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field use of an irradiated blood vaccine to protect cattle against redwater (babesia divergens infection) on a farm in dorset.a field trial was conducted in dorset to determine whether calves could be protected against babesiosis by the prior inoculation of irradiated blood infected with babesia divergens. the trial involved 99 friesian heifers. forty were inoculated with infected blood from a donor calf after the blood had been irradiated to a dose of 28 kilorads, 31 were immune animals which had grazed on the infected site the previous year and 28 were susceptible animals. after exposure on a hillside where there wa ...19817015679
babesia divergens infections in the mongolian gerbil: characteristics of a human strain.a strain of the cattle piroplasm babesia divergens isolated from a fatal human infection was propagated in the mongolian gerbil through 150 semi-continuous intraperitoneal passages. the infection was normally fatal; death, accompanied by profuse haemoglobinuria and debilitation, occurred as early as 44 h after intraperitoneal inoculation of heavily parasitized blood with precipitous drops in red blood cell and platelet counts. the average maximum parasitaemia achieved increased on continuous pas ...19817220085
[human babesiosis in 1997].human babesiosis is a rare parasitic infection caused by an haemoprotozoan of genus babesia, transmitted by tick bites. in europe, the most severe cases are observed in asplenic patients infected by babesia divergens. acute intravascular haemolytic syndrome appears rapidly and is responsible for renal failure and is life threatening. most of the cases have been reported in france. in contrast, babesia microti babesiosis observed in the united states are less severe than babesia divergens cases. ...19979499998
improved disease resistance after babesia divergens vaccination.the efficacy of a new inactivated vaccine against babesia divergens was evaluated by means of inoculation tests. the infection was initiated by i.v. injection of blood containing 2 x 10(9) living parasites into splenectomized and non-splenectomized calves. clinical status and hematological parameters were determined. serology examinations for antibodies against b. divergens were carried out by indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat). non-vaccinated and splenectomized animals exhibited experime ...19989521006
babesia divergens: an elisa with soluble parasite antigen for monitoring the epidemiology of bovine babesiosis.an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for bovine babesiosis caused by babesia divergens was developed to analyse the evolution of the serological status of cattle living in an enzootic area. the antigen used was a soluble extract of b. divergens obtained from in vitro culture. specificity, evaluated with negative sera, was 96.6%. the elisa was compared to indirect immunofluorescence analysis (ifa) on naturally or experimentally infected animals. it appeared that ifa was positive for at le ...19958520800
experimental infection with babesia divergens in cattle persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus.nine norwegian red cattle, aged 7-14 months, persistently infected with bovine virus diarrhoea virus (bvdv) were inoculated with a swedish strain of babesia divergens. six persistently infected cattle of the same age and breed were kept as controls. blood and serum samples were collected regularly during the observation period. rectal temperatures were recorded every morning for 25 days post infection, and the animals were examined clinically on a daily basis. sera were examined for antibodies t ...19989673578
quinuronium sulphate for the treatment of babesia divergens infections of splenectomised calves.quinuronium sulphate was inoculated into splenectomised calves at various times in relation to artificial infection of the calves with babesia divergens. when the drug was given one day before the parasites it had no effect on the course of the infection. however, when it was given at the time of onset of fever or haemoglobinuria, development of the infection was arrested. two weeks after therapy, recrudescences of parasites invariably occurred. in the case of animals treated at onset of fever t ...19817269188
a multiple antigen elisa to detect neospora-specific antibodies in bovine sera, bovine foetal fluids, ovine and caprine sera.neospora caninum is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite recently identified as a cause of abortion in cattle. the epidemiology of neosporosis is poorly understood, partly because accurate diagnosis of infection is difficult. in this paper we describe the development of a multiple antigen-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) to detect antibodies to n. caninum in sera from cattle, sheep and goats as well as from bovine foetal fluids. a water-soluble fraction (wsf) of sonicated nc-1 strain ...19989777723
serological differences in neospora caninum-associated epidemic and endemic abortions.a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for the sensitive and specific detection of bovine antibodies to neospora caninum was developed and evaluated using sera from cattle experimentally infected with n. caninum, toxoplasma gondii, sarcocystis cruzi, sarcocystis hominis, sarcocystis hirsuta, eimeria bovis, cryptosporidium parvum, babesia divergens, and field sera from naturally exposed animals. field sera were classified using a gold standard that included the results from an indir ...199910461950
management of babesia divergens babesiosis without a complete course of quinine treatment. 199910534194
babesiosis.babesiosis is an emerging, tick-transmitted, zoonotic disease caused by hematotropic parasites of the genus babesia. babesial parasites (and those of the closely related genus theileria) are some of the most ubiquitous and widespread blood parasites in the world, second only to the trypanosomes, and consequently have considerable worldwide economic, medical, and veterinary impact. the parasites are intraerythrocytic and are commonly called piroplasms due to the pear-shaped forms found within inf ...200010885987
the effect of treatment with imidocarb diproprionate on the course of babesia divergens infections in splenectomized calves, and on their subsequent immunity to homologous challenge. 19817345111
studies on a bovine babesia transmitted by hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch, 1844.a babesia sp. was recently observed in hyalomma marginatum rufipes and found to be transmissible to bovines. further observations were carried out on this parasite and a study made of the morphology of stages in both erythrocytes and tick haemolymph. apart from babesia divergens, intra-erythrocytic parasites were not readily distinguishable from bovine babesia spp. merozoites in tick haemolymph morphologically resembled those of babesia bigemina, but they were significantly larger. this babesia ...19817345388
