PMID(sorted ascending)
neospora caninum: activity of cholinesterases during the acute and chronic phases of an experimental infection in gerbils.neosporosis is an infectious disease primarily of dogs and cattle which has been found in many countries around the world. neospora caninum causes an important immune response (cellular and humoral) in animals that it infects. since the participation of the cholinergic system in the immune response is well documented, the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between n. caninum infection and activities of acetylcholinesterase (ache) and butyrylcholinesterase (bche) during the acute ...201324140613
study on outbreak of neospora caninum-associated abortion in dairy cows in tabriz (northwest iran) by serological, molecular and histopathologic determine neospora caninum (n. caninum) as a cause of bovine abortion in dairy cows by elisa, pcr and pathological methods in tabriz, northwest of iran.201324144024
clinical outcome and vertical transmission variability among canine neospora caninum isolates in a pregnant mouse model of infection.we compared the clinical outcome and vertical transmission of six canine neospora caninum isolates using a pregnant balb/c model. four of the isolates were obtained from oocysts of naturally infected dogs (nc-ger2, nc-ger3, nc-ger6 and nc-6arg) and two were from diseased dogs with neurological signs (nc-bahia and nc-liv). the dams were inoculated with 2×106 tachyzoites of each isolate at day 7 of pregnancy. morbidity, mortality and the antibody responses were evaluated in both the dams and the o ...201424148606
neospora caninum antibodies in dairy cows and domestic dogs from vojvodina, serbia.neospora caninum, the causative agent of neosporosis, is a protozoan parasite responsible for high rate of abortion in cattle worldwide. in dogs, consequences of infection vary from severe neuromuscular disorders to asymptomatic infection and shedding of environmentally resistant oocysts. in this study, we determined the occurrence of n. caninum antibodies in dairy cattle and dogs in vojvodina (northern province of serbia) and possible risk factors. n. caninum antibodies were found in 15.4% (55/ ...201324152767
the absence of zoonotic agents in invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) in belgium and the netherlands.exotic invasive bullfrogs (lithobates catesbeianus) are considered to exert a considerable negative impact on native amphibian communities. this can be due to competition and predation, but they are also a notorious source of the infectious diseases chytridiomycosis and ranavirosis, affecting amphibian populations globally. little is known regarding their carriage of other microbial agents that might be transferred to humans or other animals. in this study we determined the occurrence of the amp ...201324162797
effect of vaccination of cattle with the low virulence nc-spain 1h isolate of neospora caninum against a heterologous challenge in early and vaccines have emerged as one of the most potentially cost-effective measures for the control of bovine neosporosis. previous studies have shown that nc-spain 1h is a naturally attenuated isolate of neospora caninum and that immunisation with live nc-spain 1h tachyzoites generated a protective immune response in mice. the aim of this study was to evaluate the safety and efficacy of immunisation in cattle. n. caninum-seronegative heifers were immunised subcutaneously twice with 107 live nc-sp ...201324180373
neospora caninum tachyzoites inoculated by the conjunctival route are not vertically transmitted in pregnant cattle: a descriptive study.the aim of this study was to evaluate whether neospora caninum tachyzoites (nc-1) inoculated by the conjunctival route in pregnant cows were able to generate infection in their fetuses. group 1 contained 2 naturally infected cows; group 2 contained two cows inoculated intravenously with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites, group 3 contained two cows inoculated with 2.5 × 10(8) tachyzoites by the conjunctival route, and group 4 contained two uninfected control cows. the four inoculated cows from groups 2 and ...201424184173
oxidative stress in brain tissue of gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum.neospora caninum infection is generally latent and asymptomatic, and it results in the formation of dormant encysted bradyzoites that remain in the brain and other tissues of infected animals for life, causing major economic and pathological problems. the aim of this study was to assess the relation between infection by n. caninum and its damage to brain tissue through the evaluation of biomarkers of oxidative stress during the acute and chronic phases of the disease. sixteen gerbil (meriones un ...201424188248
molecular identification of neospora caninum from calf/foetal brain tissue and among oocysts recovered from faeces of naturally infected dogs in southern ethiopia.this study sought to confirm and investigate further recently published information regarding the occurrence of neospora caninum in cattle in ethiopia and investigate infection in dogs, the canine definitive host, in this region. faecal samples from 383 dogs in hawassa, ethiopia were examined by microscopy for neospora-like oocysts, and positive samples then analysed by a molecular approach (dna isolation, pcr and sequencing at the its1 gene). brain tissue samples from four late term aborted foe ...201424189135
hepatic neosporosis in a dog treated for pemphigus foliaceus.a 4-year-old, female, spayed border collie dog was presented for progressive lethargy, inappetence, and weakness of 4 days duration. the animal had been diagnosed with pemphigus foliaceus 3 months prior and was receiving combination immunosuppressive therapy. serum biochemistry revealed severely elevated liver enzymes and bilirubin, and humane euthanasia was elected. gross postmortem examination revealed a diffusely pale tan to slightly yellow, enlarged, markedly friable liver with an enhanced r ...201324202993
serosurvey on schmallenberg virus and selected ovine reproductive pathogens in culled ewes from southern spain.after the first case of schmallenberg virus (sbv) was reported in southern spain (march 2012), a retrospective serological study was carried out in extensive sheep flocks from nearby areas to assess the history of exposure to sbv and other selected ovine reproductive pathogens (chlamydophila abortus, coxiella burnetii, border disease virus 'bdv', toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum). secondly, the presence of antibodies was investigated in meat juice samples against selected pathogens to vali ...201424219149
neospora caninum: evaluation of vertical transmission in slaughtered dairy cows (bos taurus).neospora caninum is a worldwide parasite recognized as one of the main parasites responsible for abortion in cattle. the objective of this study was to evaluate vertical transmission of n. caninum in dairy cows (bos taurus) that were slaughtered at an abattoir in the state of santa catarina, southern brazil. blood samples (with and without edta) from 60 pregnant dairy cows and blood and tissue samples (brain, lung, heart and liver) from their fetuses were collected and used for pcr and serologic ...201324252950
seroprevalence rates of antibodies against leishmania infantum and other protozoan and rickettsial parasites in dogs.canine visceral leishmaniasis (cvl) is caused by the protozoan leishmania infantum, which infects dogs and humans in many regions of brazil. the present study involved an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat) to analyze l. infantum, ehrlichia spp., babesia canis, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infection rates in serum samples from 93 dogs in a rural settlement in ilha solteira, sp, brazil. the seroprevalence rates of anti-l. infantum, anti-ehrlichia, anti-b. canis, anti-t. gondii and ...201324252965
