cloning of the blasticidin s deaminase gene (bsd) from aspergillus terreus and its use as a selectable marker for schizosaccharomyces pombe and pyricularia oryzae.aspergillus terreus produces a unique enzyme, blasticidin s deaminase, which catalyzes the deamination of blasticidin s (bs), and in consequence confers high resistance to the antibiotic. a cdna clone derived from the structural gene for bs deaminase (bsd) was isolated by transforming escherichia coli with an aspergillus cdna expression library and directly selecting for the ability to grow in the presence of the antibiotic. the complete nucleotide sequence of bsd was determined and proved to co ...19948159161
in vitro activity of sch-56592 and comparison with activities of amphotericin b and itraconazole against aspergillus this study, we investigated the in vitro activity of sch-56592 (sch), a new triazole antifungal agent. we compared the activity of sch with those of itraconazole (itz) and amphotericin b (ab) against 60 clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. by using a microtiter format. incubation was done at 37 degrees c for 48 h, and mic endpoints (no growth) were read visually. the medium used for all of the drugs was rpmi 1640 buffered with morpholinepropanesulfonic acid (mops) and supplemented with 2% gl ...19979145880
immunoreactivity of a 38-kilodalton penicillium marneffei antigen with human immunodeficiency virus-positive sera.penicillium marneffei produced and secreted a 38-kda antigen that appeared to be specific for this dimorphic fungus. this component could not be detected in antigenic extracts of histoplasma capsulatum, cryptococcus neoformans, aspergillus niger, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, candida albicans, and two other species of penicillium by immunoblot analysis against the sera from patients with culture-confirmed penicilliosis marneffei. antibody reactive with this anti ...19979276391
multifocal aspergillus terreus discospondylitis in two german shepherd dogs.multifocal fungal (aspergillus terreus) discospondylitis was diagnosed in 2 german shepherd dogs. in one dog, the aetiology was established by means of fluoroscopic-guided disc aspiration, cytology and culture of disc material and urine. disseminated aspergillosis was confirmed at necropsy and a. terreus cultured from numerous organs in this dog. the aetiology in the other dog was not established until therapeutic failure forced surgical curettage of disc material from which the fungus was cultu ...19969284036
cloning of the polyketide synthase gene atx from aspergillus terreus and its identification as the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase gene by heterologous expression.southern blot analysis of genomic dnas of several fungi that produce polyketide compounds with the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (msas) gene of penicillium patulum as a probe indicated the presence of an msas-homologous gene in the (+)-geodin-producing strain imi 16,043 of aspergillus terreus. the gene, designated atx was cloned from an a. terreus genomic dna library and 7588 bp of the gene together with its flanking regions were sequenced to reveal the presence of a 5.5 kb open reading frame ...19969003280
articular aspergillosis: two case reports and review of the literature.we report two cases of septic arthritis of the knee caused by aspergillus: one by aspergillus terreus in a cirrhotic patient and the other by aspergillus fumigatus after vascular graft infection. the recovery of these organisms in synovial fluid should be considered as pathogenic, particularly in immunocompromised hosts. the pathogenic mechanism is discussed and the literature is reviewed.19979448597
concentration- and time-dependent upregulation and release of the cytokines mip-2, kc, tnf, and mip-1alpha in rat alveolar macrophages by fungal spores implicated in airway inflammation.inhalation of fungal spores has been shown to cause primary or secondary infection and respiratory inflammation and diseases such as allergic alveolitis, atopic asthma, and organic dust toxic syndrome, which are rarely reported in the absence of predisposing factors. biochemical and molecular markers of inflammation were measured in rat bronchial alveolar lavage cells (> 95% macrophages) following stimulation with fungal spores isolated from pathogenic and nonpathogenic fungi that have been impl ...19989490662
nondermatophyte causes of onychomycosis and superficial mycoses.compared to dermatophytes, nondermatophytes that may cause distal and lateral subungual onychomycoses are aspergillus species, acremonium species, fusarium oxysporum and scopulariopsis brevicaulis. white superficial onychomycosis may be caused by nondermatophyte species, for example, acremonium species, aspergillus terreus, other aspergillus species and fusarium oxysporum. nondermatophyte molds such as scopulariopsis brevicaulis may uncommonly result in cutaneous infections. scytalidium dimidiat ...19969504061
comparison of in vitro activities of the new triazole sch56592 and the echinocandins mk-0991 (l-743,872) and ly303366 against opportunistic filamentous and dimorphic fungi and yeasts.the in vitro antifungal activities of sch56592, mk-0991, and ly303366 against 83 isolates of acremonium strictum, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus terreus, bipolaris spp., blastomyces dermatitidis, cladophialophora bantiana, fusarium oxysporum, fusarium solani, histoplasma capsulatum, phialophora spp., pseudallescheria boydii, rhizopus arrhizus, scedosporium prolificans, and sporothrix schenckii were compared. the in vitro activities of these agents against 104 isolates of ...19989738049
a set of independent selectable markers for transfection of the human malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum.genomic information is rapidly accumulating for the human malaria pathogen, plasmodium falciparum. our ability to perform genetic manipulations to understand plasmodium gene function is limited. dihydrofolate reductase is the only selectable marker presently available for transfection of p. falciparum. additional markers are needed for complementation and for expression of mutated forms of essential genes. we tested parasite sensitivity to different drugs for which selectable markers are availab ...199910411941
relationship between the structure and cytotoxic activity of asterriquinone, an antitumor metabolite of aspergillus terreus, and its alkyl ether derivatives.asterriquinone (arq) is an antitumor metabolite of aspergillus terreus ifo 6123. in this study we synthesized several arq alkyl ethers and studied their cytotoxic activity against mouse leukemia p388 cells. the dissociation constant was also similar among the arq monoalkyl ethers. there was a good correlation between the hydrophobicity of arq monoalkyl ethers estimated by high performance liquid chromatography and the intracellular content accumulated for 60 min. arq monoalkyl ethers were cytoto ...19989781844
riboflavin production by aspergillus terreus from beet-molasses.aspergillus terreus was used for riboflavin (vitamin b2) production in a medium containing beet molasses as the sole carbon source. growth and the vitamin production of the fungus were markedly affected by the composition of the culture medium. a maximum riboflavin yield was achieved at the late exponential growth phase (16 day-old cultures) in the presence of (g/l): centrifuged beet-molasses, 90; l-asparagine, 1; mgso4.7h2o, 0.5; k2hpo4/kh2po4 (1:1), 5; and the medium initially adjusted to ph 8 ...19938172689
