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background review for diagnostic test development for zika virus infection.to review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge.027516635
the impact of regulations, safety considerations and physical limitations on research progress at maximum biocontainment.we describe herein, limitations on research at biosafety level 4 (bsl-4) containment laboratories, with regard to biosecurity regulations, safety considerations, research space limitations, and physical constraints in executing experimental procedures. these limitations can severely impact the number of collaborations and size of research projects investigating microbial pathogens of biodefense concern. acquisition, use, storage, and transfer of biological select agents and toxins (bsat) are hig ...023342380
population viscosity suppresses disease emergence by preserving local herd immunity.animal reservoirs for infectious diseases pose ongoing risks to human populations. in this theory of zoonoses, the introduction event that starts an epidemic is assumed to be independent of all preceding events. however, introductions are often concentrated in communities that bridge the ecological interfaces between reservoirs and the general population. in this paper, we explore how the risks of disease emergence are altered by the aggregation of introduction events within bridge communities. ...025339728
kyasanur forest disease. viii. isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from naturally infected ticks of the genus haemaphysalis. 195913653739
studies on the transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis spinigera newman. 196013780287
clinico-pathological observations on monkeys infected with kyasanur forest disease virus, with special reference to the haemopoietic system. 196213999331
studies of viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex. ii. disease and immune responses in man following accidental infection with kyasanur forest disease virus. 196214476341
serological response to russian spring-summer encephalitis virus vaccine as measured with kyasanur forest disease virus. 196214484654
experimental transovarial transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus in haemaphysalis spinigera. 196314058628
experiments on the survival of kyasanur forest disease virus in mosquitoes. 196314094140
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis turturis, haemaphysalis papuana kinneari and haemaphysalis minuta. 196414184087
kyasanur forest disease virus in three species on rodents. 196514297196
experimental infection of lactating monkeys with kyasanur forest disease virus. 196514299358
survival of kyasanur forest disease virus in infected ticks, haemaphysalis spinigera, after feeding on immune rabbits. 19655852195
chronic disease and virus persistence in mice inoculated with kyasanur forest disease virus. 19665945717
clinical and pathological observations with special reference to the nervous system in macaca radiata infected with kyasanur forest disease virus. 19664162148
kyasanur forest diseases. iv. isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from infected humans and monkeys of shimogadistrict, mysore state. 19664957898
kyasanur forest disease virus neutralizing antibodies in human sera in mysore state. 19676045044
relation of haemaphysalis spinigera larval infection rates and host viremia levels of kyasanur forest disease virus. 19685657515
the isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from small mammals of the sagar-sorab forests, nysore state, india: 1961-1964. 19685679150
preliminary studies on experimental transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by nymphs of ixodes petauristae warburton, 1933, infected as larvae on suncus murinus and rattus blanfordi. 19685679151
experimental transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus to small mammals by ixodes petauristae, i. ceylonensis and haemaphysalis spinigera. 19685679152
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by hyalomma marginatum isaaci. 19685679153
transovarial transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by ixodes petauristae. 19685679155
kyasanur forest disease virus infection in the frugivorous bat, cynopterus sphinx. 19685711601
isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from ixodid ticks: 1961-1964. 19684971269
studies on antigenicity of six kyasanur forest disease virus strains isolated from various sources. 19694984500
isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from the insectivorous bat, rhinolophus rouxi and from ornithodoros ticks. 19695820428
involvement of rattus blanfordi (rodentia: muridae) in the natural cycle of kyasanur forest disease virus. 19695387827
trans-monsoonal persitence of kyasanur forest disease virus in haemaphysalis nymphs infected in nature. 19705505199
serum neutralization of kyasanur forest disease virus in mice. 19704994290
the reaction of cattle to kyasanur forest disease virus. 19715579235
attenuation of a strain of kyasanur forest disease virus for mice. 19715579236
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by soft tick, argas persicus (ixodoidea: argasidae). 19715579237
