fungal periprosthetic joint infection following total elbow arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature.with improving surgical techniques for total elbow arthroplasty clinical outcomes have improved and its utilization continues to increase. despite these advances, complication rates remain as high as 24%. of these complications periprosthetic joint infection is one of the most common and morbid. the rheumatoid elbow remains a leading indication for total elbow arthroplasty. patients with this condition frequently require immunosuppressive therapy, which places them at higher risk of both typical ...201728109195
antimicrobial agents produced by marine aspergillus terreus var. africanus against some virulent fish pathogens.screening of fungal isolates collected from different locations of alexandria coast, egypt, was carried out to obtain new biologically active metabolites against some virulent fish pathogens (edwardsiella tarda, aeromonas hydrophila, vibrio ordalli and vibrio angularuim). among 26 fungal isolates, aspergillus terreus var. africanus was identified as the most potent isolate. production of the bioactive material was optimized using response surface methodology including fermentation media, incubat ...201223997326
an efficient tool for random insertional mutagenesis: agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation of the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus.agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation (atmt) has been widely used in various organisms. in the current study, we developed a simple and efficient system for genetic transformation of the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus using atmt. the transformation protocol was optimized for certain parameters to rapidly generate a library of transferred dna (t-dna) insertion mutants of a. terreus. the presence of mitotically stable hygromycin resistance gene (hph) integration in the genome w ...201424462974
biodegradation of diesel fuel hydrocarbons by mangrove fungi from red sea coast of saudi arabia.mangrove sediments were collected from major mangrove stands on the red sea coast of saudi arabia. forty five isolates belonging to 12 genera were purified and five isolates as well as their consortium were found to be able to grow in association with petroleum oil as sole carbon source under in vitro conditions. the isolated strains were identified based on internal transcribed spacer (its) rdna sequence analysis. the fungal strains with the greatest potentiality to degrade diesel oil, without ...201626981002
biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and ascaris suum eggs.the in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of ascaris suum was evaluated. the fungi tested were aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium expansum, fusarium oxysporum and trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of lodz (poland). each species was co-cultured with a. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°c for 60 days. each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmenta ...201323534981
identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production.spoilage of chocolate pralines, due to growth of microorganisms tolerating low water activity, causes problems in the confectionary industry. therefore, an increased knowledge on which organisms are present in the chocolate fillings and their tolerance towards low aw, ph, ethanol and other preservatives is needed. using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854 ...201424997272
does fungicide application in vineyards induce resistance to medical azoles in aspergillus species?this study assessed if the use of sterol demethylase inhibitor fungicides in vineyard production can induce resistance to azoles in aspergillus strains and if it can induce selection of resistant species. we also tried to identify the aspergillus species most prevalent in the vineyards. two vineyards from northern portugal were selected from "vinhos verdes" and "douro" regions. the vineyards were divided into plots that were treated or not with penconazole (pen). in each vineyard, air, soil, and ...201424833021
biosynthetic pathway of the reduced polyketide product citreoviridin in aspergillus terreus var. aureus revealed by heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans.citreoviridin (1) belongs to a class of f1-atpase β-subunit inhibitors that are synthesized by highly reducing polyketide synthases. these potent mycotoxins share an α-pyrone polyene structure, and they include aurovertin, verrucosidin, and asteltoxin. the identification of the citreoviridin biosynthetic gene cluster in aspergillus terreus var. aureus and its reconstitution using heterologous expression in aspergillus nidulans are reported. two intermediates were isolated that allowed the propos ...201626954888
aspergillus species as emerging causative agents of onychomycosis.onychomycosis is a common nail infection caused by dermatophytes, non-dermatophyte molds (ndm), and yeasts. aspergillus species are emerging as increasing causes of toenail onychomycosis. the purpose of this study was species delineation of aspergillus spp. isolated from patients with onychomycosis.201525656408
pcr-rflp on β-tubulin gene for rapid identification of the most clinically important species of aspergillus.aspergillus species are important agents of life-threatening infections in immunosuppressed patients. proper speciation in the aspergilli has been justified based on varied fungal virulence, clinical presentations, and antifungal resistance. accurate identification of aspergillus species usually relies on fungal dna sequencing but this requires expensive equipment that is not available in most clinical laboratories. we developed and validated a discriminative low-cost pcr-based test to discrimin ...201526264625
purification and biochemical characterization of an extracellular serine peptidase from aspergillus terreus.peptidases are important because they play a central role in pharmaceutical, food, environmental, and other industrial processes. a serine peptidase from aspergillus terreus was isolated after two chromatography steps that showed a yield of 15.5%. its molecular mass was determined to be 43 kd, by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). this peptidase was active between ph 5.0 to 8.0 and had maximum activity at ph 7.0, at 45°c. when exposited with 1 m of urea, the en ...201625830777
biochemical characterization of a gh53 endo-β-1,4-galactanase and a gh35 exo-β-1,4-galactanase from penicillium endo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgal1) and an exo-β-1,4-galactanase (pcgalx35c) were purified from the culture filtrate of penicillium chrysogenum 31b. pcgal1 and pcgalx35c cdnas encoding pcgal1 and pcgalx35c were isolated by in vitro cloning. the deduced amino acid sequences of pcgal1 and pcgalx35c are highly similar to a putative endo-β-1,4-galactanase of aspergillus terreus (70% amino acid identity) and a putative β-galactosidase of neosartorya fischeri (72%), respectively. pfam analysis revealed ...201322584433
nanosilver-marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergizers against sepsis fish bacteria.mortality is highly variable within population of cultured fish due to virulent bacteria causing fish septicemia. the use of nano-silver marine fungal chitosan as antibiotic synergisers could be an alternative in the treatment of sepsis fish pathogens.201526885333
matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry for rapid identification of fungal rhinosinusitis pathogens.filamentous fungi are among the most important pathogens, causing fungal rhinosinusitis (frs). current laboratory diagnosis of frs pathogens mainly relies on phenotypic identification by culture and microscopic examination, which is time consuming and expertise dependent. although matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (maldi-tof) ms has been employed to identify various fungi, its efficacy in the identification of frs fungi is less clear.201728100314
causative agents of aspergillosis including cryptic aspergillus species and a. fumigatus.aspergillosis is an important deep mycosis. the causative agents are aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus terreus, of which a. fumigatus is the most prevalent. cryptic aspergillus spp., which morphologically resemble representative species of each aspergillus section, also cause aspergillosis. most of the cryptic species reveal different susceptibility patterns and/or different secondary metabolite profiles, also called exometabolome in this manuscript, f ...201627904060
discrimination of aspergillosis, mucormycosis, fusariosis, and scedosporiosis in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue specimens by use of multiple real-time quantitative pcr a retrospective multicenter study, 102 formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (ffpe) tissue specimens with histopathology results were tested. two 4- to 5-μm ffpe tissue sections from each specimen were digested with proteinase k, followed by automated nucleic acid extraction. multiple real-time quantitative pcr (qpcr) assays targeting the internal transcribed spacer 2 (its2) region of ribosomal dna, using fluorescently labeled primers, was performed to identify clinically important genera and spec ...201627605714
activity of a long-acting echinocandin, cd101, determined using clsi and eucast reference methods, against candida and aspergillus spp., including echinocandin- and azole-resistant isolates.the objective of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of cd101, a novel echinocandin with a long serum elimination half-life, and comparator (anidulafungin and caspofungin) antifungal agents against a collection of candida and aspergillus spp. isolates.201627287236
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis of voriconazole against candida spp. and aspergillus spp. in children, adolescents and adults by monte carlo simulation.the objective of this study was to investigate the cumulative fraction of response of various voriconazole dosing regimens against six candida and six aspergillus spp. in immunocompromised children, immunocompromised adolescents, and adults. using pharmacokinetic parameters and pharmacodynamic data, 5000-subject monte carlo simulations (mcss) were conducted to evaluate the ability of simulated dosing strategies in terms of fauc/mic targets of voriconazole. according to the results of the mcss, c ...201627179818
endophytic fungi from selected varieties of soybean (glycine max l. merr.) and corn (zea mays l.) grown in an agricultural area of argentina.endophytic fungi are ubiquitous and live within host plants without causing any noticeable symptoms of disease. little is known about the diversity and function of fungal endophytes in plants, particularly in economically important species. the aim of this study was to determine the identity and diversity of endophytic fungi in leaves, stems and roots of soybean and corn plants and to determine their infection frequencies. plants were collected in six areas of the provinces of buenos aires and e ...201727045749
role of nutrients and illuminance in predicting the fate of fungal mediated petroleum hydrocarbon degradation and biomass production.biodegradation and biomass production are affected by numerous environmental factors including ph, oxygen availability and presence of pollutants. the present study, for the first time, elucidated the effects of nutrients and light on mycodegradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in diesel oil. seven fungal strains (aspergillus terreus fa3, aspergillus niger fa5, aspergillus terreus fa6, penicillium chrysogenum fp4, aspergillus terreus fp6, aspergillus flavus fp10, and candida sp. fg1) were used for ...201627039364
occurrence of moulds from bee pollen in central italy--a preliminary study.the present study aimed to preliminary evaluate the occurrence of fungi in 40 specimens of trapped pollen collected from april-september 2015 in 40 apiaries from tuscany (central italy). cultural and microscopical examinations allowed the recognition of cladosporium sp., alternaria sp., humicola sp. mucoraceae and acremonium sp. penicillium brevicompactum, penicillium chrysogenum, aspergillus flavus , aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus were also identified. yeasts an ...201627010410
the glycolytic enzyme enolase represents a plasminogen-binding protein on the surface of a wide variety of medically important fungal species.allergies are an increasing issue in human health and can, eventually, cause severe anaphylactic shock. aspergillus fumigatus and candida albicans are leading causes of life-threatening invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients, but can also cause severe allergic responses in otherwise healthy individuals. the glycolytic enzyme enolase is known as a major allergen despite its function in intracellular metabolism. therefore, its presentation on surfaces of different fungal species ...201626679571
genetic diversity of aspergillus species isolated from onychomycosis and aspergillus hongkongensis sp. nov., with implications to antifungal susceptibility testing.thirteen aspergillus isolates recovered from nails of 13 patients (fingernails, n=2; toenails, n=11) with onychomycosis were characterized. twelve strains were identified by multilocus sequencing as aspergillus spp. (aspergillus sydowii [n=4], aspergillus welwitschiae [n=3], aspergillus terreus [n=2], aspergillus flavus [n=1], aspergillus tubingensis [n=1], and aspergillus unguis [n=1]). isolates of a. terreus, a. flavus, and a. unguis were also identifiable by matrix-assisted laser desorption/i ...201626658315
chronological aging in conidia of pathogenic aspergillus: comparison between species.aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus niger are common airborne fungi, and the most frequent causative agents of human fungal infections. however, the resistance and lifetime persistence of these fungi in the atmosphere, and the mechanism of aging of aspergillus conidia are unknown.with this work, we intended to study the processes underlying conidial aging of these four relevant and pathogenic aspergillus species. chronological aging was therefore evalua ...201526341609
in vitro interactions of antifungal agents and tacrolimus against aspergillus biofilms.aspergillus biofilms were prepared from aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus via a 96-well plate-based method, and the combined antifungal activity of tacrolimus with azoles or amphotericin b against aspergillus biofilms was investigated via a broth microdilution checkerboard technique system. our results suggest that combinations of tacrolimus with voriconazole or amphotericin b have synergistic inhibitory activity against aspergillus biofilms. however, combination ...201526303797
