TitleAbstractYear(sorted ascending)
sika deer carrying babesia parasites closely related to b. divergens, japan. 025061853
studies on babesia divergens (m'fadyean and stockman, 1911). 195813559958
[on the host specificity of babesia divergens (piroplasmidea)]. 196213890309
the experimental transmission of babesia divergens by ixodes ricinus. 196314099849
experimental babesia divergens infection in reindeer (rangifer tarandus). 19655858323
acquired resistance to babesia divergens in experimental calves. 19674962568
human babesiosis in ireland: further observations and the medical significance of this infection.three splenectomized persons in yugoslavia, california, and ireland have been reported to be infected by three different babesia species; two cases were fatal. in a study of the site where the fatal infection was contracted in ireland, blood samples from 36 persons who had recently been bitten by ticks were inoculated into two splenectomized calves; no response to babesia divergens was detected. field-collected ixodes ricinus ticks inoculated into another splenectomized calf resulted in fever an ...19694902496
further details of third recorded case of redwater (babesiosis) in man.clinical details and laboratory and postmortem findings of a human case of redwater (piroplasmosis or babesiosis) caused by babesia divergens. this is the third proved case in man. all three patients had had splenectomies.19694902497
[deleterious effects of babesia divergens. 1. the levels of potassium, calcium, magnesium and iron in blood serum or plasma in clinically manifest piroplasmosis under conditions of natural infection]. 19695407824
[cattle infected with babesia divergens have serums responding on the neorickettsia group (bedsonia). experimental findings]. 19704987119
the effect of age on the natural immunity of cattle to babesia divergens. 19714252543
the incidence of babesia divergens infection in a herd of cattle as measured by the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test. 19724567731
the indirect fluorescent antibody test for the differentiation of infections with babesia divergens or babesia major. 19724567732
the application of acridine orange staining to quantitate low levels of babesia divergens parasitaemias. 19744138127
experiments on the transmission of babesia divergens to cattle by the tick ixodes ricinus. 19751126789
the isolation and characterization of a babesia from red deer (cervus elaphus).on three occasions, antibody positive blood from wild red deer produced overt infections with babesia when inoculated into splenectomized red deer. one of the deer also became infected with eperythrozoon sp. babesia divergens, b. capreoli and the babesia of red deer are morphologically similar and the marginal position of the parasites in the host cell is characteristic. babesia were not seen and no antibody was formed in five out of six splenectomized bovine calves which were injected with para ...1976967525
microplate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay for antibody to babesia divergens in cattle. 1976969192
a statistical comparison of the behaviour of five british isolates of babesia divergens in splenectomized calves. 1976993384
separation and recombination of babesia divergens and ehrlichia phagocytophila from a field case of redwater from eire.a blood sample received from a field case of redwater in eire caused simultaneous infections of babesia divergens and ehrlichia phagocytophila when inoculated into a splenectomised calf. each disease agent was isolated in a separate splenectomised calf by suppressive drug treatment of the other agent, and blood stabilates were made. the disease agents were inoculated synchronously or asychronously into groups of calves, whose reactions were observed. infection with b divergens had no effect on t ...19761006962
babesia major in britain: cross-immunity trials with babesia divergens in splenectomised calves.splenectomised calves infected with babesia major were shown to have no resistance to challenge with babesia divergens; however, initial infection with b divergens provided a good protection against subsequent challenge with b major. it is suggested that this might mean that b divergens would be the dominant and most commonly encountered species in areas where both occur.19761025635
failure of bcg to protect calves against babesia divergens infection. 1977834281
the effect of initial fasciola hepatica infection on the pathogenicity of subsequent babesia divergens infections in intact and splenectomised calves. 1977867747
babesia divergens in splenectomised calves: titration of the infective dose.two experiments were carried out in which babesia divergens was titrated in splenectomised calves. in the first experiment, a linear relationship was observed between infective dose (10(5)--10(9)) parasites) and onset of disease. in the second experiment, a similar trend was observed for infective doses of 10(2)--10(6) parasites, but 10(3) parasites appeared to be the minimum dose required to produce overt disease or resistance to homologous challenge in inoculated animals.1977905645