the reaction of mus platythrix to kyasanur forest disease virus. 19724661448
histological changes in mice infected with kyasanur forest disease virus. 19724661650
kyasanur forest disease virus encephalitis in mice. effect of cortisone on the encephalitic lesions. 19724661651
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by the soft tick, ornithodoros crossi. 19734148214
studies on the antibody response of a formalin inactivated kyasanur forest disease virus vaccine in langurs "presbytis entellus". 19744215753
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis kyasanurensis trapido, hoogstraal and rajagopalan, 1964 (acarina: ixodidae). 19751213783
critical evaluation of kyasanur forest disease virus neutralizing antibodies found in bats (a preliminary report). 1976178594
susceptibility of vandeleuria oleracea bennet, 1832 (rodentia, muridae) to experimental infection with kyasanur forest disease virus. 1976184037
susceptibility of lepus nigricollis cuvier, to experimental infection with kyasanur forest disease virus. 1977193782
reaction of rattus rattus wroughtoni to kyasanur forest disease virus. 1978207642
antibodies to kyasanur forest disease virus in bats in the epizootic-epidemic area and neighbourhood. 1978217820
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by haemaphysalis wellingtoni nuttall and warburton, 1907 (acarina : ixodidae). 1978680913
transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides ticks.larvae of rhipicephalus haemaphysaloides were infected with kaysanur forest disease (kfd) virus by feeding on viraemic rodents and reared into next generation larvae. fed larvae, nymphs, unfed adults, fed adult males, and females after oviposition were found infected, while the larvae were found free from infection. nymphs and adults transmitted the infection by bite to rodents and rabbits respectively. the virus was also passed through a second rodent-tick cycle. adult ticks showed a titre of 3 ...197827975
experimental transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by dermacentor auratus supino. 1979116962
susceptibility of rousettus leschenaulti to infection with kyasanur forest disease virus--a note. 1979222671
studies on the transmission of kyasanur forest disease virus by partly fed ixodid ticks. 1979229077
serological response to formolized kyasanur forest disease virus vaccine in humans at sagar and sorab talukas of shimoga district. 19806249824
attenuated langat e5 virus as a live virus vaccine against kyasanur forest disease virus. 19816263797
the reaction of funambulus tristriatus tristriatus rattus blanfordi and suncus murinus to kyasanur forest disease virus. 19816273309
antigenic relationships among viruses of the tick-borne encephalitis complex as studied by monoclonal antibodies.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) monoclonal antibodies showed haemagglutination-inhibiting (hi) activity against viruses belonging to the tbe complex except of powassan virus. the hi titre with kyasanur forest disease virus was lower than with tick-borne encephalitis virus, when monoclonal antibodies were incubated with the antigen at +4 degrees c for 30 min. langat virus could be distinguished from other viruses of the tbe complex when the antigen was incubated with monoclonal antibodies at +4 deg ...19846201061
epitope analysis of tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) complex viruses using monoclonal antibodies to envelope glycoprotein of tbe virus (persulcatus subtype).the arrangement of envelope protein epitopes of tick-borne encephalitis viruses (tbev) (persulcatus or eastern subtype, sofjin strain and ricinus or western subtype, minsk-256 strain) and kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) was investigated using competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies against the sofjin e protein. the e protein of tbev sofjin strain forms three antigenic domains: e1, e2 and e3, represented by 12, 9 and 2 epitopes respectively; two additional epitopes stand alone. domains ...19937505512
field evaluation of formalin inactivated kyasanur forest disease virus tissue culture vaccine in three districts of karnataka state.a formalin inactivated kyasanur forest disease (kfd) virus tissue culture vaccine produced by the health department of the state government of karnataka at shimoga was administered in shimoga, uttar kannada and chikmangalur districts during 1990-92 kfd epidemic seasons. the selection of places for vaccination was based on the prevalence of kfd activity in previous years; villages adjacent to kfd affected areas and the villages from which mortality in monkeys was reported. a total of 284 villages ...19947927566
analysis of the structural protein gene sequence shows kyasanur forest disease virus as a distinct member in the tick-borne encephalitis virus serocomplex.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) virus is a highly pathogenic member of the family flaviviridae producing a haemorrhagic disease in infected human beings. despite this high pathogenicity and potential epidemiological importance, there have been relatively few detailed antigenic or molecular studies on kfd virus. the nucleotide sequences of the genes encoding the structural proteins of the virus have now been determined. from these data we conclude that kfd virus is a distinct member in the tick-bor ...19948113732
