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reefs and islands of the chagos archipelago, indian ocean: why it is the world's largest no-take marine protected area.the chagos archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (mpa) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km(2), with more than 60 000 km(2) shallow limestone platform and reefs. this has doubled the global cover of such mpas.it contains 25-50% of the indian ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contiguous undamaged reef area. it has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.c ...025505830
turtle meat (eretmochelys imbricata) poisoning in netherlands new guinea. 195613384194
[turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) meat poisoning in netherlands new guinea]. 195613322089
salmonella regent: a new species associated with colitis in a pacific hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata bissa). 19685691244
spongivory in hawksbill turtles: a diet of glass.the hawksbill(eretmochelys imbricata), an endangered marine turtle associated with coral reefs throughout the tropics, feeds almost exclusively on sponges in the caribbean, and possibly throughout its range. it is one of fewer than a dozen vertebrates that are known to specialize on this widely distributed but well-defended food resource. the diet is taxonomically narrow and highly uniform geographically, includes sponges that are toxic to other vertebrates, and contains more silica than that of ...198817836872
studies on cardiovascular fluke (digenea: spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles from the great barrier reef, queensland, australia.twenty-seven sea turtles (23 chelonia mydas and four eretmochelys imbricata) from northeast queensland were found to be infected with cardiovascular flukes and/or their eggs. five had originated from turtle farms in the torres strait, five from an oceanarium on magnetic island (146 degrees 56'e, 19 degrees s) and the remainder from coral reefs in the torres strait or near townsville. the incidence of flukes and/or eggs in the groups was 4.8 per cent (5 of 104), 33.3 per cent (5 of 15) and 72.2 p ...19892584443
ocular dimensions and schematic eyes of freshwater and sea turtles.measurements were made of the ocular dimensions from living and frozen eyes of one species of freshwater turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, and of three species of marine turtles, chelonia mydas, dermochelys cariacea, and eretmochelys imbricata. estimates of refractive error by retinoscopy were also obtained with eyes in air and under water. the results suggest that unaccommodated eyes of all four species are approximately emmetropic in air but strongly hyperopic in water. schematic eyes were ca ...19911772809
a molecular phylogeny for marine turtles: trait mapping, rate assessment, and conservation relevance.nucleotide sequences from the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna were employed to resolve phylogenetic controversies and to assess molecular evolutionary rates in marine turtles (chelonioidea). findings of special relevance to conservation biology include discovery of a distant relationship between natator and other cheloniid species, the paraphyly of chelonia mydas with respect to chelonia agassizi, and genetic distinctiveness of lepidochelys kempi from lepidochelys olivacea. a longstanding ...19938516304
hybridization among the ancient mariners: characterization of marine turtle hybrids with molecular genetic assays.reports of hybridization between marine turtle species (family cheloniidae) have been difficult to authenticate based solely on morphological evidence. here we employ molecular genetic assays to document the sporadic, natural occurrence of viable interspecific hybrids between species representing four of the five genera of cheloniid sea turtles. using multiple dna markers from single-copy nuclear loci, eight suspected hybrids (based on morphology) were confirmed to be the products of matings inv ...19957657993
monoclonal antibodies for the measurement of class-specific antibody responses in the green turtle, chelonia mydas.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against the known immunoglobulin classes of the green turtle, chelonia mydas. plasma protein fractions enriched for 5.7s igy, 7s igy, and igm turtle immunoglobulins were used to immunize balb/c mice for hybridoma production and for hybridoma screening. fifteen hybridomas produced mabs with specificity for turtle immunoglobulins and for affinity purified dinitrophenol (dnp) specific turtle antibodies. three mabs specific for either turtle 5.7s igy heavy ...19957502491
molecular phylogeny for marine turtles based on sequences of the nd4-leucine trna and control regions of mitochondrial dna.marine turtles are divided into two families, the dermochelyidae and the cheloniidae. the majority of species are currently placed within the two tribes of the cheloniidae, the chelonini and the carettini, but debate continues over generic and tribal affinities as well as species boundaries. we used nucleotide sequences (907 bp) from the nd4-leu trna region and the control region (526 bp) of mitochondrial dna to resolve areas of uncertainty in marine turtle (chelonioidae) systematics. the nd4-le ...19968744764
[growth, food conversion and mortality in eretmochelys imbricata (reptilia: chelonidae) in artificial ponds in costa rica].growth rates, feed conversion and mortality of cultured eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle) were studied in concrete raceways by feeding with fresh fish meal (tilapia) and in duplicate (tanks of 21 m2). the turtles were 11 months old at the beginning of the experiment, with and average caparace straight length of 23.64 +/- 1.94 cm, an average caparace curved length of 24.15 +/- 1.94 cm and an average weight of 1527 +/- 2.54 g. the experiment was carried out during six months and a density ...19969332616