aspergillus fumigatus and related species.the genus aspergillus contains etiologic agents of aspergillosis. the clinical manifestations of the disease range from allergic reaction to invasive pulmonary infection. among the pathogenic aspergilli, aspergillus fumigatus is most ubiquitous in the environment and is the major cause of the disease, followed by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, and several species in the section fumigati that morphologically resemble a. fumigatus. patients that a ...201425377144
invasive aspergillosis in liver transplant recipients: epidemiology, clinical characteristics, treatment, and outcomes in 116 cases.invasive aspergillosis (ia) in liver transplant recipients is associated with grave outcomes. we reviewed 116 individual cases reported in the literature from 1985 to 2013. ia was diagnosed after a median of 25 days after transplantation and involved a single organ in 51% of the cases, whereas in the remaining cases, multiple sites were involved. the most common infecting aspergillus species were aspergillus fumigatus (73%), aspergillus flavus (14%), and aspergillus terreus (8%). amphotericin b ...201525348192
in vitro combination of isavuconazole with micafungin or amphotericin b deoxycholate against medically important molds.whether isavuconazole, an extended-spectrum triazole, possesses synergistic activity in combination therapy with echinocandins or amphotericin b for the treatment of invasive molds infections has not been studied. our in vitro combination studies showed that isavuconazole and micafungin are synergistically active against aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and cunninghamella bertholletiae. these results suggest that isavuconazole, in combination with micafungin, may h ...201425136021
screening of indigenously isolated fungi for lovastatin production and its in vivo indigenously isolated fungal strains (aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium citrinum, penicillium notatum, pleurotus ostreatus and trichoderma viradae) were tested for their potential to produce cholesterol lowering drug lovastatin by using different agro-industrial wastes (corn cobs, corn stover, banana stalk, wheat straw, wheat bran, bagasse) in submerged as well as solid state fermentation. aspergillus terreus showed maximum production of 18.74 mg/100 m ...201424894549
fermented whey as poultry feed additive to prevent fungal contamination.fungal contamination of poultry feed causes economic losses to industry and represents a potential risk to animal health. the aim of the present study was to analyze the effectiveness of whey fermented with kefir grains as additive to reduce fungal incidence, thus improving feed safety.201424652751
susceptibility breakpoints for amphotericin b and aspergillus species in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model simulating free-drug concentrations in human serum.although conventional amphotericin b was for many years the drug of choice and remains an important agent against invasive aspergillosis, reliable susceptibility breakpoints are lacking. three clinical aspergillus isolates (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus) were tested in an in vitro pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model simulating the biphasic 24-h time-concentration profile of free amphotericin b concentrations in human serum with free peak concentrations (fcm ...201424514094
microbes associated with freshly prepared juices of citrus and carrots.fruit juices are popular drinks as they contain antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that are essential for human being and play important role in the prevention of heart diseases, cancer, and diabetes. they contain essential nutrients which support the growth of acid tolerant bacteria, yeasts, and moulds. in the present study, we have conducted a microbiological examination of freshly prepared juices (sweet lime, orange, and carrot) by serial dilution agar plate technique. a total of 30 juice s ...201426904628
2-hydroxyisocaproic acid is fungicidal for candida and aspergillus species.the amino acid derivative 2-hydroxyisocaproic acid (hica) is a nutritional additive used to increase muscle mass. low levels can be detected in human plasma as a result of leucine metabolism. it has broad antibacterial activity but its efficacy against pathogenic fungi is not known. the aim was to test the efficacy of hica against candida and aspergillus species. efficacy of hica against 19 clinical and reference isolates representing five candida and three aspergillus species with variable azol ...201424125484
[aspergillus species in hospital environments with pediatric patients in critical condition].aspergillus is a group of opportunistic fungi that cause infections, with high morbimortality in immunosuppressed patients. aspergillus fumigatus is the most frequent species in these infections, although the incidence of other species has increased in the last few years.201424120420
primary cutaneous aspergillosis due to aspergillus tamarii in an immunocompetent host.primary cutaneous aspergillosis is a rare disease usually caused by aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus ustus. it is usually seen in immunocompromised hosts, though some cases are also reported in immunocompetent hosts. we present a case of an immunocompetent farmer who presented with generalised nodules and plaques, mimicking erythema nodosum leprosum but turned out to be cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus tamarii. the characteristic ascospo ...201323970496
determination of isavuconazole susceptibility of aspergillus and candida species by the eucast method.isavuconazole is a novel expanded-spectrum triazole, which has recently been approved by the fda as an orphan drug to treat invasive aspergillosis and is currently being studied in phase iii clinical trials for invasive candidiasis. the susceptibility of relatively few clinical isolates has been reported. in this study, the isavuconazole susceptibilities of 1,237 aspergillus and 2,010 candida geographically diverse clinical isolates were determined by eucast methodology at four european mycology ...201323959309
photochemical and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticle-encapsulated chitosan functionalized with photoactive groups.chitosan was functionalized with 4-((e)-2-(3-hydroxynaphthalen-2-yl)diazen-1-yl)benzoic acid by the coupling of the hydroxyl functional groups of chitosan with carboxylic acid group of the dye by dcc coupling method. the silver nanoparticles were prepared by sol-gel method of nanoparticle synthesis. silver nanoparticle-encapsulated functionalized chitosan was prepared by the phase transfer method. the products were characterized by ftir, uv-vis, fluorescence and nmr spectroscopic methods and by ...201323910360
a case of dual infection in a paediatric trauma victim of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus.aspergillus spp. are widely distributed throughout the environment. they are opportunistic pathogens causing infection at various sites in the body such as lungs, sinuses, eyes, skin, central nervous system etc., primary cutaneous aspergillosis is an uncommon disease entity. primary infections usually occur at sites having disruption of the skin and usually occur in burn patients, trauma and surgical patients. a 4-year-old girl who was run over by a truck and suffered extensive de-gloving injury ...201423867682
