements of blood-feeding arthropods, particularly contrasting dehydration tolerance during the unfed, off-host state and the challenges of excess water that accompany receipt of the bloodmeal. most basic water balance characteristics during the off-host stage are applicable to other terrestrial arthropods, as well. a well-coordinated suite of responses enable arthropods to conserve water resources, enhance their desiccation tolerance, and increase t ...201020206630
lavandula angustifolia essential oil as a novel and promising natural candidate for tick (rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus) control.lavandula angustifolia is a well known herbal medicine with a variety of useful properties, including its acaricidal effect. this experiment was carried out to study the bioacaricidal activity of l. angustifolia essential oil (eo) against engorged rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus (acari; ixodidae) females. for this purpose six serial concentrations (0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0% w/v) of l. angustifolia eo were used. there was considerable mortality in concentrations more than 4.0% although ...201020433836
ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting humans in tokat province of turkey: species diversity and seasonal activity.ixodid ticks (acari: ixodidae) are the major vectors of pathogens threatening animal and human health. tokat province, turkey, is a suitable habitat for extended tick activity with its moderate climate and vegetation. in the present study, we surveyed humans visiting health centers to determine the species diversity, geographical distribution, and seasonal activity of ixodid ticks infesting them. out of 5,999 adult ticks collected from humans from april to september, 2008, 800 ticks were identif ...201020618665
molecular cloning of a small heat shock protein (shspii) from the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus salivary gland.immunoscreening of a cdna expression library of the rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick with purified rabbit anti-r annulatus salivary glands antigens polyclonal antibodies led to the identification of a 661bp sequence. the sequence includes an open reading frame of 543bp encoding a protein of 180 amino acids with calculated molecular weight of 20.51kda, isoelectric point of 9.071 and with no signal sequence. comparison of the deduced amino acids with protein data bank showed that the ident ...201020723560
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever in european part of turkey: genetic analysis of the virus strains from ticks and a seroepidemiological study in humans.abstract a survey of ticks from domestic ruminants, together with a serosurvey in humans was conducted in thrace (northwestern turkey) to evaluate the prevalence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) in ticks and humans. more prevalent ticks were hyalomma marginatum, hyalomma aegyptium, rhipicephalus bursa, and rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, with low numbers of dermacentor marginatus, rhipicephalus sanguineus group, and ixodes ricinus. no differences in the tick faunal compositi ...201021028961
detection of babesia and theileria species infection in cattle from portugal using a reverse line blotting method.babesiosis and theileriosis are tick-borne diseases widespread in tropical and sub-tropical regions with high economic impact worldwide. in portugal there are at least 4 tick vectors known to be competent for the transmission of babesia and theileria sp. identified: rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus, ixodes ricinus and haemaphysalis punctata. all these potential babesia and theileria tick vectors are widely distributed in portugal, although they are predominant in the sout ...201021036481
the rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus bm86 gene plays a critical role in the fitness of ticks fed on cattle during acute babesia bovis infection.abstract:201021092112
expression of heat shock and other stress response proteins in ticks and cultured tick cells in response to anaplasma spp. infection and heat shock.ticks are ectoparasites of animals and humans that serve as vectors of anaplasma and other pathogens that affect humans and animals worldwide. ticks and the pathogens that they transmit have coevolved molecular interactions involving genetic traits of both the tick and the pathogen that mediate their development and survival. in this paper, the expression of heat shock proteins (hsps) and other stress response proteins (srps) was characterized in ticks and cultured tick cells by proteomics and t ...201022084679
novel technique for quantifying adhesion of metarhizium anisopliae conidia to the tick cuticle.the present study describes an accurate quantitative method for quantifying the adherence of conidia to the arthropod cuticle and the dynamics of conidial germination on the host. the method was developed using conidia of metarhizium anisopliae var. anisopliae (metschn.) sorokin (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and engorged rhipicephalus annulatus (say) (arachnida: ixodidae) females and was also verified for m. anisopliae var. acridum driver et milner (hypocreales: clavicipitaceae) and alphitobius ...201020363785
