antimicrobial activity of some important adiantum species used traditionally in indigenous systems of medicine.adiantum linn. of adiantaceae family is one of the most common and widely distributed species. ethnomedicinally, the genus is important and popularly known as "hansraj" in ayurvedic system of medicine. it has been used in cold, tumors of spleen, liver and other viscera, skin diseases, bronchitis and inflammatory diseases. it is also considered as tonic and diuretic. in the present study its four important species, i.e. adiantum capillus-veneris, adiantum peruvianum, adiantum venustum and adiantu ...200817997240
a gene having sequence homology to isoamyl alcohol oxidase is transcribed during patulin production in penicillium griseofulvum.the genes for the patulin biosynthetic pathway are most likely arranged in a cluster, as is often the case for other mycotoxins. with this in mind, genewalking has been performed to identify genes both upstream and downstream of the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene. a gene present in penicillium griseofulvum nrrl 2159a had high sequence homology to the isoamyl alcohol oxidase (iao) gene and was detected downstream of the idh gene and in the same orientation. by virtue of the presence of a si ...200818000703
structure-antifungal activity relationship of cinnamic acid derivatives.a structure-antifungal activity relationship (sar) study of 22 related cinnamic acid derivatives was carried out. attention was focused on the antifungal activities exhibited against aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, and aspergillus niger. (e)-3-(4-methoxy-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)phenyl)acrylic acid (16) exhibited antifungal activity against a. niger, comparable to that of miconazole and a significant antifungal effect against a. flavus and a. terreus as well. a structure-activity relations ...200718038998
caspofungin as primary antifungal prophylaxis in stem cell transplant assess the effectiveness and tolerability of caspofungin as primary prophylaxis against invasive fungal infections in stem cell transplant recipients who are poor candidates for triazole or lipid amphotericin b prophylaxis due to renal or hepatic dysfunction, and to determine whether any patient characteristics are independently associated with an increased risk of breakthrough invasive fungal infection during caspofungin prophylaxis.200718041885
characterization of xylanase from lentinus edodes m290 cultured on waste mushroom logs.extracellular enzymes from lentinus edodes m290 on normal woods (quercus mongolica) and waste logs from oak mushroom production were comparatively investigated. endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, beta-glucosidase, and xylanase activities were higher on waste mushroom logs than on normal woods after l. edodes m290 inoculation. xylanase activity was especially different, with a three times higher activity on waste mushroom logs. when the waste mushroom logs were used as a carbon source, a new 35 kd ...200718092465
quantifying fungal viability in air and water samples using quantitative pcr after treatment with propidium monoazide (pma).a method is described to discriminate between live and dead cells of the infectious fungi aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, mucor racemosus, rhizopus stolonifer and paecilomyces variotii. to test the method, conidial suspensions were heat inactivated at 85 degrees c or held at 5 degrees c (controls) for 1 h. polycarbonate filters (25 mm diameter, 0.8 microm pore size) were placed on "welled" slides (14 mm diameter) and the filters treated with either pbs or pma. pro ...200818160156
dna microarray based on arrayed-primer extension technique for identification of pathogenic fungi responsible for invasive and superficial oligonucleotide microarray based on the arrayed-primer extension (apex) technique has been developed to simultaneously identify pathogenic fungi frequently isolated from invasive and superficial infections. species-specific oligonucleotide probes complementary to the internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (its1 and its2) region were designed for 24 species belonging to 10 genera, including candida species (candida albicans, candida dubliniensis, candida famata, candida glabrata, candida tropical ...200818160452
the effect of antifungal agents and human monocytes on in vitro galactomannan release by aspergillus spp. in liquid culture medium.invasive pulmonary aspergillosis is increasing in incidence in immunosuppressed patients. diagnosis of this infection is problematic, relying on clinical suspicion and computerized tomography of the thorax and sinuses. an assay capable of detecting the fungal cell wall component galactomannan (gm) as a sign of aspergillus infection is in use in patients with hematological malignancies. the aim of this study was to investigate the release of gm during growth of two medically important species, as ...200718184406
activities of voriconazole, itraconazole and amphotericin b in vitro against 590 moulds from 323 patients in the voriconazole phase iii clinical studies.fungal pathogens from the voriconazole trials were identified and tested for susceptibility at two reference laboratories.200818222957
peritonitis due to aspergillus terreus in a patient undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.aspergillus peritonitis is a rare, potentially fatal complication of continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (capd). we report a case of capd peritonitis caused by aspergillus terreus in a 55-year-old female patient.200818254757
invasive aspergillus terreus sinusitis with orbitocranial extension: case report.aspergillosis of the paranasal sinuses is infrequent and usually involves the species aspergillus fumigatus and a. flavus. the maxillary sinus is the most common sinus to be affected. invasive cranio-orbital aspergillosis originating in the sphenoid sinus is rare and mostly occurs in immunocompromised patients with poor outcomes. we present a case of invasive a. terreus sphenoidal sinusitis with intraorbital and intracranial extension in an immunocompetent patient.200818262257
potential basis for amphotericin b resistance in aspergillus terreus.this study investigated the basis for intrinsic amphotericin b (amb) resistance in aspergillus terreus. the ergosterol content, cell wall composition, and lipid peroxidation level had no influence on amb resistance. the level of catalase production in a. terreus was significantly higher than that in a. fumigatus (p < 0.05). this higher-level production may contribute to amb resistance in a. terreus since oxidative damage has been implicated in amb action.200818268082
butyrolactone i derivatives from aspergillus terreus carrying an unusual sulfate our ongoing search for new bioactive metabolites from microbial resources, aspergillus terreus (hki0499) was examined by chemical metabolite profiling. together with the known butyrolactone i ( 3), the unusual sulfate derivatives butyrolactone i 3-sulfate ( 1) and butyrolactone i 4''-sulfate ( 2) were discovered. the chemical structures were determined by nmr and ms data analyses. all compounds were tested on cdk1/cyclin b, cdk5/p25, dyrk1a, ck1, and gsk-3alpha/beta kinases; compounds 2 and 3 ...200818271552
