production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes by monoculture and co-culture of aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus under ssf of banana peels.filamentous fungi are considered to be the most important group of microorganisms for the production of plant cell wall degrading enzymes (cwde), in solid state fermentations. in this study, two fungal strains aspergillus niger ms23 and aspergillus terreus ms105 were screened for plant cwde such as amylase, pectinase, xylanase and cellulases (β-glucosidase, endoglucanase and filterpaperase) using a novel substrate, banana peels (bp) for ssf process. this is the first study, to the best of our kn ...201425763058
overexpression of a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase results in an increased itaconic acid productivity in aspergillus niger.a modified 6-phosphofructo-1-kinase was expressed in a citrate producing aspergillus niger strain in combination with cis-aconitate decarboxylase from aspergillus terreus to study the effect on the production of itaconic acid. the modified pfka gene was also expressed in combination with the itaconic acid biosynthetic cluster from a. terreus, which consists of cis-aconitate decarboxylase cada, a putative mitochondrial transporter mtta and a putative plasmamembrane transporter mfsa. the combined ...201324034235
targeting enzymes to the right compartment: metabolic engineering for itaconic acid production by aspergillus niger.itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block. it can be microbially produced from some aspergillus species, such as aspergillus itaconicus and aspergillus terreus. however, the achieved titers are significantly lower as compared to the citric acid production by a. niger. heterologous expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase in a. niger leads to the accumulation of small amounts of itaconic acid. additional expression of aconitase, ...201323727192
reduced by-product formation and modified oxygen availability improve itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger.aspergillus niger has an extraordinary potential to produce organic acids as proven by its application in industrial citric acid production. previously, it was shown that expression of the cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cada) from aspergillus terreus converted a. niger into an itaconic acid producer (li et al., fungal genet bio 48: 602-611, 2011). after some initial steps in production optimization in the previous research (li et al., bmc biotechnol 12: 57, 2012), this research aims at modify ...201323397482
enhanced itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger using genetic modification and medium optimization.aspergillus niger was selected as a host for producing itaconic acid due to its versatile and tolerant character in various growth environments, and its extremely high capacity of accumulating the precursor of itaconic acid: citric acid. expressing the cad gene from aspergillus terreus opened the metabolic pathway towards itaconic acid in a. niger. in order to increase the production level, we continued by modifying its genome and optimizing cultivation media.201222925689
six novel constitutive promoters for metabolic engineering of aspergillus niger.genetic tools for the fine-tuning of gene expression levels are a prerequisite for rational strain optimization through metabolic engineering. while aspergillus niger is an industrially important fungus, widely used for production of organic acids and heterologous proteins, the available genetic tool box for this organism is still rather limited. here, we characterize six novel constitutive promoters of a. niger providing different expression levels. the selection of the promoters was based on p ...201322707054
the hydrolysis of agro-industrial residues by holocellulose-degrading enzymes.holocellulose structures from agro-industrial residues rely on main and side chain attacking enzymes with different specificities for complete hydrolysis. combinations of crude enzymatic extracts from different fungal species, including aspergillus terreus, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus niger and trichoderma longibrachiatum, were applied to sugar cane bagasse, banana stem and dirty cotton residue to investigate the hydrolysis of holocellulose structures. a. terreus and a. oryzae were the best ...201224031857
raw starch degrading amylase production by various fungal cultures grown on cassava waste.the solid waste of sago industry using cassava was fermented by aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus and rhizopus stolonifer in solid state fermentation. cassava waste contained 52 per cent starch and 2.9 per cent protein by dry weight. the amylase activity was maintained at a high level and the highest amylase activity was observed on the 8(th) day in r. stolonifer mediated fermentation. r. stolonifer was more efficient than aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus in bioconverting cassava w ...200624039485
[identification of target extracellular proteases--activators of proteins of haemostasis system produced by micromycetes aspergillus ochraceus and aspergillus terreus].effects of extracellular proteases of aspergillus ochraceus and aspergillus terreus on plasma hemostasis proteins, consist of initiating the activation of prothrombin complex proteins, was detected. was discovered, that a. ochraceus proteases have a direct influence on protein c and coagulation factor x, and a. terreus proteases causes their activation indirectly through kallikrein system stimulation. the ability of extracellular proteases of micromycetes activate prekallikrein in human blood pl ...201626762093
c7-prenylation of tryptophanyl and o-prenylation of tyrosyl residues in dipeptides by an aspergillus terreus prenyltransferase.during our search for novel prenyltransferases, a putative gene ateg_04218 from aspergillus terreus raised our attention and was therefore amplified from strain dsm 1958 and expressed in escherichia coli. biochemical investigations with the purified recombinant protein and different aromatic substrates in the presence of dimethylallyl diphosphate revealed the acceptance of all the tested tryptophan-containing cyclic dipeptides. structure elucidation of the main enzyme products by nmr and ms anal ...201525125042
filamentous fungal diversity and community structure associated with the solid state fermentation of chinese maotai-flavor liquor.maotai-flavor liquor is produced by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (ssf) process under solid state conditions, including daqu (starter) making, stacking fermentation and alcohol fermentation stages. filamentous fungi produce many enzymes to degrade the starch material into fermentable sugar during liquor fermentation. this study investigated the filamentous fungal community associated with liquor making process. eight and seven different fungal species were identified by using cu ...201424742997
transcriptomic complexity of aspergillus terreus velvet gene family under the influence of butyrolactone i.filamentous fungi of the ascomycota phylum are known to contain a family of conserved conidiation regulating proteins with distinctive velvet domains. in aspergilli, this velvet family includes four proteins, vea, velb, velc and vosa, and is involved in conidiation and secondary metabolism along with a global regulator laea. in a. terreus, the overexpression of laea has been observed to increase the biogenesis of the pharmaceutically-important secondary metabolite, lovastatin, while the role of ...201728335447