distribution and ecology of ticks (acari: ixodidae) infesting livestock in tunisia: an overview of eighth years field collections.ticks (ixodidae) play a significant role as vectors of pathogens of domestic animals in tunisia. the major losses caused by ticks are related to transmission of protozoan parasites. these include agents of tropical theileriosis and babesiosis in ruminants. since 1991, we conducted research studies on tick population of livestock in tunisia. this overview reports a synthesis on tick distribution, their biology and their role as vectors of pathogens in domestic animals, particularly cattle. during ...199911071534
exposure of cattle immunised against redwater to tick challenge in the field: challenge by a homologous strain of b divergens.a field trial was conducted in northern ireland to determine whether calves could be protected against babesiosis by the prior inoculation of irradiated blood infected with babesia divergens; the trial involved 30 yearling calves. ten were inoculated with infected blood from a donor calf after the blood had been irradiated at 25 kilorads, and 10 with blood irradiated at 30 kilorads. their reactions to the inoculation were observed daily for a month. they were then released, along with a control ...19807361409
the isolation and characterization of human and bovine strains of babesia divergens from drumnadrochit, scotland.strains of babesia divergens of human and bovine origin were isolated from the same locality in scotland. a morphometric comparison was then made between babesia divergens parasites in blood smears made from groups of 3 splenectomized calves reacting to the inoculation of these strains. the various forms taken by the parasites of each strain were seen to be divisible into 7 categories and representatives of each category were found for each strain. more amoeboid forms were found in blood smears ...19807422359
diversity of babesia infecting european sheep ticks (ixodes ricinus).questing ixodes ricinus (acari: ixodidae) adult and nymphal ticks collected in various parts of slovenia were tested for the presence of babesial parasites with a pcr assay based on the nuclear small subunit rrna gene (nss-ribosomal dna [rdna]). thirteen of 135 ticks were found to contain babesial dna. sequence determination and analysis of amplified portions of nss-rdna revealed their identity with babesia microti and a high degree of homology with babesia odocoilei and babesia divergens. the r ...200111526189
isolation and amplification by polymerase chain reaction dna of babesia microti and babesia divergens in ticks in poland.babesia microti and b. divergens, the etiological agents of human babesiosis, are transmitted by the bite of ixodes ricinus. the purpose of this study was differentiation of those two species in ticks collected in urban woods in the city szczecin (north-western poland). the prevalence of the dna of babesia were investigated by pcr amplification with primers to the fragment from a gene encoding the nuclear small-subunit ribosomal rna (ss-rdna). we examined a total of 533 specimens of ixodes ricin ...200111748876
seroprevalence of babesia infections in humans exposed to ticks in midwestern germany.babesiosis is considered to be an emerging tick-borne disease in humans worldwide. however, most studies on the epidemiology of human babesiosis to date have been carried out in north america, and there is little knowledge on the prevalence of infection and frequency of disease in other areas. the aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of babesia infections in a human population in germany. a total of 467 sera collected between may and october 1999 from individuals living in the rhe ...200212089258
exposure of cattle immunised against redwater to tick-induced challenge in the field: challenge by a heterologous strain of babesia divergens.eighteen, one-and-a-half-year-old friesian heifers and a three-year-old friesian bull were immunised against bovine redwater by inoculation with blood infected with a known strain of babesia divergens which had been irradiated at 30 kilorads. three weeks later these cattle plus 10 friesian bullocks of the same age which served as controls were introduced to a grazing area infested with ticks able to transmit infections of a heterologous strain of b divergens. the control cattle all became infect ...19807434497
[serological studies to determine babesia divergens infection in cattle]. 19807447904
babesia divergens: characterization of a 17-kda merozoite membrane protein.large amounts of viable merozoites were purified from in vitro cultures of babesia divergens by a two-step sieving procedure. a monoclonal antibody produced against b. divergens merozoites, mab dg7, stained the merozoite plasma membrane and an intra-parasitic linear organelle in indirect immunofluorescence. immunogold labeling in electron microscopy demonstrated that the antigen recognized by mab dg7 was localized just beneath the merozoite plasma membrane. immunoprecipitations of metabolically ...19937504632
characterization of a new 60 kda apical protein of plasmodium falciparum merozoite expressed in late schizogony.immunological cross-reactivity studies between the apicomplexa babesia divergens and plasmodium falciparum allowed us to identify a p falciparum 60 kda protein (pf60) using an antiserum directed against a b divergens 37 kda culture-derived exoantigen. in immunofluorescence assays (ifa), pf60 appears as a doublet of fluorescent spots associated to the apical pole of merozoites. the doublet co-locates with two rhoptry components: the protein rap-1 and the 140/130/110 (105) kda rhoptry protein comp ...19947606209
large scale survey of bovine babesiosis due to babesia divergens in france.data on the epidemiology of bovine babesiosis in france were collected from two sources: a questionnaire sent to large animal veterinary surgeons and blood samples collected from cattle treated for clinical babesiosis. babesia divergens was common and widespread. b major was found in only one sample. the disease was particularly widespread in north west, south west and central france. the mean clinical incidence was 0.4 per cent. the bimodal seasonality of the clinical cases was correlated with ...19957709570