transuterine transmission of aspergillus terreus in a case of disseminated canine aspergillosis.aspergillus terreus was isolated from the organs of a german shepherd pup removed from the bitch by cesarean intervention. in the following days, the bitch developed signs of canine disseminated aspergillosis and was euthanized. the fungus was isolated from a necrotic lesion in the uterus and other organs. to the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the transuterine transmission of a. terreus during a case of canine disseminated aspergillosis.200818324497
production and characterization of cellulolytic enzymes from the thermoacidophilic fungal aspergillus terreus m11 under solid-state cultivation of corn stover.the production of extracellular cellulases by a newly isolated thermoacidophilic fungus, aspergillus terreus m11, on the lignocellulosic materials was studied in solid-state fermentation (ssf). the results showed that the high-level cellulase activity was produced at 45 degrees c ph 3 and moisture 80% with corn stover and 0.8% yeast extract as carbon and nitrogen sources. 581 u endoglucanase activity, 243 u filter paper activity and 128 u beta-glucosidase activity per gram of carbon source were ...200818346891
voriconazole in the management of nosocomial invasive fungal infections.voriconazole is a new triazole developed for the treatment of life-threatening fungal infections. the drug is available for both oral and intravenous administration; the oral formulation has excellent bioavailability. the side-effect profile of voriconazole presents an acceptable safety and tolerability spectrum: transient visual disturbances, liver enzyme abnormalities, and skin rashes are the most frequently reported side effects but rarely lead to discontinuation. the potential for drug-drug ...200618360588
[diversity of facultatively anaerobic microscopic mycelial fungi in soils].the numbers of microscopic fungi isolated from soil samples after anaerobic incubation varied from tens to several hundreds of cfu per one gram of soil; a total of 30 species was found. this group is composed primarily of mitotic fungi of the ascomycete affinity belonging to the orders hypocreales (fusarium solani, f. oxysporum, fusarium sp., clonostachys grammicospora, c. rosea. acremonium sp., gliocladium penicilloides, trichoderma aureoviride, t. harzianum, t. polysporum, t. viride. t. koning ...200818365728
a new spiroketal from aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in opuntia ficusindica mill.a new spiroketal, named aspergiketal (1) was isolated from the culture broth of aspergillus terreus, an endophytic fungus in the stems of the plant opuntia ficusindica mill., together with two known compounds, physcion (2) and asterric acid (3). their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2d-nmr techniques.200818383227
x-ray crystallographic studies of substrate binding to aristolochene synthase suggest a metal ion binding sequence for catalysis.the universal sesquiterpene precursor, farnesyl diphosphate (fpp), is cyclized in an mg(2+)-dependent reaction catalyzed by the tetrameric aristolochene synthase from aspergillus terreus to form the bicyclic hydrocarbon aristolochene and a pyrophosphate anion (pp(i)) coproduct. the 2.1-a resolution crystal structure determined from crystals soaked with fpp reveals the binding of intact fpp to monomers a-c, and the binding of pp(i) and mg(2+)(b) to monomer d. the 1.89-a resolution structure of th ...200818385128
investigation into the production of 2-pentylfuran by aspergillus fumigatus and other respiratory pathogens in vitro and human breath samples.our objective was to identify, for diagnostic purposes, potential volatile biomarkers of human microbial pathogens. we analysed the head space of cultures of medically important bacterial and fungal respiratory pathogens for 2-pentylfuran (2pf) production through the use of solid phase micro extraction (spme) and gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (gc/ms). our results confirm that 2pf is consistently produced by aspergillus fumigatus, fusarium spp., aspergillus terreus, aspergillus flavus and ...200818404548
domain-domain interactions in the iterative type i polyketide synthase atx from aspergillus terreus. 200818412189
lovastatin biosynthetic genes of aspergillus terreus are expressed differentially in solid-state and in liquid submerged fermentation.molecular studies were performed to establish the causes of the superior lovastatin productivity of a novel solid-state fermentation (ssf) process, in relation with liquid submerged fermentation (smf; 20 mg/g vs. 0.65 mg/ml). in ssf, biosynthetic genes love and lovf transcripts accumulated to high levels from day 1 to day 7. in this period, love transcript showed 4.6-fold higher accumulation levels (transcription) than the highest level detected in smf (day 5). lovf transcript showed two-fold hi ...200818414850
apparent mrna instability in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus terreus of a heterologous cdna encoding the major capsid antigen of rotavirus.two expression plasmids designed to produce the rotaviral vp6 protein in aspergillus nidulans and aspergillus terreus have been constructed. in one of these plasmids the inducible a. terreus gla1 glucoamylase gene promoter and gla1 signal sequence are fused to the vp6 cdna to enable induction and extracellular secretion of the final protein product; in the other, the strong, constitutive a. nidulans gpda gene promoter has been employed. a. nidulans and a. terreus transformants containing intact ...199918473559
caspofungin-mediated beta-glucan unmasking and enhancement of human polymorphonuclear neutrophil activity against aspergillus and non-aspergillus hyphae.we investigated whether caspofungin and other echinocandins have immune-enhancing properties that influence human polymorphonuclear neutrophil (pmn)-mediated mold hyphal damage.200818500936
purification and characterization of thermostable alpha-galactosidase from aspergillus terreus (gr).an extracellular thermostable alpha-galactosidase producing aspergillus terreus (gr) strain was isolated from soil sample using guar gum as sole source of carbon. it was purified to apparent homogeneity by acetone precipitation, gel filtration followed by deae-sephacel chromatographic step. the purified enzyme showed a single band after sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page). the molecular weight of the purified enzyme after sds-page was 108 kda. the enzyme showed o ...200918543114