nosocomial spread of viral disease.viruses are important causes of nosocomial infection, but the fact that hospital outbreaks often result from introduction(s) from community-based epidemics, together with the need to initiate specific laboratory testing, means that there are usually insufficient data to allow the monitoring of trends in incidences. the most important defenses against nosocomial transmission of viruses are detailed and continuing education of staff and strict adherence to infection control policies. protocols mus ...200111432812
complete coding sequence of the alkhurma virus, a tick-borne flavivirus causing severe hemorrhagic fever in humans in saudi arabia.to date, tick-borne flaviviruses responsible for hemorrhagic fever in humans have been isolated in siberia (omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), india (kyasanur forest disease virus, kfdv), and in saudi arabia (alkhurma virus, alkv). prior to this study, only partial coding sequences of these severe pathogens had been determined. we report here the complete coding sequence of alk virus, which was determined to be 10,248 nucleotides (nt) long, and to encode a single 3,416 amino acid polyprotein. indepe ...200111554750
tick-borne encephalitis.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe) is one of the most dangerous human infections occurring in europe and many parts of asia. the etiological agent tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), is a member of the virus genus flavivirus, of the family flaviviridae. tbev is believed to cause at least 11,000 human cases of encephalitis in russia and about 3000 cases in the rest of europe annually. related viruses within the same group, louping ill virus (liv), langat virus (lgtv) and powassan virus (powv), also ...200312615309
tick-borne encephalitis with hemorrhagic syndrome, novosibirsk region, russia, 1999.eight fatal cases of tick-borne encephalitis with an unusual hemorrhagic syndrome were identified in 1999 in the novosibirsk region, russia. to study these strains, we sequenced cdna fragments of protein e gene from six archival formalin-fixed brain samples. phylogenetic analysis showed tick-borne encephalitis variants clustered with a far eastern subtype (homology 94.7%) but not with the siberian subtype (82%).200312781020
[the alkhurma virus (family flaviviridae, genus flavivirus): an emerging pathogen responsible for hemorrhage fever in the middle east].to date tick-borne flaviviruses causing hemorrhagic fevers in humans have been isolated in siberia (omsk hemorrhagic fever virus), india (kyasanur forest disease virus), and saudi arabia (akhurma virus). because of their potential use as biological weapons for bioterrorism, these 3 viruses require level 4 biosafety handling facilities and have been listed as hypervirulent pathogens by the center for disease control and prevention. alkhurma virus was isolated in 1995 from patients with hemorrhagi ...200314579470
tick-borne flaviviruses.tick-borne encephalitis (tbe), one of the most dangerous neuroinfections in europe and asia, is caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) and currently involves approximately 11,000 human cases annually, mostly in russia. this chapter describes the main problems associated with the epidemiology, ecology, pathogenesis, and control of this disease. we have attempted to review the factors that influence the incidence and distribution of tbe, and to discuss possible reasons for the different cl ...200314714436
low diversity of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus, saudi arabia, 1994-1999.alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (genus flavivirus, ahfv) was recently identified as the agent of a viral hemorrhagic fever in saudi arabia and characterized serologically and genetically as a variant genotype of kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv). since viral diagnosis and vaccine development may be hindered by genetic diversity, this study was intended to address ahfv genetic heterogeneity. eleven strains isolated from hospitalized patients from 1994 to 1999 in saudi arabia were sequenced in ...200515890119
alkhumra virus infection, a new viral hemorrhagic fever in saudi arabia.four patients with typical acute viral hemorrhagic fever were identified in the holy city of makkah, saudi arabia, between 8 and 23 february 2001, the hajj (pilgrimage) period of that year. tests for rift valley fever (rvf), crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (cchf), and dengue were negative. blood specimens were sent to the centres for disease control and prevention (cdc), atlanta for viral culture and testing for other hemorrhagic fever viruses. a new flavivirus closely related to the tick-borne ...200516038757
