a note on meso-erythritol, a metabolic product of aspergillus terreus. 194620273676
aspergillus niger: an unusual cause of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis.infections due to aspergillus species cause significant morbidity and mortality. most are attributed to aspergillus fumigatus, followed by aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus. aspergillus niger is a mould that is rarely reported as a cause of pneumonia. a 72-year-old female with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and temporal arteritis being treated with steroids long term presented with haemoptysis and pleuritic chest pain. chest radiography revealed areas of heterogeneous consolidati ...201020299503
hidden function of catalytic domain in 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase for product release.functional investigation of the proposed dehydratase domain of atx, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from aspergillus terreus, revealed that the domain is not involved in dehydration of the beta-hydroxytriketide intermediate tethered on the acyl carrier protein but catalyzes thioester hydrolysis to release the product from the acyl carrier protein. thus, we renamed this domain the thioester hydrolase (th) domain. the intermediate bound to the th domain of mutant h972a formed in the presence of ...201020304931
analysis of sesterterpenoids from aspergillus terreus using esi-qtof and esi-it.biosynthesis of terretonin was studied due to the interesting skeleton of this series of sesterterpenoids. very recently, lópez-gresa reported two new sesterterpenoids (terretonins e and f) which are inhibitors of the mammalian mitochondrial respiratory chain. mass spectrometry (ms), especially tandem mass spectrometry, has been one of the most important physicochemical methods for the identification of trace natural products due to it rapidity, sensitivity and low levels of sample consumption. ...201020310057
a new group of aromatic prenyltransferases in fungi, catalyzing a 2,7-dihydroxynaphthalene 3-dimethylallyl-transferase reaction.five fungal genomes from the ascomycota (sac fungi) were found to contain a gene with sequence similarity to a recently discovered small group of bacterial prenyltransferases that catalyze the c-prenylation of aromatic substrates in secondary metabolism. the genes from aspergillus terreus nih2624, botryotinia fuckeliana b05.10 and sclerotinia sclerotiorum 1980 were expressed in escherichia coli, and the resulting his(8)-tagged proteins were purified and investigated biochemically. their substrat ...201020351110
isolation and identification of two new fungal strains for xylanase production.fungi are well known for their ability to excrete enzymes into the environment. the aim of this work was to evaluate xylanase production by fungi isolated from soil. one hundred and thirty-six fungal isolates were screened for xylanase production. two xylanase producing isolates, fss117 and fss129, were identified on the basis of analyses of 5,8s gene sequencing. the closest phylogenetic neighbors according to 5,8s gene sequence data for the two isolates were aspergillus tubingensis and aspergil ...201020383603
ardeemins and cytochalasins from aspergillus terreus residing in artemisia annua.three new alkaloids, 15b-dehydro-5- n-acetylardeemin ( 3), 10-phenyl-[12]-cytochalasins z16 ( 6) and z17 ( 7), were characterized from the liquid culture of the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus ifb-e030 along with six known derivatives, 5- n-acetylardeemin ( 1), 15b- β-hydroxyl-5- n-acetylardeemin ( 2), cytochalasin e ( 4), rosellichalasin ( 5), cytochalasins z11 ( 8), and z13 ( 9). the structures of the new metabolites were established mainly by a combination of their 1d- and 2d-nmr spectr ...201020383815
the fungal product terreic acid is a covalent inhibitor of the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme udp-n-acetylglucosamine 1-carboxyvinyltransferase (mura) .terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus aspergillus terreus. we found that terreic acid is a covalent inhibitor of the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme mura from enterobacter cloacae and escherichia coli in vitro. the crystal structure of the mura dead-end complex with terreic acid revealed that the quinine ring is covalently attached to the thiol group of cys115, the molecular target of the antibiotic fosfomycin. kinetic characterization established ...201020392080
quorum sensing as a method for improving sclerotiorin production in penicillium sclerotiorum.quorum sensing has been extensively studied in the bacterial kingdom but little is known about it in filamentous fungi. gamma-butyrolactones have been established as quorum sensing molecules in gram-negative bacteria (as acyl-homoserine lactones) and gram-positive bacteria (as a-factor) and they are present in many filamentous fungi (e.g. as butyrolactone i in aspergillus terreus). this study investigates possible role of multicolic acid (and related derivates) as quorum sensing molecule(s) in p ...201020438771
in vitro susceptibility testing in aspergillus species: an update.aspergillus species are the most common causes of invasive mold infections in immunocompromised patients. the introduction of new antifungal agents and recent reports of resistance emerging during treatment of aspergillus infections have highlighted the need for in vitro susceptibility testing. various testing procedures have been proposed, including macro- and micro-dilution, disk diffusion, etest (ab biodisk, sweden) and other commercial tests. although aspergillus species are generally suscep ...201020441550
enhancing itaconic acid production by aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus is successfully used for industrial production of itaconic acid. the acid is formed from cis-aconitate, an intermediate of the tricarboxylic (tca) cycle, by catalytic action of cis-aconitate decarboxylase. it could be assumed that strong anaplerotic reactions that replenish the pool of the tca cycle intermediates would enhance the synthesis and excretion rate of itaconic acid. in the phylogenetic close relative aspergillus niger, upregulated metabolic flux through glycolysis ...201020461508
[guideline based treatment of invasive aspergillosis].invasive fungus infections caused by aspergillus spp. occur most frequently in immunocompromised patients. a high infection-associated death rate of up to and over 50% is attributed even today to these fungi. the disease in humans is caused mainly by aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger. other species, for example, aspergillus terreus or aspergillus nidulans are quantitatively less prevalent. evidence based treatment of invasive aspergillosis has become safer and more ...201020433655
pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile of posaconazole.posaconazole is a recently approved lipophilic triazole antifungal agent that exhibits potent and broad-spectrum antifungal activity in vitro and in vivo against most candida spp., cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillus spp., many zygomycetes, endemic fungi and dermatophytes. it has been documented that posaconazole has potency and spectrum of activity similar to those of itraconazole and superior to those of fluconazole against clinically important isolates of candida spp., c. neoformans and aspe ...201020481649
evaluation of supercritical fluid extraction in the pharmaceutical industry.various steroids precipitate from supercritical co(2) as very small particles but still retain their crystallinity. this suggests that scfe in this industry could be utilized as a size reduction method as an alternative to milling. the application of scfe as a separation technique is demonstrated by the simultaneous extraction and reaction of mevinolin, a metabolite of the fungus aspergillus terreus.198620568193
biosorption of lead, mercury, and cadmium ions by aspergillus terreus immobilized in a natural matrix.our aim was to investigate the biosorption of pb2+, hg2+, cd2 from aqueous solution by aspergillus terreus (both free and immobilized on loofa sponge discs). our results show that the adsorption capacity of fungal biomass on loofa sponge (fbls) is superior to free fungal biomass (ffb). the adsorption selectivity by fbls was in the order pb2+>hg2+>cd2+. the maximum metal ions adsorbed was 247.2, 37.7, 23.8 mg/g fbls for pb2+, hg2+ and cd2+, respectively. metal uptake by fbls was affected by the p ...201020568528
extracellular proteome of aspergillus terreus grown on different carbon sources.extracellular proteins of filamentous fungi are important for biomedical and biotechnological applications. aspergillus terreus not only comprises an important class of organisms that have significant commercial relevance to the biotechnology industry, but also is an emerging fungal pathogen. however, no information is available on the extracellular proteome of a. terreus. thus, we analyzed the extracellular proteomes of a. terreus under different culture conditions using sucrose, glucose, or st ...201020532780
antifungal activity of eugenol against penicillium, aspergillus, and fusarium species.the antifungal activity of eugenol in a model system against aspergilli (aspergillus niger, aspergillus terreus, and emericella nidulans), penicilli (penicillium expansum, penicillium glabrum, and penicillium italicum), and fusaria (fusarium oxysporum and fusarium avenaceum) was investigated. minimum detection time (time to attain a colony diameter of 1 cm) and the kinetic parameters were evaluated. the effectiveness of the active compound seemed to be strain or genus dependent; 100 mg/liter rep ...201020537272
in vitro susceptibility of aspergillus spp. to dithiocarbamate organoruthenium compounds.summary the in vitro antifungal activity of ruthenium dithiocarbamate compounds (1-5) was investigated and assessed for its activity against seven different species of aspergillus (aspergillus clavatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus nomius, aspergillus tamarii and aspergillus terreus). analysis of in vitro susceptibility was performed using broth microdilution assay following the clinical and laboratory standards institute guidelines for filamentous fu ...201020557461
impact of linoleic acid supplementation on lovastatin production in aspergillus terreus cultures.this work proposes a novel approach for enhancing the yield of lovastatin in aspergillus terreus cultures by exploiting linoleic acid-derived signalling molecules, which are potentially involved in fungal cell-cell communication. high-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that production of lovastatin was enhanced up to 1.8-fold upon exogenous addition of the oxylipin precursor linoleic acid to low cell density cultures of a. terreus. real-time pcr analysis showed that supplementat ...201020571794
characterization of an exoinulinase produced by aspergillus terreus cct 4083 grown on sugar cane bagasse.exoinulinase (beta-d-fructan fructohydrolase, ec secreted by aspergillus terreus cct4083 was obtained using sugar cane bagasse, an agroindustrial residue, as a carbon source. it was further purified from the supernatant culture in a rapid procedure. the enzyme presented 57 kda on sds-page and 56 kda on gel filtration chromatography. inulin was hydrolyzed by the purified enzyme, yielding d-fructose as the main product. this enzyme showed maximum activity at ph 4.0 and 60 degrees c and m ...201020597549
gluconic acid production by aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus produces itaconic acid at low ph but lovastatin and other secondary metabolites at higher ph in the fermentation. the utilization of glucose as a carbon substrate was investigated for secondary metabolite production by a. terreus.201020618892
molecular detection and characterisation of fungal heat shock protein 60.summary heat shock proteins (hsp) are highly conserved molecules, which are both constitutively expressed and up-regulated in response to various stress conditions. in particular, fungal hsp60 can act as immunodominant antigens and facilitate powerful immunological properties. a possible cellular heat shock response was investigated in eight fungi (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, penicillium chrysogenum, cladosporium cladosporioides, scedosporium apiospermum, trichophyton mentagrophy ...201020667000
characterization of recombinant terrelysin, a hemolysin of aspergillus terreus.fungal hemolysins are potential virulence factors. some fungal hemolysins belong to the aegerolysin protein family that includes cytolysins capable of lysing erythrocytes and other cells. here, we describe a hemolysin from aspergillus terreus called terrelysin. we used the genome sequence database to identify the terrelysin sequence based on homology with other known aegerolysins. aspergillus terreus mrna was isolated, transcribed to cdna and the open reading frame for terrelysin amplified by pc ...201120632211
invasive pulmonary aspergillosis due to aspergillus terreus: value of dna, galactomannan and (1->3)-beta-d-glucan detection in serum samples as an adjunct to diagnosis.a case of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus is described. the diagnosis was based on demonstration of branched septate hyphae in a sputum specimen and isolation of the fungus in culture. the diagnosis was further supported by detection of a. terreus-specific dna, galactomannan (gm) and (1→3)-β-d-glucan (bdg) in consecutive serum specimens. the patient was treated for about 10 weeks with voriconazole. the decreasing levels of gm and bdg in serum samples were accompani ...201020724511
in vitro activity of isavuconazole against 140 reference fungal strains and 165 clinically isolated yeasts from japan.the in vitro susceptibilities of 140 laboratory reference strains of fungi, including type strains, and 165 clinical yeast isolates from japan towards isavuconazole compared with fluconazole (flc), itraconazole (itc), voriconazole and amphotericin b were measured. broth microdilution methods based on clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) methods were used for yeasts, and rpmi-mops medium semi-solidified with 0.2% low-melting-point agarose based on clsi guidelines was used for moulds ...201020674282