effects of sugar and amino acid supplementation on aureobasidium pullulans nrrl 58536 antifungal activity against four aspergillus species.cultured cell extracts from ten tropical strains of aureobasidium pullulans were screened for antifungal activity against four pathogenic aspergillus species (aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, and aspergillus terreus) using the well diffusion and conidial germination inhibition assays. the crude cell extract from a. pullulans nrrl 58536 resulted in the greatest fungicidal activity against all four aspergillus species and so was selected for further investigation into ...201323828601
inhibitory and fungicidal effects of antifungal drugs against aspergillus species in the presence of serum.given the high protein binding rates of antifungal drugs and the effect of serum proteins on aspergillus growth, we investigated the in vitro pharmacodynamics of amphotericin b, voriconazole, and three echinocandins in the presence of human serum, assessing both inhibitory and fungicidal effects. in vitro inhibitory (ic) and fungicidal (fc) concentrations against 5 isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus were determined with a clsi m38-a2-based microdilutio ...201323318807
in vitro activity of a new oral glucan synthase inhibitor (mk-3118) tested against aspergillus spp. by clsi and eucast broth microdilution, a glucan synthase inhibitor derived from enfumafungin, and comparator agents were tested against 71 aspergillus spp., including itraconazole-resistant strains (mic, ≥ 4 μg/ml), using clsi and eucast reference broth microdilution methods. the clsi 90% minimum effective concentration (mec(90))/mic(90) values (μg/ml) for mk-3118, amphotericin b, and caspofungin, respectively, were as follows: 0.12, 2, and 0.03 for aspergillus flavus species complex (sc); 0.25, 2, and 0.06 for aspergillus f ...201323229479
[invasive fungal infections in immunocompromised patients with focus on aspergillosis and its causative agents].invasive fungal diseases (ifd) are a life-threatening infectious complications in immunocompromised patients and are associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality. the most common invasive mycosis in patients who underwent an allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is invasive aspergilosis (ia), most frequently caused by the clinically dominant species aspergillus fumigatus and, rarely, also by aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus niger. in recent years, othe ...201223172020
clinical epidemiology of 960 patients with invasive aspergillosis from the path alliance registry.the study investigated the epidemiology and outcome of invasive aspergillosis (ia), an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients.201222898389
evaluation of multiplexed pcr and liquid-phase array for identification of respiratory fungal pathogens.invasive fungal infections are the cause of serious morbidity and high mortality in immunocompromised patients. early laboratory diagnostic options remain limited; however, rapid detection and accurate identification may improve outcome. herein, multiplexed pcr followed by liquid-phase array was evaluated for detection and identification of common respiratory fungal pathogens, including aspergillus fumigatus, rhizopus microsporus, scedosporium apiospermum and fusarium solani. the limit of detect ...201222435876
in vitro activities of amphotericin b and ambisome against aspergillus isolates recovered from italian patients treated for haematological malignancies.although there is evidence that liposomal amphotericin b (ambisome) is non-inferior to amphotericin b (amb) in terms of in vivo efficacy, in vitro data regarding the activity of ambisome against clinical isolates of aspergillus are rare. in this study, the susceptibilities to amb and ambisome of 103 aspergillus complex isolates (48 aspergillus flavus, 33 aspergillus fumigatus, 13 aspergillus terreus and 9 aspergillus niger) recovered from haematological patients with invasive infection were comp ...201222429723
gliotoxin effects on fungal growth: mechanisms and exploitation.although initially investigated for its antifungal properties, little is actually known about the effect of gliotoxin on aspergillus fumigatus and other fungi. we have observed that exposure of a. fumigatus to exogenous gliotoxin (14 μg/ml), under gliotoxin-limited growth conditions, results in significant alteration of the expression of 27 proteins (up- and down-regulated >1.9-fold; p<0.05) including de novo expression of cu, zn superoxide dismutase, up-regulated allergen asp f3 expression and ...201222405895
[agents of otomycosis in manisa region, turkey, 1995-2011].otomycosis, which is otitis externa caused by fungi, is common throughout the world especially in tropical and subtropical countries. however, the epidemiologic data about the etiologic agents of otomycosis in turkey is limited. the aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the agents of otomycosis in patients living at manisa region (located at western anatolia of turkey). a total of 2279 cases [1465 male, 813 female; age range 1-87 (mean: 41.7) years] who were clinically prediagnosed as ...201222399174
[identification of filamentous fungi isolated from clinical samples by two different methods and their susceptibility results].molds are widely distributed in nature. aspergillus spp. represent the most frequently observed causative agents, however less frequent pathogens fusarium, scedosporium and zygomycetes have also been considered the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in profoundly immunosuppressed hosts. the aims of this study were to identify filamentous fungi isolated from clinical specimens by conventional and molecular methods, and to detect their antifungal susceptibilities. a total of 6742 cli ...201222399173
antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens.this study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, candida albicans and microsporum gypseum) in vitro. different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. the 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the stron ...201124031718
high cell density cultivation of six fungal strains efficient in azo dye bioremediation.this work aims at optimizing the high cell density fungal cultivation for producing large quantities of fungal biomass to be used in azo dye residues bioremediation. in our previous studies the efficacy of using certain fungal strains to decolorize a range of commercial textile dyes of different structures (azo, disazo) were investigated. several promising fungal strains belonging to aspergillus tubigenesis, aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus fumigates demonstrated high capa ...201628352548
in vitro and in vivo antifungal profile of a novel and long acting inhaled azole, pc945, on aspergillus fumigatus infection.the profile of pc945, a novel triazole antifungal, designed for administration via inhalation, has been assessed in a range of in vitro and in vivo studies. pc945 was characterized as a potent, tight-binding inhibitor of aspergillus fumigatus sterol 14α-demethylase (cyp51a and cyp51b) activity (ic50, 0.23 μm and 0.22 μm, respectively), with characteristic type ii azole binding spectra. against 96 clinically isolated a. fumigatus strains, the mic values of pc945 ranged from 0.032∼>8 μg/ml, whilst ...201728223388