effect of nutritional factors on cellulase enzyme and microbial protein production by aspergillus terreus and its evaluation.the biomass yield, cellulolytic activity, and protein recovery using aspergillus terreus gn1 with alkali-treated sugarcane bagasse was studied using different levels (250-600 mg of n/l of broth) of organic and inorganic nitrogen sources. e.g., cattle urine, urea, cornsteep liquor, ammonium sulfate, ammonium nitrate, ammonium iron sulfate, ammonium chloride, and sodium nitrate. among different levels of alkali-treated bagasse substrate concentrations (0.5-4.0% w/v) tested, 1.0% substrate yielded ...198218546104
production of scp and cellulase by aspergillus terreus from bagasse substrate.the fermentation of 1.0% untreated bagasse under optimum cultural and nutritional conditions with aspergillus terreus gn1 indicated that the maximum rate of protein and cellulase production could be obtained during three days of submerged fermentation. even though 16.4% protein recovery, 0.55 units cmcase/ml, and 0.027 fpase units/ml were obtained on the seventh day, the rates of increase in protein recovery and cellulase production were slower than those obtained up to these days, which were 14 ...198218546213
studies on the properties of cellulase enzyme from aspergillus terreus gn1. 198218546360
producton of single-cell protein from cellulose by aspergillus terreus.cellulose fermentation studies were conducted with a thermotolerant strain of aspergillus terreus. batch cultivation of a. terreus using purified or complex cellulose showed that 80-88% of the available cellulose was utilized in 30-36 h with an average doubling time of 7.5-8.3 h. the protein content in the biomass ranged from 23 to 38%. semicontinuous cultivation studies, in which 90% of the biomass was withdrawn at the end of growth cycle, indicated that 84% of added cellulose was utilized with ...198318551438
enzymatic saccharification of pretreated rice straw and biomass production.a comparative study on the saccharification of pretreated rice straw was brought about by using cellulase enzyme produced by aspergillus terreus atcc 52430 and its mutant strain ungi-40. the effect of enzyme and substrate concentrations on the saccharification rate at 24 and 48 were studied. a syrup with 7% sugar concentration was obtained with a 10% substrate concentration for the mutant case, whereas a syrup with 6.8% sugar concentration was obtained with 3.5 times concentrated enzyme from the ...198618553867
intensification of oak sawdust enzymatic hydrolysis by chemical or hydrothermal pretreatment.the activities of cellulases and xylanase were determined in laboratory cultures of aspergillus terreus f-413 performed on natural and chemically or hydrothermally pretreated oak sawdust. the best stimulation effects were obtained in the cultures containing sawdust treated with dioxane, sodium hydroxide, or phosphoric acid. moreover, the sawdust pretreatment distinctly affected its enzymatic hydrolysis, especially when the preparation of hydrolase complex was isolated from the culture of a. terr ...198618555354
cloning and characterization of monacolin k biosynthetic gene cluster from monascus pilosus.monacolin k is a secondary metabolite synthesized by polyketide synthases (pks) from monascus, and it has the same structure as lovastatin, which is mainly produced by aspergillus terreus. in the present study, a bacterial artificial chromosome (bac) clone, mps01, was screened from the bac library constructed from monascus pilosus bcrc38072 genomic dna. the putative monacolin k biosynthetic gene cluster was found within a 42 kb region in the mps01 clone. the deduced amino acid sequences encoded ...200818578535
cloning and functional characterization of the cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (cad) gene from aspergillus terreus.a filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus produces itaconic acid, which is predicted to be derived from cis-aconitic acid via catalysis by cis-aconitic acid decarboxylase (cad) in the carbon metabolism of the fungus. to clarify the enzyme's function and a pathway for itaconic acid biosynthesis, we cloned a novel gene encoding the enzyme. the open reading frame of this gene (cad1) consists of 1,529 bp encoding 490 amino acids and is interrupted by a single intron. among the identified proteins in ...200818584171
mold species in dust from the international space station identified and quantified by mold-specific quantitative pcr.dust was collected over a period of several weeks in 2007 from hepa filters in the u.s. laboratory module of the international space station (iss). the dust was returned on the space shuttle atlantis, mixed, sieved and the dna was extracted. using a dna-based method called mold-specific quantitative pcr (msqpcr), 39 molds were measured in the dust. potential opportunistic pathogens aspergillus flavus and aspergillus niger and potential moderate toxin producers penicillium chrysogenum and penicil ...200818602989
purification and properties of a novel broad substrate specific alcohol oxidase from aspergillus terreus mtcc alcohol oxidase was isolated from the microsome of n-hexadecane grown aspergillus terreus and purified by ion exchange chromatography. the oxidase was found to act on short chain-, long chain-, secondary-, and aromatic-alcohol substrates with highest affinity for n-heptanol (k(m)=0.498 mm, k(cat)=2.7x10(2) s(-1)). the native protein molecular mass was 269+/-5 kda and the subunit molecular masses were 85-, 63-, 43-, 27-, and 13-kda. the isoelectric point of the proteins was within 8.3-8.5. hig ...200818639656
[fungi microbiot of melipona subnitida ducke (hymenoptera: apidae)].this paper reports on the occurrence of filamentous fungi found on the surface of the bees body from the specie melipona subnitida ducke that inhabits rocky places on the semi-arid northeastern brazil. bees with cause of natural death were collected of beehives belonging to the centro de multiplicação de animais silvestres of the universidade federal rural do semi-arido. we found the fungi: aspergillus sp. 6 (37.5%); aspergillus niger 2 (12.5%); penicilium sp. 2 (12.5%); aspergillus terreus 1 (6 ...200818641909
rapid detection of common pathogenic aspergillus species by a novel real-time pcr approach.invasive aspergillosis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised and critically ill patients. standard culture based methods for the diagnosis of aspergillus infections have limited sensitivity and specificity and are time consuming. the recent availability of novel molecular based diagnostic techniques offers the potential of rapid, highly sensitive and specific pathogen detection. in this study, we aimed to develop a diagnostic assay to detect simultaneously common patho ...200918643890
molecular detection and identification of aspergillus spp. from clinical samples using real-time pcr.the definite and rapid diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis is necessary because of the high mortality caused. the objective of this study was to evaluate a real-time pcr assay to detect aspergillus spp. in clinical samples, based on the light cycler technology. specificity was assessed by using dna extracted from pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria/fungi from spanish collection including: two aspergillus flavus, four aspergillus fumigatus, two aspergillus nidulans, two aspergillus niger and t ...200918643921