testing models of female reproductive migratory behaviour and population structure in the caribbean hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata, with mtdna sequences.information on the reproductive behaviour and population structure of female hawksbill turtles, eretmochelys imbricata, is necessary to define conservation priorities for this highly endangered species. two hypotheses to explain female nest site choice, natal homing and social facilitation, were tested by analyzing mtdna control region sequences of 103 individuals from seven nesting colonies in the caribbean and western atlantic. under the social facilitation model, newly mature females follow o ...19968688954
fine structure of the dorsal lingual epithelium of the juvenile hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata bissa.various species of turtles are adapted to different environments, such as freshwater, seawater, and terrestrial habitats. comparisons of histological and ultrastructural features of the tongue of the juvenile hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata bissa, with those of freshwater turtles should reveal some aspects of the relationship between the structure of the lingual epithelium and the environment.19968694279
observations of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (chelonia mydas) in indonesia.to determine the prevalence and manifestations of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles in indonesia, to identify any relationship between fibropapillomatosis and concurrent parasitic infection, to ascertain the effect of fibropapillomatosis on health, and to examine whether environment might have an effect on the prevalence of fibropapillomatosis.19979406633
maximum likelihood estimation of population divergence times and population phylogenies under the infinite sites model.in this paper, a maximum likelihood estimator of population divergence time based on the infinite sites model is developed. it is demonstrated how this estimator may be applied to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the topology of population phylogenies. this approach addresses several classical problems occurring in the inference of the phylogenetic relationship of populations, most notably the problem of shared ancestral polymorphisms. the method is applied to previously published data set ...19989615473
spongivory on caribbean reefs releases corals from competition with sponges.competition for space is an important process on tropical coral reefs. few studies have examined the role sponges play in community structure despite the fact that many sponges are competitively superior to reef-building corals in space acquisition. surveys conducted throughout the florida keys indicated that chondrilla nucula was involved in about 30% of all coral-sponge interactions; this sponge has also been observed in 40-50% of coral-sponge interactions on other caribbean reefs. c. nucula i ...199828308480
[kap study (knowledge-attitude-practice) on seafood poisoning on the southwest coast of madagascar].in june and july 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in tuléar province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. the family of toxic fishes are clupeidae, tetraodontidae, scaridae and siganidae. sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often r ...199910214522
arsenic accumulation in three species of sea turtles.arsenic in the liver, kidney and muscle of three species of sea turtles, e.g., green turtles (chelonia mydas), loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata), were determined using hg-aas, followed by arsenic speciation analysis using hplc-icp-ms. the order of arsenic concentration in tissues was muscle > kidney > liver. unexpectedly, the arsenic concentrations in the hawksbill turtles feeding mainly on sponges were higher than the two other turtles primarily ...200011127896
an analysis of the growth based on the size and age distributions of the hawksbill sea turtle inhabiting cuban waters.the first costal scute (c 1) collected from 2, 749 hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) captured in cuban waters in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed to determine their body size and age distributions. the c 1 width (c 1 w) was converted to the straight carapace length (scl) using a formula, scl = 4.3527 (c 1 w)0.8484, to examine its body size distribution. the scl ranged from 51.3 to 96.1 cm with 68.8 cm of mean and 68.6 cm of median. ages of captured turtles estimated from the c 1 surface patte ...200011236275
using open robust design models to estimate temporary emigration from capture-recapture data.capture-recapture studies are crucial in many circumstances for estimating demographic parameters for wildlife and fish populations. pollock's robust design, involving multiple sampling occasions per period of interest, provides several advantages over classical approaches. this includes the ability to estimate the probability of being present and available for detection, which in some situations is equivalent to breeding probability. we present a model for estimating availability for detection ...200111764251
trophic status drives interannual variability in nesting numbers of marine turtles.large annual fluctuations are seen in breeding numbers in many populations of non-annual breeders. we examined the interannual variation in nesting numbers of populations of green (chelonia mydas) (n = 16 populations), loggerhead (caretta caretta) (n = 10 populations), leatherback (dermochelys coriacea) (n = 9 populations) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) (n = 10 populations). interannual variation was greatest in the green turtle. when comparing green and loggerhead turtles nestin ...200111454292