protein-enrichment of wheat bran using aspergillus terreus.wheat bran was fermented by aspergillus terreus to increase the protein content for use as animal feed. maximum protein content (55%) and conversion efficiency (59%) were achieved at the late growth phase (8 day-old cultures), when each flask containing 100 ml medium was inoculated with 4% (v/v) spore suspension (3.6 x 10(5) spore/ml) and shaken at 250 rpm. the best fermentation medium contained (g/l): wheat bran, 10; urea, 1.4; mgso4.7h2o, 0.3; kh2po4, 1.0; kc1, 0.1 and was adjusted to ph 4.0. ...19938172690
in-vitro susceptibility of aspergillus spp. isolates to amphotericin b and itraconazole.the mics of amphotericin b and itraconazole for 230 isolates of aspergillus spp., comprising 156 aspergillus fumigatus, 20 aspergillus terreus, 22 aspergillus flavus, 17 aspergillus nidulans and 15 aspergillus niger, were determined by a broth microdilution method with rpmi 1640 medium. no isolate was detected with an mic of amphotericin b >2 mg/l. itraconazole mics >16 mg/l were detected for four aspergillus fumigatus and one aspergillus nidulans isolates.199910588320
mechanism of the cytotoxicity of asterriquinone, a metabolite of aspergillus terreus.asterriquinone (arq) is an antitumor metabolite of aspergillus terreus ifo 6123. arq is a quinone compound and the mechanism of its antitumor action was compared with that of its analog arqdme which was dimethylated at the dihydroxy benzoquinone moiety, and adriamycin (adr). the cytotoxicity of arq against p388 cells was less than that of adr, and arqdme showed hardly any cytotoxicity. arq and adr formed dna-interstrand cross links (isc) in p388 cells in a concentration while the isc index by ar ...19979413222
comparative fungicidal activity of a new quaternary ammonium salt, n-alkyl-n-2-hydroxyethyl-n,n-dimethylammonium butyl phosphate and commonly used disinfectants.we synthesized a new quaternary ammonium salt, n-alkyl-n-2-hydroxyethyl-n, n-dimethylammonium butyl phosphate (abp) that does not precipitate in the presence of anionic surfactants by incorporating a paired butyl phosphate anion into cationic surfactants. abp showed much greater bactericidal activities and antirusting effects than benzalkonium chloride (bac). in this study, the fungicidal effects of abp were evaluated in comparison with common disinfectants [bac, chlorhexidine digluconate (chx) ...19968850330
aspergillus fumigatus antigen detection in sera from patients at risk for invasive aspergillosis.we have developed an inhibition enzyme immunoassay (inhibition-eia) to monitor for the occurrence of invasive aspergillosis (ia) in sera from 45 immunocompromised (ic) patients. the test uses rabbit polyclonal antibodies and a mixture of components from aspergillus fumigatus, containing three predominant antigens with molecular weights of 18,000, 33,000, and 56,000. circulating antigens were found in five of seven proven cases of ia due to a. fumigatus. in two of the five positive cases, antigen ...200010618137
nosocomial invasive aspergillosis in lymphoma patients treated with bone marrow or peripheral stem cell determine the prevalence of aspergillosis in lymphoma patients housed in a protective environment while undergoing a bone marrow transplant or peripheral stem cell transplant and its relation to lymphoma type, type of transplant, period of neutropenia, method of diagnosis, species of aspergillus, and the use of empiric amphotericin b.19938478525
primary structures of fungal fructosyl amino acid oxidases and their application to the measurement of glycated proteins.fructosyl amino acid oxidase (faod), which is active toward model compounds of the glycated proteins in blood, n epsilon-fructosyl n sigma-z-lysine and n-fructosyl valine, was purified to homogeneity from aspergillus terreus gp1. though the enzyme did not use glycated proteins directly as its substrate, it used glycated human serum albumin (hsa) when hsa was treated with a protease. linear relationships between both the concentration and the increase in absorbance and the glycation rate of glyca ...19969022674
the phytase subfamily of histidine acid phosphatases: isolation of genes for two novel phytases from the fungi aspergillus terreus and myceliophthora thermophila.phytases catalyse the hydrolysis of phytate (myo-inositol hexakisphosphate) to myo-inositol and inorganic phosphate. in this study genes encoding novel phytases from two different filamentous fungi, aspergillus terreus strain 9a-1 and myceliophthora thermophila were isolated. the encoded phya phytase proteins show 60% (a. terreus) and 48% (m. thermophila) identity, respectively, to the phya of aspergillus niger and have 21-29% identity compared to other histidine acid phosphatases. all three phy ...19979025298
a retrospective analysis of microbial contaminants in outdated random-donor platelets from multiple sites.platelet components contaminated with bacteria are an important source of transfusion-associated bacterial sepsis. estimates of contamination rates vary widely (0-10%) and are highly controversial. the present study, designed with stringent testing regimens, retrospectively determined the prevalence of microbial contaminants in platelets from four collection regions.19979122897
cloning and molecular analysis of the aspergillus terreus arg1 gene coding for an ornithine aspergillus terreus gene (arg1) encoding ornithine carbamoyltransferase (octase) has been cloned and sequenced. the deduced amino acid sequence contains a signal peptide suggestive of a mitochondrial location for the a. terreus enzyme. alignment of the a. terreus octase sequence with other octases revealed the presence of conserved regions. northern analysis indicates that arg1 expression is regulated at the level of transcription and that transcription of the arg1 gene is not markedly affect ...19979141661
chemical and functional properties of mutastein, an inhibitor of insoluble glucan synthesis by streptococcus sobrinus.mutastein, a potent inhibitor of insoluble glucan synthesis by streptococcus sobrinus, is a protein with a molecular weight of approximately 2 x 10(6). amino acid and elisa analyses suggested that mutastein is a mixture of heterogenous polymers of alpha-casein contained in the culture medium of the producing strain, aspergillus terreus m3328. mutastein strongly inhibited the primer-dependent insoluble glucan synthase of s. sobrinus b13. the primer-independent soluble glucan synthase was not affe ...19979145515
availability of phosphorus and sulfur of insecticide origin by fungi.thirteen fungal species isolated from soil treated with pesticides were tested for their ability to mineralize and degrade three organophosphate insecticides currently used in egypt (cyolan, malathion and dursban) in liquid media free from phosphorus (p) and sulfur (s). all fungal species grew successfully on the culture media treated with the three used doses of insecticides (10, 50 and 100 ppm active ingredient) but the growth rate varied with the species, the insecticide and the doses. at 10 ...199810192894