tick-borne parasitic diseases in cattle: current knowledge and prospective risk analysis related to the ongoing evolution in french cattle farming systems.parasitic diseases, like babesiosis and theileriosis are transmitted by ticks: their occurrence is therefore linked to the size of the tick stock and the seasonality of the vectors. babesia divergens bovine babesiosis transmitted by ixodes ricinus is widespread and often reported in france. serological prevalence is high, ranging from 20 to 80% according to the farms. clinical incidence is low: around 0.4% for the whole cattle population. the endemic situation is unstable and clinical cases occu ...200212387492
babesia divergens: cloning and biochemical characterization of bd37.the immunoprotective potential of babesia divergens antigens released in supernatants of in vitro cultures of the parasite is generally known. among a number of parasite molecules, a 37 kda protein has been found in the supernatants of babesia divergens cultures. in this report the cloning and biochemical characterization of this protein, called bd37, are described. in addition, the processing of the protein was studied in vitro. results suggest that bd37 is encoded by a single copy gene. bd37 a ...200212403318
a large multigene family expressed during the erythrocytic schizogony of plasmodium falciparum.we report the identification of a large multigene family of plasmodium falciparum using a clone isolated with a polyclonal antiserum raised to a babesia divergens merozoite protein. the recombinant antigen reacted with human sera collected from individuals exposed to malaria. the deduced protein sequence contains a motif homologous to the consensus sequence of merozoite rhoptry proteins encoded by multigene families in several babesia species. antibodies raised to the recombinant protein reacted ...19947739668
a 37-kilodalton glycoprotein of babesia divergens is a major component of a protective fraction containing low-molecular-mass culture-derived exoantigens.the supernatants of in vitro cultures of babesia divergens rouen 1987 in human erythrocytes, obtained by using a semidefined medium based on human high-density lipoproteins, were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography into four fractions, f1 to f4. the crude supernatant as well as each fraction adjuvanted with quil-a protected gerbils from mortality due to a homologous infectious challenge. analysis of the humoral response of the 10 protected gerbils with fraction f4, containing major pro ...19957868251
phylogenetic relationships of babesia divergens as determined from comparison of small subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences. 19947891742
serological evidence implicating neospora species as a cause of abortion in british cattle.by means of an immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat), using in vitro cultured parasites as antigen, antibodies to neospora species at titres > or = 1/1280 were found in 11 of 120 scottish cattle that had recently aborted but in only one of 97 cattle from herds in which there had been no recent abortions (p < 0.01). the specificity of the antibodies was confirmed by the lack of cross reactivity between samples with high titres to neospora and toxoplasma antigen in a direct agglutination test, a ...19948036769
a fatal case of babesiosis in missouri: identification of another piroplasm that infects humans.to characterize the etiologic agents (mo1) of the first reported case of babesiosis acquired in missouri.19968607592
first report of babesia divergens in tunisia.babesia divergens of bovine origin was isolated, for the first time in tunisia, from a cow of a local breed (bos taurus) from a locality in the north-west of the country. gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) were used for the isolation of the parasite which was inoculated into a splenectomised friesian calf that developed a babesiosis, thus confirming the presence of the parasite.19968792588
quinine in the treatment of babesia divergens infections in humans. 19968950568
studies on babesia divergens (m'fadyean and stockman, 1911). 195813559958
[on the host specificity of babesia divergens (piroplasmidea)]. 196213890309
the experimental transmission of babesia divergens by ixodes ricinus. 196314099849
serologically detected "new" tick-borne zoonoses in eastern croatia.to establish serologically a contact with causative agents of human monocytic and granulocytic ehrlichiosis, human babesiosis, recently detected rickettsioses, and lyme disease in individuals with a history of tick bite from three counties in eastern croatia.200314515426
therapeutic efficacy of atovaquone against the bovine intraerythrocytic parasite, babesia divergens.this study demonstrates the activity of the hydroxynaphthoquinone (hnq), atovaquone, against babesia divergens, the cause of a rare but lethal form of human babesiosis. in vitro studies showed that unlike other anti-malarial drugs, the hnqs studied have a high level of anti-babesial activity and atovaquone was more active than imidocarb, the most effective compound used so far for human b. divergens babesiosis and also used routinely for the treatment of bovine babesiosis. atovaquone also proved ...19979105316
babesia bovis merozoites invade human, ovine, equine, porcine and caprine erythrocytes by a sialic acid-dependent mechanism followed by developmental arrest after a single round of cell fission.babesia bovis infections have only been observed in bovine species in contrast to babesia divergens that also can infect humans, sheep and rodents. using an in vitro assay that assesses invasion of erythrocytes by free merozoites after a 1-h incubation period, it was shown that specificity is not determined by host-specific interactions associated with invasion. human erythrocytes were invaded more efficiently than bovine erythrocytes whereas erythrocytes of sheep, pigs and horses were invaded o ...200314636675
enzootic transmission of babesia divergens among cottontail rabbits on nantucket island, massachusetts.specific ticks seem to locally serve as vector for characteristic microbial assemblages (guilds) comprising spirochetes, piroplasms, ehrlichiae, and arboviruses. borrelia andersoni and anaplasma phagocytophilum are intensely transmitted between cottontail rabbits. to test the hypothesis that a piroplasm may also be maintained in rabbits, we sampled these hosts from nantucket island, massachusetts and tested their blood and tissues by a polymerase chain reaction for evidence of infection. surpris ...200314695079
continuous in vitro culture of babesia divergens in a serum-free medium.babesia divergens was cultivated in rpmi 1640 (25 mm hepes) supplemented with 10% human serum (rpmi-10% hs) with a high percentage of parasitized erythrocytes (ppe) (> or = 40%). standardization of in vitro tests, purification of exoantigens, biochemical studies and the safety of the culture handler motivated the development of a serum-free defined medium. removal of serum greatly reduced the ppe but, after a period of adaptation, the culture was continuous and the parasite was able to develop a ...19979226955