the human ku autoantigen shares amino acid sequence homology with fungal, but not bacterial and viral, proteins.context: molecular mimicry between autoantigens and microbial antigens is a possible triggering mechanism of autoimmunity. human ku is a dna-associated autoantigen targeted by autoantibodies in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related disorders; available data are consistent with a role of molecular mimicry in the pathogenesis of anti-ku autoimmunity, but no research exist on this topic. objective: we aimed to define the most probable microbial triggers of anti-ku autoimmunity via ...201120718578
butenolide and furandione from an endophytic aspergillus terreus.a new butenolide, aspernolide d (1), and furandione, asperterone (2), together with four known butenolides, butyrolactones i-iv and aspernolide b, were obtained from cultures of the endophytic fungus aspergillus terreus, isolated from the flowering plant mammea siamensis. the structures of these compounds were elucidated by analysis of nmr spectroscopic and mass spectrometric data.201020823603
potential physiological functions of acceptor products of dextransucrase with cellobiose as an inhibitor of mutansucrase and fungal cell synthase.a series of oligosaccharides (cellobio-oligosaccharides) ranging from degrees of polymer 3 to 6 were synthesized by leuconostoc mesenteroides b-512 fmcm in the presence of cellobiose. the major oligosaccharides were the trisaccharides, α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose and α-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-d-glucopyranose. these cellobio-oligosaccharides were inhibitory on mutansucrase, an enzyme that causes dental caries. they were also found to b ...201020929235
optimization of antioxidant potential of aspergillus terreus through different statistical approaches.a three-step optimization strategy, which includes a one-factor-at-a-time classical method and different statistical approaches [plackett-burman design and rsm (response surface methodology)], were applied to optimize the antioxidant potential of aspergillus terreus. antioxidant activity was assayed by different procedures and compared with tpc (total phenolic content). primarily, different carbon and nitrogen sources were screened by classical methods, which revealed sucrose and nano3 to be the ...201020929441
platelets enhance activity of antimycotic substances against non-aspergillus fumigatus aspergillus species in vitro.platelets are known to be part of haemostasis but they are also players in innate host defense. recently, we observed that platelets attenuate the virulence of aspergillus spp. in vitro. however, little is known about the antifungal effects of platelets in the presence of antimycotics against non-a. fumigatus aspergillus species. we therefore investigated whether platelets increase the in vitro activity of amphotericin b, voriconazole, posaconazole and caspofungin against two clinical isolates e ...201120795763
augmenting the activity of antifungal agents against aspergilli using structural analogues of benzoic acid as chemosensitizing agents.a number of benzoic acid analogues showed antifungal activity against strains of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus, causative agents of human aspergillosis, in in vitro bioassays. structure-activity analysis revealed that antifungal activities of benzoic and gallic acids were increased by addition of a methyl, methoxyl or chloro group at position 4 of the aromatic ring, or by esterification of the carboxylic acid with an alkyl group, respectively. thymol, a natura ...201020943191
acidic ph conditions induce dissociation of the haem from the protein and destabilise the catalase isolated from aspergillus terreus.the stability (half-life, t(½)) of the large catalase (cat) isolated from aspergillus terreus was decreased under acidic conditions (maximum t(½) approximately 8.5 months at ph ≤ 6) versus alkaline conditions (t(½) approximately 15 months at ph 8-12). acidic conditions induce the dissociation of haem from cat, as revealed from a reduction in the soret peak intensity at 405 nm and an increase in the peak current at fe(3+)/fe(2+) redox potentials. this increase in current is attributed to the faci ...201020972700
butyrolactones from the fungus aspergillus terreus bcc 4651.two new butenolides, butyrolactones vi (1) and vii (2), were isolated together with six known compounds, butyrolactones i (3), ii (4), iv (5), and v (6), aspernolide b (7), and bisdethiodi(methylthio)acetylaranotin (8) from the fungus aspergillus terreus bcc 4651. compound 8, exhibiting a minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) value of 1.56 µg/ml against mycobacterium tuberculosis h37ra, proved to be the antimycobacterial principle from the culture of this fungus. on the other hand, butyrolacton ...201021048353
some factors affecting the production of itaconic acid by aspergillus terreus in agitated cultures. 194620998001
itatartaric acid, a metabolic product of an ultravioletinduced mutant of aspergillus terreus. 194521006957
lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus with the simultaneous use of lactose and glycerol in a discontinuous fed-batch culture.the influence of various combinations of glycerol and lactose feed on the biosynthesis of two polyketide metabolites, lovastatin and (+)-geodin, by aspergillus terreus atcc20542 in a discontinuous fed-batch culture was presented. in these experiments lactose and/or glycerol were also used as the initial carbon substrates in the cultivation media. the application of glycerol feed, when lactose is the initial substrate, leads to the appreciable lovastatin concentration in the broth (122.4 mg l⁻¹), ...201021056601
in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy of posaconazole in treatment of murine infections by different isolates of the aspergillus terreus complex.posaconazole (psc) is an antifungal drug recommended as an alternative for the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in patients who are refractory or intolerant to primary antifungal therapy. we have evaluated the in vitro activity of psc against 21 strains of the aspergillus terreus complex using both broth microdilution and disk diffusion (neo sensitabs) methods. psc showed the same high level of activity against all the strains with the two in vitro methods used. we developed a murine model of ...201021115792
an acid and highly thermostable xylanase from phialophora sp. endo-β-1,4-xylanase gene, designated xyn10g5, was cloned from phialophora sp. g5 and expressed in pichia pastoris. the 1,197-bp full-length gene encodes a polypeptide of 399 amino acids consisting of a putative signal peptide at residues 1-20, a family 10 glycoside hydrolase domain, a short gly/thr-rich linker and a family 1 carbohydrate-binding module (cbm). the deduced amino acid sequence of xyn10g5 shares the highest identity (53.4%) with a putative xylanase precursor from aspergillus terr ...201021120468