unravelling the neospora caninum secretome through the secreted fraction (esa) and quantification of the discharged tachyzoite using high-resolution mass spectrometry-based proteomics.the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum causes neosporosis, a disease that leads to abortion or stillbirth in cattle, generating an economic impact on the dairy and beef cattle trade. as an obligatory intracellular parasite, n. caninum needs to invade the host cell in an active manner to survive. the increase in parasite cytosolic ca2+ upon contact with the host cell mediates critical events, including the exocytosis of phylum-specific secretory organelles and the activation of the parasite i ...201324267406
neospora caninum dna detection by taqman real-time pcr assay in experimentally infected pregnant heifers.neosporosis has been considered the main cause of abortion between the first and the second trimester of pregnancy in cattle. therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the presence of neospora caninum dna obtained from experimental models based on the evaluation of different areas of the fetal nervous system and organs from heifers previously inoculated with nc-1 after or before insemination. this study was performed with hereford × nelore (n=29) heifers and all animals were conside ...201424269161
neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii: relationship between hepatic lesions, cytological and biochemical analysis of the cavitary liquid during the acute phase of the diseases in experimental models.the objective of this study was to evaluate the pathogenesis of ascites in mice infected with toxoplasma gondii and gerbils infected with neospora caninum during the acute phase disease. for that, 12 gerbils [experiment i: not infected/control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] and 12 mice [experiment ii: control (n=6) and infected (n=6)] were used. infected gerbils and mice showed marked ascites on days 5-7 post-infection (pi), while the not-infected animals had not ascites. peritoneal liquid was collec ...201424275558
epidemiology of leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii, and neospora caninum in rattus rattus in absence of domestic reservoir and definitive hosts.isolated environments are privileged settings to study transmission of infection. montecristo is a small island where no wild or domestic carnivores are present. invasive black rats rattus rattus (n=78) were captured and tested by pcr for leishmania infantum, toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum. we wanted to test, for these parasites, the existence of a sylvatic cycle independent of reservoir or definitive hosts. none of the rats tested positive by pcr for either t. gondii or n. caninum. we r ...201424295953
neospora caninum is a cause of perinatal mortality in axis deer (axis axis).neospora caninum is a worldwide distributed protozoan that may cause neuromuscular disease in dogs and reproductive failure in domestic and wild ruminants. one axis fawn (axis axis) and four neonates from the same deer herd died at a zoo in argentina within a four-month period. the fawn presented with dilatation of the anal sphincter at birth and incontinence, developed weakness and ataxia and died at 14 days of age. at necropsy, a mega formation of the distal large intestine was observed. micro ...201424295954
diagnostic potential of anti-rncp-43 polyclonal antibodies for the detection of neospora caninum.neosporosis is a disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum, which is closely related to toxoplasma gondii. n. caninum infection represents an important cause of reproductive failure in sheep, goats, horses, and cattle worldwide. the diagnosis of neosporosis is based on the detection of pathogen-specific antibodies in animal sera or the presence of tissue cysts. however, morphological similarities and serological cross-reactivity between n. caninum and t. gondii can result in t ...201424310934
toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum infections in one selected goat farm in slovakia.parasitic diseases of livestock together with poor welfare conditions can negatively affect the health status and production of small ruminants. protozoan parasites and tick-borne infectious agents are common threat of livestock including small ruminants mostly during the pasture season. therefore the priority of the study was to analyse the circulation and presence of two protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum as well as tick-transmitted bacterium anaplasma phagocytophilum i ...201324338316
comparison of different serological methods to detect antibodies specific to neospora caninum in bovine and canine sera.neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite responsible for paresis in dogs and abortion in cattle worldwide. dogs serve as a definitive host, while cattle serve as intermediate host. many different methods have been developed to detect specific antibodies present in cattle and dog serum. in the present study, the dense granule protein ncgra6 was incorporated in a latex beads agglutination test (lat), and compared to other serological methods, including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, the di ...201424398907
detection of neospora caninum in ovine abortion in iran.the present study was designed to assess the importance of ovine neosporosis in abortion of iraninan sheep. seventy aborted foetuses and dams from ovine dairy farms in northwest of iran were analyzed to investigate the role of neospora caninum (n. caninum) in ovine abortion. diagnosis of the infection was determined by serology and polymerase chain reaction (pcr). a total of 70 aborted dairy ovine were blood sampled and used to evaluate serological status for n. caninum infection by enzyme-linke ...201324431549
a transgenic neospora caninum strain based on mutations of the dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase gene.neospora caninum is an apicomplexa parasite related to abortion and losses of fertility in cattle. the amenability of toxoplasma gondii and plasmodium to genetic manipulation offers several tools to determine the invasion and replication processes, which support posterior strategies related to the combat of these diseases. for plasmodium the use of pyrimethamine as an auxiliary drug on malaria treatment has been affected by the rise of resistant strains and the analyses on dihydrofolate reductas ...201424440296
gamma interferon production and plasma concentrations of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins 1 and 2 in gestating dairy cows naturally infected with neospora caninum.gamma interferon (ifn-γ) production and cross-breed pregnancy have been attributed a role in protecting dairy cows infected with neospora caninum against abortion. plasma levels of pregnancy-associated glycoproteins-1 (pag-1) are a marker of placental/foetal well-being and of pag-2 is an abortion risk indicator in chronically n. caninum-infected animals. the present study examines, in cross-breed pregnancies, interactions between ifn-γ production and levels of pag-1 and pag-2 in non-aborting nat ...201424456132
assessment of experimental infection for dogs using gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes inoculated with neospora caninum.the aim of this study was to evaluate parasitism kinetics and tissue lesions in the first week of infection by neospora caninum in dogs fed gallus gallus chorioallantoic membranes (cms) previously infected in ovo. five two-month-old pups were used. each dog was given five cms that were previously infected with n. caninum via the oral route. four animals were euthanized in the first week of infection. all four dogs had their stools examined one week prior to and up to the day they were euthanized ...201424473883