comparison of e-test and broth microdilution methods for antifungal drug susceptibility testing of molds.we compared the e test with a broth microdilution method, performed according to national committee for clinical laboratory standards document m27-a guidelines, for determining the in vitro susceptibilities of 90 isolates of pathogenic molds (10 absidia corymbifera, 10 aspergillus flavus, 10 aspergillus fumigatus, 10 aspergillus niger, 10 aspergillus terreus, 10 exophiala dermatitidis, 10 fusarium solani, 10 scedosporium apiospermum, 5 scedosporium prolificans, and 5 scopulariopsis brevicaulis). ...199910203509
comparison of in vitro activity of liposomal nystatin against aspergillus species with those of nystatin, amphotericin b (ab) deoxycholate, ab colloidal dispersion, liposomal ab, ab lipid complex, and itraconazole.we compared the in vitro activity of liposomal nystatin (nyotran) with those of other antifungal agents against 60 aspergillus isolates. twelve isolates were itraconazole resistant. for all isolates, geometric mean (gm) mics (micrograms per milliliter) were 2.30 for liposomal nystatin, 0.58 for itraconazole, 0.86 for amphotericin b (ab) deoxycholate, 9.51 for nystatin, 2.07 for liposomal ab, 2.57 for ab lipid complex, and 0.86 for ab colloidal dispersion. aspergillus terreus (gm, 8.72 micrograms ...199910223948
immunorestitution disease involving the innate and adaptive response.immunorestitution disease (ird) is defined as an acute symptomatic or paradoxical deterioration of a (presumably) preexisting infection that is temporally related to the recovery of the immune system. we report the temporal sequence of events that led to ird caused by pneumocystis carinii and aspergillus terreus in 2 human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-negative patients soon after the recovery of adaptive and innate immunity, respectively, and we review episodes noted in the english-language lite ...200010880300
polyketide synthase gene pksm from aspergillus terreus expressed during growth phase.the polyketide synthase gene pksm was detected in the genomic dna library of aspergillus terreus by hybridization with the 6-methylsalicylic acid synthase (6-msas) gene of penicillium patulum as a probe. 9524 bp of the cloned dna were sequenced and a 5.5 kb open reading frame was revealed. a single intron (62 bp) was identified in the conserved position. two transcription start points were determined within the 5'-flanking region at 50 and 72 (major) bp upstream from the putative translation ini ...19979438344
mevinolin production by some fungi.the potentiality of twenty-five fungal species belonging to 14 genera isolated from egyptian soils to produce mevinolin, a hypocholesterolemic agent, when grown on selected substrates was tested. for the first screening samples of culture filtrates were tested by tlc and the positive results were further estimated by hplc analysis. it was found that nearly one-third of the tested fungi showed positive results as to production of mevinolin. aspergillus terreus was distinguished by its capacity to ...19979438350
biodegradation of fluoranthene by soil fungi.a selection of 39 strains of micromycetes known as good degraders of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, mostly isolated from soil and belonging to various taxonomic groups, have been investigated for fluoranthene degradation. toxicity assays, first evaluated on solid medium mea, have not shown any toxicity of fluoranthene (1-100 mg.l-1) towards fungi. whereas, consumption assays on a solid synthetic medium showed a toxicity at 100 mg.l-1. the degradation of fluoranthene (10 mg.l-1) was then inv ...199910230046
in vitro amphotericin b resistance in clinical isolates of aspergillus terreus, with a head-to-head comparison to voriconazole.amphotericin b therapy continues to be the "gold standard" in the treatment of invasive aspergillosis in the immunocompromised host. although aspergillus fumigatus and aspergillus flavus constitute the major species, several reports have described invasive pulmonary or disseminated disease due to the less common aspergillus terreus and dismal clinical outcomes with high-dose amphotericin b. we therefore evaluated 101 clinical isolates of a. terreus for their susceptibility to amphotericin b and ...199910364610
lovastatin biosynthesis in aspergillus terreus: characterization of blocked mutants, enzyme activities and a multifunctional polyketide synthase gene.lovastatin, an hmg-coa reductase inhibitor produced by the fungus aspergillus terreus, is composed of two polyketide chains. one is a nonaketide that undergoes cyclization to a hexahydronaphthalene ring system and the other is a simple diketide, 2-methylbutyrate. fungal polyketide synthase (pks) systems are of great interest and their genetic manipulation should lead to novel compounds.199910381407
[a case of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus].a 66-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital with a cough, wheezing, and expectoration. chest x-ray and ct scanning revealed atelectasis and infiltration of the middle lobe, but no central bronchiectatic change. the patient had eosinophilic infiltration elevated serum ige, rast against aspergillus )(a.) fumigatus, a positive immediate skin reaction, and a positive test for antibodies against a. funmigatus. bronchoscopy demonstrated mucoid impaction that plugged the middle lobe bronchus. the ...19979567092
purification and characterization of a regiospecific lipase from aspergillus terreus.aspergillus terreus lipase was purified to homogeneity with 18.0% yield. the specific activity of the enzyme increased from 20.80 to 250 u/mg of protein. ion exchange on q-sepharose was highly effective in the purification process. the molecular mass of the purified enzyme was 41+/-1 kda as determined by sds/page. the purified lipase showed excellent temperature tolerance (15-90 degreesc) and was highly thermostable, retaining 100% activity at 60 degreesc for 24 h. it showed good ph tolerance (3 ...19989799723
production of aspergillus xylanase by lignocellulosic waste fermentation and its application.strains of aspergillus terreus and a. niger, known to produce xylanase with undetectable amounts of cellulase, were studied for xylanase (ec production on various lignocellulosic substrates using solid state fermentation. of the lignocellulosic substrates used, wheat bran was the best for xylanase production. the effects of various parameters, such as moistening agent, level of initial moisture content, temperature of incubation, inoculum size and incubation time, on xylanase production ...199910583678
sulfate assimilation in aspergillus terreus: analysis of genes encoding atp-sulfurylase and paps-reductase.two genes for the sulfate assimilation pathway in aspergillus terreus were cloned. the genes sat (coding for paps-reductase) and sct (coding for atp-sulfurylase) form a small gene cluster. both genes are similar to their homologs in a. nidulans (sa and sc), penicillium chrysogenum (aps) and saccharomyces cerevisiae (met3 and met16). in the coding sequence of the sct gene, a typical non-functional aps-kinase-like domain is present. the sct gene is expressed in a. nidulans, but its expression ther ...200011057445