application of highly sensitive saturation labeling to the analysis of differential protein expression in infected ticks from limited samples.abstract:201020704695
prevalence of tick-borne pathogens in ticks in sicily.the prevalence of anaplasma, ehrlichia, rickettsia and babesia/theileria species was analysed in questing and feeding adult ticks in sicily. a total of 678 ticks were collected and analysed in this study. of these, 29 were questing ticks and 649 were collected from infested cattle, sheep, goats or dogs. tick species analysed included rhipicephalus bursa, r. turanicus, r. sanguineus, hyalomma lusitanicum, h. marginatum, dermacentor marginatus, ixodes ricinus, r. (boophilus) annulatus and haemaphy ...201020537102
identification and characterization of rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations.the cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) spp., affect cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. tick vaccines constitute a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative to tick control. the recombinant rhipicephalus microplus bm86 antigen has been shown to protect cattle against tick infestations. however, variable efficacy of bm86-based vaccines against geographic tick strains has encouraged the research for additional tick-protective antigens. herein, we ...201019943063
hard ticks on domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics in yazd province, iran.ticks are the main vectors for transmission of different pathogens to human and animals. this survey was performed to find out distribution of ticks, which infested the domestic ruminants in yazd province, central iran during year 2008-2009.201022808391
tick infestation rate of sheep and their distribution in abdanan county, ilam province, iran, 2007-2008.ticks are hematophagous arthropod belonging to the class of arachnids. ticks are also one of the major vectors of pathogens to animal and human. this study was conducted to determine tick infestation rate of sheep in abdanan during 2007-2008.201022808401
Distribution of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Acari: Ixodidae) infestations detected in the United States along the Texas/Mexico border.Species identification and global positioning system coordinates of infestations of cattle fever ticks, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) annulatus (Say) and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus (Canestrini), were determined for 790 specimens submitted to the National Veterinary Services Laboratory between 1 October 1999 and 30 September 2010. Cattle fever tick specimens obtained by personnel of the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service-Cattle Fever Tick Eradi ...201121845935
crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus in ticks collected from humans, livestock, and picnic sites in the hyperendemic region of turkey.abstract during june and july 2007, about 3125 adult ticks were collected from humans, animals, and vegetation in a hyperendemic region (sivas and tokat) of turkey. a total of 2193 ticks were pooled in 225 pools and screened for the crimean congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv) presence by antigen-capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. infection rates were calculated as the maximum likelihood estimation with 95% confidence intervals (ci). the dominant tick species was found to be hyalomma ma ...201121736490
toxicity of dmso, triton x 100 and tween 20 against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the problems associated with synthetic chemical pesticides include resistance, residues, pest resurgence and the adverse effects on non-target organisms. hence, many ecofriendly newer alternatives are being evaluated among which one of the most important is the use of herbal agents. many of the plant extracts or its fractions are dissolved in polar or non polar solvents or detergents before tested for acaricidal activity. the solvent or detergent used for dissolving the herbal extract should hav ...201123024514
species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks (acari: ixodoidea: ixodidae) infesting domestic ruminants, in qazvin province, iran.this report presents the results of the first faunistic study of hard ticks in qazvin province of iran. the primary objective was to determine the species diversity and geographic distribution of hard ticks that parasitize domestic ruminants. information about the abiotic preferences of these species has been provided. a total of 286 cattle, 1,053 goats, and 2,050 sheep were examined in 13 villages in 28 flocks distributed throughout the studied areas. total direct body collections of ticks were ...201121805220
assessment of bacterial diversity in the cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus through tag-encoded pyrosequencing.ticks are regarded as the most relevant vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, hinders livestock production in tropical and subtropical parts of the world where it is endemic. tick microbiomes remain largely unexplored. the objective of this study was to explore the r. microplus microbiome by applying the bacterial 16s tag-encoded flx-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (btefap) technique to characterize its bacterial ...201121211038