asynchronous emergence by loggerhead turtle (caretta caretta) hatchlings.for many decades it has been accepted that marine turtle hatchlings from the same nest generally emerge from the sand together. however, for loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) nesting on the greek island of kefalonia, a more asynchronous pattern of emergence has been documented. by placing temperature loggers at the top and bottom of nests laid on kefalonia during 1998, we examined whether this asynchronous emergence was related to the thermal conditions within nests. pronounced thermal variat ...200111402844
trace element accumulation in hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas) from yaeyama islands, japan.concentrations of 18 trace elements (v, cr, mn, co, cu, zn, se, rb, sr, zr, mo, ag, cd, sb, ba, hg, tl, and pb) were determined in the liver, kidney, and muscle of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from yaeyama islands, okinawa, japan. accumulation features of trace elements in the three tissues were similar between green and hawksbill turtles. no gender differences in trace element accumulation in liver and kidney were found for most of the elements. ...200111764164
subcellular distribution of trace elements in the liver of sea turtles.subcellular distribution of cu, zn, se, rb, mo, ag, cd and pb was determined in the liver of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from yaeyama islands, japan. also, hepatic cytosol from sea turtles was applied on a sephadex g-75 column and elution profiles of trace elements were examined. copper, zn, se, rb, ag and cd were largely present in cytosol in the liver of both species, indicating that cytosol was the significant site for the accumulation of thes ...200212398389
a survey of the epibiota of eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: cheloniidae) of mona island, puerto rico.epibiotic organisms inhabiting non-nesting hawksbill sea turtles, eretmochelys imbricata (linnaeus, 1766), are described from mona and monito islands, puerto rico. epibiont samples from 105 turtles of shallow (< 40 m) water foraging habitats were collected and identified to the lowest possible taxon. this epibiotic assemblage consisting of at least 4 algal functional groups and 12 animal phyla represents the greatest phylogenetic diversity for marine turtle epibiota. six groups are considered ne ...200315264558
arsenic accumulation in livers of pinnipeds, seabirds and sea turtles: subcellular distribution and interaction between arsenobetaine and glycine betaine.concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in liver samples of pinnipeds (northern fur seal callorhinus ursinus and ringed seal pusa hispida), seabirds (black-footed albatross diomedea nigripes and black-tailed gull larus crassirostris) and sea turtles (hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata and green turtle chelonia mydas). among these species, the black-footed albatross contained the highest hepatic arsenic concentration (5.8+/-3.7 microg/g wet mass). ars ...200315012900
comparison of functional aspects of the coagulation cascade in human and sea turtle plasmas.functional hemostatic pathways are critical for the survival of all vertebrates and have been evolving for more than 400 million years. the overwhelming majority of studies of hemostasis in vertebrates have focused on mammals with very sparse attention paid to reptiles. there have been virtually no studies of the coagulation pathway in sea turtles whose ancestors date back to the jurassic period. sea turtles are often exposed to rapidly altered environmental conditions during diving periods. thi ...200415325341
interplay between plasma hormone profiles, sex and body condition in immature hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) subjected to a capture stress protocol.we investigated plasma hormone profiles of corticosterone and testosterone in immature hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) in response to a capture stress protocol. further, we examined whether sex and body condition were covariates associated with variation in the adrenocortical response of immature turtles. hawksbill turtles responded to the capture stress protocol by significantly increasing plasma levels of corticosterone over a 5 h period. there was no significant sex difference in t ...200414720605
fine-scale tracking of marine turtles using gps-argos ptts.high-accuracy location data of wildlife telemetry using conventional satellite location systems are difficult to obtain. however, such data are necessary to clarify the nature of movements and home range sizes of animals. in order to measure the high-accuracy location data, we developed new gps-argos platform terminal transmitters (ptts) which transmit both the conventional location and gps location simultaneously. two experiments, one in an artificial rearing pond and the other in the open sea, ...200515930827
geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis.we document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from puerto rico and san diego (california) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from florida bay (florida). tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. polymerase chain reac ...200517312778
vitellogenin in black turtle (chelonia mydas agassizii): purification, partial characterization, and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for its detection.black turtle plasmatic vitellogenin (vtg) was purified from 17beta-estradiol-induced males using ion-exchange chromatography. the isolated protein was identified as vtg by its glycolipoprotein nature and amino acid sequence homology with other vertebrate vtg. it was characterized as a 500-kda dimer composed of two identical, 200- to 240-kda monomers. polyclonal antibodies raised against black turtle vtg showed high titer and specificity, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and w ...200616519309