inactivation of blasticidin s by bacillus cereus. vi. structure and comparison of the bsr gene from a blasticidin s-resistant bacillus cereus.two types of recombinant plasmids containing 600 bp nde i fragments that coded the bsr gene in opposite directions were obtained. nucleotide sequencing shows that the bsr encodes a 140 amino acid protein with a putative molecular weight of 15560, the same as that of purified blasticidin s (bs)-deaminase (bsr), on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) (15500). upstream of the open reading frame, a shine-dalgarno (sd) sequence, frequent inverted repeats, and the sigm ...199810607416
activity of an aspergillus terreus alpha-arabinofuranosidase on phenolic-substituted oligosaccharides.the effect of phenolic substitutions on the activity of an alpha-arabinofuranosidase from aspergillus terreus was investigated using feruloylated oligosaccharides isolated from plant cell walls, equivalent oligosaccharides obtained through treatment with specific ferulic acid esterases, and a synthetic lignin-carbohydrate complex (lcc). feruloyl substituents limited the hydrolysis of arabinoxylan and arabinan oligosaccharides but only if the feruloyl group was esterified to the terminal non-redu ...19999987847
crystallization and preliminary x-ray diffraction studies of blasticidin s deaminase from aspergillus terreus.blasticidin s deaminase from aspergillus terreus was crystallized with polyethylene glycol 8000. two types of crystals were grown under the same crystallization conditions. one type grew as thin plates, while the other had a rhombic shape. the rhombic shaped crystal was suitable for high-resolution crystal structure analysis. precession photographs and diffraction data showed that the crystal belonged to orthorhombic space group p212121, with unit-cell dimensions a = 70.33, b = 146.56 and c = 56 ...199910089374
fungal endocarditis in bone marrow transplantation: case report and review of literature.we report a case of fungal endocarditis due to aspergillus terreus in a leukaemia patient who received a bone marrow allograft from a matched unrelated donor. he presented with persistent fever. microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia but there was no cardiac signs and symptoms. he died despite intravenous amphotericin b. review of the english literature showed five other patients with fungal endocarditis in the setting of bone marrow transplantation and revealed the same features of difficult diagn ...19989892534
correlation between fungi isolated from burn wounds and burn care units.a comparison was made prospectively between fungal isolates from patients and burn care units. aspergillus niger was the most frequent isolate in both patients and burn care units whereas ulocladium was the commonest isolate in the control group. aspergillus terreus, penicillium and zygomycetes, which were recovered from burned patients, were also found more frequently in the burn care units than in the control group (other areas in the hospital). these findings indicate a potential risk of fung ...199910208389
identification of medically important aspergillus species by single strand conformational polymorphism (sscp) of the pcr-amplified intergenic spacer region.the amplified 5.8s rna coding dna with the neighbouring internal transcribed spacers its i and its ii (its i--5.8s rdna--its ii) of 27 culture collection strains of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus nidulans, aspergillus niger, and aspergillus terreus were investigated by single strand conformational polymorphism (sscp) analysis. all strains showed a polymerase gel electrophoresis (pcr) product of 0.6 kb. separation of dna single strands of the pcr product in an acrylamide-b ...200011204354
butyrolactones from aspergillus the process development of lovastatin using aspergillus terreus drcc 152 in solid state fermentation, we have isolated a new butyrolactone-iv (3) along with the previously reported butyrolactone-i (1) and butyrolactone-ii (2) produced under submerged conditions. the structure of compound 3 has been characterized as 3-hydroxy-5-[2-(1-hydroxy-1-methylethyl)-2(r)-2,3-dihydro-benzo[b]furan- 5 ylmethyl]-4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-5-methoxycarbonyl-(5r)-2,5-dihydro-2 -furanone on the basis of spectroscopi ...200010783079
fr198248, a new anti-influenza agent isolated from apsergillus terreus no 13830. i. taxomony, fermentation, isolation, physico-chemical properties and biological activities.a novel anti-influenza agent, fr198248, was isolated from the cultured broth of a fungal strain no.13830. the strain was identified as aspergillus terreus from morphological characteristics. fr198248, a new type of hydroxyl benzaldehyde compound, showed antiinfluenza virus activity in madin-darby canine kidney (mdck) cells in vitro. the mode of action of fr198248 against influenza virus a could be ascribed to an inhibitory effect on the stage of virus adsorption. furthermore, fr198248 possessed ...200111302485
bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of aspergillus terreus.a case of bilateral pulmonary aspergilloma caused by an atypical isolate of aspergillus terreus is described. the diagnosis was established by the presence of septate, dichotomously branched fungal elements in freshly collected bronchoalveolar lavage and sputum specimens and by repeated isolation of the fungus in culture. specific precipitating antibodies against the a. terreus isolate were demonstrated in the patient's serum. the isolate was atypical as it failed to produce fruiting structures ...200010790144
studies on mevinolin production by some fungi.the potentiality of 25 fungal species, belonging to fourteen genera isolated from egyptian soils, to produce mevinolin, a hypocholesterolaemic agent, when grown on selected substrates was tested. samples of culture filtrates were tested by thin layer chromatography and the positive results were further assessed by high pressure liquid chromatography analysis. it was found that nearly one-third of the fungi showed positive results for production of mevinolin. aspergillus terreus was distinguished ...200010817521
in vitro fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin b against opportunistic moniliaceous and dematiaceous fungi.the nccls proposed standard m38-p describes standard parameters for testing the fungistatic antifungal activities (mics) of established agents against filamentous fungi (molds); however, standard conditions are not available for testing their fungicidal activities (minimum fungicidal or lethal concentrations [mfcs]). this study evaluated the in vitro fungistatic and fungicidal activities of voriconazole, itraconazole, and amphotericin b against 260 common and emerging molds (174 aspergillus sp. ...200111230410
identification of aspergillus fumigatus and related species by nested pcr targeting ribosomal dna internal transcribed spacer regions.aspergillus fumigatus is the most common species that causes invasive aspergillosis. in order to identify a. fumigatus, partial ribosomal dna (rdna) from two to six strains of five different aspergillus species was sequenced. by comparing sequence data from genbank, we designed specific primer pairs targeting rdna internal transcribed spacer (its) regions of a. fumigatus. a nested pcr method for identification of other a. fumigatus-related species was established by using the primers. to evaluat ...200111376067