kyasanur forest disease: an epidemiological view in india.kyasanur forest disease (kfd) was first recognised as a febrile illness in the shimoga district of karnataka state of india. the causative agent, kfd virus (kfdv), is a highly pathogenic member in the family flaviviridae, producing a haemorrhagic disease in infected human beings. kfd is a zoonotic disease and has so far been localised only in a southern part of india. the exact cause of its emergence in the mid 1950s is not known. a variant of kfdv, characterised serologically and genetically as ...200616710839
tickborne encephalitis virus, norway and denmark.serum from 2 norwegians with tickborne encephalitis (tbe) (1 of whom was infected in denmark) and 810 norwegian ticks were tested for tbe virus (tbev) rna by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. sequencing and phylogenetic analysis were performed. this is the first genome detection of tbev in serum from norwegian patients.200616836835
genetic characterization of tick-borne flaviviruses: new insights into evolution, pathogenetic determinants and taxonomy.here, we analyze the complete coding sequences of all recognized tick-borne flavivirus species, including gadgets gully, royal farm and karshi virus, seabird-associated flaviviruses, kadam virus and previously uncharacterized isolates of kyasanur forest disease virus and omsk hemorrhagic fever virus. significant taxonomic improvements are proposed, e.g. the identification of three major groups (mammalian, seabird and kadam tick-borne flavivirus groups), the creation of a new species (karshi viru ...200717169393
tick-borne flavivirus infection in ixodes scapularis larvae: development of a novel method for synchronous viral infection of ticks.following a bite from an infected tick, tick-borne flaviviruses cause encephalitis, meningitis and hemorrhagic fever in humans. although these viruses spend most of their time in the tick, little is known regarding the virus-vector interactions. we developed a simple method for synchronously infecting ixodes scapularis larvae with langat virus (lgtv) by immersion in media containing the virus. this technique resulted in approximately 96% of ticks becoming infected. lgtv infection and replication ...200717490700
novel variant of tickborne encephalitis virus, russia.we isolated a novel strain of tickborne encephalitis virus (tbev), glubinnoe/2004, from a patient with a fatal case in russia. we sequenced the strain, whose landmark features included 57 amino acid substitutions and 5 modified cleavage sites. phylogenetically, glubinnoe/2004 is a novel variant that belongs to the eastern type of tbev.200718258012
isolation of kyasanur forest disease virus from febrile patient, yunnan, china.we recently determined that nanjianyin virus, isolated from serum of a patient in yunnan province, china, in 1989, is a type of kyasanur forest disease virus. results of a 1987-1990 seroepidemiologic investigation in yunnan province had shown that residents of the hengduan mountain region had been infected with nanjianyin virus.200919193286
the zoonotic flaviviruses of southern, south-eastern and eastern asia, and australasia: the potential for emergent viruses.the genus flaviviridae comprises about 70 members, of which about 30 are found in southern, south-eastern and eastern asia and australasia. these include major pathogens such as japanese encephalitis (je), west nile (wn), murray valley encephalitis (mve), tick-borne encephalitis, kyasanur forest disease virus, and the dengue viruses. other members are known to be associated with mild febrile disease in humans, or with no known disease. in addition, novel flaviviruses continue to be discovered, a ...200919486319
recent ancestry of kyasanur forest disease virus.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) is enzootic to india and maintained in ticks, mammals, and birds. it causes severe febrile illness in humans and was first recognized in 1957 associated with a high number of deaths among monkeys in kyasanur forest. genetic analysis of 48 viruses isolated in india during 1957-2006 showed low diversity (1.2%). bayesian coalescence analysis of these sequences and those of kfdvs from saudi arabia and the people's republic of china estimated that kfdvs have evolv ...200919788811
the neglected arboviral infections in mainland china.the major arboviral diseases in mainland china include japanese encephalitis, dengue fever, crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever (also known as xinjiang hemorrhagic fever), and tick-borne encephalitis. these and other newly found arbovirus infections due to banna virus and tahyna virus contribute to a large and relatively neglected disease burden in china. here we briefly review the literature regarding these arboviral infections in mainland china with emphasis on their epidemiology, primary vectors, ...201020436960
tick-borne flaviviruses.there has been a remarkable increase in tick-borne flaviviral disease incidence throughout the past 2 decades. transmission of tick-borne viruses, like other vector-borne agents, is impacted by a very broad set of factors, both natural (eg, climate and ecology) and man-made (eg, human mobility and agricultural patterns). as our encroachment into areas of virus endemicity intensifies, and as changes in global economic and environmental conditions continue to promote the expansion of tick populati ...201020513549