calcium alginate entrapped preparation of α-galactosidase: its stability and application in hydrolysis of soymilk galactooligosaccharides.thermostable α-galactosidase from aspergillus terreus (gr) was insolubilized using concanavalin a obtained from jack bean extract and in order to maintain the integrity of complex in the presence of its substrate or products, this complex was crosslinked with glutaraldehyde. soluble α-galactosidase entrapped in calcium alginate retained 82% of enzyme activity whereas, con a-α-galactosidase complex entrapped in calcium alginate and crosslinked con a-α-galactosidase complex entrapped calcium algin ...201021181428
response surface methodology for lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus gd13 strain.a wild type aspergillus terreus gd13 strain, chosen after extensive screening, was optimized for lovastatin production using statistical box-behnken design of experiments. the interactive effect of four process parameters, i.e. lactose and soybean meal, inoculum size (spore concentration) and age of the spore culture, on the production of lovastatin was evaluated employing response surface methodology (rsm). the model highlighted the positive effect of soybean meal concentration and inoculum lev ...201021183423
management of voriconazole hepatotoxicity in a lung transplant patient.s. belaiche, m. roustit, p. bedouch, s. quetant, c. saint-raymond, c. pison. management of voriconazole hepatotoxicity in a lung transplant patient. transpl infect dis 2011: 13: 309-311. all rights reserved abstract: lung allograft airway colonization by aspergillus species is common among lung transplant recipients. we report the case of a 46-year-old female lung transplant outpatient diagnosed with persistent pulmonary aspergillus colonization (>50 colonies of aspergillus terreus) 3 months aft ...201021176020
experimental design for the optimization of copper biosorption from aqueous solution by aspergillus experimental design methodology was applied to study the effects of temperature, ph, biomass dose, and stirring speed on copper removal from aqueous solutions by aspergillus terreus in a biosorption batch system. to identify the effects of the main factors and their interactions on copper removal efficiency and to optimize the process, a full 2(4) factorial design with central points was performed. four factors were studied at two levels, including stirring speed (50-150min(-1)), temperature ...201121292385
hydrophobins from aspergillus species cannot be clearly divided into two classes.abstract:201021182770
use of epidemiological cutoff values to examine 9-year trends in susceptibility of aspergillus species to the the absence of clinical breakpoints, epidemiological cutoff values (ecvs) have been established to distinguish wild-type (wt) isolates of aspergillus spp. from those that may harbor resistance mutations. recently, the clsi has developed ecvs for triazoles (itraconazole, posaconazole, and voriconazole) and common aspergillus species. we applied the triazole ecvs to 1,789 aspergillus isolates collected from 63 centers worldwide from 2001 to 2009 to determine the frequency of non-wt strains of e ...201021123534
multifactorial induction of an orphan pks-nrps gene cluster in aspergillus terreus.mining the genome of the pathogenic fungus aspergillus terreus revealed the presence of an orphan polyketide-nonribosomal-peptide synthetase (pks-nrps) gene cluster. induced expression of the transcriptional activator gene adjacent to the pks-nrps gene was not sufficient for the activation of the silent pathway. monitoring gene expression, metabolic profiling, and using a lacz reporter strain allowed for the systematic investigation of physiological conditions that eventually led to the discover ...201121236704
a clone-based transcriptomics approach for the identification of genes relevant for itaconic acid production in aspergillus.several aspergillus species are well-known for the production of a variety of organic acids. in this study, a cloned based transcriptomics approach was used to identify genes crucial in the biosynthesis pathway for one of these acids, itaconic acid. from a number of different aspergillus terreus controlled batch fermentations, those cultures with the largest difference in itaconic acid titer and productivity were selected for mrna isolation. cdnas derived from these mrna samples were used for su ...201121324422
a fungal nonribosomal peptide synthetase module that can synthesize thiopyrazines.a nonribosomal peptide synthetase-like enzyme (nrps325) from aspergillus terreus was reconstituted in vitro and was shown to synthesize thiopyrazines using an unprecedented mechanism. substrate promiscuity of nrps325 toward different amino acids and free thiols was explored to produce >60 different thiopyrazine compounds.201121384820
microbial production and biomedical applications of lovastatin.lovastatin is a potent hypercholesterolemic drug used for lowering blood cholesterol. lovastatin acts by competitively inhibiting the enzyme, 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme a reductase involved in the biosynthesis of cholesterol. commercially lovastatin is produced by a variety of filamentous fungi including penicillium species, monascus ruber and aspergillus terreus as a secondary metabolite. production of lovastatin by fermentation decreases the production cost compared to costs of chemic ...200821369428
purification and characterization of aspergillus terreus a-galactosidases and their use for hydrolysis of soymilk oligosaccharides.a-galactosidases has the potential to hydrolyze a-1-6 linkages in raffinose family oligosaccharides (rfo). aspergillus terreus cells cultivated on wheat bran produced three extracellular forms of a-galactosidases (e1, e2, and e3). e1 and e2 a-galactosidases presented maximal activities at ph 5, while e3 a-galactosidase was more active at ph 5.5. the e1 and e2 enzymes showed stability for 6 h at ph 4-7. maximal activities were determined at 60, 55, and 50 °c, for e1, e2, and e3 a-galactosidase, r ...201121331589
(+)-geodin from aspergillus terreus.the fungal metabolite (+)-geodin [systematic name: (2r)-methyl 5,7-dichloro-4-hydroxy-6'-methoxy-6-methyl-3,4'-dioxospiro[benzofuran-2,1'-cyclohexa-2',5'-diene]-2'-carboxylate], c(17)h(12)cl(2)o(7), was isolated from aspergillus terreus. the crystal structure contains two independent molecules in the asymmetric unit. molecules denoted 1 interact through o-h...o hydrogen bonds creating chains of molecules parallel to the crystallographic 2(1) screw axis. molecules denoted 2 interact through an o. ...201121368412