value of different methods for the characterisation of aspergillus terreus evaluate different methods for strain differentiation, 10 isolates of aspergillus terreus from germany and two epidemiologically unrelated strains were investigated. the sources of the isolates were patients with cystic fibrosis (4), immunosuppression (2), otitis externa (2), sinusitis (1) and endocarditis (1). environmental isolates were obtained from a contaminated cell culture and from soil. the isolates did not differ in their macroscopic and microscopic morphology, in their protein patte ...19999989644
spondylodiscitis due to aspergillus terreus during an efficient treatment against invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. 200010990123
bronchocentric granulomatosis due to aspergillus terreus in an immunocompetent and non-asthmatic woman.this is the first report of bronchocentric granulomatosis due to aspergillus terreus in a healthy and non-asthmatic 74-year-old japanese woman. following identification of the fungus, oral itraconazole therapy was begun after intrabronchial infusion of amphotericin b. no recurrence has occurred after treatment for 24 months. we should consider the possibility of bronchocentric granulomatosis including aspergillus terreus, when an intrabronchial lesion is found even in a healthy and non-asthmatic ...199910542983
colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of aspergillus species.a colorimetric assay for antifungal susceptibility testing of aspergillus species (aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus, aspergillus nidulans, and aspergillus ustus) is described based on the reduction of the tetrazolium salt 2,3-bis(2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-[(sulphenylamino)carbonyl]-2h-tetrazolium-hydroxide (xtt) in the presence of menadione as an electron-coupling agent. the combination of 200 microg of xtt/ml with 25 microm menadione resulted in a high production of form ...200111526191
putative diels-alder-catalyzed cyclization during the biosynthesis of lovastatin.a diels-alder cyclization proposed to occur during polyketide synthase assembly of the bicyclic core of lovastatin (1) (mevinolin) by aspergillus terreus mf 4845 was examined via the synthesis of the n-acetylcysteamine (nac) thioester of [2,11-(13)c(2)]-(e,e,e)-(r)-6-methyldodecatri-2,8,10-enoate (5a). in vitro diels-alder cyclization of the corresponding unlabeled nac ester 5b, ethyl ester 18b, and acid 20b yielded two analogous diastereomers in each case, under either thermal or lewis acid-cat ...199611667090
development of a homologous transformation system for the opportunistic human pathogen aspergillus fumigatus based on the sc gene encoding atp sulfurylase.the development of a homologous transformation system for the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus aspergillus fumigatus is described. the system is based on the sc gene encoding atp sulfurylase. several a. fumigatus sc mutant strains were readily isolated by strong selection for selenate resistance. the coding region plus upstream and downstream regulatory sequences of the a. fumigatus sc gene were cloned by inverse pcr and then sequenced. sequencing of the sc cdna revealed the presence of fiv ...200111479709
use of the 6-methylsalicylic-acid-synthase gene as a discriminating marker between aspergillus terreus and aspergillus nineteen pathogenic and saprophytic isolates denoted as aspergillus terreus the presence and restriction pattern of the gene pksm (6-methylsalicylic acid synthase) was determined. five patterns (a-e) were found and in three isolates the gene was missing. the rapd (random amplified polymorphic dna) patterns with three primers were analyzed. the strains with pksm pattern possibly derived from the most common pattern a by single mutation (patterns b-d) were also related by rapd. among them, thre ...199910997132
territrem b, a tremorgenic mycotoxin that inhibits acetylcholinesterase with a noncovalent yet irreversible binding mechanism.territrem b (trb) is a fungal metabolite isolated from aspergillus terreus shown previously to be a potent and irreversible inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase (ache). in the present study, a number of binding and inhibition assays were carried out to further characterize the inhibitory effect of trb. the results indicate that the binding of trb (a) is much more selective than a well characterized selective inhibitor of ache, bw284c51, (b) adopts a one-to-one stoichiometry with the enzyme, (c) can ...199910574966
kodaistatins, novel inhibitors of glucose-6-phosphate translocase t1 from aspergillus terreus thom dsm 11247. isolation and structural elucidation.two novel compounds, kodaistatin a, c35h34o11, molecular weight 630, and kodaistatin c, c35h34o12, molecular weight 646, have been isolated from cultures of aspergillus terreus thom dsm 11247 by solid-phase extraction, size-exclusion chromatography, and various preparative hplc steps. the use of a range of 2d nmr measurements, in particular 13c-13c correlation measurements, has led to the clarification of the structure of kodaistatin a. kodaistatin c is a hydroxylated derivative of kodaistatin a ...200010994809
effect of aspergillus terreus mycotoxins on nitric oxide synthase activity in human erythroid k-562 cells.because several stimuli of microbial origin enhance the activity of nitric oxide synthase (nos) in human cells of the myeloid lineage, we decided to investigate whether cellular damage induced by aspergillus terreus mycotoxins could be associated with an increase in nos activity. a pool of mycotoxins rather than individual toxins was tested so that the natural conditions could be mimicked. in the present study, we report that a crude extract of a. terreus induces cellular damage and increases no ...199910191507
molecular typing of aspergillus terreus isolates by random amplification of polymorphic dna.forty three isolates of aspergillus terreus of environmental or clinical origin were typed by random amplification of polymorphic dna (rapd) with two different primers ns3 and ns7 from the fungal ribosomal 18s subunit gene. for the 31 epidemiologically unrelated isolates tested, the primers ns3 and ns7 gave rise to 23 and 24 different genotypes, respectively, and combining the results obtained with the two primers allowed the differentiation of all these isolates. no clustering was found in rela ...200010772835
amphotericin b resistance of aspergillus terreus in a murine model of disseminated aspergillosis.the in-vivo activity of amphotericin b and itraconazole against a clinical isolate of aspergillus terreus was determined in a murine model of disseminated aspergillosis. mics of amphotericin b and itraconazole for the strain, determined by an nccls-based technique, were 2 microg/ml and 1 microg/ml, respectively. mice infected intravenously were treated with either itraconazole (50 or 100 mg/kg/day) or amphotericin b 4.5 mg/kg/day for 10 days. treatment with both doses of itraconazole significant ...200010882084