babesia divergens in splenectomised calves: immunogenicity of lyophilised plasma from an infected experiment was carried out in which three groups of splenectomised calves were inoculated on three occasions at fortnightly intervals with lyophilised plasma from an animal reacting to babesia divergens infection. two weeks later these three groups of calves, together with three control groups, were challengpd with isologous, homologous or heterologous isolates of b divergens. limited protection to isologous and homologous challenge was observed in the calves inoculated with plasma.1977928989
evaluation of the indirect fluorescent antibody test for babesia major and theileria mutans in britain.use of the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) tests is described to detect antibodies to theileria mutans and babesia major in the sera of infected cattle. when antisera against t mutans and b major were tested against homologous antigens high antibody titres were recorded: when they were tested against each other or against babesia divergens antigen insignificant titres (1/40 or less) were recorded. thus the test was found to be species specific. animals recovered from t mutans and b major inf ...1977327676
detection of antibodies in trypanosome-infected cattle by means of a microplate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a micromodification of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was evaluated for its potential application in the immunodiagonsis of bovine trypanosomiasis. serum samples from infected and non-infected zebu cattle and samples from friesian cattle with experimental infections were exmained for the presence of trypanosomal antibodies. there were significant differences between the microelisa values obtained with samples from infected and non-infected cattle. during the course of infection mi ...1977333677
the haematology of experimentally-induced b divergens and e phagocytophila infections in splenectomised examination was made of the haematology of spenectomised calves experimentally infected with babesia divergens and ehrlichia phagocytophila, inoculated separately or simultaneously. animals infected with both pathogens had less marked changes in their haematology than those inoculated with either pathogen separately. this appeared to result from the early elimination of the more pathogenic babesia as ehrlichia spread through the granulocytes. the apparent suppression of babesia by ehrlichia w ...1977576085
reactions of splenectomized calves to the inoculation of blood containing babesia divergens from an infected animal during its reaction and carrier phases. 1978670442
a serological survey for babesia in cattle in scotland. iii. the rates of acquisition and loss of antibody to babesia and their effects on observed levels of antibody for age and the incidence of antibody to babesia divergens in cattle from areas of high and low endemicity have been analysed using three simple epidemiological models to estimate the rates of gain and loss of antibody. the models adequately described the observations but did not allow for an increased recovery rate attributable to acquired immunity in older animals. the rate of loss of babesial antibody in the absence of challenge was estimated directly from data for age and the incidence ...1978736661
indirect fluorescent antibody levels in experimental babesia divergens infections of splenectomised calves infected with babesia divergens ifa titres appeared after peak parasitaemia and maximum titres were observed 35 days after infection: the ifa response of adult non-splenectomised cattle was similar. it was concluded that the absence of a spleen did not markedly inhibit the ifa response of cattle to b divergens infection.1978343210
comparisons of serological tests for babesia in british cattle.a comparison was made between the microplate enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and the indirect fluorescent antibody (ifa) and complement fixation (cf) tests for the detection of antibodies in the serum of cattle experimentally infected with babesia divergens and b major. antibodies were detected using all three tests but they were detected earlier using the cf test. however cf titres were consistently lower than those obtained using the other tests. although there was little to choose b ...1978373221
attempts to infect t lymphocyte-deficient mice with babesia species of, nu/+, splenectomised nu/nu and lasat mice were inoculated with freshly collected bovine blood infected with babesia divergens and b major. there was no evidence that either parasite became established in mice but b divergens persisted in mice up to 10 days whereas b major lasted only one day. b divergens infection generally persisted longer in splenectomised mice but absence of thymus made no apparent difference to persistence of infection. b divergens underwent morphological changes in m ...1978310145
babesia divergens: the immunisation of splenectomised calves during irradiated piroplasms.groups of three splenectomised calves were inoculated with 1 . 2 x 10(10) babesia divergens-infected erythrocytes irradiated at 24, 28, 32, 36 and 40 kilorads. control calves were inoculated with 1 . 2 x 10(7) or 1 . 2 x 10(4) non-irradiated parasites. while control animals all experienced severe reactions, animals receiving blood irradiated at 24, 28 and 32 kilorads had mild reactions and were solidly immune to an homologous challenge of 1 . 1 x 10(4) babesia-infected erythrocytes. animals rece ...1979262605