toxoplasma gondii infection in llama (llama glama): acute visceral disseminated lesions, diagnosis, and development of tissue cysts.clinical toxoplasmosis has been reported in many species of warm-blooded animals but is rare in camelids. here we report acute fatal systemic toxoplasmosis involving heart, thyroid gland, stomach, intestine, diaphragm, kidneys, adrenal glands, and liver of a 13-mo-old llama (llama glama). many toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites were associated with tissue necrosis in multiple organs. death was attributed to severe myocarditis. ulcers associated with numerous tachyzoites were present in the c3 compart ...201424475973
neospora caninum infection during early pregnancy in cattle: how the isolate influences infection dynamics, clinical outcome and peripheral and local immune responses.this work studies the influence of neospora caninum intra-species diversity on abortion outcome, infection dynamics in terms of parasite dissemination and peripheral-local immune responses in pregnant cattle. animals were intravenously inoculated at day 70 of pregnancy with 10⁷ tachyzoites of two isolates showing marked differences in virulence in vitro and in pregnant mouse models: nc-spain7, a high virulence isolate, and nc-spain8, a low-to-moderate virulence isolate. after inoculation, pregna ...201424479988
inflammatory infiltration into placentas of neospora caninum challenged cattle correlates with clinical outcome of pregnancy.infection with neospora caninum stimulates host cell-mediated immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to bovine abortion. the aim of this study was to compare immune responses in the bovine placenta, following experimental infection in different stages of pregnancy. placentomes were examined by immunohistochemistry and inflammation in early gestation was generally moderate to severe, particularly in the placentas carrying non-viable foetuses, whereas it was milder ...201424484200
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: detecting antibodies to neospora caninum, west nile virus, and five bovine viruses in reindeer.we compared nobuto filter paper (fp) whole-blood samples to serum for detecting antibodies to seven pathogens in reindeer (rangifer tarandus tarandus). serum and fp samples were collected from captive reindeer in 2008-2009. sample pairs (serum and fp eluates) were assayed in duplicate at diagnostic laboratories with the use of competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for neospora caninum and west nile virus (wnv); indirect elisa (ielisas) for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), pa ...201424484497
health impact evaluation of alternative management systems in vicuña (vicugna vicugna mensalis) populations in determine the impact of farming over vicuña population in peru, serum samples were collected from 207 vicuñas (126 captive vicuñas and 81 free-ranging vicuñas) and 614 domestic south american camelids (571 alpacas and 43 llamas), in ten andean communities at the salinas y aguada blanca reserve, province of arequipa, southern peru. samples were tested for the presence of leptospirosis, foot and mouth disease (fmd), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd), bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), brucellosis, bl ...201424492977
differential locus expansion distinguishes toxoplasmatinae species and closely related strains of toxoplasma gondii.toxoplasma gondii is a human obligate intracellular parasite that has infected over 20% of the world population and has a vast intermediate host range compared to those of its nearest relatives neospora caninum and hammondia hammondi. while these 3 species have highly syntenic genomes (80 to 99%), in this study we examined and compared species-specific structural variations, specifically at loci that have undergone local (i.e., tandem) duplication and expansion. to do so, we used genomic sequenc ...201424496792
blood collected on filter paper for wildlife serology: evaluating storage and temperature challenges of field collections.filter-paper (fp) blood sampling can facilitate wildlife research and expand disease surveillance. previous work indicated that nobuto fp samples from caribou and reindeer (rangifer tarandus subspecies) had comparable sensitivity and specificity to serum samples (≥ 80% for both) in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (celisas) for brucella spp., neospora caninum, and west nile virus. the same sensitivity and specificity criteria were met in indirect elisas for brucella spp., bovine he ...201424499329
neospora caninum exposure in overlapping populations of coyotes (canis latrans) and feral swine (sus scrofa).limited information exists on neospora caninum transmission dynamics in wildlife. this coccidian parasite, whose presence can lead to substantial economic losses in cattle operations, requires a canid definitive host for reproduction. we examined exposure in a definitive host, coyotes (canis latrans), and in overlapping populations of feral swine (sus scrofa) to determine if spatial proximity between a definitive and incidental host influences the likelihood of parasite exposure. eighteen percen ...201324502735
differential induction of tlr3-dependent innate immune signaling by closely related parasite species.the closely related protozoan parasites toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum display similar life cycles, subcellular ultrastructure, invasion mechanisms, metabolic pathways, and genome organization, but differ in their host range and disease pathogenesis. type ii (γ) interferon has long been known to be the major mediator of innate and adaptive immunity to toxoplasma infection, but genome-wide expression profiling of infected host cells indicates that neospora is a potent activator of the typ ...201424505488
reproductive implications of exposure to toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus).australian marsupials are thought to be particularly vulnerable to pathologic impacts of toxoplasma gondii, and they may be similarly affected by neospora caninum. pathology due to either organism could be expressed as reduced female reproductive performance. we studied adult female western grey kangaroos (macropus fuliginosus ocydromus) from suburban perth, western australia, between may 2006 and october 2008. we used indirect fluorescent antibody tests to look for evidence of exposure to t. go ...201424506426
survey of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum, haemotropic mycoplasmas and other arthropod-borne pathogens in cats from albania.albania is a country on the western part of the balkan peninsula. the mediterranean climate is favourable for the stable development of many arthropod species, which are incriminated as vectors for various agents. recently, several papers have reported on epidemiological aspects of parasitic diseases including vector-borne disease agents of dogs with zoonotic characteristics in albania. however, data on the epidemiology of feline parasitic and bacterial agents in albania is scarce.201424517118
pathogens at the livestock-wildlife interface in western alberta: does transmission route matter?in southwestern alberta, interactions between beef cattle and free-ranging elk (cervus elaphus) may provide opportunities for pathogen transmission. to assess the importance of the transmission route on the potential for interspecies transmission, we conducted a cross-sectional study on four endemic livestock pathogens with three different transmission routes: bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 (predominantly direct transmission), mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (ma ...201424517283
isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus).neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. canids, including the dog and the dingo (canis familiaris), the coyote (canis latrans), and the gray wolf (canis lupus) are its definitive hosts that can excrete environmentally resistant oocysts in the environment, but also can act as intermediate hosts, harboring tissue stages of the parasite. in an attempt to isolate viable n. caninum from tissues of naturally infected wolves, brain and heart tissue from 109 wolves from minne ...201424522164
characterization of immune cell infiltration in the placentome of water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) infected with neospora caninum during pregnancy.neospora caninum infection in cattle stimulates host immune responses, which may be responsible for placental damage leading to abortion. susceptibility of water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) to neosporosis is not well understood, although vertical transmission and fetal death have been documented. the aim of this study was to characterize the immune response in the placentome of water buffalo following experimental infection in early gestation with the nc-1 strain of n. caninum. placentomes were ...201424529512
infection by toxoplasma gondii specifically induces host c-myc and the genes this pivotal transcription factor regulates.toxoplasma gondii infection has previously been described to cause dramatic changes in the host transcriptome by manipulating key regulators, including stats, nf-κb, and micrornas. here, we report that toxoplasma tachyzoites also mediate rapid and sustained induction of another pivotal regulator of host cell transcription, c-myc. this induction is seen in cells infected with all three canonical types of toxoplasma but not the closely related apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum. coinfection of ...201424532536
di-cationic arylimidamides act against neospora caninum tachyzoites by interference in membrane structure and nucleolar integrity and are active against challenge infection in mice.neospora caninum is considered to be the main cause of bovine abortion in europe and the usa, leading to considerable financial impact. losses are caused directly by abortions or indirectly through breeding of calves with impaired viability. due to the lack of effective chemotherapy against bovine neosporosis, there is a need to develop new anti-protozoal compounds, which would either eliminate the parasite or avoid its transmission. in order to identify compounds of interest, the in vitro activ ...201224533272
transmission paths of neospora caninum in a dairy herd of crossbred cattle in the northeast of brazil.the aim of this study was to determine the transmission paths of neospora caninum in a dairy herd of crossbred cattle. two hundred and ninety animals were grouped according to the year of their birth to verify the distribution of infection according to age. the blood of 196 cattle was collected thrice, with an average interval of 210 days, to evaluate the existence of horizontal transmission in the herd. to evaluate vertical transmission, the blood of 64 calves was collected prior to ingestion o ...201424560936
pathogenicity of nc-bahia and nc-1 strains of neospora caninum in experimentally infected cows and buffaloes in early pregnancy.neospora caninum is a protozoan parasite known as an important cause of bovine abortion worldwide. little is currently known about how different strains of n. caninum vary in their pathogenicity. in this study, we compared a brazilian strain, nc-bahia, with the first isolate of this coccidian, nc-1. eight cows and seven buffaloes were submitted to fixed-time artificial insemination protocols for a better control of pregnancy. group 1 was inoculated with nc-bahia (n = 8; five cows and three buffa ...201424562816
prevalence survey of selected bovine pathogens in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil.although the largest buffalo herd in the occident is in the north region of brazil, few studies have been conducted to assess the prevalence of selected parasitic diseases in buffalo herd. the present study was therefore conducted to investigate the epidemiological of toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, anaplasma marginale, babesia bigemina, and babesia bovis in water buffaloes in the north region of brazil. a total of 4796 buffalo blood samples were randomly collected from five provinces and s ...201424563780
pcr detection of neospora caninum in water buffalo foetal tissues.the seroprevalence of neospora caninum was surveyed by an elisa kit on two water buffalo herds of southern italy. seropositive samples were detected in 47% and 59% of individuals, respectively, thus indicating high level of exposure to the parasite even if the possibility of vertical transmission cannot be excluded. tissue samples collected from three aborted fetuses from the same herds were investigated for n. caninum presence by pcr assays targeting the 18s and the nc5 dna sequences, respectiv ...201424570043
comparative study for the detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in milk and sera in dairy cattle in southern romania.the study aimed to assess the within-herd neospora caninum exposure in dairy cattle in southern romania, based on the detection of specific antibodies in milk and serum. a total of 104 paired samples of milk and serum were collected from four dairy farms. individual samples were analyzed for n. caninum antibodies by elisa: idexx neospora ab (idx) (three farms: a, b, c; n = 60) and id-vet lab (idv) (farm d; n = 44). additionally, four pooled milk samples, one per each farm (a, b, c) and a compose ...201424570044
pathogens of zoonotic and biological importance in roe deer (capreolus capreolus): seroprevalence in an agro-system population in france.antibody prevalence for several infectious and parasitic diseases in a population of roe deer (capreolus capreolus) inhabiting a mixed agricultural landscape (south of france) has been analyzed. serological analyses with elisa in 245 animals captured from 2008 to 2012 has been performed. we found a high prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (46.4%), chlamydophila abortus (17.27%) and coxiella burnetii (11.26%) compared to other studies in europe. seroprevalence varied strongly among years for t. gondi ...201424576494
adaptation of a commercial elisa to determine the igg avidity in sheep experimentally and naturally infected with neospora caninum.recent reports indicate neospora caninum has a possible role in causing abortions in sheep in new zealand. knowledge about the epidemiology of neosporosis in sheep is limited. this study aimed to adapt and validate a commercially available elisa assay as an igg avidity assay to discriminate between acute (primary and re-inoculated) and chronic n. caninum infections in sheep. in addition, it was used to compare the antibody avidity values between lambs from ewes inoculated with n. caninum either ...201424582279
seroprevalences of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in pet rabbits in japan.the potential contamination of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum oocysts in the human environment is a concern from the public health viewpoint. however, estimation of their seroprevalences in humans cannot be performed in a manner that distinguishes between oocysts and tissue cysts as a source of infection. rabbits are considered popular pet animals in japan that can acquire natural infections by the aforementioned parasites only through the ingestion of oocysts. therefore, this study was ...201424584081