mycotic aneurysm of the thoracic aorta due to aspergillus terreus: case report and review.mycotic aneurysms of the aorta caused by fungi are uncommon. we describe an unusual case of aortic aneurysm infection caused by aspergillus terreus, which most likely spread from an adjacent pulmonary focus. successful treatment included partial pneumonectomy, resection of the aneurysm with graft repair, and prolonged sequential administration of amphotericin b and itraconazole. a review of the published experience with aortic aneurysms caused by aspergillus species is also presented. when invas ...200011073743
new anti-influenza agents, fr198248 and its derivatives. ii. characterization of fr198248, its related compounds and some derivatives.we isolated fr198248 from the cultured broth of aspergillus terreus no. 13830 as a new anti-influenza agents. the structure of fr198248 was elucidated by several spectroscopic experiments as a novel tetrahydroxybenzaldehyde compound. furthermore, we described the characteristics of fr198248, its related compounds and some derivatives.200111372786
lovastatin biosynthesis by aspergillus terreus in a chemically defined medium.lovastatin is a secondary metabolite produced by aspergillus terreus. a chemically defined medium was developed in order to investigate the influence of carbon and nitrogen sources on lovastatin biosynthesis. among several organic and inorganic defined nitrogen sources metabolized by a. terreus, glutamate and histidine gave the highest lovastatin biosynthesis level. for cultures on glucose and glutamate, lovastatin synthesis initiated when glucose consumption levelled off. when a. terreus was gr ...200111375168
expression, purification, and characterization of blasticidin s deaminase (bsd) from aspergillus terreus: the role of catalytic zinc in enzyme structure.we established an efficient overproduction-purification system for blasticidin s deaminase (bsd) using the cdna cloned from aspergillus terreus. the estimated molecular mass of the purified enzyme indicated bsd was a tetramer. this tetrameric form was very resistant to denaturation by sds and showed heat-modifiable behavior on sds-page; i.e., bsd migrated much slower (as a single band of 36 kda) in its active conformation than its completely denatured polypeptide (13 kda) if heat treatment in 2% ...200010833262
removal of heavy metals by an aspergillus terreus strain immobilized in a polyurethane matrix.the aim was to investigate the biosorption of chromium, nickel and iron from metallurgical effluents, produced by a steel foundry, using a strain of aspergillus terreus immobilized in polyurethane foam.200211849492
production of aspergillus terreus alpha-l-rhamnosidase by solid state fermentation.the study of production of aspergillus terreus cect 2663 alpha-l-rhamnosidase in solid state fermentation using wheat bran, washed sugar cane bagasse and polyurethane foam as substrates or supports for the enzyme production.200211849496
properties of enzymes involved in d-galactonate catabolism in fungi.two enzymes catalyze the two step reactions in the d-galactonate nonphosphorolytic catabolic pathway of aspergillus terreus, namely d-galactonate dehydratase and 2-keto-3-deoxy-d-galactonate (kdgal) aldolase. maximum enzyme activities were obtained at 40 degrees c and ph 8.0 or at 50 degrees c and ph 7.5 for these two enzymes, respectively. stability of the two enzymes under different conditions was investigated. from a lineweaver-burk plot of the reciprocal of initial velocities and substrate c ...19957771768
in-vitro testing of susceptibility to amphotericin b is a reliable predictor of clinical outcome in invasive aspergillosis.invasive aspergillosis is a life-threatening fungal infection which, in neutropenic patients, is associated with an extremely high mortality rate despite optimal treatment. in order to investigate microbiological risk factors for treatment failures in more detail, aspergillus spp. obtained from 29 patients with haematological diseases after myelo-ablative chemotherapy and bone marrow transplantation were analysed for their susceptibility to amphotericin b in vitro and this was compared with clin ...19989818749
[the evaluation of antigens and antisera for their use in the serodiagnosis of aspergillosis].aspergillosis became an important opportunistic mycosis during the last years, with a great variety of clinical manifestations. to contribute to the replenishing of this mycosis serodiagnosis, biologic reactives (antigens and antisera) were prepared from strains of the species aspergillus niger, aspergillus flavus and aspergillus terreus for their use in immunoprecipitation assays. the reactives were assessed by double immunospreading versus a reference commercial system; satisfactory results we ...19959805081
purification and characterization of an extracellular alkaline serine protease from aspergillus terreus (ijira 6.2).an extracellular alkaline serine protease has been purified from aspergillus terreus (ijira 6.2). the purification procedure involved chromatography on deae-sephadex a25, phosphocellulose, hydroxyapatite, casein-sepharose, gel filtration on sephacryl-s-300 and by glycerol density gradient centrifugation. the enzyme was further purified to apparent homogeneity through a combination of electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel containing 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate (sds) with or without protease subst ...200010688692
antifungal activities of posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole compared to those of itraconazole and amphotericin b against 239 clinical isolates of aspergillus spp. and other filamentous fungi: report from sentry antimicrobial surveillance program, 2000.posaconazole, ravuconazole, and voriconazole are new triazole derivatives that possess potent, broad-spectrum antifungal activity. we evaluated the in vitro activity of these investigational triazoles compared with that of itraconazole and amphotericin b against 239 clinical isolates of filamentous fungi from the sentry program, including aspergillus spp. (198 isolates), fusarium spp. (7 isolates), penicillium spp. (19 isolates), rhizopus spp. (4 isolates), mucor spp. (2 isolates), and miscellan ...200211897586
conversion of cyclic nonaketides to lovastatin and compactin by a lovc deficient mutant of aspergillus terreus.investigation of the post-pks biosynthetic steps to the cholesterol-lowering agent lovastatin (1) using an aspergillus terreus strain with a disrupted lovc gene, which is essential for formation of 4a,5-dihydromonacolin l (3), shows that 7 and 3 are precursors to 1, and demonstrates that lovastatin diketide synthase (lovf protein) does not require lovc.200111412974
aristolochene synthase: purification, molecular cloning, high-level expression in escherichia coli, and characterization of the aspergillus terreus cyclase.aristolochene synthase catalyzes the cyclization of farnesyl diphosphate (6) to (+)-aristolochene (1). the aspergillus terreus enzyme has been purified 75-fold to homogeneity in six steps. based on the sequence of 3 internal peptides obtained by lys-c digestion of the native protein, a set of degenerate pcr primers was used to amplify a 550-bp segment of cdna corresponding to a portion of the aristolochene synthase transcript. a second round of pcr using specific primers was used to prepare a (3 ...200010775423