bovine babesiosis: steps towards an irradiated vaccine.a series of experiments leading towards the field trial of an irradiated blood-derived vaccine against babesia divergens, common cause of redwater in cattle in europe, is described. initially a number of isolates of b. divergens were made from the blood of sick animals in a variety of localities in the british isles. these isolates were cryopreserved and then characterised by inoculation into groups of spenectomised friesian calves, whose reactions were statistically analysed. attempts were made ...1979553975
infection of the mongolian gerbil with the cattle piroplasm babesia divergens. 1979763361
evaluation of dried blood samples as a source of antibody in the micro elisa test for babesia divergens. 19806987802
evaluation of an enzyme immunoassay for serodiagnosis of infections with theileria parva and t enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was used to determine antibody levels in cattle infected with theileria parva and t annulata, using antigens prepared from the intra-erythrocytic piroplasm stage of the parasites. antibody levels in calves infected with t parva increased from the 16th day after infection to reach peak values at days 28 to 35 and then declined rapidly, but in calves infected with t annulata antibody levels rose steadily up to day 40. similar patterns of antibody produc ...19806789420
exposure of cattle immunised against redwater to tick challenge in the field: challenge by a homologous strain of b divergens.a field trial was conducted in northern ireland to determine whether calves could be protected against babesiosis by the prior inoculation of irradiated blood infected with babesia divergens; the trial involved 30 yearling calves. ten were inoculated with infected blood from a donor calf after the blood had been irradiated at 25 kilorads, and 10 with blood irradiated at 30 kilorads. their reactions to the inoculation were observed daily for a month. they were then released, along with a control ...19807361409
the transmission of a human strain of babesia divergens by ixodes ricinus ticks. 19807391880
the isolation and characterization of human and bovine strains of babesia divergens from drumnadrochit, scotland.strains of babesia divergens of human and bovine origin were isolated from the same locality in scotland. a morphometric comparison was then made between babesia divergens parasites in blood smears made from groups of 3 splenectomized calves reacting to the inoculation of these strains. the various forms taken by the parasites of each strain were seen to be divisible into 7 categories and representatives of each category were found for each strain. more amoeboid forms were found in blood smears ...19807422359
exposure of cattle immunised against redwater to tick-induced challenge in the field: challenge by a heterologous strain of babesia divergens.eighteen, one-and-a-half-year-old friesian heifers and a three-year-old friesian bull were immunised against bovine redwater by inoculation with blood infected with a known strain of babesia divergens which had been irradiated at 30 kilorads. three weeks later these cattle plus 10 friesian bullocks of the same age which served as controls were introduced to a grazing area infested with ticks able to transmit infections of a heterologous strain of b divergens. the control cattle all became infect ...19807434497
[serological studies to determine babesia divergens infection in cattle]. 19807447904
investigations on the prophylactic effect of treatment with imidocarb diproprionate on babesia divergens infections in splenectomized calves. 19807225772
babesia divergens: combination of dead and live parasites in an irradiated vaccine.two experiments were carried out to investigate the hypothesis that the protective effect of an irradiated babesia divergens vaccine was due to the combined inoculation of large numbers of dead parasites and small number of live ones. in the first experiment it was demonstrated that animals receiving 10(8) parasites irradiated at 25 kilorads had more severe b divergens reactions than animals in a previous experiment which had received 10(10) parasites irradiated at 24, 28 or 32 kilorads. in the ...19817244378
quinuronium sulphate for the treatment of babesia divergens infections of splenectomised calves.quinuronium sulphate was inoculated into splenectomised calves at various times in relation to artificial infection of the calves with babesia divergens. when the drug was given one day before the parasites it had no effect on the course of the infection. however, when it was given at the time of onset of fever or haemoglobinuria, development of the infection was arrested. two weeks after therapy, recrudescences of parasites invariably occurred. in the case of animals treated at onset of fever t ...19817269188
[bovine babesiosis in austria. iii. taxonomy and morphology of babesia divergens]. 19817282174
babesia divergens infection of the mongolian gerbil: titration of infective dose and preliminary observations on the disease produced. 19817320254
the effect of treatment with imidocarb diproprionate on the course of babesia divergens infections in splenectomized calves, and on their subsequent immunity to homologous challenge. 19817345111