photosensitized inactivation of plasmodium falciparum- and babesia divergens-infected erythrocytes in whole blood by lipophilic pheophorbide derivatives.blood transfusions can transmit parasitic infections, such as those caused by plasmodium (malaria), trypanosoma cruzi (chagas' disease), and babesia (babesiosis). a higher degree of blood transfusion safety would be reached if methods were available for inactivating such parasites.19979228710
a subtropical case of human babesiosis.this report constitutes the first well-documented case of symptomatic human babesiosis from a subtropical site, south of the 40th parallel. this paper describes the definitive identification of babesia divergens infection in a splenectomized patient from the canary islands.19979241387
survey of babesia divergens antibody kinetics in cattle in western france.data collected from a longitudinal survey carried out over a 2-year period, in four dairy herds in western france, were used to assess babesia divergens antibody kinetics. farms were visited once a month. the total number of animals monitored was 236 including calves, heifers and cows of the holstein and normande breeds. an elisa was used to follow the humoral response levels against babesia divergens. when the study began, in the autumn of 1991 (200 animals), half of the animals were already se ...19979342824
babesia microti infection in europe.the majority of babesia infections in europe are life-threatening and caused by babesia divergens and b. bovis. although babesia microti has been detected in ticks from switzerland, few if any cases of babesiosis have been caused by b. microti. this first reported case, diagnosed by serology, dna detection, and microscopy, is additionally interesting because there appears to be coinfection with the lyme disease organism, borrelia burgdorferi.200415170239
babesia divergens (phylum apicomplexa) in vitro growth in the presence of calf serum.resistance to severe babesiosis in young calves has frequently been ascribed to an unknown serum factor(s) which inhibits growth of babesia bovis in vitro. our experiments show that young calf sera are as suitable as adult bovine sera for the in vitro culture of babesia divergens, indicating that in this species at least inverse age resistance is due to alternative mechanisms. the suitability of commercial foetal calf sera for b. divergens cultures seems highly variable.200415177717
in vitro evaluation of drug susceptibilities of babesia divergens isolates.the susceptibilities of three bovine and two human babesia divergens isolates to antimicrobial agents were evaluated in vitro by a tritiated hypoxanthine incorporation assay. the mics at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (mic50s) for mefloquine (chlorhydrate), chloroquine (sulfate), quinine (chlorhydrate), clindamycin (phosphate), pentamidine (isethionate), phenamidine (isethionate) plus oxomemazine (chlorhydrate), lincomycin (chlorhydrate monohydrate), and imidocarb (dipropionate) were determ ...19989559789
[ticks (ixodidae) in zoonotic propagation of piroplasma babesia micorti and babesia divergens].recent advance in the knowledge of the role of ixodidae in the epidemiology of human piroplasmosis is reviewed, with special emphasis on babesia species which cause diseases in man. the problem in europe came to medical attention since 20 cases have been reported, and most of them due to b. divergens. however, contrary to other european countries, the zoonotic reservoir of babesia spp. in poland is unknown and further research is required to elucidate the importance of ixodidae in the transmissi ...19958553661
human babesiosis.the first demonstrated case of human babesiosis in the world was reported in europe, in 1957. since then, a further 28 babesial infections in man have been reported in europe. most (83%) of the infections were in asplenic individuals and most (76%) were with babesia divergens, a cattle parasite. parasitaemias varied from 1%-80% of red blood cells. the usual clinical manifestations of severe b. divergens infection were severe intravascular haemolysis with haemoglobinuria. the most efficient treat ...19989683900
antigenic, phenotypic and molecular characterization confirms babesia odocoilei isolated from three cervids.babesia isolates from an elk (cervus elaphus canadensis) and a caribou (rangifer tarandus caribou) with fatal infections were compared to babesia odocoilei (engeling isolate) from white-tailed deer (odocoileus virginianus) by experimental infection, serologic, and small subunit ribosomal rna (ssu rrna) gene sequence analysis studies. both the indirect fluorescent antibody test and immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated antigenic variation among the isolates. experimental infection studies showe ...200010941738
the beta-tubulin gene of babesia and theileria parasites is an informative marker for species discrimination.a fragment of the beta-tubulin gene was polymerase chain reaction (pcr) amplified from genomic dnas of babesia bovis, babesia bigemina, babesia divergens, babesia major, babesia caballi, babesia equi, babesia microti, theileria annulata and theileria sergenti. single amplification products were obtained for each of these species, but the size of the amplicons varied from 310 to 460 bp. sequence analysis revealed that this variation is due to the presence of a single intron, which ranged from 20 ...200011027785
babesia divergens in france: descriptive and analytical epidemiology.babesia divergens cause of bovine babesiosis transmitted by ixodes ricinus, is widely spread especially in west, central and south-west parts of france. it occurs with two annual peaks, in spring and autumn. the study was carried out during a period of two years (1991-1993) in four farms in the sarthe area, in order to know the distribution and the ecology of i. ricinus, and to show the presence of b. divergens. cattle are parasitised as early as march essentially by adult ticks, according to a ...199911071546
babesia divergens and plasmodium falciparum use common receptors, glycophorins a and b, to invade the human red blood cell.babesiosis has long been recognized as an economically important disease of cattle, but only in the last 30 years has babesia been recognized as an important pathogen in humans. invasion of erythrocytes is an integral part of the babesia life cycle. however, very little information is available on the molecules involved in this process, in contrast to another hemoparasite, plasmodium falciparum. using invasion assays into normal red blood cells (rbcs), enzyme-treated cells, and clinically mutant ...200515618210