vaccines against neosporosis: what can we learn from the past studies?neospora caninum is an intracellular apicomplexan parasite, which is a leading cause of abortion in cattle; thus neosporosis represents an important veterinary health problem and is of high economic significance. the parasite can infect cattle via trans-placental transmission from an infected cow to its fetus (vertical transmission), or through the oral route via ingestion of food or water contaminated with oocysts that were previously shed with the feces of a canid definitive host (horizontal t ...201424602874
serological cross-reactivity of trypanosoma cruzi, ehrlichia canis, toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum and babesia canis to leishmania infantum chagasi tests in dogs.the aim of this study was to evaluate the serological cross-reactivity between leishmania sp. and other canine pathogens.201424603745
management practices as risk factors for the presence of bulk milk antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in irish dairy herds.a survey of management practices in 309 irish dairy herds was used to identify risk factors for the presence of antibodies to salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo in extensively managed unvaccinated dairy herds. a previous study documented a herd-level seroprevalence in bulk milk of 49%, 19% and 86% for salmonella, neospora caninum and leptospira interrogans serovar hardjo, respectively in the unvaccinated proportion of these 309 herds in 2009. association analy ...201424661904
control options for neospora caninum--is there anything new or are we going backwards?recent work has highlighted and enumerated the economic annual losses due to neospora caninum abortions worldwide, which should provide strong motivation for the control of bovine neosporosis. however, with the recent withdrawal from sale of the only commercially available vaccine, control options for n. caninum have become more restricted. while researchers continue to work on developing alternative efficacious vaccines, what are the control options presently available for the cattle industries ...201424667014
neospora caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 is an effective drug target for neosporosis therapy.despite the enormous economic importance of neospora caninum related veterinary diseases, the number of effective therapeutic agents is relatively small. development of new therapeutic strategies to combat the economic impact of neosporosis remains an important scientific endeavor. this study demonstrates molecular, structural and phenotypic evidence that n. caninum calcium-dependent protein kinase 1 (nccdpk1) is a promising molecular target for neosporosis drug development. recombinant nccdpk1 ...201424681759
detection of antibodies to neospora caninum in moose (alces alces): the first report in europe.neospora caninum dubey, carpenter, speer, topper et uggla, 1988 is a protozoan parasite originally reported as a major cause of bovine abortions worldwide. it is documented that the parasite is widely spread among non-carnivorous cervids. the purpose of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of n. caninum in moose (alces alces linnaeus). blood samples collected in 2010 and 2012 in the northeastern poland were tested for antibodies to n. caninum by agglutination test (nat), a commercial ...201424684051
epidemiology of reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain: a comparative serological study.the aim of this study was to better understand the epidemiology of five major reproductive pathogens in semi-intensive lamb-producing flocks in north-west spain. two thousand four hundred serum samples were collected from 44 flocks, and several factors were studied to assess their influence on seropositivity. farms that tested seropositive for more than one pathogen were common (84.1%), but seroprevalence was high only for toxoplasma gondii (38.1%), and low for the other four pathogens, namely, ...201424685472
prevalence of antibodies against toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in dogs.toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are parasitic diseases of global importance. the present study had the objective to determine the influence of age, sex and breed in the prevalence of antibodies against both diseases in dogs from brotas city, são paulo state, brazil. blood samples of 342 dogs were collected, and the age, sex and breed of each animal were recorded. the serological diagnosis for toxoplasmosis and neosporosis were performed using the immunofluorescent antibody test (ifat). the fischer ...201324688530
changes in purine levels associated with cellular brain injury in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum.the present study was carried out in order to assess the possible alterations in purine levels of brain, associated neuronal lesions in gerbils experimentally infected with neospora caninum. for that, gerbils (meriones unguiculatus) were inoculated with nc-1 strain of n. caninum, composing two different experiments: experiment i (ei) and experiment ii (eii), where purine levels were measured along with the histopathologic study, on days 7 (ei), 15 and 30 (eii), post-infection (pi). as a result, ...201424702899
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum in slaughtered pigs from northeast, brazil.the aims of this study were to evaluate the presence of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, to identify associated risk factors and to isolate t. gondii from slaughtered pigs in paraíba state, brazil. a total of 190 pigs from public slaughterhouses were used in the study. an indirect immunofluorescence test was used to detect antibodies, and the isolation of t. gondii was performed with a bioassay in mice based on tissues from seropositive animals. a total of 50 g of bra ...201424703253
comparison of an elisa assay for the detection of adhesive/invasive neospora caninum tachyzoites.neospora caninum belongs to the phylum apicomplexa, the causative agent of neosporosis, which leads to economic impacts on cattle production. a common feature among apicomplexan parasites is the invasive process driven mostly by the parasite. as a first evaluation of candidate molecules that play a possible role by interfering in this invasive process, the in vitro invasion assay is a fast and direct way to screen future agonists or antagonists. this work involved the development of a new cell c ...201424728359
association of antibodies against neospora caninum in mares with reproductive problems and presence of seropositive dogs as a risk factor.sera from 112 mares from 5 horse-breeding farms was examined for the presence of antibodies to neospora caninum and toxoplasma gondii by an indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), as well as from dogs and cattle present on these properties for the presence of antibodies to n. caninum. among the 112 mares, 35 had a history of reproductive problems in the last breeding season and 77 had no reproductive problems. the rates of seroprevalence of n. caninum in mares with and without a history of re ...201424731383
neospora caninum versus brucella spp. exposure among dairy cattle in ethiopia: a case control study.this case-control study aimed at assessing the relative association of neospora caninum and brucella species exposure with reproductive disorders. the study was carried out between october 2011 and june 2012 on 731 dairy cows sampled from 150 dairy farms in selected 17 conurbations of ethiopia. two hundred sixty-six of the cows were categorized as cases based on their history of abortion or stillbirth while the remaining 465 were controls. the presence of antibody to n. caninum was screened usin ...201424781154