studies on a bovine babesia transmitted by hyalomma marginatum rufipes koch, 1844.a babesia sp. was recently observed in hyalomma marginatum rufipes and found to be transmissible to bovines. further observations were carried out on this parasite and a study made of the morphology of stages in both erythrocytes and tick haemolymph. apart from babesia divergens, intra-erythrocytic parasites were not readily distinguishable from bovine babesia spp. merozoites in tick haemolymph morphologically resembled those of babesia bigemina, but they were significantly larger. this babesia ...19817345388
babesia divergens infections in the mongolian gerbil: characteristics of a human strain.a strain of the cattle piroplasm babesia divergens isolated from a fatal human infection was propagated in the mongolian gerbil through 150 semi-continuous intraperitoneal passages. the infection was normally fatal; death, accompanied by profuse haemoglobinuria and debilitation, occurred as early as 44 h after intraperitoneal inoculation of heavily parasitized blood with precipitous drops in red blood cell and platelet counts. the average maximum parasitaemia achieved increased on continuous pas ...19817220085
field use of an irradiated blood vaccine to protect cattle against redwater (babesia divergens infection) on a farm in dorset.a field trial was conducted in dorset to determine whether calves could be protected against babesiosis by the prior inoculation of irradiated blood infected with babesia divergens. the trial involved 99 friesian heifers. forty were inoculated with infected blood from a donor calf after the blood had been irradiated to a dose of 28 kilorads, 31 were immune animals which had grazed on the infected site the previous year and 28 were susceptible animals. after exposure on a hillside where there wa ...19817015679
the distribution of babesia divergens infection within the cattle population of northern ireland. 19827127060
continuous in vitro cultivation of babesia divergens. 19827180791
serological response of the mongolian gerbil to babesia divergens (human strain) infection. 19826760822
the effect of multiple rapid passage on strains of babesia divergens: a comparison of the clinical effects on juvenile and adult cattle of passaged and irradiated parasites. 19836886085
the effect of route of administration of a babesia divergens inactivated vaccine on protection against homologous challenge.two groups of 5 adult cows were immunized with a concentrated lysate of blood from a splenectomized calf infected with babesia divergens with a parasitaemia of 20 per cent. the lysate was administered in 2 doses with a 14-day interval between them; it was injected subcutaneously to one group and intravenously to the other. nineteen days after the second inoculation, both groups plus a third group of similar cows which acted as controls were infected subcutaneously with blood containing 10(9) b. ...19836886086
chemotherapy of babesia divergens in the gerbil, meriones was found that surprisingly low doses of four babesicides were effective against babesia divergens in gerbils and it was concluded that this was due to the involvement of host resistance, which may be of a non-specific nature. the efficacy of the drugs relative to each other was the same in gerbils as in cattle and this host-parasite system is evidently more suitable for the screening of babesicides than are other rodent babesia systems. the prophylactic dose of imidocarb dipropionate require ...19836665315
serum carboxypeptidase b levels during acute and mild babesia divergens infections of adult cattle.serum carboxypeptidase b levels were measured in adult cows suffering from both acute and mild babesiosis caused by babesia divergens. in severe infections serum carboxypeptidase b levels started to fall three days after infection and were significantly lower than both preinfection levels and those of mildly affected cows for a period of 10 days starting at the time of maximum parasitaemia. normal levels were regained on the 23rd day after infection.19836665323
babesia divergens in splenectomised rats.babesia divergens, from a bovine, was passaged through two gerbils before being injected into splenectomised rats. by repeated passage every three or four days through splenectomised rats higher parasitaemias were gradually obtained. by passage 28 parasitaemias of 60 per cent were recorded. in splenectomised rats the rat-adapted b divergens produced patent parasitaemias lasting seven to eight days after which no recrudescences were seen. irradiation of splenectomised rats before infection exacer ...19846718824
babesiosis in splenectomized adults. review of 22 reported cases.since 1957, there have been 22 reported cases of human babesiosis in splenectomized persons, representing about one third of all clinical human babesiosis. splenectomy had been performed one month to 36 years (mean 8.7 years, median 6.0 years) earlier for a variety of reasons. four of the seven european cases were from babesia divergens whereas 12 of the 15 united states cases were from b. microti. most of the 22 patients had moderate to severe clinical disease including hemolytic anemia, yet al ...19846424470
[an outbreak of babesiosis in eastern flevoland].an outbreak of babesiosis, with babesia divergens as the causative agent, occurred in a herd in one of the more recently reclaimed polders involving at least 12 animals. pasture investigation by blanket-dragging revealed a population of ixodes ricinus ticks, living in and near the approximately fifteen-year-old afforestation. the differential diagnosis and possible routes by which the disease is introduced, are discussed.19846463999