bimolecular rate constants for fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase from aspergillus terreus and organic electron acceptors.the flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (fad-gdh) from aspergillus species require suitable redox mediators to transfer electrons from the enzyme to the electrode surface for the application of bioelectrical devices. although several mediators for fad-gdh are already in use, they are still far from optimum in view of potential, kinetics, sustainability, and cost-effectiveness. herein, we investigated the efficiency of various phenothiazines and quinones in the electrochem ...201728287419
bioactive compounds of aspergillus terreus-f7, an endophytic fungus from hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit.the compounds terrein (1), butyrolactone i (2), and butyrolactone v (3) were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract (etoac) of the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus-f7 obtained from hyptis suaveolens (l.) poit. the extract and the compounds presented schistosomicidal activity against schistosoma mansoni; at 100 µg/ml for etoac extract, 1297.3 µm for compound 1, 235.6 µm for compound 2, and 454.1 µm for compound 3, they killed 100% of the parasites after 72 h of treatment. compounds 1, 2, an ...201728243983
enhancing the thermostability of α-l-rhamnosidase from aspergillus terreus and the enzymatic conversion of rutin to isoquercitrin by adding sorbitol.thermally stable α-l-rhamnosidase with cleaving terminal α-l-rhamnose activity has great potential in industrial application. therefore, it is necessary to find a proper method to improve the thermal stability of α-l-rhamnosidase.201728241810
process development of itaconic acid production by a natural wild type strain of aspergillus terreus to reach industrially relevant final titers.itaconic acid is a promising organic acid and is commercially produced by submerged fermentation of aspergillus terreus. the cultivation process of the sensitive filamentous fungus has been studied intensively since 1932, with respect to fermentation media components, oxygen supply, shearing rate, ph value, or culture method. whereas increased final titers were achieved over the years, the productivity has so far remained quite low. in this study, the impact of the ph on the itaconic acid produc ...201728235991
a case report of intravenous posaconazole in hepatic and renal impairment patient with invasive aspergillus terreus infection: safety and role of therapeutic drug monitoring.invasive aspergillosis (ia) is a fatal infectious complication among immunocompromised patients. aspergillus terreus, the fourth common species can be difficult to treat due to a unique resistance pattern. to date, there has been no report on safety and dose adjustment when intravenous posaconazole is selected in hepatic and renal impairment patient. we present a rare case of intravenous posaconazole use in a hepatic and renal impairment patient with invasive a. terreus pulmonary infection. to o ...201728143591
production of lovastatin and itaconic acid by aspergillus terreus: a comparative perspective.aspergillus terreus is a textbook example of an industrially relevant filamentous fungus. it is used for the biotechnological production of two valuable metabolites, namely itaconic acid and lovastatin. itaconic acid serves as a precursor in polymer industry, whereas lovastatin found its place in the pharmaceutical market as a cholesterol-lowering statin drug and a precursor for semisynthetic statins. interestingly, their biosynthetic gene clusters were shown to reside in the common genetic neig ...201728102516
amhezole, a novel fungal secondary metabolite from aspergillus terreus for treatment of microbial mouth fractionation of aspergillus terreus extract leads to isolation of a novel terpenoidal secondary metabolite. the isolated compound and the total alcoholic extract of aspergillus terreus showed a remarkable activity against microbial mouth infections; namely, candida albicans, lactobacillus acidophilus, streptococcus gordonii, and s. mutan. moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration of the isolated compound was determined and showed low values. the combination of each of the alcoho ...201728083890
aspergillus terreus brain abscess complicated by tension pneumocephalus in a patient with angiosarcoma.background aspergillus terreus is an evolving opportunistic pathogen, and patients with a. terreus often have poor outcomes due to its intrinsic resistance to several systemic antifungal agents. here we present a unique case of intracranial abscesses of a. terreus in a patient with recurrent angiosarcoma, complicated by development of tension pneumocephalus. case report a 67-year old gentleman with history of scalp angiosarcoma with wide excision two years prior presented to the hospital for lef ...201728070116
production of itaconate by whole-cell bioconversion of citrate mediated by expression of multiple cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cada) genes in escherichia coli.itaconate, a c5 unsaturated dicarboxylic acid, is an important chemical building block that is used in manufacturing high-value products, such as latex and superabsorbent polymers. itaconate is produced by fermentation of sugars by the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus. however, fermentation by a. terreus involves a long fermentation period and the formation of various byproducts, resulting in high production costs. e. coli has been developed as an alternative for producing itaconate. howev ...201728051098
asperterpenes a and b, two unprecedented meroterpenoids from aspergillus terreus with bace1 inhibitory activities.asperterpenes a (1) and b (2), two 3,5-dimethylorsellinic acid-based meroterpenoids that contain a unique β-oriented me-21 with an unprecedented 1,2,5-trimethyl-4,9-dioxobicyclo[3.3.1]non-2-ene-3-carboxylic acid moiety, were obtained from aspergillus terreus in very limited amounts of 3.6 mg and 1.8 mg, respectively. the absolute structure of 1 was determined using x-ray diffraction. because of the low yield of 1, a comprehensive characterization of the bace1 inhibitory activities of 1 was compl ...201628042460
environmental cues that induce the physiology of solid medium: a study on lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus.the aim of this work was to identify the main environmental factors that induce the special physiology displayed by fungi growing in solid culture-that is, higher secondary metabolite (sm) production-compared with those in submerged culture.201728032938
gem-diprenylation of acylphloroglucinols by a fungal prenyltransferase of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfamily.aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase (atapt) catalyzes predominantly c-monoprenylation of acylphloroglucinols in the presence of different prenyl diphosphates. with dimethylallyl diphosphate (dmapp) as prenyl donor, gem-diprenylated products 1d3, 2d3, and 3d3 were also detected. high conversion of 1d1 to 1d3, 2d1 to 2d3, and 3d1 to 3d3 was demonstrated by incubation with atapt and dmapp. the first example of gem-diprenylation by a member of the dimethylallyltryptophan synthase superfam ...201728029789