identification and characterization of ixodes scapularis antigens that elicit tick immunity using yeast surface display.repeated exposure of rabbits and other animals to ticks results in acquired resistance or immunity to subsequent tick bites and is partially elicited by antibodies directed against tick antigens. in this study we demonstrate the utility of a yeast surface display approach to identify tick salivary antigens that react with tick-immune serum. we constructed an ixodes scapularis nymphal salivary gland yeast surface display library and screened the library with nymph-immune rabbit sera and identifie ...201121246036
toxic effects of various solvents against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the current need of identification of a new acaricidal agent which is acceptable to public as environmentally safe is a daring task. use of herbal acaricides is such an alternative. most of the herbal extracts or fractions are dissolved in polar or non-polar solvents or detergents before tested for acaricidal activity. the solvent or detergent to be used for dissolving the herbal extract should be of little acaricidal activity. in the present study, experimentations were carried out on adult eng ...201121890070
distribution and seasonal activity of tick species on cattle in the west aegean region of turkey.the aim of the present study was to determine the identity, seasonal activity and distribution of tick species of cattle in the west aegean region of turkey between june 2006 and may 2008. nine villages within three provinces, viz. manisa, izmir and aydin, were included in the study and a total of 75 animal barns were visited monthly for a period of 24 months and 443 cattle were examined for the presence of ticks. it was determined that 23% of cattle were infested with ticks. a total of 19,679 a ...201122113777
biocontrol of pigeon tick argas reflexus (acari: argasidae) by entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae (ascomycota: hypocreales).the pigeon tick argas reflexus is a pathogen-transmitting soft tick that typically feeds on pigeons, but can also attack humans causing local and systemic reactions. chemical control is made difficult due to environmental contamination and resistance development. as a result, there is much interest in increasing the role of other strategies like biological control. in this study, the efficacy of three strains (v245, 685 and 715c) of entomopathogenic fungus metarhizium anisopliae for biological c ...201124031777
rna interference in ticks.ticks are obligate hematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals and humans, and are considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases(1) and the most important vectors affecting cattle industry worldwide(2). ticks are classified in the subclass acari, order parasitiformes, suborder ixodida and are distributed worldwide from arctic to tropical regions(3). despite efforts to control tick infestations, these ectoparasites remain a serious problem for human and ...201121304465
species diversity of ixodid ticks feeding on humans in amasya, turkey: seasonal abundance and presence of crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus.ticks (acari:ixodidae) are important pests transmitting tick-borne diseases such as crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf) to humans. between 2002 and 2009, numerous cchf cases were reported in turkey, including amasya province. in the current study, species diversity, seasonal abundance of ticks, and presence of cchf virus (cchfv) in ticks infesting humans in several districts of amasya province were determined. in the survey, a total of 2,528 ixodid ticks were collected from humans with tick b ...201121337953
eclosion blocking effect of ethanolic extract of leucas aspera (lamiaceae) on rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the crude ethanolic extract of aerial parts of leucas aspera was tested for its acaricidal properties against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. the per cent adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of laid ova were studied at concentrations of 1.56, 3.13, 6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100mg/ml. adult tick mortality was significant at the highest concentration tested. inhibition of fecundity of treated groups differed significantly from control and was concentration dependent. l. aspera ...201121440993
the hard-tick fauna of mainland portugal (acari: ixodidae): an update on geographical distribution and known associations with hosts and pathogens.this work is an updated revision of the available information on portuguese ixodid tick species. it includes data on tick biology, ecology, taxonomy and host/pathogen-associations. the current list of portuguese ixodid ticks comprises twenty species: dermacentor marginatus (sulzer, 1776), dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794), haemaphysalis hispanica gil collado, 1938, haemaphysalis inermis birula, 1895, haemaphysalis punctata canestrini & fanzago, 1878, hyalomma lusitanicum koch, 1844, hyal ...201121452063