bactericidal and fungicidal activity of n-chlorotaurine is enhanced in cystic fibrosis sputum medium.lung infections with multiresistant pathogens are a major problem of patients suffering from cystic fibrosis (cf). n-chlorotaurine (nct), a microbicidal active chlorine compound with no resistance development, is well tolerated upon inhalation. the aim of this study was to investigate nct on its bactericidal and fungicidal activity in vitro in artificial sputum medium (asm) mimicking the composition of cystic fibrosis mucus.the medium was inoculated with bacteria (staphylococcus aureus including ...201728223376
agents that activate the high osmolarity glycerol pathway as a means to combat pathogenic molds.treatment of invasive fungal infections often fails due to the limited number of therapeutic options. in this study, we have analyzed the impact of agents activating the high osmolarity glycerol (hog) pathway on molds that cause infections in humans and livestock. we found that agents like fludioxonil and iprodione, have a clear anti-fungal activity against pathogenic aspergillus, lichtheimia, rhizopus and scedosporium species. only a. terreus turned out to be resistant to fludioxonil, even thou ...201627713026
comparative performance evaluation of multi-metal resistant fungal strains for simultaneous removal of multiple hazardous the present study, five fungal strains viz., aspergillus terreus aml02, paecilomyces fumosoroseus 4099, beauveria bassiana 4580, aspergillus terreus pd-17, aspergillus fumigatus pd-18, were screened for simultaneous multimetal removal. highest metal tolerance index for each individual metal viz., cd, cr, cu, ni, pb and zn (500mg/l) was recorded for a. fumigatus for the metals (cd, 0.72; cu, 0.72; pb, 1.02; zn, 0.94) followed by b. bassiana for the metals (cd, 0.56; cu, 0.14; ni, 0.29; zn, 0.8 ...201627497228
assessment of relevant fungal species in clinical solid wastes.the study aimed to determine the fungal diversity in clinical waste samples from a healthcare facility in penang malaysia. different fungi species were detected in 83.75 % of the 92 clinical waste samples that were screened from different sections of the healthcare facility. one hundred fifty fungal isolates comprising of 8 genera and 36 species were obtained. they were purified by using single spore isolation technique. subsequently, the isolates were identified by phenotypic method based on mo ...201627417327
microbial pathogens in source and treated waters from drinking water treatment plants in the united states and implications for human occurrence survey was conducted on selected pathogens in source and treated drinking water collected from 25 drinking water treatment plants (dwtps) in the united states. water samples were analyzed for the protozoa giardia and cryptosporidium (epa method 1623); the fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus (quantitative pcr [qpcr]); and the bacteria legionella pneumophila (qpcr), mycobacterium avium, m. avium subspecies paratuberculosis, and mycobacterium intrace ...201627260619
a non-canonical melanin biosynthesis pathway protects aspergillus terreus conidia from environmental stress.melanins are ubiquitous pigments found in all kingdoms of life. most organisms use them for protection from environmental stress, although some fungi employ melanins as virulence determinants. the human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus and related ascomycetes produce dihydroxynaphthalene- (dhn) melanin in their spores, the conidia, and use it to inhibit phagolysosome acidification. however, biosynthetic origin of melanin in a related fungus, aspergillus terreus, has remained a mystery bec ...201627133313
stimulation with lysates of aspergillus terreus, candida krusei and rhizopus oryzae maximizes cross-reactivity of anti-fungal t cells.invasive fungal diseases caused by filamentous fungi and yeasts are significant causes of morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed hematology patients. we previously published a method to expand aspergillus fumigatus-specific t cells for clinical cell therapy. in the present study, we investigated expansion of t cells specific for other fungal pathogens and creation of a broadly reactive panfungal t-cell product.201626552765
pseudallescheria boydii with aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a critically ill hematopoietic stem cell recipient with ards.pseudallescheria boydii is a fungal organism known to affect immunocompromised patients. this organism is known to cause, in severe cases, invasive infection of various organs such as the central nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems. we report an unusual case of pulmonary p. boydii pneumonia in an immunocompromised critically ill patient with a co-infection of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus with ards. this case highlights the importance of a high index of suspicion for ...201626455910
biodegradation of pesticides using fungi species found in the aquatic environment.relatively limited attention has been given to the presence of fungi in the aquatic environment compared to their occurrence in other matrices. taking advantage and recognizing the biodegradable capabilities of fungi is important, since these organisms may produce many potent enzymes capable of degrading toxic pollutants. therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential ability of some species of filamentous fungi that occur in the aquatic environment to degrade pesticides in untre ...201525860553
molecular epidemiology of aspergillus collected from cystic fibrosis patients.aspergillus respiratory infection is a common complication in cystic fibrosis (cf) and is associated with loss of pulmonary function and allergic disease.201525459562
novel and sensitive qpcr assays for the detection and identification of aspergillosis causing species.despite concerted efforts, diagnosis of aspergillosis is still a great challenge to clinical microbiology laboratories. along with the requirement for high sensitivity and specificity, species-specific identification is important. we developed rapid, sensitive and species-specific qpcr assays using the taqman technology for the detection and identification of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus. the assays were designed to target orthologs of the streptomyces factor c gene that are onl ...201425261942
fatal-mixed cutaneous zygomycosis-aspergillosis: a case report.mucorales and aspergillus are molds responsible for infections in immunocompromised patients. in this report, we describe a case of a rare extensively mixed cutaneous infection caused by lichtheimia ramosa, aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a neutropenic patient suffering from an acute leukemia. the fatal outcome of this patient can be attributed to its hematologic malignancy, the extensive nature of the lesions and the resistance of the strains to antifungals.201324085614
different colonization patterns of aspergillus terreus in patients with cystic fibrosis.aspergillus terreus is a common soil saprophyte. after aspergillus fumigatus and scedosporium apiospermum it ranks third amongst the filamentous fungi colonizing the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis. in this context, the clinical presentation of a. terreus infection mainly corresponds to allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis. in the work presented here, we studied colonization patterns of a. terreus in cf patients by genotyping using nine short tandem repeat markers. a total of 115 cl ...201423927682