engineering thermostable (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus through in silico design employing b-factor and folding free energy calculations.amine transaminases have recently gained a lot of attention for the synthesis of chiral amines. using (r)-selective amine transaminase from aspergillus terreus (at-ata) as a transaminase model, in silico design was applied employing b-factor and folding free energy (δδg(fold)) calculations. mutation sites were selected by targeting flexible regions with the greatest b-factors, and were substituted with amino acids that were determined by folding free energy calculations (δδg(fold) < 0) to be mor ...201728017723
fungal endocarditis presenting with right lumbar pain and femoral artery ischemia - an unusual case report.fungal endocarditis is a rare entity which has a poor outcome. our case reports an atypical presentation of similar pathology now presenting with femoral artery ischemia in an immune competent individual. a 62-year asian male presented with sudden onset of right sided lumbar pain. initial clinical exam was consistent with right sided renal colic. intravenous analgesia did not relieve the pain. repeat clinical examination revealed absent right femoral artery pulsation. the patient underwent a com ...201627995211
molecular insights into the enzyme promiscuity of an aromatic prenyltransferase.aromatic prenyltransferases (aptases) transfer prenyl moieties from isoprenoid donors to various aromatic acceptors, some of which have the rare property of extreme enzymatic promiscuity toward both a variety of prenyl donors and a large diversity of acceptors. in this study, we discovered a new aptase, atapt, from aspergillus terreus that exhibits unprecedented promiscuity toward diverse aromatic acceptors and prenyl donors and also yields products with a range of prenylation patterns. systemat ...201727992881
enhanced production of itaconic acid through development of transformed fungal strains of aspergillus terreus.metabolic engineering with a high-yielding mutant, a. terreus an37, was performed to enhance the production of itaconic acid (ia). reportedly, the gene cluster for ia biosynthesis is composed of four genes: reg (regulator), mtt (mitochondrial transporter), cad (cis-aconitate decarboxylase), and mfs (membrane transporter). by overexpressing each gene of the ia gene cluster in a. terreus an37 transformed by the restriction enzyme-mediated integration method, several transformants showing high prod ...201727974733
emerging biotechnologies for production of itaconic acid and its applications as a platform chemical.recently, itaconic acid (ia), an unsaturated c5-dicarboxylic acid, has attracted much attention as a biobased building block chemical. it is produced industrially (>80 g l(-1)) from glucose by fermentation with aspergillus terreus. the titer is low compared with citric acid production (>200 g l(-1)). this review summarizes the latest progress on enhancing the yield and productivity of ia production. ia biosynthesis involves the decarboxylation of the tca cycle intermediate cis-aconitate through ...201727933436
phytotoxic, antifungal and immunosuppressive metabolites from aspergillus terreus qt122 isolated from the gut of dragonfly.insect gut microbes have been considered as a resource for bioactive metabolites. the aim of this study was to characterize the compounds of a fungus aspergillus terreus qt122 associated with the gut of dragonfly. five main phytotoxic, antifungal, and immunosuppressive substances were isolated from the fungus qt122. the structures of such compounds were identified as emodin (1), 1-methyl emodin (2), terrein (3), methyl 6-acetyl-4-methoxy-7,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-2-carboxylate (4), and dihydrogeo ...201727844127
development of miniaturized culture systems for large screening of mycelial fungal cells of aspergillus terreus producing itaconic acid.the task of improving a fungal strain is both expensive and time-consuming due to the fact that it requires a large number of flasks and fermenters in order to obtain a library with enough diversity. in addition, fermentations (particularly those for fungal cells) are typically performed in high-volume (100~250 ml) shake-flasks. in this study, for large and rapid screening of high-yielding mutants of itaconic acid (ia)-producing aspergillus terreus, we attempted to develop a miniaturized culture ...201627840400
the culturable mycobiota of a mediterranean marine site after an oil spill: isolation, identification and potential application in bioremediation.bioremediation of marine environment could be the response to oil spills threats. in the present study the fungal community from a mediterranean marine site chronically interested by oil spills was investigated. sixty-seven taxa were isolated from water sample and 17 from sediments; for many of the identified species is the first report in seawater and sediments, respectively. the growth of 25% of the fungal isolates was stimulated by crude oil as sole carbon source. four strains were selected t ...201727788446
collagenase produced from aspergillus sp. (ucp 1276) using chicken feather industrial extracellular collagenolytic serine protease was purified from aspergillus sp., isolated from the caatinga biome in northeast brazil by a two-step chromatographic procedure, using an anion-exchanger and gel filtration. the enzyme was produced by submerged fermentation of feather residue as a substrate. the purified collagenase showed a 2.09-fold increase in specific activity and 22.85% yield. the enzyme was a monomeric protein with a molecular mass of 28.7 kda, estimated by an sds-page and ak ...201727808430
model-based metabolic engineering enables high yield itaconic acid production by escherichia coli.itaconic acid is a high potential platform chemical which is currently industrially produced by aspergillus terreus. heterologous production of itaconic acid with escherichia coli could help to overcome limitations of a. terreus regarding slow growth and high sensitivity to oxygen supply. however, the performance achieved so far with e. coli strains is still low. we introduced a plasmid (pcadcs) carrying genes for itaconic acid production into e. coli and applied a model-based approach to constr ...201627269589
gentamicin removal in submerged fermentation using the novel fungal strain aspergillus terreus concern and awareness of the potential risk posed by environmental residues of antibiotics such as gentamicin in the development of antibiotic resistance genes have increased. the present study used laboratory-scale experiments to develop methods for gentamicin removal from the environment. a fungus, strain fzc3, which could remove gentamicin in submerged fermentation, was isolated from solid waste and sewage water from a gentamicin production factory. the fungus was identified as aspergi ...201627775038
genetic and biochemical insights into the itaconate pathway of ustilago maydis enable enhanced production.the ustilaginaceae family of smut fungi, especially ustilago maydis, gained biotechnological interest over the last years, amongst others due to its ability to naturally produce the versatile bio-based building block itaconate. along with itaconate, u. maydis also produces 2-hydroxyparaconate. the latter was proposed to be derived from itaconate, but the underlying biochemistry and associated genes were thus far unknown. here, we confirm that 2-hydroxyparaconate is a secondary metabolite of u. m ...201627750034