clinicopathologic and diagnostic imaging characteristics of systemic aspergillosis in 30 dogs.systemic aspergillosis is a serious disease of dogs for which the clinical characteristics are poorly described.200818647155
annotation of stress-response proteins in the aspergilli.stress-response proteins of aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus clavatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus niger, aspergillus oryzae, aspergillus terreus and neosartorya fischeri (3908 in total) were annotated and grouped according to stress types ( all genomes harboured elements of the sska-hoga/saka stress signalling pathway. there are accumulating data pointing at the importance of sska-hoga/saka signalling in different types of stre ...200918703157
breakpoints for posaconazole susceptibility testing: background and discussion about the need of establishing values.posaconazole is a new antifungal agent, which exhibits a broad spectrum of activity against fungi including aspergillus terreus, some zygomycetes and dematiaceous fungi. out of the group of triazole antifungal agents, it is the only compound for which interpretive breakpoints have not been established have not yet been established for candida spp. as reliable breakpoints are useful in the practical management of patients with fungal infections, it is desirable to establish the same for all avail ...200818721327
in vitro interactions of itraconazole and micafungin against clinically important filamentous fungi.the in vitro interactions between itraconazole and micafungin against 133 strains of filamentous fungi of clinical interest were evaluated using a checkerboard method. overall, synergistic interactions were observed against 30% of the strains tested. in the cases of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, fonsecaea spp. and sporothrix schenckii, synergistic interactions were observed against > or = 50% of the strains tested. for the rest of the fungi the interaction was i ...200818762407
modification of the x-ray and ultraviolet induced mutation rate in aspergillus terreus by pretreatment with near infrared radiation. 194818869708
onychomycosis caused by aspergillus terreus. 194818888083
the effect of nitrogen mustard on the ultraviolet-induced mutation rate in aspergillus terreus. 194818903878
significant alterations in the epidemiology and treatment outcome of invasive fungal infections in patients with hematological malignancies.invasive fungal infections (ifi) remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. this retrospective single-center study analyzed incidence, treatment and outcome of invasive fungal infections in 1,095 patients with hematological malignancies receiving either cytoreductive chemotherapy or autologous or allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at our institution between 1995 and 2004. ifi occurred in 167/1,095 (15%) patients with a significant increase ov ...200818982251
primary cutaneous aspergillosis in a patient with cutaneous t-cell lymphoma.we present a case of primary cutaneous aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus in a patient with cutaneous t-cell lymphoma. a 41-year-old woman bruised her left shin and presented with a 1 x 2 cm ecchymosis on the upper third of the left shin for over 6 months. before mycological examination and sequential biopsies, the patient was erroneously treated with antibiotics and local debridement. after final diagnosis of cutaneous aspergillosis caused by a. terreus cutaneous t-cell lymphoma on the ...200918983429
molecular and biochemical evaluation of genetic effect of calotropis procera (ait.) latex on aspergillus terreus (thom).the present study was conducted to observe the genotoxic effect of latex of calotropis procera. dense conidial suspensions of aspergillus terreus thorn were treated with different concentrations of calotropis latex and assayed for percentage survival, auxotrophic mutants, dna and total protein contents and further subjected to rapd and sds-page tests. it was found that latex of calotropis procera had potent lethal and mutagenic activities. percentage survival decreased as concentration or time o ...200819024171
dissociation and reconstitution studies of a broad substrate specific multimeric alcohol oxidase protein produced by aspergillus terreus.a multimeric alcohol oxidase from aspergillus terreus was dissociated and simultaneously deflavinated into catalytically inactive fad-free subunits when incubated with 0.74 m beta-mercaptoethanol (beta-me) for 8 h at 4 degrees c. this dissociation process had traversed through two fad-associated intermediate proteins, between these one of them showed the enzyme activity. on removal of beta-me, the multimeric apoprotein was regenerated, which was, however, catalytically inactive. reactivation of ...200919060312
in vitro activities of various antifungal drugs against aspergillus terreus: global assessment using the methodology of the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing.this study presents in vitro susceptibility data for clinical (n = 48) and environmental (n = 31) isolates of aspergillus terreus against nine antifungal agents. the methodology of the european committee on antimicrobial susceptibility testing was applied. posaconazole and anidulafungin had the lowest and amphotericin b the highest mics. no differences in susceptibility patterns were observed between environmental and clinical isolates.200919064891
[fungal infection in the otorinolaryngologic area].recent trends of fungal infections of the ear and nose were introduced from the viewpoint of otolaryngologic practice. aspergillus terreus was the most common pathogen of otomycosis followed by a. niger and a.flavus. aspergillosis is the most common fungal disease in the paranasal sinuses. unilateral opacity of the maxillary sinus which contains flecks of calcification was specifically found by ct-study. these two fungal infections are easily treated surgical removal of the fungus ball and estab ...200819069094
[aspergillus spp. in risk areas of transplant patients in a university hospital].as a consequence of the increase in the number of immunocompromised patients, cases of aspergillosis, due to the opportunist character of this fungus, have increased considerably. aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus niger have been found in air and water samples of the majority of investigated hospitals. the aim of the present study was to investigate the presence of aspergilli in transplant patients areas at the hospital universitario of bogotá, colombia. samples of air w ...200819071892
a 1-year aspergillus terreus surveillance study at the university hospital of innsbruck: molecular typing of environmental and clinical isolates.aspergillus terreus appears to have become an increasingly frequent cause of opportunistic infections in the university hospital of innsbruck (uhi) and is of serious concern because of in vivo and in vitro resistance to amphotericin b. in order to determine the possible relationship between environmental contamination by a. terreus and the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis, a 1-year prospective study (2004-2005) was carried out in the uhi. isolates obtained from air samples of various high-ri ...200819076844