the immunization of cattle against babesia divergens with fractions of parasitized erythrocytes.a lysate of erythrocytes infected with babesia divergens was subjected to isoelectric focusing within a ph range of 3.5-9.5. the focused proteins were split into 2 fractions depending on ph (1) those from 3.5-6.5 and (2) those from 6.5-9.5. the acidic fraction was used as an immunogen for groups of 5 adult cows using 2 different adjuvants, saponin and a mixture of muramyldipeptide (mdp) and incomplete freund's adjuvant (ifa). two other groups of 5 cows were simultaneously treated with the alkali ...19846542721
maintenance of in vitro cultures of babesia divergens and babesia major at low temperatures.cultures of erythrocytes parasitized by babesia divergens and babesia major were stored in medium cooled to 4 degrees c for up to 8 weeks. there was a marked decrease in parasitaemia and an increase in the number of free extra-erythrocytic, unagglutinated merozoites, during the cooled period. cultures stored in this way and returned to 38 degrees c resumed growth, with or without sub-culture. at the low temperature, only one sub-culture is required per week.19854013467
morphological comparisons of the bovine piroplasm, babesia divergens, in cattle and jird (meriones unguiculatus) comparative studies of babesia divergens in jirds and splenectomized calves several differences in the appearance of the parasite were found. pyriform pairs of the parasite grew larger in jirds than in calves and also were larger than those of the original isolate when calves were infected after multiple jird passage. the parasites usually occupied a central intraerythrocytic position in jirds whereas in cattle they mainly occurred peripherally. the majority of pairs formed an obtuse angle re ...19854093812
[babesia infections in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany].babesia infections serologically diagnosed in horses, cattle and dogs in southern germany during the last few years are described. 321 sera of horses were examined for specific antibodies to babesia by means of cft and iif in 1984; 18 sera reacted to babesia equi and 4 to babesia caballi antigen. in a cattle breeding area in the western allgäu 13% of 1616 cattle reacted positive to babesia divergens antigen using iif and elisa; during the grazing season 1982 new latent infections were observed i ...19853892774
babesia divergens: sequential exposure to heterologous tick-borne challenge of cattle immunized with a fraction of parasitized erythrocytes.two groups of cows previously unexposed to ticks or tick-borne infections were immunized with an acidic fraction, isolated by isoelectric focusing, of a lysate of a laboratory strain of babesia divergens infected erythrocytes 5 months and 1 month before grazing on a pasture harbouring a large population of ticks known to transmit babesiosis. both treated groups and the untreated became infected with a field strain of b. divergens after 19 of the 21 cattle (3 groups of 7) had first developed tick ...19863944282
inhibition of babesia divergens in cattle by oxytetracycline.the effects of continuous oxytetracycline administration on the development of parasitaemia of babesia divergens during both natural and artificial infections were studied. during natural exposure on grazing heavily infested with ixodes ricinus, seven out of 42 cattle with no previous exposure to tick-borne diseases were injected every four days with a long acting preparation of oxytetracycline at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg. during the six week grazing period 21 untreated cattle developed a patent ...19863952967
effects of rapid passage in the gerbil (meriones unguiculatus) on the course of infection of the bovine piroplasm babesia divergens in splenectomised calves.the antigenicity and virulence of the cattle piroplasm babesia divergens was compared in splenectomised calves before and after adaptation to the gerbil. it was apparent that adaptation of b divergens to the gerbil did not result in attenuation of the parasite in cattle. the gerbil-adapted parasite had a shorter prepatent period, produced higher parasitaemias, and more severe haematological and biochemical changes than the initial bovine strain. the antigenicity of the parasite was unchanged by ...19863738223
isolation of antigenic proteins from erythrocytes parasitised with babesia divergens and a comparison of their immunising potential.soluble proteins present in the supernatant prepared from a sonicated lysate of concentrated erythrocytes infected with babesia divergens were separated by isoelectric focussing into acidic and non acidic fractions. the acidic fraction was further separated by passage through concanavalin a sepharose (con a) into two fractions, the first (fraction 2) consisting of proteins plus one glycoprotein which did not bind to con a, the second of glycoproteins (fraction 1) which were eluted after binding ...19863739209
[annual evolution of the infestation of cattle with the tick ixodes ricinus l. and infestation of these ectoparasites by babesia divergens in clos-du-doubs (jura, switzerland)]. 19863749852