recurrent aspergillus terreus endophthalmitis from focal bronchiectasis. 201627715366
vine trimming shoots as substrate for ferulic acid esterases production.ferulic acid esterases (fae) possess a large variety of biotechnological applications mainly based on their ability to release ferulic acid from lignocellulosic matrixes. the use of vine trimming shoots (vts), an agricultural waste, as substrate for the generation of this kind of esterases represents an attractive alternative to change the consideration of vts from residue to resource. furthermore, xylanase, cellobiase, and cellulase activities were quantified. six microorganisms were screened f ...201727682859
do cultural conditions induce differential protein expression: profiling of extracellular proteome of aspergillus terreus cm20.the present study reports the diversity in extracellular proteins expressed by the filamentous fungus, aspergillus terreus cm20 with respect to differential hydrolytic enzyme production profiles in submerged fermentation (smf) and solid-state fermentation (ssf) conditions, and analysis of the extracellular proteome. the ssf method was superior in terms of increase in enzyme activities resulting in 1.5-3 fold enhancement as compared to smf, which was explained by the difference in growth pattern ...201627664725
purification of lovastatin from aspergillus terreus (km017963) and evaluation of its anticancer and antioxidant properties.cervical cancer is the second most common malignancy in women worldwide and thus one of the leading causes of mortality in women. lovastatin, a non polar, anticholesterol drug has previously been reported to exert antitumour activity in vitro. in the present study, lovastatin from aspergillus terreus (km017963) was purified by adsorption chromatography and evaluated for its anticancer and anti-oxidant properties with a human cervical cancer cell line (hela). growth inhibitory and proapoptotic ef ...201627644619
isolation and identification of phase i metabolites of butyrolactone i in rats.1. butyrolactone i (bl-i), one of the major secondary metabolites of fungus aspergillus terreus, is a selective cdc2 kinase inhibitor. in the present study, the metabolism of bl-i in male wistar rats was investigated by characterizing metabolites excreted into feces. 2. following an oral dose of 40 mg/kg bl-i, 10 phase i metabolites were isolated from the feces of rats, and their structures were identified on the basis of a range of spectroscopic data and icd analysis. these metabolites were ful ...201727604497
polyketides in aspergillus terreus: biosynthesis pathway discovery and application.the knowledge of biosynthesis gene clusters, production improving methods, and bioactivity mechanisms is very important for the development of filamentous fungi metabolites. metabolic engineering and heterologous expression methods can be applied to improve desired metabolite production, when their biosynthesis pathways have been revealed. and, stable supplement is a necessary basis of bioactivity mechanism discovery and following clinical trial. aspergillus terreus is an outstanding producer of ...201627455860
feruloyl esterase production by aspergillus terreus cect 2808 and subsequent application to enzymatic hydrolysis.ferulic acid esterases (fae) were produced by aspergillus terreus cect 2808 from vine trimming shoots (vts) and corn cob. later, the fungal extracts thus obtained were used to enzymatically release ferulic acid (fa) from both substrates. our findings showed a higher fae activity in the enzymatic extracts produced on corn cob (0.070±0.004u/ml). nevertheless, the enzymatic extracts produced on vts demonstrated a better performance for fa release from both corn cob (2.05±0.01mg/g) and vts (0.19±0.0 ...201627444329
evaluating bionanoparticle infused fungal metabolites as a novel antimicrobial agent.therapeutic properties of fungal metabolites and silver nanoparticles have been well documented. while fungal metabolites have been used for centuries as medicinal drugs, potential of biogenic silver nanoparticles has recently received attention. we have evaluated the antimicrobial potential of aspergillus terreus crude extract, silver nanoparticles and an amalgamation of both against four pathogenic bacterial strains. antimicrobial activity of the following was evaluated - a. terreus extract, b ...201727429931
butenolide derivatives from the plant endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus.three new butenolides containing 5-hydroxyfuran-2(5h)-one core, asperteretal a (1), asperteretal b (2), and asperteretal c (3), together with seven known butenolides (4-10), were obtained from an endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus pr-p-2 isolated from the plant camellia sinensis var. assamica. the structures of compounds 1-3 were elucidated on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis including uv, ir, hresims, 1d and 2d nmr, and ecd spectra. compounds 1, 3, 5 and 6-8 showed potent inhibit ...201627370101
onychomycosis caused by aspergillus terreus. 201627348329
itaconic and fumaric acid production from biomass hydrolysates by aspergillus strains.itaconic acid (ia) is a dicarboxylic acid included in the us department of energy's (doe) 2004 list of the most promising chemical platforms derived from sugars. ia is produced industrially using liquid-state fermentation (lsf) by aspergillus terreus with glucose as the carbon source. to utilize ia production in renewable resource-based biorefinery, the present study investigated the use of lignocellulosic biomass as a carbon source for lsf. we also investigated the production of fumaric acid (f ...201627291673
complete genome sequence of soil fungus aspergillus terreus (km017963), a potent lovastatin producer.we report the complete genome of aspergillus terreus (km017963), a tropical soil isolate. the genome sequence is 29 mb, with a g+c content of 51.12%. the genome sequence of a. terreus shows the presence of the complete gene cluster responsible for lovastatin (an anti-cholesterol drug) production in a single scaffold (1.16).201627284150
[biodegradation of cellulose-containing substrates by micromycetes followed by bioconversion into biogas].the ability of micromycetes trichoderma viride and aspergillus terreus to decompose the cellulose-containing substrates was studied. office paper and cardboard, as well as a paper mixture, were found to be the most hydrolyzable. the cellulolytic activity of t. viride was 2-3 times higher than that of a. terreus; the highest values of 0.80 and 0.73 u/mlwere obtained from office paper and the paper mixture, respectively. the micromycete cultivation conditions (composition of culture medium, sucros ...201627266249
identification of 6-hydroxymellein synthase and accessory genes in the lichen cladonia uncialis.a transcribed polyketide synthase (pks) gene has been identified in the lichen cladonia uncialis. the complete nucleotide sequence of this pks was determined from the amplified cdna, and an assignment of individual domains was accomplished by homology searching using antismash. a scan of the complete genome sequence of c. uncialis revealed the accessory genes associated with this pks gene. a homology search has identified that several genes in this cluster are similar to genes responsible for th ...201627264554