neospora caninum serostatus is affected by age and species variables in cohabiting water buffaloes and beef cattle.the aim of this study was to investigate how neospora caninum serostatus may be affected by variables such as host species (water buffaloes or cattle) and age in animals cohabiting in the same ranch. a convenience cross-sectional study was performed on four ranches in the northeast of argentina, where water buffalo are cohabitating with beef cattle. blood samples were collected from 1350 female water buffaloes (bubalus bubalis) and 880 female beef cattle (bos taurus and bos indicus crossbreeds) ...201424792747
red foxes (vulpes vulpes) in romania are carriers of toxoplasma gondii but not neospora caninum.brain samples from 182 red foxes (vulpes vulpes) from romania were examined using a standard pcr technique. results provide evidence of toxoplasma gondii (11 foxes=6.0%) and neospora caninum (1 fox=0.5%) dna in red foxes from romania. no coinfections were found.201424807364
cloning and expression of neospora caninum dense-granule 7 in e. coli.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan which induces abortion, still birth and neuromuscular disorders in cattle and is an important problem in dairy and beef industry worldwide. the dense granule protein 7 (gra7) of n. caninum is an immune-dominant protein shared by both tachyzoite and bradyzoites. this study was conducted to produce recombinant gra7 of n. caninum using a plasmid with high level of expression of this protein in e. coli. for this purpose, a segment of n. caninum ...201424808652
seroprevalence of neospora caninum infection in dairy cows in northern provinces, thailand.neospora caninum, an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, is the causative agent of neosporosis, recognized as a major cause of bovine abortion around the world. thailand is a developing agricultural country located in southeast asia. livestock developments particularly in dairy cows of this country have been hampered by low productivity including milk and slow growth rate due to the impact of many pathogens including n. caninum. currently, there is no effective method for control of neosp ...201424827103
seroprevalence of neospora caninum in cats from the czech republic.sera of 414 cats coming from different parts of the czech republic were tested for n. caninum antibodies. sera samples were collected during years 2002-2011. n. caninum antibodies were detected by a commercial competitive-inhibition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) with cut off ≥30% inhibition. samples positive in celisa were confirmed by an indirect fluorescence antibody test (ifat); titre ≥50 was considered positive. in total, 137 (33%) cats reacted positively in celisa; n. caninum a ...201424827111
evaluation of spore wall protein 1 as an alternative antigen for the diagnosis of encephalitozoon cuniculi infection of farmed foxes using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.the sequence encoding swp1 was cloned from the genome of encephalitozoon cuniculi. recombinant swp1 (rswp1) was expressed in escherichia coli and used to detect e. cuniculi infections in farmed foxes and dogs with an indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) in the present study. the sera of foxes infected with e. cuniculi could be distinguished from the sera of foxes infected with toxoplasma gondii, neospora caninum, and cryptosporidium parvum using the elisa. in total, 198 fox samples ...201424830821
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum seroprevalences in domestic south american camelids of the peruvian andes.the objective of this study was to investigate the presence of toxoplasma gondii- and neospora caninum-specific antibodies in domestic south american camelids (sac) (llamas and alpacas) from the peruvian andes through a cross-sectional study. a wide panel of serum samples collected from 1,845 llamas and 2,874 alpacas from the two main sac production areas of peru was selected. immunofluorescence antibody technique was employed to detect and titrate specific anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum imm ...201424859240
statistical evaluation of a commercial neospora caninum competitive elisa in the absence of a gold standard: application to wild elk (cervus elaphus) in alberta.neospora caninum is an important abortive agent of domestic ruminants, but few diagnostic tools are available to reliably assess the exposure of wild cervid species such as elk (cervus elaphus) to this pathogen, which limits our ability to understand their role in the life cycle of this parasite. in the absence of a gold standard test or panels of samples from individuals of known infection status, classical laboratory-based validation methods are not applicable. however, there are a number of s ...201424861013
macrophage depletion prior to neospora caninum infection results in severe neosporosis in mice.we observed that murine macrophages showed greater activation and increased interleukin 6 (il-6), il-12p40, and interferon gamma (ifn-γ) production during neospora caninum infection. many macrophages migrated to the site of infection. furthermore, macrophage-depleted mice exhibited increased sensitivity to n. caninum infection. this study indicates that macrophages are required for achieving protective immunity against n. caninum.201424872515
maternal and fetal immune response patterns in heifers experimentally infected with neospora caninum in the second trimester of pregnancy--a descriptive study.fetal and maternal immune responses 3, 6 and 9 weeks post infection (wpi) were investigated in cows experimentally infected with neospora caninum on day 110 of gestation. descriptive analysis showed that the fetuses had lower percentages of spleen t cell subpopulations (cd3+, cd4+ and cd8+) at 6 wpi compared to 3 wpi and/or 9 wpi, with the lowest percentages observed in a dead fetus found upon euthanasia at that time. increased expression of most cytokines over levels recorded at 3 and 9 wpi wer ...201424880649
genetic characterisation of neospora caninum strains from clinical samples of zebuine foetuses obtained in abattoirs in goiás, brazil.the neospora caninum microsatellite markers were applied to clinical samples. genotyping technology involving fluorescently labelled dna fragment analysis was used in combination with dna sequencing for markers with complex repetitive sequences. nineteen dna samples from 15 brains and four hearts of naturally infected non-aborted zebuine foetuses from abattoirs in goiás, brazil. n. caninum had been detected in these foetuses by nested-pcr of the internal transcribed spacer-1 rrna region, and the ...201424893690
experimental ruminant models for bovine neosporosis: what is known and what is present, bovine neosporosis is an important worldwide concern because of its wide geographic distribution and economic impact. abortion is the main clinical sign of bovine neosporosis in both dairy and beef cattle. ruminant challenge models are critical to evaluate potential vaccine candidates to help tackle bovine neosporosis and to study pathogenesis and host responses to infection. several research groups have developed ruminant models of neospora caninum infection independently of others, ...201424926962
the gatekeeper residue and beyond: homologous calcium-dependent protein kinases as drug development targets for veterinarian apicomplexa parasites.specific roles of individual cdpks vary, but in general they mediate essential biological functions necessary for parasite survival. a comparative analysis of the structure-activity relationships (sar) of neospora caninum, eimeria tenella and babesia bovis calcium-dependent protein kinases (cdpks) together with those of plasmodium falciparum, cryptosporidium parvum and toxoplasma gondii was performed by screening against 333 bumped kinase inhibitors (bkis). structural modelling and experimental ...201424927073