environmental and clinical epidemiology of aspergillus terreus: data from a prospective surveillance study.aspergillus terreus may be resistant to amphotericin b and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. local incidence is influenced by the density of airborne aspergillus spp. spores which may in turn depend on meteorological factors. once-weekly environmental samples were collected prospectively inside and outside the university hospital of cologne, germany (uhc) and haematological patients were screened for nasal aspergillus spp. colonisation and moni ...201121440331
production of lovastatin by wild strains of aspergillus terreus.a wild fungal strain of aspergillus terreus, labeled as pm3, was isolated by using the candida albicans bioassay and confirmed by 18s r dna analyses. lovastatin was produced by submerged and solid state fermentations. of the 30 isolated fungal strains, 11 showed lovastatin production with aspergillus terreus pm3 being the best with a yield of 240 mg/l at the 10th day of submerged fermentation. carboxymethylcellulose had a stimulatory effect on lovastatin production. it restricted uncontrolled fi ...201121425670
comparison of an aspergillus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with galactomannan testing of bronchoalvelolar lavage fluid for the diagnosis of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis in lung transplant recipients.early diagnosis and treatment of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (ipa) improves outcome.201121507918
aspergillus terreus accessory conidia are multinucleated, hyperpolarizing structures that display differential dectin staining and can induce heightened inflammatory responses in a pulmonary model of addition to phialidic conidia (pc), a. terreus produces accessory conidia (ac) both in vitro and in vivo. ac are distinct from pc in cell surface architecture, with the ac surfaces displaying more β-glucan, a molecule that can be a trigger for the induction of inflammatory responses. the present study follows β-glucan cell surface presentation throughout the course of germination of both types of conidia, and analyzes the differential capacity of ac and pc to elicit immune responses. results ...201121543882
use of fruit residues for pectinases production by aspergillus flavipes fp-500 and aspergillus terreus fp-370.aim:  utilization of fruit residues for pectinase production by two aspergillus strains for recognizing the effects of some factors during fermentation and describe enzyme production kinetics. methods and results:  pectinase production on several fruit residues was compared. the effects of three factors on the production of several pectinases were evaluated by a full factorial 2k experimental design. higher activities were obtained on lemon peel. in both strains acidic ph values and high carbon ...201121623849
a rare case of aspergillus terreus endogenous endophthalmitis in a patient of acute lymphoid leukemia with good clinical outcome. 201121455243
human lysozyme has fungicidal activity against nasal fungi.background: the cationic antimicrobial peptide lysozyme is the most prevalent innate immune protein in nasal secretions but there is a paucity of research regarding its role in paranasal sinus disease. lysozyme is generally regarded as an antibacterial agent; however, some data suggest activity toward yeast. this study was designed to determine if lysozyme displays fungicidal activity toward fungi commonly identified in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (crs) orfungal sinusitis.methods: using ...201121639997
double oxidation of the cyclic nonaketide dihydromonacolin l to monacolin j by a single cytochrome p450 monooxygenase, lova.lovastatin, a cyclic nonaketide from aspergillus terreus, is a hypercholesterolemic agent and a precursor to simvastatin, a semi-synthetic cholesterol-lowering drug. the biosynthesis of the lovastatin backbone (dihydromonacolin l) and the final 2-methylbutyryl decoration have been fully characterized. however, it remains unclear how two central reactions are catalyzed, namely, introduction of the 4a,5-double bond and hydroxylation at c-8. a cytochrome p450 gene, lova, clustered with polyketide s ...201121495633
permanent genetic resources added to molecular ecology resources database 1 october 2009-30 november 2009.this article documents the addition of 411 microsatellite marker loci and 15 pairs of single nucleotide polymorphism (snp) sequencing primers to the molecular ecology resources database. loci were developed for the following species: acanthopagrus schlegeli, anopheles lesteri, aspergillus clavatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus terreus, branchiostoma japonicum, branchiostoma belcheri, colias behrii, coryphopterus personatus, cynogolssus semilaevis, cy ...201021565039
monoclonal antibodies to hyphal exoantigens derived from the opportunistic pathogen aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus has been difficult to identify in cases of aspergillosis, and clinical identification has been restricted to the broad identification of aspergillosis lesions in affected organs or the detection of fungal carbohydrates. as a result, there is a clinical need to identify species-specific biomarkers that can be used to detect invasive a. terreus disease. monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed to a partially purified preparation of cytolytic hyphal exoantigens (hea) derived ...201121734068
induction of a high-yield lovastatin mutant of aspergillus terreus by (12)c (6+) heavy-ion beam irradiation and the influence of culture conditions on lovastatin production under submerged fermentation.heavy-ion beams, possessing a wide mutation spectrum and increased mutation frequency, have been used effectively as a breeding method. in this study, the heavy-ion beams generated by the heavy-ion research facility in lanzhou were used to mutagenize aspergillus terreus ca99 for screening high-yield lovastatin strains. furthermore, the main growth conditions as well as the influences of carbon and nitrogen sources on the growth and the lovastatin production of the mutant and the original strains ...201121710210
detection of aspergillus species on bactec blood cultures.invasive aspergillosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates; nevertheless, blood cultures invariably yield a negative result. the recovery and detection time of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus terreus were studied in bactec plus aerobic/f, mycosis-ic/f, and myco/f lytic vials, incubated in the bactec 9240 and 9000 mb automated systems. two different approaches were used for subculture in solid medium: i) the routine method, using a sterile airway needl ...201121680767
the duality of aspergillus terreus: differential immune responses to distinct conidia. 201121636969