aspernolides a and b, butenolides from a marine-derived fungus aspergillus terreus.two aromatic butenolides, aspernolides a and b along with the known metabolites, butyrolactone i, terrein and physcion were isolated from the fermentation broth of a soft coral derived fungus aspergillus terreus. the structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis. the absolute stereochemistry of aspernolides a (1) and b (2) was established by their preparation from the known butyrolactone i. biogenetically aspernolides a and b must be derived from b ...200919081582
[anti-fungi activity of organic extracts from the tree fagara monophylla (rutaceae) in venezuela].the tree fagara monophylla ranges throughout tropical america. the genus fagara has a diversity of alkaloid compounds with antibiotic properties; nevertheless, there are few reports antifungal activity of its organic compounds. organic extracts from venezuelan f. monophylla were tested for antimicrobial activity against aspergillus terreus, a. flavus, penicillium digitatum, p. funiculosum, p. citrinum, paecilomyces and candida albicans. minimal inhibitory concentration (mic) was determined. the ...200719086382
inhibitory effect of koji aspergillus terreus on alpha-glucosidase activity and postprandial hyperglycemia.the compounds that could inhibit the activity of a-glucosidase are potentially used for antidiabetic by suppressing postprandial hyperglycemia. this research aimed to investigate the hypoglycemic activity in a. terreus koji extracted by ethyl acetate. the extracts was dissolved in methanol: water (1:4), followed by fractionations with n-hexane, methylene chloride and ethyl acetate. each fraction was assayed for its activity against a-glucosidase. the active fraction was purified by column chroma ...200719090111
occurrence and relevance of filamentous fungi in respiratory secretions of patients with cystic fibrosis--a review.the colonization of airways by filamentous fungi and the development of respiratory infections require some predisposing factors as encountered in patients with cystic fibrosis (cf). indeed, the defective mucociliary clearance which characterizes the disease is associated with local immunological disorders. in addition, the prolonged therapy with antibiotics and the use of corticosteroid treatments also facilitate fungal growth. an important fungal biota has been described in respiratory secreti ...200919107638
telomere organization in the ligninolytic basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus.telomeres are structural and functional chromosome regions that are essential for the cell cycle to proceed normally. they are, however, difficult to map genetically and to identify in genome-wide sequence programs because of their structure and repetitive nature. we studied the telomeric and subtelomeric organization in the basidiomycete pleurotus ostreatus using a combination of molecular and bioinformatics tools that permitted us to determine 19 out of the 22 telomeres expected in this fungus ...200919114509
in vitro activity of amphotericin b against aspergillus terreus isolates from different countries and regions. 200819129077
aspergillus terreus brain abscess mimicking tumor progression in a patient with treated glioblastoma detail a case of aspergillus terreus brain abscess in a patient undergoing treatment for malignant glioma. central nervous system aspergillosis usually occurs in patients with hematopoietic neoplasms or post transplantation, not in those with solid tumors. most systemic invasive mold infections are attributable to aspergillus fumigatus or aspergillus flavus.200819130738
studies of the production of fungal polyketides in aspergillus nidulans by using systems biology tools.many filamentous fungi produce polyketide molecules with great significance as human pharmaceuticals; these molecules include the cholesterol-lowering compound lovastatin, which was originally isolated from aspergillus terreus. the chemical diversity and potential uses of these compounds are virtually unlimited, and it is thus of great interest to develop a well-described microbial production platform for polyketides. using genetic engineering tools available for the model organism aspergillus n ...200919168657
harnessing hsp90 function as a powerful, broadly effective therapeutic strategy for fungal infectious disease.invasive fungal infections are a leading cause of mortality among immunocompromised individuals. treatment is notoriously difficult with the limited armamentarium of antifungal drugs, whose efficacy is compromised by host toxicity, a limited activity spectrum, or the emergence of drug resistance. we previously established that the molecular chaperone hsp90 enables the emergence and maintenance of fungal drug resistance. for the most prevalent fungal pathogen of humans, candida albicans, hsp90 me ...200919196973
aspergillus flavus: an emerging non-fumigatus aspergillus species of significance.invasive aspergillosis is rare in immunocompetent people but contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. the majority (approximately 80%) of invasive aspergillus infections is caused by aspergillus fumigatus. the second most frequent (approximately 15-20%) pathogenic species is aspergillus flavus and to a lesser extent, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus. aspergillus flavus has emerged as a predominant pathogen in patients with fungal sinusitis and fun ...200919207851
aspergillus terreus complex.aspergillus terreus can cause invasive infections in humans, which are often refractory to therapy with the antifungal drug amphotericin b and have a propensity to dissemination. the organism has diverse colony morphology, and sub-typing studies have demonstrated that isolates of a. terreus are diverse in their genotypes. however, detailed phylogenetic studies of section terrei employing sequence information from protein coding regions have not been thus far attempted. interestingly, a. terreus ...200919291598
aspergillus alabamensis, a new clinically relevant species in the section terrei.phylogenetic analyses of sequences generated from portions of three genes coding for the proteins enolase (enoa), beta-tubulin (bena), and calmodulin (calm) of a large number of isolates within the section terrei, genus aspergillus, revealed the presence of a new cryptic species within this section, aspergillus alabamensis. most members of this new cryptic species were recovered as colonizing isolates from immunocompetent patient populations, had decreased in vitro susceptibilities to the antifu ...200919304950