in vitro susceptibility testing of filamentous fungi: comparison of etest and reference microdilution methods for determining itraconazole mics.the performance of the etest for itraconazole susceptibility testing of 50 isolates of filamentous fungi was assessed in comparison with the national committee for clinical laboratory standards (nccls) proposed standard microdilution broth method. the nccls method employed rpmi 1640 broth medium, and mics were read after incubation for 48 h at 35 degrees c. etest mics were determined with rpmi agar containing 2% glucose and with casitone agar and were read after incubation for 24 h (aspergillus ...200010970383
[an epidemiological study for fungus isolation during the twenty-five year periods from 1976 to 2000 in kitasato university hospital].we investigated an epidemiological study for fungus isolation in our hospital from 1976 to 2000. for 25 years, the total sample number of fungus examination were 64,296, and after 1988, the total sample number increased suddenly. as a whole, the positive ratio was constantly about 40%. when our hospital opened, the obstetrical and gynecological samples showed 38.8% for fungus examination, but recently, samples of the respiratory organ has increased. ratio of isolation for yeast, candida albicans ...200111712361
aspergillus terreus infections in haematological malignancies: molecular epidemiology suggests association with in-hospital plants.during a three-year period nine patients with haematological diseases after myeloablative chemotherapy died from invasive fungal infections caused by aspergillus terreus. the hospital inanimate environment was monitored and a. terreus was cultured from potted plants in the vicinity of the patients. the patients (n = 14) and the environmental isolates (n = 2) were fingerprinted by rapd-pcr with four different primers. based on rapd patterns the patients' isolates were differentiated into five dif ...200011023720
effect of ph and stirring rate on itaconate production by aspergillus terreus.the production of itaconic acid from glucose-based media by aspergillus terreus nrrl 1960 was found to be controlled by stirring rate and ph. when the phosphorous (p) level in the production medium was reduced to less than 10 mg l(-1), the fungal mycelium exhausted its primary growth and started to excrete itaconic acid, while it continued its secondary growth at the expense of ammoniacal nitrogen. the fermentation exhibited a mixed-growth-associated product formation kinetics, the non-growth as ...200011051419
culture supernatants of patient-derived aspergillus isolates have toxic and lytic activity towards neurons and glial cells.infection of the central nervous system by the ubiquitous fungi aspergillus spp. is a life-threatening disease. therefore we investigated the mechanism of brain damage by fungal infection. to examine whether secretory factors of aspergillus isolates derived from patients can induce death of different brain cells, culture supernatants of aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, aspergillus terreus and aspergillus niger were added to different astrocytes as well as to the neuroblastoma cell line ...200011118912
molecular typing of aspergillus terreus by random amplification of polymorphic dna. 199910614966
mycoflora in commercial pet foods.this article reports on the identification of mycoflora of 21 dry pet foods (12 belonging to dogs and 9 to cats) that corresponded to 8 commercial brands made in argentina and imported. the isolation frequency and relative density of the prevalent fungal genera are compared too. ten genera and fungi classified as mycelia sterilia were identified. the predominant genera were aspergillus (62%), rhizopus (48%), and mucor (38%). the most prevalent among aspergillus was aspergillus flavus followed by ...200111348013
studies of in vitro activities of voriconazole and itraconazole against aspergillus hyphae using viability staining.the minimal fungicidal concentrations (mfcs) of voriconazole and itraconazole for five clinical isolates each of aspergillus terreus, aspergillus fumigatus, aspergillus flavus, and aspergillus niger were determined by a broth macrodilution method. conidial suspensions as inocula were compared to hyphae as inocula since the invasive form of aspergillosis is manifested by the appearance of hyphal structures. in addition, cell viability staining with the dye fun-1 was performed to assess time-depen ...200111120954
a rapid technique for screening of lovastatin-producing strains of aspergillus terreus by agar plug and neurospora crassa bioassay.the success of strain improvement programme depends on the number of isolates that can be screened after mutagenic treatment. a technique to rapidly screen large number of high-yielding isolates was developed. the 'agar plug' method that utilizes the anti-fungal property of lovastatin to produce a zone of inhibition against neurospora crassa was not only economical but also less labour-intensive. we were able to isolate a high-yielding strain, the productivity of which increased by 138% as compa ...200010739348
structure-based chimeric enzymes as an alternative to directed enzyme evolution: phytase as a test case.thermostability is a key feature for commercially attractive variants of the fungal enzyme phytase. in an initial set of experiments, we restored ionic interactions and hydrogen bonds on the surface of aspergillus terreus phytase, which are present in the homologous but more thermostable enzyme from a. niger. since these mutations turned out to be neutral, we replaced-in the same region and based on the crystal structure of a. niger phytase-entire secondary structure elements. the replacement of ...200111164958
in vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin b and 5-flucytosine against aspergillus spp.we investigated the in vitro interaction of terbinafine with itraconazole, fluconazole, amphotericin b and 5-flucytosine, against aspergillus spp. we tested three isolates of aspergillus fumigatus (one resistant to itraconazole), and two each of aspergillus flavus, aspergillus niger and aspergillus terreus. we employed a broth microdilution-based method derived from an in vivo validated method capable of detecting itraconazole resistance in a. fumigatus. we studied the effect on the mics by calc ...200212161398
antifungal properties of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors against aspergillus species in vitro.this study investigated the fungicidal activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (ssris) against clinical isolates of aspergillus fumigatus (n = 11), aspergillus flavus (n = 9), aspergillus terreus (n = 10) and candida parapsilosis (atcc 22019). the common drugs fluoxetine, seroxate, sertraline, paroxetine and reboxetine were applied in a broth microdilution test. in addition, we examined whether a post-antibiotic effect occurs following short exposure to the drugs. the various ssris s ...200111733460
exploitation of a library of alpha-galactosidases for the synthesis of building blocks for glycopolymers.after screening a library of fungal alpha-galactosidases for the synthesis of functionalized alkyl alpha-d-galactopyranosides, four enzymes (isolated from aspergillus terreus ccm55, aspergillus commune ccm 2969, penicillium vinaceum ccm 2384, or penicillium brasilianum 2155) proved to be suitable for these biotransformations. the effect of different concentrations of alcohol on activity and stability of these enzymes was investigated. after optimization of the reaction conditions, three galactos ...200211745178