proteomics of eukaryotic microorganisms: the medically and biotechnologically important fungal genus aspergillus.fungal species of the genus aspergillus play significant roles as model organisms in basic research, as "cell factories" for the production of organic acids, pharmaceuticals or industrially important enzymes and as pathogens causing superficial and invasive infections in animals and humans. the release of the genome sequences of several aspergillus sp. has paved the way for global analyses of protein expression in aspergilli including the characterisation of proteins, which have not designated a ...201121726053
characterization of lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins in aspergillus terreus strain atcc 20542.aspergillus terreus is a filamentous ascomycota, which is prominent for its production of lovastatin, an antihypercholesterolemic drug. the commercial importance of lovastatin with annual sales of billions of dollars made us to focus on lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins. the analysis of these lovastatin biosynthetic cluster proteins with different perspectives such as physicochemical property, structure based analysis and functional studies were done to find out the role and function of e ...201121738324
three new compounds from aspergillus terreus pt06-2 grown in a high salt investigate the structurally novel and bioactive natural compounds from marine-derived microorganisms under high salinity, the fungus aspergillus terreus pt06-2 was isolated from the sediment of the putian sea saltern, fujian, china. three new compounds, terremides a (1) and b (2) and terrelactone a (3), along with twelve known compounds (4-15) were isolated and identified from the fermentation broth of a. terreus pt06-2 at 10% salinity. among these metabolites, compounds 4 and 15 only produc ...201121892351
inhibition of growth of highly resistant bacterial and fungal pathogens by a natural product.the continuous escalation of resistant bacteria against a wide range of antibiotics necessitates discovering novel unconventional sources of antibiotics. b. oleracea l (red cabbage) is health-promoting food with proven anticancer and anti-inflammatory activities. however, it has not been researched adequately for its antimicrobial activity on potential resistant pathogens. the methanol crude extract of b. oleracea l. was investigated for a possible anti-microbial activity. the screening method w ...201121915230
New species in Aspergillus section Terrei.Section Terrei of Aspergillus was studied using a polyphasic approach including sequence analysis of parts of the ß-tubulin and calmodulin genes and the ITS region, macro- and micromorphological analyses and examination of extrolite profiles to describe three new species in this section. Based on phylogenetic analysis of calmodulin and ß-tubulin sequences seven lineages were observed among isolates that have previously been treated as A. terreus and its subspecies by Raper & Fennell (1965) and o ...201121892242
Analysis of phytochemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora L. responsible for antifungal activity against post-harvest fungi.In vitro antifungal activity and phytochemical constituents of essential oil, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves were investigated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and phenols. Methanolic extract holds all identified biochemical constituents except for the tannin. While these biochemical constituents were found to be absent in essential oil, aqu ...201121999598
a-l: -rhamnosidase of aspergillus terreus immobilized on ferromagnetic supports.a-l: -rhamnosidase from aspergillus terreus was covalently immobilized on the following ferromagnetic supports: polyethylene terephthalate (dacron-hydrazide), polysiloxane/polyvinyl alcohol (pos/pva), and chitosan. the powdered supports were magnetized by thermal coprecipitation method using ferric and ferrous chlorides, and the immobilization was carried out via glutaraldehyde. the activity of the dacron-hydrazide (0.53 nkat/µg of protein) and pos/pva (0.59 nkat/µg of protein) immobilized enzym ...201121779843
Detection of Aspergillus in lung and other tissue samples using the MycAssay Aspergillus real-time PCR kit.The MycAssay™ Aspergillus real-time PCR kit was tested on tissues from patients with invasive fungal infections. Tissue samples from nine organ transplant recipients and 33 patients with haematological malignancy were from lung (n = 30), skin (n = 4), and others. Samples were preprocessed with proteinase K and lyticase, followed by DNA extraction and real-time PCR. For all samples, the sensitivity of the MycAssay Aspergillus test was 82% and specificity 79% relative to microscopy and 90% and 64% ...201121861765
optimization of temperature, moisture content and inoculum size in solid state fermentation to enhance mannanase production by aspergillus terreus suk-1 using rsm.optimization of three parameters, temperature (25-35 degrees c), moisture content (40% (w/v)-60% (w/v) and inoculum sizes (5% (w/v)-15% (w/v) were investigated and optimized by response surface methodology (rsm) for optimal mannanase production by aspergillus terreus suk-1. a second order polynomial equation was fitted and the optimum condition was established. the result showed that the moisture content was a critical factor in terms of its effect on mannanase. the optimum condition for mannana ...201122032082
evaluation of luminex xtag fungal analyte-specific reagents for rapid identification of clinically relevant fungi.invasive fungal infections (ifi) remain a serious threat to immunocompromised hosts. current diagnostic methods, including fungal culture and antigen detection, are slow and often lack specificity. rapid diagnostic tools with increased sensitivity and specificity could improve the care of patients with ifi. recently, luminex molecular diagnostics (toronto, canada) developed 23 analyte-specific reagents (asrs) for the detection of the most common clinically relevant fungi. this study's objective ...201121880976
preparatory production of quercetin-3-β-d-glucopyranoside using alkali-tolerant thermostable α-l-rhamnosidase from aspergillus terreus.extensive screening for a robust producer of α-l-rhamnosidase activity from well-defined strains of filamentous fungi, including multifactorial optimization (inducers, cultivation conditions) was accomplished. enzyme production of the optimal producer aspergillus terreus (non-toxigenic) was scaled up to 50l. α-l-rhamnosidase, which was fully characterized, proved to be thermo- and alkali-tolerant, thus enabling effective operation at 70°c and ph 8.0. these conditions allow for a very high substr ...201121890350
Characterization of clinical strains of Aspergillus terreus complex: molecular identification and antifungal susceptibility to azoles and amphotericin B.Clin Microbiol Infect ABSTRACT: We used molecular techniques to analyse 87 (n = 70 patients) Aspergillus terreus complex isolates, all of which were identified as A. terreus sensu stricto. The antifungal susceptibilities determined with CLSI M38-A2 (and Etest for amphotericin B) and expressed as mg/L for range of MIC/MIC(90) /geometric mean were as follows: itraconazole, 0.25-2/2/1.097; voriconazole, 0.125-2/2/1.176; posaconazole, 0.25-1/1/0.836; amphotericin B CLSI, 4-32/16/9.689; and Etest, 0. ...201122128886