rop18 is a key factor responsible for virulence difference between toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum.toxoplasma gondii (t. gondii) and neospora caninum (n. caninum) are both obligate intracellular protozoan parasites and share many common morphological and biological features. despite these similarities the two parasites differ dramatically in virulence in mice, but the factors involved in virulence differences between the two parasites remain unknown. a secreted serine-threonine kinase called rhoptry protein 18 (rop18) was identified to play a crucial role on virulence differences among differ ...201424927100
first isolation of neospora caninum from blood of a naturally infected adult dairy cow in beijing, china.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in cattle worldwide, but the isolation of a viable parasite from an abortus is difficult, and viable n. caninum has not been isolated from any host in china. in the present study, peripheral blood samples were collected from a jugular vein of an adult dairy cow that had aborted; the cow was seropositive to n. caninum antibodies by elisa. white blood cells were separated and seeded onto vero cell monolayer cultures for parasite isolation. tachyzo ...201424945568
neospora caninum prevalence in dogs raised under different living conditions.neospora caninum is an important cause of abortion in dairy cattle worldwide. dogs are important in the epidemiology of n. caninum because they act as definitive hosts shedding oocysts in the environment. vertical transmission of the parasite is well recognized as an important aspect of the epidemiology of the parasite but the importance of horizontal transmission has been less studied. a n. caninum competitive elisa was used to examine serum samples from 600 dogs that were raised under 4 differ ...201424957000
two distinct populations of bovine il-17⁺ t-cells can be induced and wc1⁺il-17⁺γδ t-cells are effective killers of protozoan has emerged as a key player in the immune system, exhibiting roles in protection from infectious diseases and promoting inflammation in autoimmunity. initially thought to be cd4 t-cell-derived, the sources of il-17 are now known to be varied and belong to both the innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. mechanisms for inducing il-17 production in lymphoid cells are thought to rely on appropriate antigenic stimulation in the context of tgf-β1, il-6 and/or il-1β. using culture protoco ...201424961164
prevalence and correlates of antibodies to neospora caninum in dogs in portugal.neosporosis, caused by neospora caninum, is an important cause of abortion in cattle and of neurological disease in dogs. this study investigated the prevalence and correlates of antibodies to n. caninum in 441 dogs from the five regions of mainland portugal. a commercial competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (celisa) was used and specific antibodies were detected in 35 (7.9%) dogs. seroprevalence levels were significantly different among some of the studied regions, as well as between s ...201424972327
metabolic footprinting of extracellular metabolites of brain endothelium infected with neospora caninum in vitro.the survival of the intracellular protozoan parasite neospora caninum depends on its ability to adapt to changing metabolic conditions of the host cell. thus, defining cellular and metabolic changes in affected target tissues may aid in delineating pathogenetic mechanism. we undertook this study to assess the metabolic response of human brain microvascular endothelial cells (hbmecs) to n. caninum infection in vitro.201424973017
neosporosis in naturally infected pregnant dairy cattle.neosporosis caused by caused by the apicomplexan parasite neospora caninum is one of the major causes of infectious abortion in bovines worldwide. a long-term prospective study was performed in a dairy herd endemic for n. caninum in order to analyze the impact of neosporosis on the proportion of aborting cows. a total of 1078 pregnant cows were tested for presence of antibodies and the proportion of abortions was calculated. the overall seroprevalence of n. caninum found in the herd was 35.5%. t ...201424986462
diagnosis and treatment of neospora caninum--associated dermatitis in a red fox (vulpes vulpes) with concurrent toxoplasma gondii infection.a 3-mo-old red fox (vulpes vulpes) developed generalized crusty plaques on its body during rehabilitation after an automobile accident requiring amputation of one leg. histologic examination of skin lesion biopsy revealed granulomatous dermatitits with many intralesional protozoal tachyzoites. the protozoa stained positively with antibodies to neospora caninum but not to toxoplasma gondii. treatment with clindamycin hydrochloride (10 mg/kg, twice daily, s.c.) for 1 mo completely resolved lesions ...201425000720
toxoplasmosis-associated abortion in an alpaca (vicugna pacos) fetus.a near-full-term alpaca (vicugna pacos) was stillborn 2 days before the expected date of delivery; necropsy examination was conducted within 6 hr of delivery. gross lesions were enlarged liver and hydrocephalus. on histologic examination, mild inflammatory lesions were identified in the placenta, liver, and lungs, although no etiology was recognized. within the brain, there was a mild nonsuppurative meningoencephalitis, hydrocephalus, and hydromyelia. both kidneys had inflammatory foci in cortex ...201425000722
discovering a vaccine against neosporosis using computers: is it feasible?a vaccine is urgently needed to prevent cattle neosporosis. this infectious disease is caused by the parasite neospora caninum, a complex biological system with multifaceted life cycles. an in silico vaccine discovery approach attempts to transform digital abstractions of this system into adequate knowledge to predict candidates. researchers need current information to implement such an approach, such as understanding evasion mechanisms of the immune system, type of immune response to elicit, av ...201425028089
comparison of host cell invasion and proliferation among neospora caninum isolates obtained from oocysts and from clinical cases of naturally infected a previous study we have shown that the in vitro invasion rate (ir) and tachyzoite yield (ty) are associated with the virulence phenotypes of neospora caninum isolates of bovine origin. in addition, we recently observed marked differences in virulence when canine isolates were compared in a pregnant balb/c mouse model. in this study, we investigated whether invasion and proliferation capacities could be used as virulence-related n. caninum phenotypic traits. of the isolates compared in mice, ...201425045851
detection of neospora caninum-dna in feces collected from dogs in shenyang (china) and its1 phylogenetic analysis.neospora caninum is an intracellular protozoan that infects many domestic and wild animals. dog is known as a definitive host of n. caninum and involved in transmitting infections to intermediate hosts by shedding oocysts. to investigate the epidemiology of dog neosporosis in china, 212 dog feces specimens in shenyang were screened by nested-pcr using nc5 primers and confirmed by n. caninum its1 pcr. the positive rate of n. caninum dna was 34.90% (74/212). there were no significant correlations ...201425047704
occurrences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies in barbary sheep at curitiba zoo, southern brazil.barbary sheep (ammotragus lervia) have the potential to act as hosts of important infectious diseases, particularly zoonoses. blood samples from 17 barbary sheep at the curitiba zoo were collected to evaluate occurrences of anti-toxoplasma gondii and anti-neospora caninum antibodies, tested using the indirect immunofluorescence antibody test (ifat). anti-t. gondii and anti-n. caninum antibodies were detected in 4/17 (23.5%) and 4/17 (23.5%) samples, respectively. the present study has shown that ...201425054509