establishing an efficient gene-targeting system in an itaconic-acid producing aspergillus terreus develop an efficient gene-targeting platform in an excellent itaconic acid producing strain aspergillus terreus cicc40205.201627262296
characterization of β-glucosidase from aspergillus terreus and its application in the hydrolysis of soybean extracellular β-glucosidase produced by aspergillus terreus was identified, purified, characterized and was tested for the hydrolysis of soybean isoflavone. matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization with tandem time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (maldi-tof/tof ms) revealed the protein to be a member of the glycosyl hydrolase family 3 with an apparent molecular mass of about 120 kda. the purified β-glucosidase showed optimal activity at ph 5.0 and 65 °c and was very stable at 50 ...201627256679
production of α-amylase by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 using pearl millet and its structural this investigation, aspergillus terreus ncft4269.10 was employed in liquid static surface (lssf) and solid state (ssf) fermentation to assess the optimal conditions for α-amylase biosynthesis. one-variable-at-a-time approach (quasi-optimum protocol) was primarily used to investigate the effect of each parameter on production of amylase. the maximum amylase production was achieved using pearl millet (pm) as substrate by ssf (19.19 ± 0.9 ug(-1)) and also in presence of 1 mm magnesium sulfate, 0 ...201627242841
[suppression of three soil-borne diseases of cucumber by a rhizosphere fungal strain].to understand the effect of rhizosphere fungi on soil-borne diseases of cucumber, 16 fungal, strains from rhizosphere soil were investigated for the antagonistic activity to three soilborne pathogenic fungi with dual culture method and for suppression of cucumber diseases caused by the pathogens in pot experiments. four strains showed antagonism to one or more pathogenic fungi tested. the strain jcl143, identified as aspergillus terreus, showed strong antagonistic activity to the three pathogeni ...201527112016
identification of an itaconic acid degrading pathway in itaconic acid producing aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid, one of the most promising and flexible bio-based chemicals, is mainly produced by aspergillus terreus. previous studies to improve itaconic acid production in a. terreus through metabolic engineering were mainly focused on its biosynthesis pathway, while the itaconic acid-degrading pathway has largely been ignored. in this study, we used transcriptomic, proteomic, bioinformatic, and in vitro enzymatic analyses to identify three key enzymes, itaconyl-coa transferase (icta), itacony ...201627102125
heterologous expression of aspergillus terreus fructosyltransferase in kluyveromyces lactis.fructo-oligosaccharides are prebiotic and hypocaloric sweeteners that are usually extracted from chicory. they can also be produced from sucrose using fructosyltransferases, but the only commercial enzyme suitable for this purpose is pectinex ultra, which is produced with aspergillus aculeatus. here we used the yeast kluyveromyces lactis to express a secreted recombinant fructosyltransferase from the inulin-producing fungus aspergillus terreus. a synthetic codon-optimised version of the putative ...201627084521
improving the yield of (+)-terrein from the salt-tolerant aspergillus terreus pt06-2.(+)-terrein has a potential application for drug discovery. to improve the yield of (+)-terrein, two-level plackett-burman design and response surface methodology methods were used to optimize the condition of a salt-tolerant fungus, aspergillus terreus pt06-2. as a result, the yield of (+)-terrein reached 8.20 ± 0.072 g/l in a 500-ml flask containing 150 ml optimal medium consisted of 13.1 % nacl, 3.6 % starch, 2 % sodium glutamate, 0.05 % kcl, 3 % inoculum size, adjusting initial ph value to 5 ...201627038947
spondylodiscitis due to aspergillus terreus in an immunocompetent host: case report and literature review.aspergillus terreus, a saprophytic fungus, is recognized as an emerging pathogen responsible for various infections in human beings. however, bone and joint involvement is uncommon. we report a rare case of a. terreus spondylodiscitis in a 20-year-old male with a past history of recurrent, incompletely treated pulmonary tuberculosis. clinical signs at the time of admission included cough, low-grade fever, general weakness and left-sided back pain. histological examination of spinal biopsy sample ...201627038797
mechanism of germacradien-4-ol synthase-controlled water capture.the sesquiterpene synthase germacradiene-4-ol synthase (gdols) from streptomyces citricolor is one of only a few known high-fidelity terpene synthases that convert farnesyl diphosphate (fdp) into a single hydroxylated product. crystals of unliganded gdols-e248a diffracted to 1.50 å and revealed a typical class 1 sesquiterpene synthase fold with the active site in an open conformation. the metal binding motifs were identified as d(80)dqfd and n(218)dvrsfaqe. some bound water molecules were eviden ...201626998816
enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis of mild alkali pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings using in-house cellulases in a bench scale the present study, scale-up systems for cellulase production and enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated rice straw at high-solid loadings were designed, fabricated and tested in the laboratory. cellulase production was carried out using tray fermentation at 45 °c by aspergillus terreus in a temperature-controlled humidity chamber. enzymatic hydrolysis studies were performed in a horizontal rotary drum reactor at 50 °c with 25 % (w/v) solid loading and 9 fpu g(-1) substrate enzyme load using in-h ...201626941245
aspterpenacids a and b, two sesterterpenoids from a mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus h010.two new sesterterpenoids, aspterpenacids a (1) and b (2), with an unusual carbon skeleton of a 5/3/7/6/5 ring system were isolated from the mangrove endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus h010. their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods, single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis, and electronic circular dichroism calculations. a biogenetic pathway for 1 and 2 is proposed. both 1 and 2 showed no significant antibacterial activity or cytotoxicity at 50 μm.201626938636
characterization of biotechnologically relevant extracellular lipase produced by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10.enzyme production by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 was studied under liquid static surface and solid-state fermentation using mustard oil cake as a substrate. the maximum lipase biosynthesis was observed after incubation at 30°c for 96h. among the domestic oils tested, the maximum lipase biosynthesis was achieved using palm oil. the crude lipase was purified 2.56-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity, with a yield of 8.44%, and the protein had a molecular weight of 46.3kda as determined by sds- ...201726887237