Aspergillus versicolor, a New Causative Agent of Canine Disseminated Aspergillosis.Disseminated aspergillosis in dogs has been associated with Aspergillus terreus or A. deflectus infection. We report a case of disseminated A. versicolor infection presenting as diskospondylitis, osteomyelitis, and pyelonephritis. The diagnosis was made based on clinical, radiographic, and pathological findings. The etiologic agent was identified by fungal culture and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequencing. This is the first description of canine aspergillosis caused b ...201222031699
successful renal transplantation following treatment of aspergillus terreus peritonitis in a continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis patient.peritoneal dialysis (pd) related peritonitis caused by fungi is a potentially life-threatening complication. it diminishes prospects of continuing pd. we report a patient with aspergillus terreus peritonitis treated successfully with catheter removal and antifungal therapy and subsequently had a live-related renal transplantation. there was no recurrence of the infection in 3 years of follow-up.201121886985
[general epidemiology of invasive fungal disease.]invasive mycoses associated with high morbidity and mortality rates are increasing among immunocompromised or severely ill patients. candida, cryptococcus, pneumocystis and aspergillus are most prevalent agents with varying distribution as regards geography, patient condition and hospital units. the latest multicentre candidaemia survey conducted in spain, showed c. albicans as the most frequently isolated species followed by c. parapsilosis, c. glabrata, c. tropicalis and c. krusei in contrast ...201122079232
Parametric optimization of feruloyl esterase production from Aspergillus terreus strain GA2 isolated from tropical agro-ecosystems cultivating sweet sorghum.A fungal strain, Aspergillus terreus strain GA2, isolated from an agricultural field cultivating sweet sorghum, produced feruloyl esterase using maize bran. In order to obtain maximum yields of feruloyl esterase, the solid state fermentation (SSF) conditions for enzyme production were standardized. Effective feruloyl esterase production was observed with maize bran as substrate followed by wheat bran, coconut husk, and rice husk among the tested agro-waste crop residues. Optimum particle size of ...201121952371
Global population structure of Aspergillus terreus inferred by ISSR typing reveals geographical subclustering.Aspergillus terreus causes invasive aspergillosis (IA) in immunocompromised individuals and can be the leading cause of IA in certain medical centers. We examined a large isolate collection (n = 117) for the presence of cryptic A. terreus species and employed a genome scanning method, Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) PCR to determine A. terreus population structure.201121923908
fungal life in the dead sea.the waters of the dead sea currently contain about 348 g/l salts (2 m mg(2+), 0.5 m ca(2+), 1.5 m na(+), 0.2 m k(+), 6.5 m cl(-), 0.1 m br(-)). the ph is about 6.0. after rainy winters the surface waters become diluted, triggering development of microbial blooms. the 1980 and 1992 blooms were dominated by the unicellular green alga dunaliella and red archaea. at least 70 species (in 26 genera) of oomycota (chromista), mucoromycotina, ascomycota, and basidiomycota (fungi) were isolated from near- ...201222222829
development of monoclonal antibodies to recombinant terrelysin and characterization of expression in aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus is an emerging pathogen that mostly affects immunocompromised patients with infections that are often difficult to manage therapeutically. current diagnostic strategies are limited to the detection of fungal growth using radiological methods or biopsy that often does not enable species-specific identification. as a result, there is a critical need for diagnostic techniques to enable early and specific identification of the causative agent. in this study, we describe monoclona ...201122160315
pharmacodynamic effects of simulated standard doses of antifungal drugs against aspergillus species in a new in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic conventional μιc tests, fungi are exposed to constant drug concentrations, whereas in vivo, fungi are exposed to changing drug concentrations. therefore, we developed a new in vitro pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model where human plasma pharmacokinetics of standard doses of 1 mg/kg amphotericin b, 4 mg/kg voriconazole, and 1 mg/kg caspofungin were simulated and their pharmacodynamic characteristics were determined against three clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, ...201222064546
in vitro evaluation of antifungal activity of the seed extract of embelia ribes.antifungal activity of embelia ribes was evaluated on eight different fungal species by employing various concentrations of seed extract (0.5-2.0 mg). all the concentrations of seed extract inhibited the fungal growth, whereas maximum activity was observed at 2.0 mg concentration of seed extract. among different doses, the diameter of inhibition zones ranged from 9 to 18 mm in various fungal species and increased with the increase in the concentration of test solution. among all the fungi, high ...201122303075
bioremediation of heavy metals in liquid media through fungi isolated from contaminated sources.wastewater particularly from electroplating, paint, leather, metal and tanning industries contain enormous amount of heavy metals. microorganisms including fungi have been reported to exclude heavy metals from wastewater through bioaccumulation and biosorption at low cost and in eco-friendly way. an attempt was, therefore, made to isolate fungi from sites contaminated with heavy metals for higher tolerance and removal of heavy metals from wastewater. seventy-six fungal isolates tolerant to heavy ...201123024411
the presence of fungi on contact electrical stimulation electrodes and ultrasound transducers in physiotherapy evaluate the presence of fungi on contact electrodes and ultrasound transducers from physiotherapy clinics.201122051582
allergens/antigens, toxins and polyketides of important aspergillus species.the medical, agricultural and biotechnological importance of the primitive eukaryotic microorganisms, the fungi was recognized way back in 1920. among various groups of fungi, the aspergillus species are studied in great detail using advances in genomics and proteomics to unravel biological and molecular mechanisms in these fungi. aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus parasiticus, aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus terreus are some of the important species r ...201122468035