purine-metabolizing enzymes in babesia divergens.extracts of babesia divergens were examined for the enzymes which catalyse purine salvage. adenosine deaminase (ec, guanine deaminase (ec, inosine phosphorylase (ec, purine phosphoribosyltransferases (ec, ec, ec and nucleoside kinases (ec, ec, ec were all detected at relatively high activities, whereas nucleotide interconverting enzymes were not detected. coformycin and 4-amino-5-imidazolecarboxamide were found to b ...19873033631
a modified if-test to demonstrate igm antibodies to babesia divergens of cattle. 19873331505
induction of protective immunity to babesia divergens in mongolian gerbils, meriones unguiculatus, using culture-derived immunogens.immunogens derived from microaerophilous stationary phase (masp) cultures of babesia divergens grown in bovine erythrocytes were used to inoculate the laboratory host of b. divergens, the mongolian gerbil, meriones unguiculatus. animals inoculated subcutaneously twice with preparations of freeze-thawed merozoites in complete freund's adjuvant were fully protected against homologous challenge, as were gerbils immunised with a non-viable preparation of parasite-enriched lysed infected bovine eryth ...19873439004
clinical and serological response after experimental inoculation with babesia divergens of newborn calves with and without maternal antibodies. 19873454549
seroresponse (igg) after vaccination and natural infection of cattle with babesia divergens. 19873454550
antigenic diversity in babesia divergens: preliminary results with three monoclonal antibodies to the rat-adapted strain.three murine monoclonal antibodies were raised against the rat-adapted strain of babesia divergens. in the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) the monoclonals did not react with b microti or b bovis. the monoclonals in ifat gave high titres with the rat-adapted strain of b divergens, but showed variable reactivity with field isolates of the parasite indicating antigenic diversity in this parasite. two of the monoclonals, as ascitic fluid, were protective against the rat-adapted strain in s ...19873547528
age-related susceptibility of the gerbil, meriones unguiculatus, to the bovine parasite, babesia divergens.immature gerbils (4 weeks of age or less) proved to be more resistant to babesia divergens infections than did mature animals (greater than 8 weeks old). nutritional studies showed that a milk diet contributes little to this innate resistance. similarly, the apparent predilection of b. divergens for mature erythrocytes, and also in vitro serum incubation studies, suggested that blood factors do not contribute to any major degree. splenectomy of immature gerbils abolished their nonspecific resist ...19873678451
a monoclonal antibody to babesia divergens which inhibits merozoite invasion.a monoclonal antibody-producing hybridoma cell line has been raised against merozoites of babesia divergens. this antibody is strongly reactive against merozoites in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) and is also positive in an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) on preparations of live merozoites. the antibody recognizes an antigen, of molecular weight (mr) 50-60 k by western blot analysis on sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (sds-page) gels. merozoite neutralization assays ...19872434901
a monoclonal antibody-derived antigen of babesia divergens: characterization and investigation of its ability to protect gerbils against virulent homologous challenge.a babesia divergens merozoite antigen was purified by affinity chromatography using a monoclonal antibody. silver staining of sds-page gels revealed 2 bands of mr 50-60 kda and mr 24-29. it is proposed that the mr 24-29 kda band represents the native protein and that it is complexed, perhaps as a dimer or perhaps to host protein to give the mr 50-60 kda band. peptide analysis of the antigen followed by western blotting with the monoclonal antibody revealed only an mr 20-24 kda band. after affini ...19892608311
[babesia divergens: activity of long-acting oxytetracycline in the gerbil, meriones unguiculatus].the authors studied the prophylactic activity of long-acting oxytetracycline in the gerbil, meriones unguiculatus, infected with the cattle piroplasm babesia divergens. parasitemia, packed cell volume (pcv) and survival rate were monitored. at 5 and 20 mg/kg, the prophylactic activity was absent and all the animals died. at 40 mg/kg, two animals out of five survived but were clinically affected and sustained a severe hemolytic anaemia. however, at 80 mg/kg, the parasitemias remained very low, th ...19892619208
inverse age resistance to experimental babesia divergens infection in cattle.two groups of calves, 1.5-2 and 7-11 months old respectively, and dairy cows were inoculated i.v. with 3 x 10(7) erythrocytes infected with babesia divergens. high parasitaemia, fever and other clinical signs of babesiosis occurred among adult animals. a very low parasitaemia and a slightly increased body temperature but no other symptoms occurred in calves. these findings substantiate the conclusion that there exists an inverse age resistance against babesia divergens. the kinetics of b. diverg ...19892640783
vaccination against bovine babesiosis with drug-controlled live babesia divergens derived from gerbils were used to vaccinate cattle that had previously been treated with imidocarb dipropionate. drug doses ranged from 1 to 2 mg/kg and animals were infected subcutaneously three to seven days later. after a further 35 days, vaccinated and control animals were given a heavy heterologous intravenous challenge. this regimen was effective for both avirulent and virulent strains in 12- to 18-month-old cattle. however, at low drug doses some animals reacted to ...19892683338