hard ticks (acari, ixodidae) of croatia.the present paper is based on original and literature data. in croatia the first studies on the occurrence of ixodid species were made about 80 years ago. the number of tick species recorded in croatia considerably increased during the 1950s, 60s, 70s and 80s of the past century. a total of 21 species of hard tick belonging to 5 genera have been recorded in croatia. ixodes is the best represented genus, with seven species recorded. haemaphysalis is represented by six species, followed by rhipice ...201223372407
the seasonal activity of ixodes ricinus tick in amol, mazandaran province, northern iran.the present study aimed to demonstrate the seasonal activities of ixodes ricinus at the pasture level and on the host.201223378970
first molecular detection of theileria ovis in rhipicephalus sanguineus tick in iran.to determine tick infestation of domestic ruminants and their infection to ovine theileriosis in northern iran.201222182639
Control of tick infestations in cattle vaccinated with bacterial membranes containing surface-exposed tick protective antigens.Vaccines containing the Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus BM86 and BM95 antigens protect cattle against tick infestations. Tick subolesin (SUB), elongation factor 1a (EF1a) and ubiquitin (UBQ) are new candidate protective antigens for the control of cattle tick infestations. Previous studies showed that R. microplus BM95 immunogenic peptides fused to the Anaplasma marginale major surface protein (MSP) 1a N-terminal region (BM95-MSP1a) for presentation on the Escherichia coli membrane were prot ...201222085549
looking for tropheryma whipplei source and reservoir in rural senegal.tropheryma whipplei, the bacterium linked to whipple's disease, is involved in acute infections and asymptomatic carriage. in rural senegal, the prevalence of t. whipplei is generally high but is not homogeneous throughout households in the same village. we studied environmental samples collected in two senegalese villages and conducted the survey to investigate the difference between households. overall, the comparison between five households with very high t. whipplei prevalence and three hous ...201223249690
a molecular study on theileria and babesia in cattle from isfahan province, central iran.bovine theileriosis and babesiosis are important hemoprotozoal diseases of cattle in tropical and subtropical regions that lead to economic losses in these animals. from march 2009 to july 2009, 176 blood samples of holstein and crossbred cattle without any signs of disease were prepared from isfahan province, central iran. the extracted dna from blood cells were analyzed for members of the genera theileria and babesia by polymerase chain reaction (pcr) using a set of primers derived from the 18 ...201224431572
acaricidal activity of cassia alata against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.using adult immersion test, the acaricidal activity of ethanolic extracts of leaves of cassia alata l. was studied against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus. the efficacy was assessed by measuring per cent adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching rate. the ethanolic extract of c. alata produced a concentration dependant increase in the adult tick mortality. the highest mortality (45.8%) and inhibition of fecundity (10.9%) were observed at the highest concentration tested (100 mg/m ...201221909822
functional genomics studies of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus ticks in response to infection with the cattle protozoan parasite, babesia bigemina.ticks are obligate haematophagous ectoparasites of wild and domestic animals as well as humans, considered to be second worldwide to mosquitoes as vectors of human diseases, but the most important vectors of disease-causing pathogens in domestic and wild animals. babesia spp. are tick-borne pathogens that cause a disease called babesiosis in a wide range of animals and in humans. in particular, babesia bovis and babesia bigemina are transmitted by cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatu ...201222265898
association of environmental traits with the geographic ranges of ticks (acari: ixodidae) of medical and veterinary importance in the western palearctic. a digital data set.we compiled information on the distribution of ticks in the western palearctic (11°w, 45°e; 29°n, 71°n), published during 1970-2010. the literature search was filtered by the tick's species name and an unambiguous reference to the point of capture. records from some curated collections were included. we focused on tick species of importance to human and animal health, in particular: ixodes ricinus, dermacentor marginatus, d. reticulatus, haemaphysalis punctata, h. sulcata, hyalomma marginatum, h ...201222843316
analysis of immunogenic relevant proteins in rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick.considering the importance of ticks as a main group transmitting pathogen organisms, this study designed to recognize immunogenic proteins in different tissues of rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus tick and to find out if there are common proteins in these tissues.201223293777