[anaerobic growth ability and alcohol fermentation activity of microscopic fungi].the method proposed in this study was used to isolate fungi grown under anaerobic conditions and to reveal distinctions in their abundance and species composition in different habitats. the ability of micromycetes of different taxa to grow under anaerobic conditions and ensure alcohol fermentation was determined for a representative sample (344 strains belonging to more than 60 species). the group of fungi growing under anaerobic conditions included species with high, moderate, and low fermentat ...201122808743
evaluation of oil removal efficiency and enzymatic activity in some fungal strains for bioremediation of petroleum-polluted soils. 201223369665
chronic candidal bronchitis: a consecutive series.persistent candida from fungal cultures of respiratory secretions are often ignored and not treated due to assumptions concerning benign colonization.201223264835
phylogenetic and structural analysis of polyketide synthases in aspergilli.polyketide synthases (pkss) of aspergillus species are multidomain and multifunctional megaenzymes that play an important role in the synthesis of diverse polyketide compounds. putative pks protein sequences from aspergillus species representing medically, agriculturally, and industrially important aspergillus species were chosen and screened for in silico studies. six candidate aspergillus species, aspergillus fumigatus af293, aspergillus flavus nrrl3357, aspergillus niger cbs 513.88, aspergill ...201627199544
effects of a non-conservative sequence on the properties of β-glucuronidase from aspergillus terreus li-20.we cloned the β-glucuronidase gene (atgus) from aspergillus terreus li-20 encoding 657 amino acids (aa), which can transform glycyrrhizin into glycyrrhetinic acid monoglucuronide (gamg) and glycyrrhetinic acid (ga). based on sequence alignment, the c-terminal non-conservative sequence showed low identity with those of other species; thus, the partial sequence atgus(-3t) (1-592 aa) was amplified to determine the effects of the non-conservative sequence on the enzymatic properties. atgus and atgus ...201222347419
oxidative state in idiophase links reactive oxygen species (ros) and lovastatin biosynthesis: differences and similarities in submerged- and solid-state fermentations.the present work was focused on finding a relationship between reactive oxygen species (ros) and lovastatin biosynthesis (secondary metabolism) in aspergillus terreus. in addition, an effort was made to find differences in accumulation and control of ros in submerged (smf) and solid-state fermentation (ssf), which could help explain higher metabolite production in the latter. sod1 expression, ros content, and redox balance kinetics were measured during smf and ssf. results showed that a. terreus ...201223452946
effect of salt on survival and p-solubilization potential of phosphate solubilizing microorganisms from salt affected soils.a total of 23 phosphate solubilizing bacteria (psb) and 35 phosphate solubilizing fungi (psf) were isolated from 19 samples of salt affected soils. the ability of 12 selected psb and psf to grow and solubilize tricalcium phosphate in the presence of different concentrations of nacl was examined. among 12 psb, aerococcus sp. strain psbcrg1-1 recorded the highest (12.15) log viable cell count at 0.4 m nacl concentration after 7 days after incubation (dai) and the lowest log cell count (1.39) was r ...201224936136
biochemistry of microbial itaconic acid production.itaconic acid is an unsaturated dicarbonic acid which has a high potential as a biochemical building block, because it can be used as a monomer for the production of a plethora of products including resins, plastics, paints, and synthetic fibers. some aspergillus species, like a. itaconicus and a. terreus, show the ability to synthesize this organic acid and a. terreus can secrete significant amounts to the media (>80 g/l). however, compared with the citric acid production process (titers >200 g ...201323420787
crystal structure of an (r)-selective ω-transaminase from aspergillus terreus.chiral amines are important building blocks for the synthesis of pharmaceutical products, fine chemicals, and agrochemicals. ω-transaminases are able to directly synthesize enantiopure chiral amines by catalysing the transfer of an amino group from a primary amino donor to a carbonyl acceptor with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (plp) as cofactor. in nature, (s)-selective amine transaminases are more abundant than the (r)-selective enzymes, and therefore more information concerning their structures is av ...201424498081
highly active and stable large catalase isolated from a hydrocarbon degrading aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324.a hydrocarbon degrading aspergillus terreus mtcc 6324 produces a high level of extremely active and stable cellular large catalase (cat) during growth on n-hexadecane to combat the oxidative stress caused by the hydrocarbon degrading metabolic machinery inside the cell. a 160-fold purification with specific activity of around 66 × 10(5) u mg(-1) protein was achieved. the native protein molecular mass was 368 ± 5 kda with subunit molecular mass of nearly 90 kda, which indicates that the native ca ...201627057351
fungus-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using aspergillus terreus.the biosynthesis of nanoparticles has received increasing attention due to the growing need to develop safe, cost-effective and environmentally friendly technologies for nano-materials synthesis. in this report, silver nanoparticles (agnps) were synthesized using a reduction of aqueous ag(+) ion with the culture supernatants of aspergillus terreus. the reaction occurred at ambient temperature and in a few hours. the bioreduction of agnps was monitored by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and the ...201122312264
differential antibacterial properties of the mura inhibitors terreic acid and fosfomycin.terreic acid is a metabolite with antibiotic properties produced by the fungus aspergillus terreus, but its cellular target remains unknown. we recently reported that terreic acid inactivates the bacterial cell wall biosynthetic enzyme mura in vitro by covalent reaction with residue cys115 in a similar manner as the mura-specific antibiotic fosfomycin. to address if terreic acid also targets mura in vivo, we conducted antibacterial studies using selected e. coli strains in parallel with fosfomyc ...201323686727
ustilago maydis produces itaconic acid via the unusual intermediate trans-aconitate.itaconic acid is an important biomass-derived chemical building block but has also recently been identified as a metabolite produced in mammals, which has antimicrobial activity. the biosynthetic pathway of itaconic acid has been elucidated in the ascomycetous fungus aspergillus terreus and in human macrophages. in both organisms itaconic acid is generated by decarboxylation of the tricarboxylic acid (tca) cycle intermediate cis-aconitate. here, we show that the basidiomycetous fungus ustilago m ...201526639528
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