activity of antifungal combinations against aspergillus species evaluated by isothermal microcalorimetry.we evaluated the activity of antifungals alone or in combination against aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus by real-time measurement of fungal growth-related heat production. amphotericin b, voriconazole, caspofungin, and anidulafungin were tested alone or in combination. heat production was measured in sabouraud dextrose broth containing 10(5)aspergillus conidia/ml for 48 h at 37 °c. antifungal activity was evaluated by measuring the heat detection time relative to the growth control ...201323871413
active site model of (r)-selective ω-transaminase and its application to the production of d-amino acids.ω-transaminase (ω-ta) is one of the important biocatalytic toolkits owing to its unique enzyme property which enables the transfer of an amino group between primary amines and carbonyl compounds. in addition to preparation of chiral amines, ω-ta reactions have been exploited for the asymmetric synthesis of l-amino acids using (s)-selective ω-tas. however, despite the availability of (r)-selective ω-tas, catalytic utility of the ω-tas has not been explored for the production of d-amino acids. her ...201423576035
free chlorine inactivation of fungi in drinking water sources.the effectiveness of free chlorine for the inactivation of fungi present in settled surface water was tested. in addition, free chlorine inactivation rate constants of cladosporium tenuissimum, cladosporium cladosporioides, phoma glomerata, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus fumigatus, penicillium griseofulvum, and penicillium citrinum that were found to occur in different source waters were determined in different water matrices (laboratory grade water and settled water). the effect of using diff ...201323164218
in vitro and in vivo role of heat shock protein 90 in amphotericin b resistance of aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus (a. terreus) is of serious concern because of a high propensity to dissemination and in vitro and in vivo resistance to amphotericin b (amb). the underlying molecular mechanism of amb is not known yet and here we want to explore whether fungal heat shock protein 90 (hsp90) is involved in polyene resistance in a. terreus. amb-susceptible (ats) and amb-resistant (atr) a. terreus and amb-susceptible aspergillus fumigatus (afs) were investigated in response to amb with a special ...201322515428
new antifungal compounds from aspergillus terreus isolated from desert soil.two new butyrolactone i derivatives: 3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzyl)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3h)-one (1) and (z)-3-[3-hydroxy-4-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-phenyl]-5-(-4-hydroxybenzylidene)-4-methyl-dihydrofuran-2(3h)-one (2), in addition to the previously described (s)-methyl-4-hydroxy-2-[4-hydroxy-3-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-benzyl]-3-(4-hydroxy-phenyl)-5-oxo-2,5-dihydro-furan-2-carboxylic acid methyl ester (3), were identified from a strain of aspergillus terreus thom ...201222422648
persistence versus escape: aspergillus terreus and aspergillus fumigatus employ different strategies during interactions with macrophages.invasive bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ibpa) is a life-threatening disease in immunocompromised patients. although aspergillus terreus is frequently found in the environment, a. fumigatus is by far the main cause of ibpa. however, once a. terreus establishes infection in the host, disease is as fatal as a. fumigatus infections. thus, we hypothesized that the initial steps of disease establishment might be fundamentally different between these two species. since alveolar macrophages represent o ...201222319619
identification of ochratoxin a producing fungi associated with fresh and dry liquorice.the presence of fungi on liquorice could contaminate the crop and result in elevated levels of mycotoxin. in this study, the mycobiota associated with fresh and dry liquorice was investigated in 3 producing regions of china. potential toxigenic fungi were tested for ochratoxin a (ota) and aflatoxin b1 (afb1) production using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. based on a polyphasic approach using morphological characters, β-tubulin and rna polymerase ii second largest subu ...201324205182
novel fungal consortium for bioremediation of metals and dyes from mixed waste stream.the present study is targeted towards development of a three member fungal consortium for effective removal of metals [cr(6+) and cu(2+)] and dyes [ab and po] from mixed waste streams. initial studies using individual fungal strain showed that aspergillus lentulus was best for cu(2+) and ab removal, aspergillus terreus for cr(6+) removal whereas, rhizopus oryzae was best for po removal. based on the complementary pollutant affinities and positive interactions, a consortium comprising all three s ...201425203229
cloning, heterologous expression and biochemical characterization of a non-specific endoglucanase family 12 from aspergillus terreus nih2624.the cellulases from glycoside hydrolyses family 12 (gh12) play an important role in cellulose degradation and plant cell wall deconstruction being widely used in a number of bioindustrial processes. aiming to contribute toward better comprehension of these class of the enzymes, here we describe a high-yield secretion of a endoglucanase gh12 from aspegillus terreus (atgh12), which was cloned and expressed in aspergillus nidulans strain a773. the purified protein was used for complete biochemical ...201728088615
engineering fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like enzymes by heterologous expression and domain swapping.a facile genetic methodology in the filamentous fungus aspergillus nidulans allowed the exchange of various domains in nonribosomal peptide synthase (nrps)-like enzymes from aspergillus terreus. the newly generated engineered enzymes are capable of producing compounds with different chemical structures than its parent enzyme in vivo. this work provides insight in the programing of nonribosomal peptide biosynthesis in filamentous fungi.201627978657
discovery of mcra, a master regulator of aspergillus secondary metabolism.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are extremely important in medicine and agriculture, but regulation of their biosynthesis is incompletely understood. we have developed a genetic screen in aspergillus nidulans for negative regulators of fungal sm gene clusters and we have used this screen to isolate mutations that upregulate transcription of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase gene required for nidulanin a biosynthesis. several of these mutations are allelic and we have identified the mutant ...201727775185
the functional properties of a xyloglucanase (gh12) of aspergillus terreus expressed in aspergillus nidulans may increase performance of biomass degradation.filamentous fungi are attractive hosts for heterologous protein expression due to their capacity to secrete large amounts of enzymes into the extracellular medium. xyloglucanases, which specifically hydrolyze xyloglucan, have been recently applied in lignocellulosic biomass degradation and conversion in many other industrial processes. in this context, this work aimed to clone, express, and determine the functional properties of a recombinant xyloglucanase (atxeg12) from aspergillus terreus, and ...201627245677