insect-specific polyketide synthases (pkss), potential pks-nonribosomal peptide synthetase hybrids, and novel pks clades in tropical fungi.polyketides draw much attention because of their potential use in pharmaceutical and biotechnological applications. this study identifies an abundant pool of polyketide synthase (pks) genes from local isolates of tropical fungi found in thailand in three different ecological niches: insect pathogens, marine inhabitants, and lichen mutualists. we detected 149 pks genes from 48 fungi using pcr with pks-specific degenerate primers. we identified and classified 283 additional pks genes from 13 funga ...200919346345
comparative pharmacodynamic interaction analysis of triple combinations of caspofungin and voriconazole or ravuconazole with subinhibitory concentrations of amphotericin b against aspergillus spp.triple combination therapy with an antifungal triazole, echinocandin and amphotericin b (amb) is used in some centres to treat refractory aspergillosis. the objective of this study was to investigate the effect of subinhibitory concentrations of amb on the double combinations of caspofungin (cas) + voriconazole (vor) or ravuconazole (rav) against aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus. isolates were studied in triplicate against cas/vor and cas/rav combinations by cheq ...201019389068
invasive mould infections: a multi-disciplinary update.systemic fungal infections remain a significant cause of mortality in neutropenic and immunocompromised patients, despite advances in their diagnosis and treatment. the incidence of such infections is rising due to the use of intensive chemotherapy regimens in patients with solid tumours or haematological cancers, the increasing numbers of allogeneic haematopoietic stem cell and solid organ transplants, and the use of potent immunosuppressive therapy in patients with autoimmune disorders. in add ...200919444698
physiological, morphological and kinetic aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus.this review focuses on selected aspects of lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus. biochemical issues concerning this process are presented to introduce polyketide metabolites, in particular lovastatin. the formation of other than lovastatin polyketide metabolites by a. terreus is also shown, with special attention to (+)-geodin and sulochrin. the core of this review discusses the physiology of a. terreus with regard to the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources, cultivation broth aera ...200919452466
purification and properties of an endoglucanase of aspergillus terreus dsm 826.endoglucanase (eg) from a. terreus dsm 826 grown on sugar cane bagasse as a carbon source was purified using acetone fractionation, then a sepharose-4b chromatographic column, with purification of about 27-fold and 10.5% recovery. the optimum temperature and ph for activity of the purified eg were found to be 50 degrees c and ph 4.8, respectively. the purified enzyme can stand heating up to 50 degrees c for 1 h without apparent loss of activity. however, the enzyme, incubated at 80 degrees c for ...200919455521
cutaneous infection caused by aspergillus terreus.aspergillus species are widely distributed in nature, and more than 30 species have been reported to be involved in human and animal infection. cutaneous infections due to aspergillus terreus are particularly rare. in this report, we describe a case of cutaneous infection caused by a. terreus in a paediatric patient who underwent surgical treatment for an open tibial fracture secondary to an agricultural accident.200919502369
production of lipid and fatty acids during growth of aspergillus terreus on hydrocarbon aspergillus terreus, isolated from oil contaminated soil, could degrade a wide range of petroleum hydrocarbons including the immediate oxidation products of hydrocarbons, like alkanols and alkanals. among all the linear chain carbon substrates, highest growth of 39.1 + or - 3.8 g l(-1) (wet weight) was observed when n-hexadecane was used as the sole source of carbon. the growth of the fungus on this highly hydrophobic substrate was associated with the morphological change of the hyphae and in ...201019507060
acyltransferase mediated polyketide release from a fungal megasynthase.lovf is a highly reducing polyketide synthase (hr-pks) from the filamentous fungus aspergillus terreus. lovf synthesizes the alpha-s-methylbutyrate side chain that is subsequently transferred to monacolin j to yield the cholesterol-lowering natural product lovastatin. in the report, we expressed the full length lovf and reconstituted the megasynthase activities in vitro. we confirmed the diketide product of lovf is offloaded from the lovf acp domain by the dissociated acyltransferase lovd. this ...200919530726
physically discrete beta-lactamase-type thioesterase catalyzes product release in atrochrysone synthesis by iterative type i polyketide synthase.ateg_08451 in aspergillus terreus, here named atrochrysone carboxylic acid synthase (acas), is a nonreducing, iterative type i polyketide synthase that contains no thioesterase domain. in vitro, reactions of acas with malonyl-coa yielded a polyketide intermediate, probably attached to its acyl carrier protein (acp). the addition of ateg_08450, here named atrochrysone carboxyl acp thioesterase (acte), to the reaction resulted in the release of products derived from atrochrysone carboxylic acid, s ...200919549600
mycobiota and concentration of ochratoxin a in concentrated poultry feed from venezuela.the main objective of this study was to evaluate the frequency distribution of mycobiota and the concentration of ochratoxin a (ota) in 50 samples from one company of commercial brand poultry feed produced in venezuela. the concentration of ota in the samples analyzed was determined using the competitive elisa method. the most frequently isolated genera of moulds were aspergillus (36%) and penicillium (20%). of these genera, the most frequently isolated species were aspergillus flavus, aspergill ...200919580016
aspergillus terreus nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase is kinetically distinct from the allosteric enzyme of other aspergilli.nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase (nadp-gdh) located at the interface of carbon and nitrogen metabolism has the potential to dictate fungal carbon flux. nadp-gdh from aspergillus terreus, itaconate producer and an opportunistic pathogen, was purified to homogeneity using novel reactive dye-affinity resins. the pure enzyme was extensively characterized for its biochemical and kinetic properties and compared with its well studied aspergillus niger counterpart. the a. terreus nadp-gdh was more stable an ...200919619653
high lovastatin production by aspergillus terreus in solid-state fermentation on polyurethane foam: an artificial inert support.a novel solid-state fermentation (ssf) process, using high-density polyurethane foam (puf) as an inert support, was developed for the production of lovastatin. results indicated that forced aeration is not conducive to metabolite production since it reduces the solid medium's moisture content. the highest level of production was achieved in closed flasks (cf), in which 7.5 mg of lovastatin was generated per gram of dry culture, equivalent to 493 mug/mg dry mycelium. however, since mycelial growt ...200919619855