[human babesiosis--recent discoveries].introduction: babesiosis is caused by intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia, which is a common animal infection worldwide. this protozoa requires both a competent vertebrate and a nonvertebrate host (ixodes sp. etc.) to maintain the transmission cycle. human babesiosis: human babesiosis is predominantly caused by babesia microti (rodent-borne piroplasm, an emerging zoonosis in humans in north america) and by babesia divergens (bovine pathogen, in europe). occasionally, infection in am ...200415626291
human babesiosis: an emerging tick-borne disease.human babesiosis is an important emerging tick-borne disease. babesia divergens, a parasite of cattle, has been implicated as the most common agent of human babesiosis in europe, causing severe disease in splenectomized individuals. in the us, babesia microti, a babesial parasite of small mammals, has been the cause of over 300 cases of human babesiosis since 1969, resulting in mild to severe disease, even in non-splenectomised patients. changing ecology has contributed greatly to the increase a ...200011113258
invasion, and short- and long-term survival of babesia divergens (phylum apicomplexa) cultures in non-bovine sera and erythrocytes.in order to explore the feasibility of producing a babesia divergens live vaccine free of bovine material contaminants the parasite's ability to grow in human, sheep and horse erythrocytes and serum and serum-free medium was investigated. b. divergens was successfully maintained in bovine erythrocytes overlaid with serum-free hl-1 medium. supplementation of the culture medium with bovine or sheep serum improved parasite growth (monitored by measuring parasitaemia and uptake of tritiated hypoxant ...200212118713
zoonotic babesiosis.zoonotic babesiosis has received increased attention recently, due mainly to the interest in tick-borne zoonotic diseases generated by the emergence of lyme borreliosis and to increased awareness of diagnostic and treatment difficulties associated with co-infection cases. the vast majority of european cases have been caused by babesia divergens in splenectomised patients, and although rare, this disease is very dangerous, requiring aggressive treatment. the use of atovaquone, a recently develope ...200212141733
chymotrypsin and neuraminidase treatment inhibits host cell invasion by babesia divergens (phylum apicomplexa).the process of host cell invasion by babesia divergens is poorly understood and improved knowledge of the mechanism involved could lead to development of measures effective in disease prevention. the investigate parasite ligands on the erythrocyte surface, b. divergens cultures in bovine erythrocytes were transferred into enzyme-treated bovine, human, ovine and equine erythrocytes. parasite invasion of bovine erythrocytes was not affected by trypsin treatment while treatment with alpha-chymotryp ...200212166519
sheep as a new experimental host for babesia divergens.babesia divergens was cultivated in sheep erythrocytes in rpmi 1640 supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum (fcs) or sheep serum. in vitro cultures in sheep red blood cells were initiated with human erythrocytes infected in vitro with b. divergens rouen 1987 or with gerbil blood infected with several isolates from bovine origin. after the first subcultures on sheep erythrocytes, a ten-fold multiplication of the parasites was obtained within 48 h. erythrocytes from three splenectomized sheep were ...200212199370
acute babesiosis caused by babesia divergens in a resident of kentucky. 200212200568
identity of the causal agents of human babesiosis in europe.most cases of human babesiosis are caused either by babesia divergens in europe or babesia microti in america. b. microti, once regarded as a single species, occurs as a world-wide species complex and although both phenotypic and genotypic features lend support to suggestions that zoonotic b. microti may occur in europe, convincing medical evidence is lacking. several b. divergens-like parasites have emerged in the last few years, but 18s rrna gene analysis suggests that b. divergens 'sensu stri ...200616524772
genetic basis for gpi-anchor merozoite surface antigen polymorphism of babesia and resulting antigenic diversity.glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol anchor merozoite surface antigens (gpi-anchor msa) are proposed to act in the invasion process of infective merozoites of babesia into host erythrocytes. because of their essential function in the survival of babesia parasites, they constitute good candidates for the development of vaccines against babesiosis and they have been extensively analyzed. these include babesia bovis variable msa (vmsa) and babesia bigemina gp45/gp55 proteins of the agents of bovine babesi ...200616551492
babesiosis: an update on epidemiology and treatment.babesiosis is caused by a tick-borne hemoparasite that, like malaria, can cause fever, hemolysis, and anemia. typically self-limited, in the asplenic, immunocompromised, or elderly, disease can be severe or deadly. us cases have been primarily due to babesia microti; wa-1, which may be related to babesia gibsoni; and mo-1, related to babesia divergens. european infections are usually due to b. divergens. north american cases are treated either with quinine and clindamycin or with atovaquone and ...200312525291
naturally acquired babesiosis in a reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus) herd in great britain.a provisional diagnosis of babesiosis was made in a reindeer herd in scotland when seven animals died during 1997 and 1998. additional clinical cases occurred, but the animals recovered after treatment. thirty-one reindeer from the herd were tested for the prevalence of exposure to babesia by the indirect fluorescent antibody test using a bovine isolate of babesia divergens that had been passaged through gerbils. infection rates were determined by giemsa-stained blood smears. in addition, molecu ...200312541061
babesia divergens: cloning of a ran binding protein 1 homologue.babesia divergens is an apicomplexa transmitted to bovines by its acarian vector, the tick i. ricinus. babesia divergens merozoites have an intraerythrocytic development in the blood of infected mammals. the nucleocytoplasmic transport system in this parasite is not yet characterized and no protein involvement in such transport has been described. in this report, we describe the cloning of a protein that shares important homologies with ran binding protein 1. this protein in eukaryote belongs to ...200312935735