characterization of the product of a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like (nrps-like) gene using the doxycycline dependent tet-on system in aspergillus terreus.genome sequencing of the fungus aspergillus terreus uncovered a number of silent core structural biosynthetic genes encoding enzymes presumed to be involved in the production of cryptic secondary metabolites. there are five nonribosomal peptide synthetase (nrps)-like genes with the predicted a-t-te domain architecture within the a. terreus genome. among the five genes, only the product of pgna remains unknown. the tet-on system is an inducible, tunable and metabolism-independent expression syste ...201626851300
a new high-performance heterologous fungal expression system based on regulatory elements from the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster.recently, the aspergillus terreus terrein gene cluster was identified and selected for development of a new heterologous expression system. the cluster encodes the specific transcription factor terr that is indispensable for terrein cluster induction. to identify terr binding sites, different recombinant versions of the terr dna-binding domain were analyzed for specific motif recognition. the high affinity consensus motif tcgghhwyhcggh was identified from genes required for terrein production an ...201525852654
astpt catalyses both reverse n1- and regular c2 prenylation of a methylated bisindolyl benzoquinone.prenylated bisindolyl benzoquinones exhibit interesting biological activities, such as antidiabetic or anti-hiv activities. a number of these compounds, including asterriquinones, have been isolated from aspergillus terreus. in this study, we identified two putative genes by genome mining, ateg_09980 and ateg_00702, which share high sequence similarity with the known bisindolyl benzoquinone prenyltransferase tdib from aspergillus nidulans. the coding sequences were cloned and overexpressed in e. ...201424302698
heterologous reconstitution of the intact geodin gene cluster in aspergillus nidulans through a simple and versatile pcr based approach.fungal natural products are a rich resource for bioactive molecules. to fully exploit this potential it is necessary to link genes to metabolites. genetic information for numerous putative biosynthetic pathways has become available in recent years through genome sequencing. however, the lack of solid methodology for genetic manipulation of most species severely hampers pathway characterization. here we present a simple pcr based approach for heterologous reconstitution of intact gene clusters. s ...201324009710
an efficient system for heterologous expression of secondary metabolite genes in aspergillus nidulans.fungal secondary metabolites (sms) are an important source of medically valuable compounds. genome projects have revealed that fungi have many sm biosynthetic gene clusters that are not normally expressed. to access these potentially valuable, cryptic clusters, we have developed a heterologous expression system in aspergillus nidulans . we have developed an efficient system for amplifying genes from a target fungus, placing them under control of a regulatable promoter, transferring them into a. ...201323621425
pgas, a low-ph-induced promoter, as a tool for dynamic control of gene expression for metabolic engineering of aspergillus niger.the dynamic control of gene expression is important for adjusting fluxes in order to obtain desired products and achieve appropriate cell growth, particularly when the synthesis of a desired product drains metabolites required for cell growth. for dynamic gene expression, a promoter responsive to a particular environmental stressor is vital. here, we report a low-ph-inducible promoter, pgas, which promotes minimal gene expression at ph values above 5.0 but functions efficiently at low phs, such ...201728087530
rewiring a secondary metabolite pathway towards itaconic acid production in aspergillus niger.the industrially relevant filamentous fungus aspergillus niger is widely used in industry for its secretion capabilities of enzymes and organic acids. biotechnologically produced organic acids promise to be an attractive alternative for the chemical industry to replace petrochemicals. itaconic acid (ia) has been identified as one of the top twelve building block chemicals which have high potential to be produced by biotechnological means. the ia biosynthesis cluster (cada, mtta and mfsa) has bee ...201627469970
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of a pvgox gene encoding glucose oxidase in penicillium viticola f1 strain and it's expression quantitation.the pvgox gene (accession number: kt452630) was isolated from genomic dna of the marine fungi penicillium viticola f1 by genome walking and their expression analysis was done by fluorescent rt-pcr. an open reading frame of 1806bp encoding a 601 amino acid protein (isoelectric point: 5.01) with a calculated molecular weight of 65,535.4 was characterized. the deduced protein showed 75%, 71%, 69% and 64% identity to those deduced from the glucose oxidase (gox) genes from different fungal strains in ...201627425865
green synthesis of nanosilver particles by aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n and its antifungal activity against mycotoxigenic fungi.the aim of this study was to synthesize silver nanoparticles (agnps) by an eco-friendly and low-cost method using the fungi aspergillus terreus ha1n and penicillium expansum ha2n as an alternative to chemical procedures mostly requiring drastic experimental conditions emitting toxic chemical byproducts. also, this study has been extended to evaluate the effect of agnps on the growth of some mycotoxigenic fungi and ochratoxin a (ota) produced by aspergillus ochraceus.201627002915
effect of fungal mycelia on the hplc-uv and uv-vis spectrophotometric assessment of mycelium-bound epoxide hydrolase using glycidyl phenyl ether.the use of mycelia as biocatalysts has technical and economic advantages. however, there are several difficulties in obtaining accurate results in mycelium-catalysed reactions. firstly, sample extraction, indispensable because of the presence of mycelia, can bring into the extract components with a similar structure to that of the analyte of interest; secondly, mycelia can influence the recovery of the analyte. we prepared calibration standards of 3-phenoxy-1,2-propanediol (ppd) in the pure solv ...201626902669
characterizing mtta as a mitochondrial cis-aconitic acid transporter by metabolic engineering.the mitochondrial carrier protein mtta is involved in the biosynthesis of itaconic acid in aspergillus terreus. in this paper, the transport specificity of mtta is analyzed making use of different metabolically engineered aspergillus niger strains. furthermore, the mitochondrial localization of this protein is confirmed using fluorescence microscopy. it was found that mtta preferentially transports cis-aconitic acid over citric acid and does not transport itaconic acid. the expression of mtta in ...201626875555
replacement of two amino acids of 9r-dioxygenase-allene oxide synthase of aspergillus niger inverts the chirality of the hydroperoxide and the allene oxide.the genome of aspergillus niger codes for a fusion protein (eha25900), which can be aligned with ~50% sequence identity to 9s-dioxygenase (dox)-allene oxide synthase (aos) of fusarium oxysporum, homologues of the fusarium and colletotrichum complexes and with over 62% sequence identity to homologues of aspergilli, including (dox)-9r-aos of aspergillus terreus. the aims were to characterize the enzymatic activities of eha25900 and to identify crucial amino acids for the stereospecificity. recombi ...201626603902