molecular epidemiology of powassan virus in north america.powassan virus (pow) is a tick-borne flavivirus distributed in canada, the northern usa and the primorsky region of russia. pow is the only tick-borne flavivirus endemic to the western hemisphere, where it is transmitted mainly between ixodes cookei and groundhogs (marmota monax). deer tick virus (dtv), a genotype of pow that has been frequently isolated from deer ticks (ixodes scapularis), appears to be maintained in an enzootic cycle between these ticks and white-footed mice (peromyscus leucop ...201020631087
computer-based comparison of structural features of envelope protein of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus with the homologous proteins of two closest viruses.the aim of this study was prediction of epitopes and medically important structural properties of protein e of alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) and comparing these features with two closely relates viruses, i.e. kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) and tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) by bioinformatics tools. prediction of evolutionary distance, localization, sequence of signal peptides, c, n o glycosylation sites, transmembrane helices (tmhs), cysteine bond positions and b cell and t ...201121235484
kyasanur forest disease virus alkhurma subtype in ticks, najran province, saudi arabia.to the editor: the lineage of kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) found in the kingdom of saudi arabia is commonly referred to as alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv). this virus was first isolated from a specimen collected in 1994 from a butcher living in makkah province, who was hospitalized for a hemorrhagic fever from which he died (1). the virus was assigned to the genus flavivirus on the basis of reactivity with genus-specific monoclonal antibodies and sequencing of a fragment of the n ...201121529425
alkhurma hemorrhagic fever in travelers returning from egypt, 2010.to the editor: the report of 2 visitors from italy being infected by alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) in southeastern egypt near the border with sudan (1) provides useful data to help clarify the evolutionary origin of these tick-borne flaviviruses. ahfv was first isolated in saudi arabia and is associated with camel ticks (2). it is a genetically close relative of kyasanur forest disease virus, which was first isolated in india in 1957. following the original isolation of kyasanur forest ...201121801660
ancient ancestry of kfdv and ahfv revealed by complete genome analyses of viruses isolated from ticks and mammalian hosts.alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) and kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) cause significant human disease and mortality in saudi arabia and india, respectively. despite their distinct geographic ranges, ahfv and kfdv share a remarkably high sequence identity. given its emergence decades after kfdv, ahfv has since been considered a variant of kfdv and thought to have arisen from an introduction of kfdv to saudi arabia from india. to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary history o ...201121991403
evaluation of the human host range of bovine and porcine viruses that may contaminate bovine serum and porcine trypsin used in the manufacture of biological products.current u.s. requirements for testing cell substrates used in production of human biological products for contamination with bovine and porcine viruses are u.s. department of agriculture (usda) 9cfr tests for bovine serum or porcine trypsin. 9cfr requires testing of bovine serum for seven specific viruses in six families (immunofluorescence) and at least 2 additional families non-specifically (cytopathicity and hemadsorption). 9cfr testing of porcine trypsin is for porcine parvovirus. recent con ...201122000165
IRGM Is a Common Target of RNA Viruses that Subvert the Autophagy Network.Autophagy is a conserved degradative pathway used as a host defense mechanism against intracellular pathogens. However, several viruses can evade or subvert autophagy to insure their own replication. Nevertheless, the molecular details of viral interaction with autophagy remain largely unknown. We have determined the ability of 83 proteins of several families of RNA viruses (Paramyxoviridae, Flaviviridae, Orthomyxoviridae, Retroviridae and Togaviridae), to interact with 44 human autophagy-associ ...201122174682
the generation of a reverse genetics system for kyasanur forest disease virus and the ability to antagonize the induction of the antiviral state in vitro.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) is a tick-borne, hemorrhagic fever-causing member of the flaviviridae virus family. with infections annually ranging from 50 to 1000 people in south-west india and the lack of effective treatments, a better understanding of this virus is needed. the development of a reverse genetics system (rgs) for kfdv would provide the opportunity to address these issues. the kfdv genome sequence was elucidated and the rgs was created. utilizing this system, live infectiou ...201122100401