integrated strategy for sustainable cattle fever tick eradication in usa is required to mitigate the impact of global change.the ticks rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and r. (b.) microplus, commonly known as cattle and southern cattle tick, respectively, impede the development and sustainability of livestock industries throughout tropical and other world regions. they affect animal productivity and wellbeing directly through their obligate blood-feeding habit and indirectly by serving as vectors of the infectious agents causing bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis. the monumental scientific discovery of certain arth ...201222712018
molecular detection of spotted fever group rickettsiae associated with ixodid ticks in egypt.tick-borne diseases comprise a complex epidemiological and ecological network that connects the vectors, pathogens, and a group of host species. the aim of this study was to identify bacteria from the genus rickettsia associated with ixodid ticks infesting camels and cows in egypt. ticks were collected from 6 different localities: qina, giza, qalet el nakhl, new valley, el arish, and minufia, from july to october 2008. species were identified using pcr, followed by sequencing. the glta and rompa ...201222217182
exploring the use of an anti-tick vaccine as a tool for the integrated eradication of the cattle fever tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.bovine babesiosis, also known as cattle fever, is a tick-borne protozoal disease foreign to the united states. it was eradicated by eliminating the vector species, rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus and rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus, through the efforts of the cattle fever tick eradication program (cftep), with the exception of a permanent quarantine zone (pqz) in south texas along the border with mexico. keeping the u.s. free of cattle fever ticks in a sustainable manner is a critical na ...201222687762
geographic distribution of the invasive cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus, a country-wide survey in benin.the cattle tick rhipicephalus microplus is currently invading the west african region, and little information is available on the spread of this exotic tick in this region. we set out a country-wide field survey to determine its current distribution in benin. ticks were collected on cattle from 106 farms selected by random sampling covering all regions of the country. rhipicephalus annulatus was found on 70 % of all farms, r. decoloratus on 42 %, r. geigyi on 58 %, and r. microplus on 49 %. ther ...201222689006
resistant ticks inhibit metarhizium infection prior to haemocoel invasion by reducing fungal viability on the cuticle surface.we studied disease progression of, and host responses to, four species in the metarhizium anisopliae complex expressing green fluorescent protein (gfp). we compared development and determined their relative levels of virulence against two susceptible arthropods, the cattle tick rhipicephalus annulatus and the lepidopteran galleria mellonella, and two resistant ticks, hyalomma excavatum and rhipicephalus sanguineus. metarhizium brunneum ma7 caused the greatest mortality of r. annulatus, metarhizi ...201222507442
detection of naturally infected vector ticks (acari: ixodidae) by different species of babesia and theileria agents from three different enzootic parts of iran.diagnostic study of vector ticks for different pathogens transmitted specifically have been done by iranian old scientists working on the basis of biological transmission of pathogens. in this study we decided to confirm natural infection of different collected ticks from three different provinces of iran.201324409442
a field experiment to assess the rate of infestation in honey bee populations of two metarhizium anisopliae isolates on varroa destructor (acari: mesostigmata).the protective effect of two isolates of an entomopathogenic fungus, metarhizium anisopliae (demi 002 and iran 437c) on the adult stage of varroa destructor was evaluated in comparison with fluvalinate strips in the field.201323785691
comparative analysis of mitochondrial markers from four species of rhipicephalus (acari: ixodidae).mitochondrial sequences of four mitochondrial markers: 12s rrna, 16s rrna, cytochrome c oxidase subunit i (cox1) and cytochrome b (cytb) from four rhipicephalus species were analyzed to establish genetic relationships and enable molecular identification. field-collected samples from the species rhipicephalus annulatus, rhipicephalus bursa, rhipicephalus sanguineus and rhipicephalus turanicus were amplified by pcr and compared with genbank™ annotated sequences. pcr products were obtained using pr ...201324091196
hard tick species of livestock and their bioecology in golestan province, north of iran.a survey on tick species composition was carried out in golestan province iran during year 2010-2011.the aim was to determine tick species parasitizing domestic ruminants and their seasonal population dynamics.201325629071
effect of allium sativum and allium cepa oils on different stages of boophilus annulatus.the study is aimed to investigate the acaricidal effect of allium sativum (garlic) and allium cepa (onion) oils on different stages of boophilus annulatus hard tick. engorged b. annulatus females were collected from naturally infected cattle. a number of engorged ticks were incubated at 28 °c and 85 % relative humidity to lay eggs, which were incubated to obtain larvae that were used in the study. the used garlic and onion oils were prepared by steam distillation and were analyzed by gas chromat ...201323435922