[effect of enhanced uv-b radiation on chemical composition, fungal colonization and decomposition of spring wheat plant].under uv-b radiation, the cho (soluble carbohydrate) concentration in leaves decreased significantly, while the concentrations of hcel (holocellulose) and protein in leaves and that of hcel in stems increased significantly. hcel concentration in roots did not change significantly. under uv-b radiation, the colonization rates of penicillium ochro-chloron and aspergillus niger on leaves and stems increased significantly during growing phase, those of trichoderma koningii and aureobasidium pullulan ...200111757366
detection of cell wall galactomannoprotein afmp1p in culture supernatants of aspergillus fumigatus and in sera of aspergillosis patients.mannoproteins are important and abundant structural components of fungal cell walls. the afmp1 gene encodes a cell wall galactomannoprotein of aspergillus fumigatus. in the present study, we show that afmp1p is secreted into the cell culture supernatant at a level that can be detected by western blotting. a sensitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) developed with antibodies against afmp1p was capable of detecting this protein from the cell culture supernatant of a. fumigatus. the anti- ...200212409437
invasive aspergillosis caused by aspergillus terreus in a non-immunosuppressed patient. 200212421042
case report. hepatic abscesses due to aspergillus terreus in an immunodeficient child.we report the first case of hepatitis due to aspergillus terreus in a 13-year-old boy with common variable immunodeficiency that occurred while the patient was receiving secondary prophylaxis with fluconazole after an episode of pulmonary candidosis. the infection subsided after the addition of itraconazole to the combination of liposomal amphotericin b and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor that he was receiving.200111766109
the flexible c-terminal region of aspergillus terreus blasticidin s deaminase: identification of its functional roles with deletion enzymes.although the four polypeptides of blasticidin s (bs) deaminase (bsd) are packed rather tightly coordinated to the "structural and catalytic" zinc atom of each subunit, the c-terminal region of the enzyme was suggested to be somewhat molten and flexible [m. kimura, s. sekido, y. isogai, and i. yamaguchi (2000) j. biochem. 127, 955-963]. to understand roles of this flexible region, we constructed five c-terminal deletion variants of bsd (each successively deleted from the c-terminal end up to five ...200211779186
optimization of the catalytic properties of aspergillus fumigatus phytase based on the three-dimensional structure.previously, we determined the dna and amino acid sequences as well as biochemical and biophysical properties of a series of fungal phytases. the amino acid sequences displayed 49-68% identity between species, and the catalytic properties differed widely in terms of specific activity, substrate specificity, and ph optima. with the ultimate goal to combine the most favorable properties of all phytases in a single protein, we attempted, in the present investigation, to increase the specific activit ...200010933495
aspergillus terreus in a cystic fibrosis clinic: environmental distribution and patient colonization pattern. 200312495692
biodegradation of lignocellulosic waste by aspergillus terreus.biodegradation of lignocellulosic waste by aspergillus terreus is reported for the first time. this isolate produced 250 cmcase (carboxymethyl cellulase or endoglucanase) and biodegraded hay and straw during 3 days and the biomass production on straw was 5g.l(-1) dry weight from 0.25 cm2 inoculated mycellium. this strain secreted endocellulases and exocellulases in the culture medium, but some of the enzymes produced, remained cell membrane bound. cell bound enzymes were released by var ...200111826908
identification and characterization of novel cytochrome p450 genes from the white-rot basidiomycete, coriolus versicolor.using a reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (rt-pcr) technique, cytochrome p450 genes were cloned from the lignin-degrading basidiomycete, coriolus versicolor. one possible p450 gene was identified, which consisted of 1,672 nucleotides and a poly(a) tail and encoded a deduced protein containing 449 amino acids. the deduced amino acid sequence revealed the presence of the p450 heme-binding motif, strongly suggesting that this protein belongs to the p450 superfamily, then designated cy ...200211831480
bioconversion of poultry wastes i-factors influencing the assay and productivity of crude uricase by three uricolytic filamentous fungi.the optimum temperature for biomass yield and uricase production by uricolytic fungi, aspergillus terreus. a. flavus and trichoderma sp. was at 30 degrees c. the time required for maximum production of uricase and biomass yield was 4 days for two aspergillus species and 6 days for trichoderma sp. the optimum ph was at 6.4 for a. terreus and ph 6.6 for both a. flavus and trichoderma sp. the maximum fungal biomass yield was achieved in medium supplemented with 4% poultry waste. the best carbon sou ...200211837392
sclerosing mediastinitis caused by aspergillus terreus.a case of aspergillus terreus causing sclerosing mediastinitis which presented with symptoms of cardiorespiratory compromise and compressive myelopathy is described. the diagnosis was established by culturing and isolating the fungus in pure culture from the tissue and was also confirmed by demonstration of sepcific precipitating antibodies against aspergillus terreus in patient's serum.200111883130
fungal degradation of fluorene.a selection of 30 strains of micromycetes known as good degraders of polychlorinated aromatic compounds, mostly isolated from soil and belonging to various taxonomic groups, have been investigated to degrade fluorene. toxicity assays, first evaluated on solid media, have shown high growth inhibition at concentrations above 0.001 g l-1 only towards 23% of strains. degradation of fluorene (0.005 g l-1) was then investigated in liquid synthetic medium for 2 days and evaluated by hplc. among the 30 ...200010665449
microfloral contamination and hydrolytic enzyme differences between monsooned and non-monsooned analyse and compare, for the first time, fungal and bacterial populations and hydrolytic enzyme production in four monsooned and non-monsooned arabica and robusta coffee types.200211940159
biosynthesis and biotechnological production of statins by filamentous fungi and application of these cholesterol-lowering drugs.hypercholesterolemia is considered an important risk factor in coronary artery disease. thus the possibility of controlling de novo synthesis of endogenous cholesterol, which is nearly two-thirds of total body cholesterol, represents an effective way of lowering plasma cholesterol levels. statins, fungal secondary metabolites, selectively inhibit hydroxymethyl glutaryl-coenzyme a (hmg-coa) reductase, the first enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. the mechanism involved in controlling plasma chole ...200211956737
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