molecular characterization of a non-babesia divergens organism causing zoonotic babesiosis in europe.in europe, most reported human cases of babesiosis have been attributed, without strong molecular evidence, to infection with the bovine parasite babesia divergens. we investigated the first known human cases of babesiosis in italy and austria, which occurred in two asplenic men. the complete 18s ribosomal rna (18s rrna) gene was amplified from specimens of their whole blood by polymerase chain reaction (pcr). with phylogenetic analysis, we compared the dna sequences of the pcr products with tho ...200312967491
[enzootic reservoir for new ixodes ricinus-transmitted infections].in the last decade new tick-transmitted zoonoses have emerged as threats to the public health in europe. they are mostly due to infection by borrelia burgdorferi s.i., babesia divergens, b. microti and ehrlichia sp. all these pathogens are transmitted by the rodent-feeding ticks of ixodes persulcatus "complex". also there is first serological information of coexistence of antibodies to b. burgdorferi, b. microti and ehrlichia sp. in human exposured to these multiple tick-transmitted pathogens. a ...199916886454
babesia divergens, a bovine blood parasite of veterinary and zoonotic importance.babesia divergens is an intraerythrocytic protozoan parasite, transmitted by the tick ixodes ricinus, and is the main agent of bovine babesiosis in europe. it is not only a cause of significant loss to the cattle industry; it can also infect immunocompromised humans, causing medical emergencies characterized by rapid fulmination and parasitemias that may exceed 70%. the current emphasis in europe on sustainable agriculture and extensification is likely to lead to an increase in vector tick popul ...200314557289
association between sequence polymorphism in an epitope of babesia divergens bd37 exoantigen and protection induced by passive transfer.in europe, babesia divergens is the major agent responsible for babesiosis in cattle and can occasionally infect splenectomised humans. recently, we reported the characterisation of a 37 kda exoantigen (bd37) anchored in the merozoite membrane of b. divergens by a glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol. after phospholipase hydrolyse of the glycosylphosphatidyl-inositol anchor, the bd37 antigen could be isolated in the plasma of the infected host and from the in vitro culture supernatants. immunisation of ...200415064123
isolation of babesia divergens from carrier cattle blood using in vitro culture.babesia divergens, the main causative agent of bovine babesiosis in western europe, was isolated from naturally infected cattle. ninety-six blood samples were examined by means of an in vitro culture technique in sheep erythrocytes: 19 of them were collected from animals in the acute phase of the disease with visible parasitemia on blood smears, while the 77 remaining animals showed no microscopically detectable parasites. b. divergens was cultured from the 19 first blood samples as well as from ...200415099510
[tick infestation and the prevalence of borrelia burgdorferi and babesia divergens in cattle in bavaria].during the grazing period 2002 319 cattle from 31 farms located in 6 districts of southern bavaria were examined for the presence of ticks in 4- to 5-week intervals, and 287 serum samples were tested for the presence of antibodies against borrelia burgdorferi and babesia divergens. ticks were detected in all 31 farms with a mean prevalence of 69%. 3218 out of 3453 collected ticks were ixodes ricinus; 139 nymphs, 19 larvae and 77 damaged adult specimens could only be determined to the genus level ...200617009719
babesia spp. identified by pcr in ticks collected from domestic and wild ruminants in southern switzerland.concurrent infections with vector-borne pathogens affected a cattle herd in switzerland, and one of the pathogens was identified as babesia bigemina, which had never been observed in this country before. therefore, a survey of the occurrence of ruminant babesia spp. and their tick vectors in switzerland was conducted. a total of 2,017 ticks were collected from sheep, goats, cattle, and wild ruminants (deer, roe deer, and chamois) in southern parts of switzerland and identified morphologically. t ...200617021198
evaluation of an indirect fluorescence immunoassay for the detection of serum antibodies against babesia divergens in humans.since an indirect fluorescence immunoassay (ifa) for the detection of specific antibodies against babesia divergens in human sera is not commercially available, an in-house prepared b. divergens ifa for the examination of bovine sera was established for serological studies in humans. to determine whether the described ifa is appropriate for such studies, 2 b. divergens antigens (of human or bovine origin) were tested using serum samples obtained from febrile human patients with a history of 'tic ...200717032478
adaptation of three babesia divergens isolates to continuous culture in rat erythrocytes.three babesia divergens isolates have been cultured continuously for 6 months in rat erythrocytes using the candle jar technique. one isolate was already rat-adapted, the other two became adapted to rats through continuous culturing in rat erythrocytes. babesia was cultured in rat erythrocytes in rpmi medium supplemented with 20% foetal calf serum. the highest parasitaemia was 35% and multi-parasitization of red blood cells was often observed. cultures of b. divergens remained infective to splen ...200415125537
pathogens and symbionts in ticks: prevalence of anaplasma phagocytophilum (ehrlichia sp.), wolbachia sp., rickettsia sp., and babesia sp. in southern germany.tick-transmitted diseases like tick-borne encephalitis and lyme borreliosis have been well known in germany for decades. ongoing research now gives an additional focus to a broad range of other bacteria and parasites in ticks like anaplasma phagocytophilum, former ehrlichia sp., rickettsia sp. and babesia sp. knowledge about the prevalence of these infectious agents in ticks is an important prerequisite for risk assessment of human diseases. therefore nymphs and adult ixodes ricinus ticks were c ...200415146989
babesia divergens-like infection, washington state.most reported u.s. zoonotic cases of babesiosis have occurred in the northeast and been caused by babesia microti. in washington state, three cases of babesiosis have been reported previously, which were caused by wa1 (for "washington 1")-type parasites. we investigated a case of babesiosis in washington in an 82-year-old man whose spleen had been removed and whose parasitemia level was 41.4%. the complete 18s ribosomal rna gene of the parasite was amplified from specimens of his whole blood by ...200415200851