bioprospecting chemical diversity and bioactivity in a marine derived aspergillus terreus.a comparative metabolomic study of a marine derived fungus (aspergillus terreus) grown under various culture conditions is presented. the fungus was grown in eleven different culture conditions using solid agar, broth cultures, or grain based media (osmac). multivariate analysis of lc/ms data from the organic extracts revealed drastic differences in the metabolic profiles and guided our subsequent isolation efforts. the compound 7-desmethylcitreoviridin was isolated and identified, and is fully ...201626880440
estimation of antifungal activity of mevastatin produced by aspergillus terreus gcbl-03 on pretreated substrate in solid state fermentation.this project was planned to study the production of cholesterol lowering drug mevastatin by aspergillus terreus gcbl-03 on pretreated substrate bagasse in solid state fermentation. bagasse was pretreated by potassium hydroxide to delignify the substrate to readily become available to microorganism. it was noticed that pretreated bagasse exhibited 13.69±0.64 mg/100ml yield of mevastatin and 6.63±0.48 g dry cell mass as compared to nontreated substrate that showed 7.04±0.81 mg/100 ml and 6.04±0.24 ...201626873078
exploring the fungal protein cadre in the biosynthesis of pbse quantum dots.while a large number of microbial sources have recently emerged as potent sources for biosynthesis of chalcogenide quantum dots (qds), studies regarding their biomimetic strategies that initiate qd biosynthesis are scarce. the present study describes several mechanistic aspects of pbse qd biosynthesis using marine aspergillus terreus. scanning electron microscopic (sem) studies indicated distinctive morphological features such as abrasion and agglomeration on the fungal biomass after the biosynt ...201726849922
cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and phytotoxicity of tannery effluent discharged into palar river basin, tamil nadu, india.ambur, a town located on the banks of palar river, is considered one of the most polluted areas in india and occupied by hundreds of tanneries and leather product units. the present study was designed to evaluate the toxic effect of discharged tannery effluent (te) on model agricultural crops, ecofriendly microorganisms, and human blood cells. the phytotoxic effects of te tested on allium cepa and lemna minor revealed inhibition of root growth and significant reduction in number of fronds, prote ...201526839546
effects of lovastatin on mda-mb-231 breast cancer cells: an antibody microarray analysis.despite the tremendous improvement in cancer therapeutics, treatment of late-stage breast cancer remains a challenge for both basic scientists and clinicians. lovastatin, a natural product derived from aspergillus terreus or monascus ruber, has been widely used as cholesterol-lowing drug in the clinic. it also has anti-cancer properties through poorly defined molecular mechanisms. in the present study, we employed a novel antibody microarray technology to investigate the molecular mechanisms thr ...201626819643
escherichia coli n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (glmu) inhibitory activity of terreic acid isolated from aspergillus terreus.secondary metabolite of aspergillus terreus, terreic acid, is a reported potent antibacterial that was identified more than 60 years ago, but its cellular target(s) are still unknown. here we screen its activity against the acetyltransferase domain of a bifunctional enzyme, escherichia coli n-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphate-uridyltransferase/glucosamine-1-phosphate-acetyltransferase (glmu). an absorbance-based assay was used to screen terreic acid against the acetyltransferase activity of e. coli ...201626762501
fumigaclavine i, a new alkaloid isolated from endophyte aspergillus terreus.the present study was designed to isolate and purify chemical constituents from solid culture of endophyte aspergillus terreus lq, using silica gel column chromatography, gel filtration with sephadex lh-20, and hplc. fumigaclavine i (1), a new alkaloid, was obtained, along with seven known compounds, including fumigaclavine c (2), rhizoctonic acid (3), monomethylsulochrin (4), chaetominine (5), spirotryprostatin a (6), asperfumoid (7), and lumichrome (8). the structure of compound 1 was elucidat ...201526721713
purification and characterization of β-mannanase from aspergillus terreus and its applicability in depolymerization of mannans and saccharification of lignocellulosic biomass.aspergillus terreus fbcc 1369 was grown in solid-state culture under statistically optimized conditions. β-mannanase was purified to apparent homogeneity by ultrafiltration, anion exchange and gel filtration chromatography. a purification factor of 10.3-fold was achieved, with the purified enzyme exhibiting specific activity of 53 u/mg protein. the purified β-mannanase was optimally active at ph 7.0 and 70 °c and displayed stability over a broad ph range of 4.0-8.0 and a 30 min half-life at 80 ° ...201628330208
production of cellulase from aspergillus terreus ms105 on crude and commercially purified substrates.aspergillus terreus ms105 was originally isolated from soil and screened for cellulase production in the presence of various carbon sources including carboxymethyl cellulose (cmc), avicel, sigmacell, filter-paper and salicin. cmc induced the production of endoglucanase (eg) and filter-paperase while the levels of β-glucosidase (bgl) were increased when salicin was present in the medium. nature of production medium influenced the duration of lag- and log-phase of the growth, rate of fungal dry-ma ...201628330173
enhanced production of pectinase by aspergillus terreus ncft 4269.10 using banana peels as substrate.aspergillus terreus ncft4269.10 was implemented in solid-state (ssf) and liquid static surface fermentation (lssf) for biosynthesis of pectinase. amongst various substrates, like, mustard oil cake, neem oil cake, groundnut oil cake, black gram peels, green gram peels, chickling vetch peels/grass pea peels wheat bran, pearl millet residues, finger millet waste, broken rice, banana peels (bp), apple pomace (ap) and orange peels, banana peel (musa paradisiaca l.; family: musaceae) was most suitable ...201628330106
itaconic acid production from glycerol using escherichia coli harboring a random synonymous codon-substituted 5'-coding region variant of the cada gene.aspergillus terreus cada, encoding cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is an essential gene for itaconic acid (ia) biosynthesis, but it is primarily expressed as insoluble aggregates in most industrial hosts. this has been a hurdle for the development of recombinant strategies for ia production. here, we created a library of synonymous codon variants (scv) of the cada gene containing synonymous codons in the first 10 codons (except atg) and screened it in escherichia coli. among positive clones, e. col ...201626704570
enhanced alkaline cellulases production by the thermohalophilic aspergillus terreus aumc 10138 mutated by physical and chemical mutagens using corn stover as substrate.a thermohalophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus aumc 10138, isolated from the wadi el-natrun soda lakes in northern egypt was exposed successively to gamma and uv-radiation (physical mutagens) and ethyl methan-sulfonate (ems; chemical mutagen) to enhance alkaline cellulase production under solid state fermentation (ssf) conditions. the effects of different carbon sources, initial moisture, incubation temperature, initial ph, incubation period, inoculum levels and different concentrations of nacl ...201726691490