screening and selection of lovastatin hyper-producing mutants of aspergillus terreus using cyclic mutagenesis.134 fungal cultures isolated from different soil samples were screened for lovastatin production. of these, 38 isolates produced different levels of lovastatin. an aspergillus terreus strain gd13, producing 190 mg/l of lovastatin was selected and subjected to a rational mutation-selection programme based on the resistance to lovastatin and fatty acid synthase (fas) inhibitors, viz., iodoacetamide and n-ethylmaleimide. after three cycles of mutagenesis, a hyper-producing mutant (em19) exhibiting ...200919621768
biotechnological production of itaconic acid and its biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus.more than 80,000 tons of itaconic acid (ia) is produced worldwide each year and is sold at a price of around us$ 2/kg. the ia production yield from sugar is higher than 80 g/l. the widespread use of ia in synthetic resins, synthetic fibers, plastics, rubbers, surfactants, and oil additives has resulted in an increased demand for this product. however, at present, the ia production capacity exceeds the demand because this product has a restricted range of applications. studies have been actively ...200919629471
fungal biomass is a key factor affecting polymorphonuclear leucocyte-induced hyphal damage of filamentous fungi.previous studies have not systematically assessed the effect of fungal biomass on polymorphonuclear leucocyte (pmn)-induced hyphal damage (hd) of filamentous fungi. we hypothesised that fungal biomass is a significant factor affecting pmn-induced hd. one isolate each consisting of a volume of 2 x 10(4) conidia ml(-1) of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, rhizopus oryzae, rhizopus microsporus, cunninghamella bertholletiae, scedosporium prolificans and fusarium solani ...201019638003
interstrain variability in the virulence of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus in a toll-deficient drosophila fly model of invasive aspergillosis.members of the genus aspergillus are opportunistic fungal pathogens characterized by their genomic diversity. however, whether variations among aspergillus strains and species at the genome level translate into significant differences in virulence is unclear. therefore, we studied the interstrain and interspecies variations in virulence for a collection of aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus terreus isolates using a previously described model of invasive aspergillosis in toll-deficient fruit f ...201019642052
patterns of susceptibility of aspergillus isolates recovered from patients enrolled in the transplant-associated infection surveillance network.we analyzed antifungal susceptibilities of 274 clinical aspergillus isolates from transplant recipients with proven or probable invasive aspergillosis collected as part of the transplant-associated infection surveillance network (transnet) and examined the relationship between mic and mortality at 6 or 12 weeks. antifungal susceptibility testing was performed by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi) m38-a2 broth dilution method for amphotericin b (amb), itraconazole (itr), voric ...200919692558
central nervous system aspergillus infection after epidural analgesia: diagnosis, therapeutic challenges, and literature review.aspergillus terreus was identified in an intradural spinal biopsy specimen from an african female with recurrent headache and hydrocephalus. prior laboratory testing of cerebrospinal fluid was nondiagnostic, despite extensive central nervous system (cns) involvement. cns aspergillus infection presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge and is reviewed in the context of this particularly instructive and difficult case.200919717262
enhancement of lovastatin production by supplementing polyketide antibiotics to the submerged culture of aspergillus inhibition existed in lovastatin biosynthesis from aspergillus terreus. exogenous lovastatin and other different polyketide antibiotics biosynthesized by polyketide synthase were supplemented to the cultures of a. terreus to investigate their influences on lovastatin production. supplementing exogenous lovastatin of 100 mg l(-1) at the early stage of fermentation and the fast stage of its biosynthesis resulted in decreases of 76.4% and 20% in final lovastatin production, respectively. h ...201019728167
study of codon bias perspective of fungal xylanase gene by multivariate analysis.fungal xylanases has important applications in food, baking, pulp and paper industries in addition to various other industries. xylanases are produced extensively by both bacterial and fungal sources and has tremendous potential of being active at extremes of temperature and ph. in the present study an effort has been made to explore the codon bias perspective of this potential enzyme using bioinformatics tools. multivariate analysis has been used as a tool to study codon bias perspectives of xy ...200919759864
discriminatory protein binding by a library of 96 new affinity resins: a novel dye-affinity chromatography tool-kit.initial acceptance of cibacron blue 3g-a based matrices has made dye-ligand affinity chromatography an attractive proposition. this prompted the synthesis and search for new dye structures. a systematic library of 96 affinity resins was generated using novel analogs of cibacron blue 3g-a and also by varying spacer lengths for immobilization. the library was tested in a batch binding and elution mode using seven different proteins--four aspergillus enzymes namely, nadp-glutamate dehydrogenase, la ...200919766065
profiling differential expression of cellulases and metabolite footprints in aspergillus terreus.this study reports differential expression of endoglucanase (eg) and beta-glucosidase (betag) isoforms of aspergillus terreus. expression of multiple isoforms was observed, in presence of different carbon sources and culture conditions, by activity staining of poly acrylamide gel electrophoresis gels. maximal expression of four eg isoforms was observed in presence of rice straw (28 u/g dw substrate) and corn cobs (1.147 u/ml) under solid substrate and shake flask culture, respectively. furthermo ...201019779865
immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with aspergillus terreus pulmonary infection in an autologous stem cell transplant recipient.we describe an autologous stem cell transplant recipient who developed immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (iris) associated with aspergillus terreus invasive pulmonary infection after recovery from neutropenia. clinical and radiological worsening of pulmonary invasive aspergillosis coincident with a robust decline of serum galactomannan values and rising neutrophil counts should be interpreted as iris and should not require changes to antifungal therapy.201019793067