revisiting the clinal concept of evolution and dispersal for the tick-borne flaviviruses by using phylogenetic and biogeographic analyses.tick-borne flaviviruses (tbf) are widely dispersed across africa, europe, asia, oceania, and north america, and some present a significant threat to human health. seminal studies on tick-borne encephalitis viruses (tbev), based on partial envelope gene sequences, predicted a westward clinal pattern of evolution and dispersal across northern eurasia, terminating in the british isles. we tested this hypothesis using all available full-length open reading frame (orf) tbf sequences. phylogenetic ana ...201222674986
kyasanur forest disease.in the spring of 1957, an outbreak of severe disease was documented in people living near the kyasanur forest in karnataka state, india, which also affected wild nonhuman primates. collection of samples from dead animals and the use of classical virological techniques led to the isolation of a previously unrecognized virus, named kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), which was found to be related to the russian spring-summer encephalitis (rsse) complex of tick-borne viruses. further evaluation f ...201223110991
kyasanur forest disease virus: viremia and challenge studies in monkeys with evidence of cross-protection by langat virus infection.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), discovered in 1957, is a member of the tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) complex. diseases caused by members of the tbev complex occur in many parts of the world. kfdv produces a hemorrhagic fever in humans in south india and fatal illnesses in both species of monkeys in the area, the black faced langur (presbytis entellus) and the bonnet macaque (macaca radiata). experimental infection of the langur and the bonnet macaque with early mouse passage kfdv st ...201224627765
pathogenesis of modoc virus (flaviviridae; flavivirus) in persistently infected hamsters.the long-term persistence of modoc virus (modv) infection was investigated in a hamster model. golden hamsters (mesocricetus auratus) were infected by subcutaneous inoculation with modv, in which fatal encephalitis developed in 12.5% (2 of 16). surviving hamsters shed infectious modv in their urine during the first five months after infection, and infectious modv was recovered by co-cultivation of kidney tissue up to eight months after infection. there were no histopathologic changes observed in ...201323358636
vaccines for viral hemorrhagic fevers--progress and shortcomings.with a few exceptions, vaccines for viruses that cause hemorrhagic fever remain unavailable or lack well-documented efficacy. in the past decade this has not been due to a lack of the ability to develop vaccine platforms against highly pathogenic viruses, but rather the lack of will/interest to invest in platforms that have the potential to become successful vaccines. the two exceptions to this are vaccines against dengue virus (denv) and rift valley fever virus (rvfv), which recently have seen ...201323773330
animal models of tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses.tick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses (tbhfv) are detected throughout the african and eurasian continents and are an emerging or re-emerging threat to many nations. due to the largely sporadic incidences of these severe diseases, information on human cases and research activities in general have been limited. in the past decade, however, novel tbhfvs have emerged and areas of endemicity have expanded. therefore, the development of countermeasures is of utmost importance in combating tbhfv as elim ...201325437041
emerging and re-emerging arboviral diseases in southeast asia.arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) have become significant public health problems, with the emergence and re-emergence of arboviral diseases nearly worldwide. the most populated southeast asia region is particularly vulnerable. the arboviral diseases such as dengue (den), japanese encephalitis (je), west nile virus (wnv), chikungunya fever (chik), hemorrhagic fevers such as crimean-congo hemorrhagic (cchf) fever, kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), etc. are on the rise and have spread unpre ...201323995308
outbreak of kyasanur forest disease in thirthahalli, karnataka, india, 2014.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) was first identified in 1957, when it was isolated from a sick monkey from the kyasanur forest in karnataka state, india. since then it has been reported to be enzootic in five districts of karnataka state, india. recent reports of human infections have reached an alarming level, in spite of the availability of a vaccine. this disease has also been reported from new areas, such as tamil nadu and kerala state. during january-march 2014, kfdv-positive cases wer ...201425063021
complete genome sequencing and genetic characterization of alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus isolated from najran, saudi arabia.alkhumra hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) is a newly described flavivirus first isolated in 1994-1995 from the alkhumra district south of jeddah, saudi arabia. subsequently, the virus was also isolated from makkah (2001-2003) and najran (2008-2009), saudi arabia.201425096447