mycosynthesis of silver and gold nanoparticles: optimization, characterization and antimicrobial activity against human pathogens.this study was aimed to isolate soil fungi from kolli and yercaud hills, south india with the ultimate objective of producing antimicrobial nanoparticles. among 65 fungi tested, the isolate, bios ptk 6 extracellularly synthesized both silver and gold nanoparticles with good monodispersity. under optimized reaction conditions, the strain bios ptk 6 identified as aspergillus terreus has produced extremely stable nanoparticles within 12h. these nanoparticles were characterized by uv-vis. spectropho ...201626686609
aspergillus terreus meningitis in immunocompetent patient: a case report.we present a description of a rare but dangerous case of fungal meningitis caused by aspergillus terreus in an immunocompetent patient with a history of sinus disease.201526648927
[the mycobiota in studying the resistance of gypsum plasterboard to microscopic fungi].the resistance of two types of gypsum plasterboard: ordinary and water-resistant to microscopic fungi was studied. it was found that under conditions of high relative humidity and direct influence of water at constant temperature (29 ± 2) degrees c all samples of plasterboard were not resistant to fungi. furthermore, the contaminating mycobiota of uninfected fragments of plasterboard was revealed under these conditions. it was discovered that the test cultures aspergillus terreus and trichoderma ...201526638485
physico-chemical pretreatment and fungal biotreatment for park wastes and cattle dung for biogas production.with the rising demand for renewable energy and environmental protection, anaerobic digestion of biogas technology has attracted considerable attention within the scientific community. the effect of physico-chemical pretreatment on cellulose degradation followed by fungal treatment by aspergillus terreus and trichoderma viride to treat cellulosic biomass for enhancing its digestibility was investigated. the tested substrate was digested with and without physical, chemical, and biological treatme ...201526618101
effect of gamma radiation on zinc tolerance efficiency of aspergillus terreus thorn.the present study emphasizes the potential of gamma radiation in enhancing zinc tolerance of aspergillus terreus. gamma-exposed a. terreus could tolerate 1.13 times more zn, reflecting higher growth (in terms of cfu) under zn stress and enhanced zn removal efficacies than their unirradiated counterparts. radiation-induced upregulation of antioxidative system (sod, cat, gsh and mt) of a. terreus is responsible for radiation-induced enhancement of zn tolerance. ftir spectra reveals the involvement ...201626612034
induction of secondary metabolism of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 in the batch bioreactor cultures.cultivation of aspergillus terreus atcc 20542 in a stirred tank bioreactor was performed to induce the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and provide the bioprocess-related insights into the metabolic capabilities of the investigated strain. the activation of biosynthetic routes was attempted by the diversification of process conditions and growth media. several strategies were tested, including the addition of rapeseed oil or inulin, changing the concentration of nitrogen source, reduction o ...201626603760
geographically predominant genotypes of aspergillus terreus species complex in austria: s microsatellite typing study.aspergillus terreus species complex is recognized as a frequent agent of invasive aspergillosis in tyrol. the reason for this specific epidemiological situation is unclear. aspergillus terreus strains isolated from environmental and clinical sources were genotyped using a novel panel of short tandem repeats and were evaluated for virulence. three major endemic genotypes collected from the inn region and its side valleys were found to cause the majority of invasive a. terreus infections. all of t ...201626577144
α-glucosidase inhibitors from the fungus aspergillus terreus new diketopiperazine alkaloid amauromine b (1), along with three known meroterpenoids, austalide b (2), austalides n and o (3 and 4), and two known steroids (5 and 6), was isolated and identified from the culture broth of the fungus aspergillus terreus 3.05358. their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic techniques, including 2d-nmr and ms analysis, the absolute configuration of 1 was unambiguously established by single crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. all the isolates wer ...201526567949
a new lumazine peptide penilumamide e from the fungus aspergillus terreus.a new rare lumazine peptide, penilumamide e (1), together with 13 known compounds (2-14) were isolated from the fungus aspergillus terreus. their structures were identified by spectroscopic techniques. the relative configuration of 1 was confirmed by single-crystal x-ray diffraction analysis. compound 10 exhibited antimalarial activity against plasmodium falciparum with ic50 values of 2.83 μg/ml. compounds 4 and 6 showed weak cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma (cca) cell lines. in addition, ...201626518160
comparison of 10,11-dehydrocurvularin polyketide synthases from alternaria cinerariae and aspergillus terreus highlights key structural motifs.iterative type i polyketide synthases (pkss) from fungi are multifunctional enzymes that use their active sites repeatedly in a highly ordered sequence to assemble complex natural products. a phytotoxic macrolide with anticancer properties, 10,11-dehydrocurvularin (dhc), is produced by cooperation of a highly reducing (hr) iterative pks and a non-reducing (nr) iterative pks. we have identified the dhc gene cluster in alternaria cinerariae, heterologously expressed the active hr pks (dhc3) and nr ...201526493380
xylan-degrading enzymes from aspergillus terreus: physicochemical features and functional studies on hydrolysis of cellulose pulp.two endo-β-1,4-xylanases named xylt1 and xylt2, previously purified from aspergillus terreus, were structurally investigated by fluorescence quenching and characterized with respect to their binding properties with phenolic compounds. neutral and charged quenchers had access to both enzymes in neutral and alkaline phs. the greatest access was noted for the negative quencher, possibly due to positive amino acid residues in the vicinity of tryptophan. these tryptophan environments may partially ex ...201526428175
optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from aspergillus terreus and its partial characterization.figures of persimmons for the world's top ten persimmon producing countries are about 4000,000 tons in 2011 and are increasing every year according to fao statistics. however, there is not any report on pectin production by microbial with persimmon peel as the source. optimization of fermentation conditions of pectin production from aspergillus terreus in submerged culture and partial characterization of pectin were carried out in the work. an optimum fermentation condition for pectin production ...201526428166