lesser protein degradation machinery correlates with higher bm86 tick vaccine efficacy in rhipicephalus annulatus when compared to rhipicephalus microplus.infestations with cattle ticks, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus and rhipicephalus annulatus, economically impact cattle production in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. vaccines containing the recombinant r. microplus bm86 gut antigen were developed and commercialized to induce an immunological protection in cattle against tick infestations. these vaccines demonstrated that tick control by vaccination is cost-effective, reduces environmental contamination and prevents the selecti ...201323973246
acaricidal effect of cassia fistula linn. leaf ethanolic extract against rhipicephlaus (boophilus) annulatus.the present study evaluates the acaricidal properties of crude ethanolic extract of cassia fistula leaves for controlling rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus based on adult immersion test (ait). the percentage of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity and hatching of ova laid were studied at different concentrations of the extract ranging from 50 to 100 mg / ml. the results were compared using one-way anova. the extract produced complete inhibition of hatching of eggs at concentrations above 8 ...201323959488
identification of four novel rhipicephalus annulatus upregulated salivary gland proteins as candidate vaccines.the control of rhipicephalus annulatus ticks in egypt and other countries relies principally on the application of acaricides which have many drawbacks. recently, cattle vaccination against ticks showed a potential unconventional approach to control ticks. as a target, salivary glands contain various proteins that may play specific roles during attachment, feeding and may modulate the immune system of the host. we have performed immunoscreening on expression normalized cdna library to identify u ...201323775170
identification of tropomyosin and its immunological properties from larvae of cattle tick, boophilus annulatus.boophilus annulatus is an obligate blood feeder tick that can cause great losses in animals due to anemia and its ability to injure its host skin directly. the aim of this study was identification of cattle humoral immune response to some tick proteins during experimental infestation.201323914237
mediterranean spotted fever in southeastern romania.although cases of mediterranean spotted fever (msf) have been reported for decades in southeastern romania, there are few published data. we retrospectively studied 339 patients, diagnosed with msf at the national institute of infectious diseases "prof. dr. matei bals" between 2000 and 2011, in order to raise awareness about msf in certain regions of romania. according to the raoult diagnostic criteria 171 (50.4%) had a score >25 points. mean age was 52.5 years. one hundred and fifty-five (90.6% ...201324024190
distribution of ixodid ticks on dogs in nuevo león, mexico, and their association with borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato.this study aimed to document the geographic distribution of ixodes tick species in dogs and the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi s.l. in adult ticks and blood samples by amplification of the ospa region of the b. burgdorferi genome. the study area included nine localities in nuevo león state. dna amplification was performed on pools of ticks to calculate the maximum likelihood estimation (mle), and the community composition (prevalence, abundance, and intensity of infestation) was recorded. a ...201323749032
ixodid ticks of traditionally managed cattle in central nigeria: where rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus does not dare (yet?).ticks and tick-borne diseases (tbds) undermine cattle fitness and productivity in the whole of sub-saharan africa, including nigeria. the aim of this study was to document the composition of tick species, assessing the burden of infestation, in traditionally managed cattle in an area of central nigeria where acaricides have not been used historically.201323758913
interaction of the tick immune system with transmitted pathogens.ticks are hematophagous arachnids transmitting a wide variety of pathogens including viruses, bacteria, and protozoans to their vertebrate hosts. the tick vector competence has to be intimately linked to the ability of transmitted pathogens to evade tick defense mechanisms encountered on their route through the tick body comprising midgut, hemolymph, salivary glands or ovaries. tick innate immunity is, like in other invertebrates, based on an orchestrated action of humoral and cellular immune re ...201323875177
isolation of tick and mosquito-borne arboviruses from ticks sampled from livestock and wild animal hosts in ijara district, kenya.tick-borne viruses infect humans through the bite of infected ticks during opportunistic feeding or through crushing of ticks by hand and, in some instances, through contact with infected viremic animals. the ijara district, an arid to semiarid region in northern kenya, is home to a pastoralist community for whom livestock keeping is a way of life. part of the ijara district lies within the boundaries of a kenya wildlife service-protected conservation area. arbovirus activity among mosquitoes, a ...201323805790