biotechnological production and applications of statins.statins are a group of extremely successful drugs that lower cholesterol levels in blood; decreasing the risk of heath attack or stroke. in recent years, statins have also been reported to have other biological activities and numerous potential therapeutic uses. natural statins are lovastatin and compactin, while pravastatin is derived from the latter by biotransformation. simvastatin, the second leading statin in the market, is a lovastatin semisynthetic derivative. lovastatin is mainly produce ...201019820926
aspergillus terreus accessory conidia are unique in surface architecture, cell wall composition and germination kinetics.infection with aspergillus terreus is more likely to result in invasive, disseminated disease when compared to other aspergillus species; importantly this species appears to be less susceptible to the antifungal drug amphotericin b. unique to this species is the ability to produce specialized structures denoted as accessory conidia (ac) directly on hyphae both in vitro and in vivo. with the hypothesis that production of ac by a. terreus may enhance virulence of this organism, we analyzed the phe ...200919888344
complete reconstitution of a highly reducing iterative polyketide synthase.highly reducing iterative polyketide synthases are large, multifunctional enzymes that make important metabolites in fungi, such as lovastatin, a cholesterol-lowering drug from aspergillus terreus. we report efficient expression of the lovastatin nonaketide synthase (lovb) from an engineered strain of saccharomyces cerevisiae, as well as complete reconstitution of its catalytic function in the presence and absence of cofactors (the reduced form of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate and ...200919900898
botryorhodines a-d, antifungal and cytotoxic depsidones from botryosphaeria rhodina, an endophyte of the medicinal plant bidens endophytic fungus (botryosphaeria rhodina) was isolated from the stems of the medicinal plant bidens pilosa (asteraceae) that is known for its anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antifungal effects. the ethyl acetate extract of the fungal isolate exhibits significant antifungal activity as well as potent cytotoxic and antiproliferative effects against several cancer cell lines. activity-guided fractionation resulted in the isolation of a complex of four depsidones, botryorhodines a-d and the au ...201019913264
biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (ldpe) by isolated fungi in solid waste this study, biodegradation of low-density polyethylene (ldpe) by isolated landfill-source fungi was evaluated in a controlled solid waste medium. the fungi, including aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus and fusarium solani, were isolated from samples taken from an aerobic aged municipal landfill in tehran. these fungi could degrade ldpe via the formation of a biofilm in a submerged medium. in the sterilized solid waste medium, lpde films were buried for 100 days in a 1-l flask containi ...201019919893
linoleate 9r-dioxygenase and allene oxide synthase activities of aspergillus terreus.oxygenation of linoleic acid by aspergillus terreus was studied with lc-ms/ms. 9(r)-hydroperoxy-10(e),12(z)-octadecadienoic acid (9r-hpode) was identified along with 10(r)-hydroxy-8(e),12(z)-octadecadienoic acid and variable amounts of 8(r)-hydroxy-9(z),12(z)-octadecadienoic acid. 9r-hpode was formed from [11s-2h]18:2n-6 with loss of the deuterium label, suggesting antarafacial hydrogen abstraction and oxygenation. two polar metabolites were identified as 9-hydroxy-10-oxo-12(z)-octadecenoic acid ...201020043865
invasive aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus in a living donor liver transplant recipient successfully treated by caspofungin.summary invasive aspergillosis is one of the most severe complications after liver transplantation characterised by early dissemination of disease and high mortality. recent data show that the prognosis is diminishing even further when aspergillus terreus, a strain resistant to standard treatment with amphotericin, is isolated. we report a high risk liver transplant recipient with multiple co-morbidities including renal failure and allograft dysfunction in whom pulmonary aspergillosis due to a. ...200920051012
bioactive alkaloids from the plant endophytic fungus aspergillus new alkaloid, named 16 alpha-hydroxy-5 n-acetylardeemin ( 1), along with seven known metabolites ( 2- 8) was isolated from the fermentation broth of an endophytic fungus, aspergillus terreus. the structures of these metabolites were assigned on the basis of detailed spectroscopic analysis and by comparing spectroscopic data with those in the literature. compound 1 displayed an inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase. compounds 1- 8 also showed moderate or weak cytotoxic activity again ...201020066611
functional analysis of fungal polyketide biosynthesis genes.fungal polyketides have huge structural diversity from simple aromatics to highly modified complex reduced-type compounds. despite such diversty, single modular iterative type i polyketide synthases (ipkss) are responsible for their carbon skeleton construction. using heterologous expression systems, we have studied on atx, a 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase from aspergillus terreus as a model ipks. in addition, ipks functions involved in fungal spore pigment biosynthesis were analyzed together w ...201020203700
wild-type minimum effective concentration distributions and epidemiologic cutoff values for caspofungin and aspergillus spp. as determined by clinical and laboratory standards institute broth microdilution methods.antifungal susceptibility testing of aspergillus spp. against caspofungin has been standardized by the clinical and laboratory standards institute (clsi). recent studies have documented breakthrough infections with aspergillus spp. for which the minimum effective concentration (mec) for caspofungin ranged from 0.25 to 8 microg/ml. we tested a collection of 1590 clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. (188 aspergillus flavus, 1187 aspergillus fumigatus, 114 aspergillus niger, 71 aspergillus terreus ...201020207095
aspergillosis in the middle ear of a harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena): a case report.summary hearing is one of the major senses in whales and dolphins (cetaceans). this is the first report of severe mycotic otitis media in a cetacean, a juvenile female harbour porpoise (phocoena phocoena) from british waters that stranded alive. gross examinations were followed by histological and microbiological investigations of the auditory apparatus. both tympanic cavities and periotic sinuses displayed copious greenish-yellow purulent and caseous material. severe fungal infestation by asper ...201020236242
studies in the biochemistry of micro-organisms: the molecular constitution of geodin and erdin, two chlorine-containing metabolic products of aspergillus terreus thom; possible structural formulae for geodin and erdin. 194720266532
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