development of a microtitre-based spectrophotometric method to monitor babesia divergens growth in vitro.babesia divergens multiplication cycle involves erythrocyte invasion, intracellular division, and erythrocyte lysis with the simultaneous liberation of hemoglobin. we have decided to set up a spectrophotometric protocol based on hemoglobin concentration in the culture supernatants to monitor b. divergens in vitro growth. after the selection of 405 nm as the most appropriate endpoint hemoglobin wavelength in our conditions (hemoglobin concentration in the supernatant), cultures were standardized ...200415279934
the protective activity of serum and fractionated serum from rats against babesia divergens.the rat adapted strain of bovine babesia, b. divergens was used as a model to investigate the mechanisms of immunity to this parasite. the participation of humoral factors in acquired immunity to b. divergens was investigated in splenectomised rats. antibodies to b. divergens were detected by ifa test in sera collected during infection and at different times after recovery. the protective activity of the same serum was tested in vivo by passive transfer and compared with the antibody levels as m ...200415287167
babesia divergens becoming extinct in cattle of northeast hungary: new data on the past and present situation.previously unpublished data from 1958 to 1967 attest the occurrence of babesia divergens in cattle in several endemic foci of northeast hungary. during that period the number of clinical cases showed fluctuation with intervals of 4-5 years and monophasic seasonality (peaking in june). in order to assess the current status of bovine babesiosis in that region, blood samples were collected from 654 cattle on 44 farms of 36 settlements in or near the endemic area during 2005, and serum levels of igg ...200617278721
epidemiological study of the prevalence of babesia divergens in a veterinary practice in the mid-east of france.to assess the epidemiology of babesia divergens in a veterinary practice based in the mid-east of france ("monts du lyonnais"), blood was collected from 254 cattle belonging to 24 herds. to assess the dynamics of the carrier state, six carriers were identified, treated with flumethrin and sampled once every 3 weeks during 6 months. two different dna extraction methods were compared. each sample was tested for the presence of parasites using a pcr-rflp test based on the 18s rrna gene. the sensiti ...200415482881
immunity of babesia divergens in the rat. histology of the infected liver and its possible role in removing prbc's.the ability of immune rats to resist challenge with babesia divergens depends upon mechanisms which are largely spleen independent. the possible removal of b. divergens prec's by the livers of immune splenectomised rats was investigated. the clearance of cr51 labeled b. divergens infected erythrocytes was followed in splenectomised rats to test whether cr51 labeled prec's are cleared from the circulation of immune rats through uptake and phagocytosis by the liver. no significant difference was o ...200415587308
babesiosis in free-ranging chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) from switzerland.pathological examination of five adult chamois (rupicapra r. rupicapra) found dead in two different regions from the swiss alps revealed pale mucous membranes and musculature, swollen spleen and haemoglobinuria. histologically, haemosiderosis in the spleen and centrilobular hepatic necrosis were the predominant findings. on blood smears, small (approximately 0.84-1.47 microm), round to pyriform, peripherally located inclusions were present in the erythrocytes. pcr followed by sequencing of dna e ...200717689015
role of quinine in life-threatening babesia divergens infection successfully treated with clindamycin. 200515616840
ticks and associated pathogens collected from domestic animals in the netherlands.following an outbreak of autochthonous canine babesiosis in the netherlands, a request made to veterinarians and the public to collect ticks from companion animals resulted in 4298 ticks submitted between july 2005 and october 2006 to our center. ticks were identified as ixodes ricinus adults (2907/4298, 67.6%), ixodes sp. nymphs (529/4298, 12.3%) and ixodes sp. larvae (385/4298, 9.0%), i. hexagonus adults (328/4298, 7.6%), dermacentor reticulatus (72/4298, 1.7%), and several other exotic tick s ...200717979540
1h, 15n and 13c backbone resonance assignments of the 37 kda surface antigen protein bd37 from babesia divergens. 200515692742
babesia sp.: emerging intracellular parasites in europe.the emergence of lyme borreliosis as the most prevalent arthropod disease of humans in the temperate northern hemisphere has resulted in renewed interest in human babesiosis, transmitted by the same tick vectors. the advent of new molecular tools has made possible a reappraisal of the main parasites involved (babesia divergens in europe and babesia microti in the usa). b. divergens is probably restricted to european cattle, though there are several nearly identical species. b. microti occurs as ...200415787198
zoonotic reservoir of babesia microti in poland.babesiosis is as one of the emerging human and animal diseases transmitted by ticks. it is caused intraerythrocytic parasites of the genus babesia. current evidence of human babesiosis suggests that the majority of cases are involved by babesia divergens and babesia microti piroplasms. as zoonotic reservoir of b. microti serve small mammals--insectivores and rodents. the occurrence of this parasite in natural environment in poland is documented for various regions, in the wide range of mammal ho ...200415787199
hydrophobic moeties in recombinant proteins are crucial to generate efficient saponin-based vaccine against apicomplexan babesia divergens.throughout europe, bovine babesiosis is mainly caused by babesia divergens, an apicomplexan parasite transmitted by tick bites. the intra-erythrocytic development of b. divergens merozoites leads to haemolytic anaemia, and bovine babesiosis is responsible for economic losses in the agro-business industry. a totally efficient recombinant vaccine based on the merozoite surface protein bd37 and saponin quila was recently described. in the present study we determined that protective immunity elicite ...200616199111
comparative infectivity of babesia divergens and a zoonotic babesia divergens-like parasite in cattle.babesia divergens-like parasites identified in human babesiosis cases in missouri and kentucky and in eastern cottontail rabbits (sylvilagus floridanus) on nantucket island, massachusetts, share identical small subunit ribosomal rna gene sequences. this sequence is 99.8% identical to that of babesia divergens, suggesting that the u.s. parasite may be b. divergens, a causative agent of human and bovine babesiosis in europe. holstein-friesian calves were inoculated with cultured nantucket island b ...200516282295