non-specific resistance to babesia divergens in the mongolian gerbil (meriones unguiculatus).inoculation of mature gerbils with bcg gave protection to subsequent infection with b. divergens when inoculated by the intracardiac and intraperitoneal routes, the latter showing a dose dependent relationship. bcg vaccination was most effective in immature gerbils (less than 4 weeks old), which are innately resistant to b. divergens. vaccination of gerbils with killed propionesbacterium acne and zymosan a failed to elicit a protective response, which contrasts conspicuously with rodent babesia ...19892759766
a strain of babesia divergens, attenuated after long term culture.the weybridge strain of babesia divergens became less virulent after 18 months in culture and was believed to be attenuated. inoculations with the attenuated line using as many as 5 x 10(8) infected erythrocytes failed to raise a normal infection in mongolian gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) whereas, with the line that had been passaged from culture through gerbils at bimonthly intervals, inoculations of 10(7) infected erythrocytes gave rise to fatal infections. gerbils were immunised with the at ...19892922498
evidence for surface-coat localisation of a monoclonal antibody-isolated merozoite antigen of babesia divergens.the localisation of monoclonal antibody-derived merozoite antigens of babesia divergens was examined using immunogold electron microscopy and immunoprecipitation of the monoclonal antibody with both biosynthetically and surface-labelled parasites. immunogold labelling provided evidence that the antigens are components of the surface coat of the merozoite. immunoprecipitation with biosynthetically labelled parasites showed the antigens to be of parasite origin, whereas surface labelling confirmed ...19902217118
identification of major babesia divergens polypeptides that induce protection against homologous challenge in gerbils.[35s]methionine-radiolabeled proteins from the babesia divergens rouen 1987 isolate were immunoprecipitated with immune sera from three potential hosts: human, ox, and gerbil. the results showed a constant humoral response against major babesial antigens. similarly, immunoprecipitation of radiolabeled in vitro culture supernatant demonstrated that the exoantigens of 37, 46, 70, and 90 kda were the immunodominant polypeptides, whatever the host. the effects of vaccination with concentrated supern ...19902254031
sexual cycle of babesia divergens confirmed by dna measurements.the dna content of the developmental stages within the life cycle of babesia divergens was measured by means of fluorescence microscopy using the dna-specific bisbenzimide hoechst 33258. by comparing the mean relative fluorescence intensities, the assumption of sexual reproduction in the gut of the tick vector (ixodes ricinus) was confirmed. however, no proof of a pre- or postzygotic meiosis was found.19902315280
analysis of immune responses of different hosts to babesia divergens isolates from different geographic areas and capacity of culture-derived exoantigens to induce efficient cross-protection.the immunoprecipitation of [35s]methionine-radiolabelled antigens from different babesia divergens isolates by using bovine, gerbil, and human immune sera has shown that many b. divergens proteins contain epitopes shared between isolates. the cross-protective capacity of culture-derived soluble immunogens from the b. divergens rouen 1987 isolate was tested against different b. divergens isolates. results showed complete protection against the 7107b french isolate and substantial protection again ...19911713201
the adaptation of three isolates of babesia divergens to continuous culture in rat erythrocytes.three isolates of babesia divergens have been cultured continuously for 6 months in rat erythrocytes using the candle jar technique (trager & jensen, 1976). one isolate was already rat-adapted, the other two became adapted to rats through continuous culture in rat erythrocytes. parasites were cultured in rat erythrocytes in rpmi medium supplemented with 20% foetal calf serum. the highest parasitaemia obtained was 35% and multi-parasitization of red blood cells was often observed. cultures of b. ...19911745544
heat shock response of babesia divergens and identification of the hsp70 as an immunodominant early antigen during ox, gerbil and human babesiosis.using antisera (alpha-r and alpha-c7ag) directed against the conserved gly-gly-met-pro-epitope of the hsp70 family, a single antigen was identified in the human babesia divergens rouen 1987 isolate by western immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation experiments. this b divergens hsp70 is highly conserved as shown by the analysis of five other geographical b divergens isolates from different hosts (human and bovine). indirect immunofluorescence assay performed on the asexual intraerythrocytic stage ...19911756315