tick-borne viruses: a review from the perspective of therapeutic approaches.several important human diseases worldwide are caused by tick-borne viruses. these diseases have become important public health concerns in recent years. the tick-borne viruses that cause diseases in humans mainly belong to 3 families: bunyaviridae, flaviviridae, and reoviridae. in this review, we focus on therapeutic approaches for several of the more important tick-borne viruses from these 3 families. these viruses are crimean-congo hemorrhagic fever virus (cchf) and the newly discovered tick- ...201424907187
problem of ticks and tick-borne diseases in india with special emphasis on progress in tick control research: a review.ticks, as vectors of several zoonotic diseases, are ranked second only to mosquitoes as vectors. the diseases spread by ticks are a major constraint to animal productivity while causing morbidity and mortality in both animals and humans. a number of tick species have been recognised since long as vectors of lethal pathogens, viz. crimean-congo haemorrhagic fever virus (cchfv), kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), babesia spp, theileria, rickettsia conorii, anaplasma marginale, etc. and the dama ...201425540956
role of india's wildlife in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonotic pathogens, risk factors and public health implications.evolving land use practices have led to an increase in interactions at the human/wildlife interface. the presence and poor knowledge of zoonotic pathogens in india's wildlife and the occurrence of enormous human populations interfacing with, and critically linked to, forest ecosystems warrant attention. factors such as diverse migratory bird populations, climate change, expanding human population and shrinking wildlife habitats play a significant role in the emergence and re-emergence of zoonoti ...201424983511
the role of platelets in the pathogenesis of viral hemorrhagic fevers.viral hemorrhagic fevers (vhf) are acute zoonotic diseases that, early on, seem to cause platelet destruction or dysfunction. here we present the four major ways viruses affect platelet development and function and new evidence of molecular factors that are preferentially induced by the more pathogenic members of the families flaviviridae, bunyaviridae, arenaviridae, and filoviridae. a systematic search was performed through the main medical electronic databases using as parameters all current f ...201424921924
the relationship between the structure of the tick-borne encephalitis virus strains and their pathogenic properties.tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev) is transmitted to vertebrates by taiga or forest ticks through bites, inducing disease of variable severity. the reasons underlying these differences in the severity of the disease are unknown. in order to identify genetic factors affecting the pathogenicity of virus strains, we have sequenced and compared the complete genomes of 34 far-eastern subtype (fe) tbev strains isolated from patients with different disease severity (primorye, the russian far east). w ...201424740396
kyasanur forest disease virus infection in mice is associated with higher morbidity and mortality than infection with the closely related alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus.kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv) and alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) are closely related members of the flavivirus genus and are important causes of human disease in india and the arabian peninsula, respectively. despite high genetic similarity, the viruses have distinctly different host ranges and ecologies. human cases of kfdv or ahfv develop a spectrum of disease syndromes ranging from liver pathology to neurologic disease. case reports suggest kfdv is more commonly associated wit ...201424950196
inhibitors of the tick-borne, hemorrhagic fever-associated flaviviruses.no antiviral therapies are available for the tick-borne flaviviruses associated with hemorrhagic fevers: kyasanur forest disease virus (kfdv), both classical and the alkhurma hemorrhagic fever virus (ahfv) subtype, and omsk hemorrhagic fever virus (ohfv). we tested compounds reported to have antiviral activity against members of the flaviviridae family for their ability to inhibit ahfv replication. 6-azauridine (6-azau), 2'-c-methylcytidine (2'-cmc), and interferon alpha 2a (ifn-α2a) inhibited t ...201424663025
the role of viral persistence in flavivirus biology.in nature, vector-borne flaviviruses are persistently cycled between either the tick or mosquito vector and small mammals such as rodents, skunks, and swine. these viruses account for considerable human morbidity and mortality worldwide. increasing and substantial evidence of viral persistence in humans, which includes the isolation of rna by rt-pcr and infectious virus by culture, continues to be reported. viral persistence can also be established in vitro in various human, animal, arachnid, an ...201424737600
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