action on the surface: entomopathogenic fungi versus the insect cuticle.infections mediated by broad host range entomopathogenic fungi represent seminal observations that led to one of the first germ theories of disease and are a classic example of a co-evolutionary arms race between a pathogen and target hosts. these fungi are able to parasitize susceptible hosts via direct penetration of the cuticle with the initial and potentially determining interaction occurring between the fungal spore and the insect epicuticle. entomogenous fungi have evolved mechanisms for a ...201326462424
rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel.dna of several spotted fever group rickettsiae was found in ticks in israel. the findings include evidence for the existence of rickettsia africae and candidatus rickettsia barbariae in ticks in israel. the dna of r. africae was detected in a hyalomma detritum tick from a wild boar and dna of c. rickettsia barbariae was detected in rhipicephalus turanicus and rhipicephalus sanguineus collected from vegetation. the dna of rickettsia massiliae was found in rh. sanguineus and haemaphysalis erinacei ...201424615133
a 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome.multiple tick saliva proteins, the majority of which are unknown, confer tick resistance in repeatedly infested animals. the objective of this study was to identify the 24-48 h fed amblyomma americanum tick saliva immuno-proteome. the 24-48 h tick-feeding phase is critical to tick parasitism as it precedes important events in tick biology, blood meal feeding and disease agent transmission. fed male, 24 and 96 h fed female phage display cdna expression libraries were biopanned using rabbit antibo ...201424962723
detection of borrelia theileri in rhipicephalus geigyi from mali.disease burden within cattle is a concern around the world. bovine borreliosis, one such disease, is caused by the spirochete borrelia theileri transmitted by the bite of an infected rhipicephalus (boophilus) species tick. a number of species within the genus are capable of transmitting the agent and are found on multiple continents. cattle in the west african nation of mali are infested with four species of rhipicephalus ticks of the subgenus boophilus: rhipicephalus annulatus, rhipicephalus mi ...201424709337
survey on cattle ticks in nur, north of iran.to survey the prevalence of cattle ticks in nur county and prepare a list of tick fauna in this district.201425182439
control of tick infestations and pathogen prevalence in cattle and sheep farms vaccinated with the recombinant subolesin-major surface protein 1a chimeric antigen.despite the use of chemical acaricides, tick infestations continue to affect animal health and production worldwide. tick vaccines have been proposed as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly alternative for tick control. vaccination with the candidate tick protective antigen, subolesin (sub), has been shown experimentally to be effective in controlling vector infestations and pathogen infection. furthermore, escherichia coli membranes containing the chimeric antigen composed of sub fused ...201424398155
acaricidal activity of petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract of leaves of tetrastigma leucostaphylum (dennst.) alston (family: vitaceae) against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus was assessed using adult immersion test (ait). the per cent of adult mortality, inhibition of fecundity, and blocking of hatching of eggs were studied at different concentrations. the extract at 10% concentration showed 88.96% inhibition of fecundity, 58.32% of adult tick mortality, and 50% inhibition of hatching. peak mort ...201425436226
ticks and tick-borne viruses from livestock hosts in arid and semiarid regions of the eastern and northeastern parts of kenya.biodiversity and relative abundance of ticks and associated arboviruses in garissa (northeastern) and isiolo (eastern) provinces of kenya were evaluated. ticks were collected from livestock, identified to species, pooled, and processed for virus isolation. in garissa, rhipicephalus pulchellus gerstacker (57.8%) and hyalomma truncatum koch (27.8%) were the most abundant species sampled, whereas r. pulchellus (80.4%) and amblyomma gemma donitz (9.6%) were the most abundant in isiolo. forty-four vi ...201424605478
retrospective study of hemoparasites in cattle in southern italy by reverse line blot hybridization.tick-borne diseases are widespread in tropical and temperate regions and are responsible for important economic losses in those areas. in order to assess the presence and prevalence of various pathogens in southern italy, we retrospectively analyzed cattle blood samples collected for a previous study in 2000 using reverse line blot (rlb) hybridization. the study had been carried out in three regions of southern italy on 1,500 randomly selected and apparently healthy adult cattle. rlb showed that ...201424614604