modification of artificial sea water for the mass production of (+)-terrein by aspergillus terreus strain pf26 derived from marine sponge phakellia fusca.(+)-terrein shows multiple bioactivities, however, its mass production is a big challenge. aspergillus terreus strain pf26 derived from south china sea sponge phakellia fusca has been cultured to produce (+)-terrein successfully, but artificial sea water (asw) of high salinity used in the fermentation medium may cause the corrosion risk of metal bioreactor, which limits the fermentation on a large scale. in this study, we modified the components of asw by removing nacl and cacl2 from the origina ...201526394071
heterologous expression of mus musculus immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1) in escherichia coli results in itaconate production.itaconic acid, a c5-dicarboxylic acid, is a potential biobased building block for the polymer industry. it is obtained from the citric acid cycle by decarboxylation of cis-aconitic acid. this reaction is catalyzed by cada in the native itaconic acid producer aspergillus terreus. recently, another enzyme encoded by the mammalian immunoresponsive gene 1 (irg1), was found to decarboxylate cis-aconitate to itaconate in vitro. we show that heterologous expression of irg1 enabled itaconate production ...201526347730
multifocal bone aspergillosis by aspergillus terreus in an apparently immunocompetent patient. 201526337362
how to trigger a fungal weapon.a fungus called aspergillus terreus produces a secondary metabolite in response to various environmental signals to give it an advantage over its competitors.201526327696
[using galleria mellonella as an in vivo model to study the virulence of some bacterial and fungal agents].non-vertebrate hosts, such as galleria mellonella, namely wax moth, have been used to study microbial virulence and host defense. this organism has advantages as it is economical, ethically expedient and easy to handle. here we describe an experimental in vivo study using the larvae of galleria mellonella infected with some bacterial and fungal pathogens. in this study, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (esbl) producing and non-producing escherichia coli, klebsiella pneumoniae and pseudomonas aer ...201526313278
terrenolide s, a new antileishmanial butenolide from the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus.terrenolide s, a new butenolide derivative (6), together with six known compounds: (22e,24r)-stigmasta-5,7,22-trien-3-β-ol (1), stigmast-4-ene-3-one (2), stigmasta-4,6,8(14),22-tetraen-3-one (3), terretonin a (4), terretonin (5) and butyrolactone vi (7) have been isolated from the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus isolated from the roots of carthamus lanatus (asteraceae). their structures were established by extensive spectroscopic analyses (1d, 2d nmr and hresims), as well as optical rotati ...201626299734
emergence of persistent aspergillus terreus colonisation in a child with cystic fibrosis. 201526288746
crystallographic analysis of fad-dependent glucose fad-dependent glucose dehydrogenase (gdh) from aspergillus terreus was purified and crystallized at 293 k using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion method. a data set was collected to a resolution of 1.6 å from a single crystal at 100 k using a rotating-anode x-ray source. the crystal belonged to space group p21, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.56, b = 135.74, c = 74.13 å, β = 90.37°. the asymmetric unit contained two molecules of gdh. the matthews coefficient was calculated to be 2.2 å(3) da( ...201526249692
regulating pyruvate carboxylase in the living culture of aspergillus terreus nrrl 1960 by l-aspartate for enhanced itaconic acid production.aspergillus terreus was reported as the promising fungal strain for itaconic acid; however, the commercial production suffers from the low yield. low production yield was claimed as the result of completing the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle towards biomass synthesis while under limiting phosphate and nitrogen; tca cycle was somewhat shunted and consequently, the metabolite fluxes move towards itaconic acid production route. by regulating enzymes in tca cycle, it is believed that itaconic acid p ...201526208692
antifouling compounds from the marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162.a new cyclic tetrapeptide, asperterrestide b (1), and 11 known compounds (2-12) were isolated from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus scsgaf0162. the structure of 1 was elucidated by spectroscopic analysis, and the absolute configuration of 1 was determined by mosher ester and marfey's methods. compounds 4, 6, and 8 had potent antifouling activity against larvae of the barnacle balanus amphitrite, with ec50 values of 17.1 ± 1.2, 11.6 ± 0.6, and 17.1 ± 0.8 μg x ml(-1), respectively.201526197544
phytotoxin production in aspergillus terreus is regulated by independent environmental signals.secondary metabolites have a great potential as pharmaceuticals, but there are only a few examples where regulation of gene cluster expression has been correlated with ecological and physiological relevance for the producer. here, signals, mediators, and biological effects of terrein production were studied in the fungus aspergillus terreus to elucidate the contribution of terrein to ecological competition. terrein causes fruit surface lesions and inhibits plant seed germination. additionally, t ...201526173180
improvement of halophilic cellulase production from locally isolated fungal strain.halophilic cellulases from the newly isolated fungus, aspergillus terreus unimap aa-6 were found to be useful for in situ saccharification of ionic liquids treated lignocelluloses. efforts have been taken to improve the enzyme production through statistical optimization approach namely plackett-burman design and the face centered central composite design (fcccd). plackett-burman experimental design was used to screen the medium components and process conditions. it was found that carboxymethylce ...201526150755
expression, purification, crystallization and crystallographic study of the aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase atapt.prenylated aromatics are produced by aromatic prenyltransferases during the secondary metabolism of bacteria, fungi and plants. the prenylation of nonprenylated precursors can lead to great chemical diversity and extensive biological properties. aspergillus terreus aromatic prenyltransferase (atapt), which has recently been discovered and characterized, is such an enzyme and is responsible for the prenylation of various aromatic compounds. here, recombinant atapt was overexpressed in escherichia ...201526144234
insecticidal potency of aspergillus terreus against larvae and pupae of three mosquito species anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti.microbial control agents offer alternatives to chemical pest control, as they can be more selective than chemical insecticides. the present study evaluates the mosquito larvicidal and pupicidal potential of fungus mycelia using ethyl acetate and methanol solvent extracts produced by aspergillus terreus against anopheles stephensi, culex quinquefasciatus, and aedes aegypti. the a. terreus mycelia were extracted after 15 days from sabouraud dextrose broth medium. the ethyl acetate extracts showed ...201526139412
Displaying items 801 - 900 of 1090