bioleaching of rare earth elements from monazite sand.three fungal strains were found to be capable of bioleaching rare earth elements from monazite, a rare earth phosphate mineral, utilizing the monazite as a phosphate source and releasing rare earth cations into solution. these organisms include one known phosphate solubilizing fungus, aspergillus niger atcc 1015, as well as two newly isolated fungi: an aspergillus terreus strain ml3-1 and a paecilomyces spp. strain we3-f. although monazite also contains the radioactive element thorium, bioleachi ...201626332985
expression of feruloyl esterase a from aspergillus terreus and its application in biomass degradation.feruloyl esterases (faes) are key enzymes involved in the complete biodegradation of lignocelluloses, which could hydrolyze the ester bonds between hemicellulose and lignin. the coding sequence of a feruloyl esterase a (atfaea) was cloned from aspergillus terreus and the recombinant atfaea was constitutively expressed in pichia pastoris. the sds-page analysis of purified atfaea showed two protein bands owing to the different extent of glycosylation, and the recombinant atfaea had an optimum temp ...201526282562
challenges in the production of itaconic acid by metabolically engineered escherichia coli.metabolic engineering allows the production of a variety of high-value chemicals in heterologous hosts. for example, itaconic acid (ia) has been produced in several microorganisms, such as escherichia coli, aspergillus niger, and synechocystis sp. through the expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase gene (cad) from aspergillus terreus. recently, we showed that inactivation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase gene and overexpression of the aconitase gene dramatically enhanced the production levels o ...201526176321
a deficiency of manganese ions in the presence of high sugar concentrations is the critical parameter for achieving high yields of itaconic acid by aspergillus terreus.itaconic acid (ia), an unsaturated dicarboxylic acid with a high potential as a platform for chemicals derived from sugars, is industrially produced by large-scale submerged fermentation by aspergillus terreus. although the biochemical pathway and the physiology leading to ia is almost the same as that leading to citric acid production in aspergillus niger, published data for the volumetric (g l(-1)) and the specific yield (mol/mol carbon source) of ia are significantly lower than for citric aci ...201526078111
the cell factory aspergillus enters the big data era: opportunities and challenges for optimising product with limits. getting more from less. producing commodities and high-value products from renewable resources including waste. what is the driving force and quintessence of bioeconomy outlines the lifestyle and product portfolio of aspergillus, a saprophytic genus, to which some of the top-performing microbial cell factories belong: aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae and aspergillus terreus. what makes them so interesting for exploitation in biotechnology and how can they help us to addr ...201525616499
pathway transfer in fungi.itaconic acid is an important building block for the chemical industry. currently, aspergillus terreus is the main organism used for itaconic acid production. due to the enormous citric acid production capacity of aspergillus niger, this host is investigated as a potential itaconic acid production host. several strategies have been tried so far: fermentation optimization, expression of cis-aconitate decarboxylase (cada) alone and in combination with aconitase targeted to the same compartment, ch ...201725482236
comparative study of toxicity of azo dye procion red mx-5b following biosorption and biodegradation treatments with the fungi aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus.azo dyes are an important class of environmental contaminants and are characterized by the presence of one or more azo bonds (-n=n-) in their molecular structure. effluents containing these compounds resist many types of treatments due to their molecular complexity. therefore, alternative treatments, such as biosorption and biodegradation, have been widely studied to solve the problems caused by these substances, such as their harmful effects on the environment and organisms. the aim of the pres ...201425048922
altering the activation mechanism in thermomyces lanuginosus is shown by rational site-directed mutagenesis of the lid region in thermomyces lanuginosus lipase that it is possible to generate lipase variants with attractive features, e.g., high lipase activity, fast activation at the lipid interface, ability to act on water-soluble substrates, and enhanced calcium independence. the rational design was based on the lid residue composition in aspergillus niger ferulic acid esterase (faea). five constructs included lipase variants containing the full faea ...201424870718
terrein biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus and its impact on phytotoxicity.terrein is a fungal metabolite with ecological, antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and antioxidative activities. although it is produced by aspergillus terreus as one of its major secondary metabolites, not much is known about its biosynthetic pathway. here, we describe an unexpected discovery of the terrein biosynthesis gene locus made while we were looking for a pks gene involved in production of conidia coloration pigments common for aspergilli. the gene, ateg_00145, here named tera, is essent ...201424816227
optimization of xylanase production by filamentous fungi in solid-state fermentation and scale-up to horizontal tube bioreactor.five microorganisms, namely aspergillus niger cect 2700, a. niger cect 2915, a. niger cect 2088, aspergillus terreus cect 2808, and rhizopus stolonifer cect 2344, were grown on corncob to produce cell wall polysaccharide-degrading enzymes, mainly xylanases, by solid-state fermentation (ssf). a. niger cect 2700 produced the highest amount of xylanases of 504 ± 7 u/g dry corncob (dcc) after 3 days of fermentation. the optimization of the culture broth (5.0 g/l nano3, 1.3 g/l (nh4)2so4, 4.5 g/l kh2 ...201424728763
effect of mineral constituents in the bioleaching of uranium from uraniferous sedimentary rock samples, southwestern sinai, egypt.bioleaching, like biotechnology uses microorganisms to extract metals from their ore materials, whereas microbial activity has an appreciable effect on the dissolution of toxic metals and radionuclides. bioleaching of uranium was carried out with isolated fungi from uraniferous sedimentary rocks from southwestern sinai, egypt. eight fungal species were isolated from different grades of uraniferous samples. the bio-dissolution experiments showed that aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus exhi ...201424682031
expression of the aspergillus terreus itaconic acid biosynthesis cluster in aspergillus niger.aspergillus terreus is a natural producer of itaconic acid and is currently used to produce itaconic acid on an industrial scale. the metabolic process for itaconic acid biosynthesis is very similar to the production of citric acid in aspergillus niger. however, a key enzyme in a. niger, cis-aconitate decarboxylase, is missing. the introduction of the a. terreus cada gene in a. niger exploits the high level of citric acid production (over 200 g per liter) and theoretically can lead to production ...201424438100
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