chemotherapy against babesiosis.babesiosis is caused by a haemotropic protozoal parasite of the genus babesia, member of the phylum apicomplexa and transmitted by the bite of an infected tick. there are many babesia species affecting livestock, dogs, horses and rodents which are of economic significance. infections can occur without producing symptoms, but babesiosis may also be severe and sometimes fatal caused by the intraerythrocytic parasite development. the disease can cause fever, fatigue and haemolytic anemia lasting fr ...200616504402
a fatal case of human babesiosis in portugal: molecular and phylogenetic analysis.we report the first case of human babesiosis in portugal. a 66-year-old splenectomized man was admitted to a lisbon hospital after 1 week of fever, abdominal pain, anorexia and nausea. a high parasitaemia (30%) of babesia parasites was found in giemsa-stained blood smears and, despite treatment, the patient died several weeks later of renal failure. ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid blood samples were processed for polymerase chain reaction (pcr) and reverse line blot hybridization to confirm and ...200312869099
epidemiological survey of babesia species in japan performed with specimens from ticks collected from dogs and detection of new babesia dna closely related to babesia odocoilei and babesia divergens dna.detection and analysis of babesia species from ticks recovered from dogs in japan were attempted by pcr and nucleotide sequence analysis based on the 18s rrna gene, respectively. a total of 1136 ticks were examined for babesia dna by 18s rrna-based pcr and nucleotide sequencing. partial sequences of babesia canis vogeli dna were detected from six ticks in aomori, nara, hiroshima, oita, and okinawa prefectures; and babesia gibsoni asia-1 dna was also detected in four ticks in osaka, hiroshima, mi ...200312904344
[a case of babesia microti imported into the czech republic from the usa].human babesiosis is a zoonotic tick-borne protozoan infection caused by several species of the genus babesia. it is a rare disease in europe. until recently, 31 cases have been described. most of them were severe infections caused by a cattle parasite babesia divergens in splenectomized patients. in contrast, a rodent species babesia microti was responsible for hundreds of cases of human babesiosis in the u.s.a. in this report we describe the first case of human babesiosis in the czech republic. ...200312924039
molecular detection and characterization of cytauxzoon felis and a babesia species in cougars from florida.piroplasms, morphologically indistinguishable from cytauxzoon felis, previously were detected in 36% of cougars in florida. we utilized a nested 18s rrna assay, which amplifies dna from all piroplasms, to screen blood samples collected from 41 cougars from florida (39 native florida panthers [puma concolor coryi] and two translocated texas cougars [p. c. stanleyana]) from 1989-2005. thirty-nine of the 41 cougars (95%) were positive for piroplasms; however, sequence analysis and restriction enzym ...200616870859
[roe deer (capreolus capreolus) and red deer (cervus elaphus) as a reservoir of protozoans from babesia and theileria genus in north-western poland].the species of genus babesia and thelieria are obligate intracellular pathogens that multiply in both vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. some species of babesia cause bovine babesiosis infecting erythrocytes of the cattle and wild ruminants, and undergo a complex developmental cycle in ticks which serve as biological vectors. majority of theileria spp. cause bovine theileriosis infecting lymphocytes as well as erythrocytes of the cattle and wild ruminants, and similar to babesia undergo a comple ...200516913530
a conserved subtilisin protease identified in babesia divergens merozoites.invasion of erythrocytes is an integral part of the babesia divergens life cycle. serine proteases have been shown to play an important role in invasion by related apicomplexan parasites such as the malaria parasite plasmodium falciparum. here we demonstrate the presence of two dominant serine proteases in asexual b. divergens using a biotinylated fluorophosphonate probe. one of these active serine proteases (p48) and its precursors were recognized by anti-pfsub1 antibodies. these antibodies wer ...200616982617
one health approach to identify research needs in bovine and human babesioses: workshop report.abstract: background: babesia are emerging health threats to humans and animals in the united states. a collaborative effort of multiple disciplines to attain optimal health for people, animals and our environment, otherwise known as the one health concept, was taken during a research workshop held in april 2009 to identify gaps in scientific knowledge regarding babesioses. the impetus for this analysis was the increased risk for outbreaks of bovine babesiosis, also known as texas cattle fever, ...201020377902
coexistence of borrelia spp. and babesia spp. in ixodes ricinus ticks in middle germany.altogether, 430 nymphs and 570 adult ixodes ricinus ticks were collected in 2006 (nā€‰=ā€‰506) and 2007 (nā€‰=ā€‰494) from a forest area in middle germany (thuringia). single ticks were investigated by polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism or sequencing for borrelia spp. (ospa gene) and babesia spp. (18s rrna gene). overall, 27.0% (270/1000) were infected with borrelia species. out of these, borrelia garinii was detected most frequently (133/270)-especially, ospa serotyp ...201020420533
molecular survey of babesia microti in wild rodents in central croatia.babesia divergens and b. divergens-like organisms are the main causative agents of human babesiosis in europe. recently, the first case of human infection with babesia microti was confirmed in germany, implicating the presence of zoonotic isolates. to estimate the presence of zoonotic b. microti in croatia we analyzed 120 small wild mammals that serve as its reservoir by polymerase chain reaction. yellow-necked mice (apodemus flavicollis) and bank voles (myodes glareolus) were both found to be i ...201120553109
fatal babesiosis in man, finland, 2004.we report an unusual case of human babesiosis in finland in a 53-year-old man with no history of splenectomy. he had a rudimentary spleen, coexisting lyme borreliosis, exceptional dark streaks on his extremities, and subsequent disseminated aspergillosis. he was infected with babesia divergens, which usually causes bovine babesiosis in finland.201020587183
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