lipid trafficking between high density lipoproteins and babesia divergens-infected human erythrocytes.a two-fold increase in the amount of phospholipids was observed in babesia divergens infected human red blood cells. in vitro incubation with [32p]-phosphorus and [3h]-glycerol demonstrated that b divergens has the ability to synthesize the phospholipid backbone. on the other hand, the low incorporation of [14c]acetate indicated the absence of a de novo fatty acid synthesis and suggested the necessity of an exogenous lipid source for the parasite. several intra-erythrocytic growth cycles of b di ...19911819366
studies on the use of gerbil-derived babesia divergens antigen for diagnosis of bovine babesiosis.babesia divergens antigen obtained from bovine and gerbil erythrocytes was compared for the diagnosis of bovine babesiosis by the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat) and the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). using a range of sera from the field and from experimental cattle, it was found that antigen from the two sources did not differ significantly in sensitivity or specificity. antigen from gerbils may, therefore, be used for serological surveys of bovine babesiosis caused ...19911957482
cytological and immunological responses to babesia divergens in different hosts: ox, gerbil, man.a continuous in vitro culture system for babesia divergens was initiated from a human isolate. it was maintained through 305 subcultures for 3 years using a low concentration of serum and a low haematocrit, with no decrease in the initial virulence. this in vitro system enabled the routine culture of all human and bovine b. divergens isolates thus far tested, with a mean parasitaemia level of 30%-40%. different cytological aspects observed in the same isolate by optical and electron microscopy w ...19911994368
human babesiosis in europe.human babesiosis in europe came to medical attention in 1957 and until now 19 cases have been reported, most of them due to babesia divergens. the onset of the disease is characterized by hemoglobinuria, high fever and renal failure ensue rapidly. the patients were generally asplenic and resident in a rural area. intraerythrocytic pleomorphic parasites (1-3 microns) observed in stained thin blood smears are essential for genus diagnosis. parasitemia varied from 5 to 80% of red blood cells. massi ...19921343681
babesia divergens vaccine.a vaccine strategy against babesia divergens bovine babesiosis was successfully developed after perfecting of an efficient in vitro culture. crude supernatants and purified fractions were able to induce a vaccine protection in gerbils against b. divergens infection. more, supernatants induced an effective vaccine protection in cattle. the role of b. divergens exoantigens of 17, 37, 46, 70 and 90 kda in the development of the immune response was clearly demonstrated in gerbils, cattle, and man.19921343703
new approaches in in vitro cultures of plasmodium falciparum and babesia divergens by using serum-free medium based on human high density lipoproteins. 19921343728
first documented case of human babesiosis in sweden.a 34-year-old splenectomized man presented with fever, myalgia and dysuria. his condition rapidly deteriorated, he became anuric and developed severe haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and fibrinolysis. peripheral blood smears revealed intra-erythrocytic parasites consistent with babesia divergens in 40% of the erythrocytes. the diagnosis was confirmed by gerbil inoculation and by a significant rise in antibody titer. blood exchange transfusion reduced the number of babesia infected erythrocyt ...19921411322
preliminary development of a live drug-controlled vaccine against bovine babesiosis using the mongolian gerbil, meriones unguiculatus.this study investigated the practicality and potential of the gerbil, meriones unguiculatus, as a source of live babesia divergens vaccine and also as a model for the use of the vaccine in cattle. a series of experiments with gerbils concerning vaccine infectivity, immunogenicity and safety were carried out. it was concluded that the use of rpmi medium/40% foetal calf serum as a diluent improved vaccine infectivity, but that the parasitaemia of the blood obtained from donor gerbils had little or ...19921496778
in vivo assays for drug resistance in babesia divergens using the mongolian gerbil, meriones unguiculatus.two in vivo drug resistance assays were developed using gerbils. cross resistance, involving related babesicides as well as the chemically unrelated antibiotic, oxytetracycline, was demonstrated, but the suggestion that imidocarb may select for pathogenic strains of parasites was not supported. limited tests of field strains did not detect resistance. it is suggested that an in vitro assay would be more appropriate for surveys through in vivo assays would be essential for confirmatory studies.19921553433
babesia divergens: characterization of a 17-kda merozoite membrane protein.large amounts of viable merozoites were purified from in vitro cultures of babesia divergens by a two-step sieving procedure. a monoclonal antibody produced against b. divergens merozoites, mab dg7, stained the merozoite plasma membrane and an intra-parasitic linear organelle in indirect immunofluorescence. immunogold labeling in electron microscopy demonstrated that the antigen recognized by mab dg7 was localized just beneath the merozoite plasma membrane. immunoprecipitations of metabolically ...19937504632
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