absence of antibodies to rickettsia spp., bartonella spp., ehrlichia spp. and coxiella burnetii in tahiti, french polynesia.in the pacific islands countries and territories, very little is known about the incidence of infectious diseases due to zoonotic pathogens. to our knowledge, human infections due to rickettsia spp., coxiella burnetii, ehrlichia spp. and bartonella spp. have never been reported in french polynesia; and infections due to c. burnetti have been reported worldwide except in new zealand. to evaluate the prevalence of this disease, we conducted a serosurvey among french polynesian blood donors.201424885466
a systems biology approach to the characterization of stress response in dermacentor reticulatus tick unfed larvae.dermacentor reticulatus (fabricius, 1794) is distributed in europe and asia where it infests and transmits disease-causing pathogens to humans, pets and other domestic and wild animals. however, despite its role as a vector of emerging or re-emerging diseases, very little information is available on the genome, transcriptome and proteome of d. reticulatus. tick larvae are the first developmental stage to infest hosts, acquire infection and transmit pathogens that are transovarially transmitted a ...201424586875
rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus aquaporin as an effective vaccine antigen to protect against cattle tick infestations.vaccination as a control method against the cattle tick, rhipicephalus (boophilus) microplus has been practiced since the introduction of two products in the mid-1990s. there is a need for a vaccine that could provide effective control of r. microplus in a more consistent fashion than existing products. during our transcriptome studies of r. microplus, several gene coding regions were discovered to encode proteins with significant amino acid similarity to aquaporins.201425306139
multiple mutations in the para-sodium channel gene are associated with pyrethroid resistance in rhipicephalus microplus from the united states and mexico.acaricide resistant rhipicephalus microplus populations have become a major problem for many cattle producing areas of the world. pyrethroid resistance in arthropods is typically associated with mutations in domains i, ii, iii, and iv of voltage-gated sodium channel genes. in r. microplus, known resistance mutations include a domain ii change (c190a) in populations from australia, africa, and south america and a domain iii mutation (t2134a) that only occurs in mexico and the u.s.201425266983
modeling the impact of climate and landscape on the efficacy of white tailed deer vaccination for cattle tick control in northeastern mexico.cattle ticks are distributed worldwide and affect animal health and livestock production. white tailed deer (wtd) sustain and spread cattle tick populations. the aim of this study was to model the efficacy of anti-tick vaccination of wtd to control tick infestations in the absence of cattle vaccination in a territory where both host species coexist and sustain cattle tick populations. agent-based models that included land cover/landscape properties (patch size, distances to patches) and climatic ...201425047078
anaplasma infection in ticks, livestock and human in ghaemshahr, mazandaran province, iran.anaplasmosis is an important issue for animal breeders in terms of economic losses as well as a health concern to human. ticks are considered as the main vector of this disease. lack of documented information about anaplasma species in iran was the scope of this study to determine the population of ticks and the presence of anaplasma in ticks, domestic ruminants and also human beings in northern iran.201426114134
study of vitellogenin in boophilus annulatus tick larvae and its immunological aspects.boophilus annulatus is an important one-host tick in the mediterranean regions and iran. it can transmit the babesia bigemina, babesia bovis and anaplasma marginale to cattle. nowadays, immunization programs by tick proteins is one of the potential methods for the control and prevention of tick infestations. therefore, the characterization and identification of various tick proteins are necessary. vitellogenin is a precursor of vitellin that is produced in mid gut cells and fat bodies in ticks. ...201425382465
inhibition of the recombinant cattle tick rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus glutathione s-transferase.rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus is a bloodsucking ectoparasite that causes severe production losses in the cattle industry. this study aims to evaluate the in vitro effects of tannic acid, hematin (gst inhibitors) and different plant extracts (rich in tannic acid) on the activity of the recombinant glutathione s-transferase enzyme of the egyptian cattle tick r. annulatus (rragst), in order to confirm their ability to inhibit the parasitic essential detoxification enzyme glutathione s-transfe ...201424953796
acaricidal effects of fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus.the acaricidal effects of two most commonly used acaricides viz., fenvalerate and cypermethrin against rhipicephalus (boophilus) annulatus were studied using adult immersion test (ait). the lc50 values observed for fenvalerate and cypermethrin were 1570 ppm and 184 ppm respectively. the death of ticks was not an immediate process. fenvalerate caused death only after 7 days while cypermethrin after 5 days of treatment. the eggs laid by treated ticks did not hatch at all concentrations tested.201425382471
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