infectious pathogens potentially transmitted by semen of the black variety of the manchega sheep breed: health constraints for conservation purposes.conservation of genetic resources from endangered breeds may be conducted through germinal banks. preservation of healthy samples is paramount to avoid preserving pathogens shed with germinal products. the black variety of manchega sheep (bms), and endangered breed endemic to south-central spain, is the subject of a conservation program; a germinal bank has been recently established. however, several pathogens circulating in bms flocks may be shed with semen and threaten bms preservation. theref ...201425066603
cytokine expression in the placenta of pregnant cattle after inoculation with neospora caninum.neospora caninum is recognized as a major cause of reproductive losses worldwide but its pathogenesis is not completely understood. immune mediated placental pathology has been reported as being responsible for compromising pregnancy probably due to the adverse effects of exacerbated th1 type response at the maternal-foetal interface. different clinical outcomes are known to occur following experimental infections of cattle at different stages of gestation, with foetal death being the most commo ...201425091332
fluorescent ester dye-based assays for the in vitro measurement of neospora caninum proliferation.techniques for the measurement of parasite loads in different experimental models have evolved throughout the years. the quantification of stained slides using regular cytological stains is currently the most common technique. however, this modality of evaluation is labor-intensive, and the interpretation of the results is subjective because the successes of the assays mainly rely on the abilities of the professionals involved. moreover, the novel genetic manipulation techniques that are commonl ...201425095733
the parasitic fauna of the european bison (bison bonasus) (linnaeus, 1758) and their impact on the conservation. part 1. the summarising list of parasites noted.during the current century, 88 species of parasites have been recorded in bison bonasus. these are 22 species of protozoa (trypanosoma wrublewskii, t. theileri, giardia sp., sarcocystis cruzi, s. hirsuta, s. hominis, s. fusiformis, neospora caninum, toxoplasma gondii, cryptosporidium sp., eimeria cylindrica, e. subspherica, e. bovis, e. zuernii, e. canadensis, e. ellipsoidalis, e. alabamensis, e. bukidnonensis, e. auburnensis, e. pellita, e. brasiliensis, babesia divergens), 4 trematodes species ...201425119348
the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase vector as a tool for stable tagging of neospora caninum.neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular apicomplexa, a phylum where one of the current methods for functional studies relies on molecular genetic tools. for toxoplasma gondii, the first method described, in 1993, was based on resistance against chloramphenicol. as in t. gondii, we developed a vector constituted of the chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene (cat) flanked by the n. caninum dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (dhfr-ts) 5' coding sequence flanking region. five weeks a ...201425127750
toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum infections in goat abortions from argentina.the aims of this study were to identify the occurrence of toxoplasma gondii and neospora caninum abortions in goats from argentina by serological, macroscopical and microscopical examination and bioassay, and to characterize the obtained isolates by molecular techniques. for this purpose, 25 caprine fetal fluids, 18 caprine fetal brains and 10 caprine placentas from 8 dairy/meat goat farms from argentina were analyzed. gestational age of the aborted fetuses was determined in 18 cases. protozoal ...201425128663
generation and characterization of the first immortalized alpaca cell line suitable for diagnostic and immunization studies.raising of alpacas as exotic livestock for wool and meat production and as companion animals is growing in importance in the united states, europe and australia. furthermore the alpaca, as well as the rest of the camelids, possesses the peculiarity of producing single-chain antibodies from which nanobodies can be generated. nanobodies, due to their structural simplicity and reduced size, are very versatile in terms of manipulation and bio-therapeutic exploitation. in fact the biotech companies i ...201425140515
neospora caninum infection as a cause of reproductive failure in a sheep flock.neospora caninum has been detected only sporadically in cases of ovine abortion, and it has therefore traditionally been considered as an unimportant parasite in small ruminants. this study was carried out with the aim of identifying the pathogen causing serious reproductive problems on a commercial sheep farm. sera from all rams and ewes tested negative for antibodies against border disease virus, schmallenberg virus and coxiella burnetii, and infections by these agents were therefore ruled out ...201425158756
anti-neospora caninum antibody detection and vertical transmission rate in pregnant zebu beef cows (bos indicus): neospora caninum in pregnant beef cows (bos indicus).the aim of the present study was to evaluate anti-neospora caninum antibodies and the vertical transmission rate in naturally infected pregnant zebu beef cows (bos indicus) reared on pasture. the present study began with 200 cows from four farms (50 cows from each farm), and these animals were submitted to timed artificial insemination (tai). after ultrasonography, 76 pregnant cows were selected, 22, 15, 22, and 17, respectively, from farms 1, 2, 3, and 4. blood samples were taken from cows thri ...201425193073
seroprevalence and risk factors for neospora caninum in goats in santa catarina state, brazil.neosporosis is an infectious disease caused by the parasite neospora caninum. knowledge regarding neosporosis in goats is still quite limited, especially in the state of santa catarina (sc), southern brazil. therefore, this study aimed to assess the seroprevalence and risk factors for n. caninum in goats in the western and mountain regions of sc. blood samples were collected from 654 goats in 57 municipalities. the indirect immunofluorescence test was used for antibody detection against n. canin ...201625271457
occurrence of mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and neospora caninum in alberta cow-calf operations.mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (map) and neospora caninum (nc) are two pathogens causing important production limiting diseases in the cattle industry. significant impacts of map and nc have been reported on dairy cattle herds, but little is known about the importance, risk factors and transmission patterns in western canadian cow-calf herds. in this cross-sectional study, the prevalence of map and nc infection in southwest alberta cow-calf herds was estimated, risk factors for nc w ...201425277685
abortion in cattle due to infection with staphylococcus aborted fetus of 7 months gestation, the associated placenta, and a single blood sample from the dam were submitted for diagnostic investigation to the diagnostic laboratory of the lombardy and emilia-romagna experimental zooprophylactic institute in parma, italy. the serum was negative for neospora caninum, coxiella burnetii, chlamydophila abortus, bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), brucella abortus, and brucella melitensis. fetal tissues and placental cotyledo ...201425292193
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