deforestation: risk of sex ratio distortion in hawksbill sea turtles.phenotypic sex in sea turtles is determined by nest incubation temperatures, with warmer temperatures producing females and cooler temperatures producing males. the common finding of highly skewed female-biased hatchling sex ratios in sea turtle populations could have serious repercussions for the long-term survival of these species and prompted us to examine the thermal profile of a relatively pristine hawksbill nesting beach in guadeloupe, french west indies. data loggers placed at nest depth ...200616826992
[tanycytoglia in the diencephalon of cryptodirous tortoises (testudines, reptilia). i. matrix dynamics and development of the ependyma in emys orbicularis l. compared with the behavior in eretmochelys imbricata l]. 20065399725
inter-seasonal maintenance of individual nest site preferences in hawksbill sea turtles.within a single population of hawksbill sea turtles (eretmochelys imbricata), we found a behavioral polymorphism for maternal nest site choice with respect to beach microhabitat characteristics. some females preferred to nest in littoral forest and in places with overstory vegetation cover, and others preferred to nest in more open, deforested areas. nest site choice was consistent within and between nesting seasons two years apart. this was not a result of females simply returning to the same l ...200617168038
distorting gene pools by conservation: assessing the case of doomed turtle eggs.sea turtles have a high reproductive output and high mortality at early stages of the life cycle. in particular, many nests are laid below or close to high tide lines, and subsequently large numbers of eggs may be inundated and destroyed. a common conservation procedure is to relocate such doomed eggs to higher ground. this article examines this practice in the light of recent data revealing that some individual turtles tend to nest relatively near the water and others relatively higher up the b ...200616841174
hawksbill sea turtles: can phylogenetics inform harvesting? 200717845423
whose turtles are they, anyway?the hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata), listed since 1996 by the iucn as critically endangered and by the convention on international trade in endangered species (cites) as an appendix i species, has been the subject of attention and controversy during the past 10 years due to the efforts of some nations to re-open banned international trade. the most recent debate has centred on whether it is appropriate for cuba to harvest hawksbills from shared foraging aggregations within her national ...200717181717
mixed-stock analysis reveals the migrations of juvenile hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) in the caribbean sea.hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) migrate between nesting beaches and feeding habitats that are often associated with tropical reefs, but it is uncertain which nesting colonies supply which feeding habitats. to address this gap in hawksbill biology, we compile previously published and new mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype data for 10 nesting colonies (n = 347) in the western atlantic and compare these profiles to four feeding populations and four previously published feeding samples ( ...200717181720
allometric scaling of lung volume and its consequences for marine turtle diving performance.marine turtle lungs have multiple functions including respiration, oxygen storage and buoyancy regulation, so lung size is an important indicator of dive performance. we determined maximum lung volumes (v(l)) for 30 individuals from three species (caretta caretta n=13; eretmochelys imbricata n=12; natator depressus n=5) across a range of body masses (m(b)): 0.9 to 46 kg. v(l) was 114 ml kg(-1) and increased with m(b) with a scaling factor of 0.92. based on these values for v(l) we demonstrated t ...200717596981
population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles.the seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. natal homing, wherein turtles return to their region of origin for mating and nesting, has been demonst ...200717944856
isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites from the critically endangered hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata).we isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci from the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata). the loci exhibited a variable number of alleles that ranged from three to 14 with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.70 (sd 0.18) across 40 hawksbill turtles from the caribbean. the polymorphism exhibited individually and in combination makes them suitable for fine-scale genetic studies. in particular, the low probability of identity and high paternity exclusion of these markers make ...200821585983
dispersal, recruitment and migratory behaviour in a hawksbill sea turtle aggregation.we investigated the dispersal, recruitment and migratory behaviour of the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata), among different life-history stages and demographic segments of the large hawksbill turtle aggregation at mona island, puerto rico. there were significant differences in both mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype diversity and haplotype frequencies among the adult males, females and juveniles examined, but little evidence for temporal heterogeneity within these same groups sampl ...200818208487
formation and ossification of limb elements in trachemys scripta and a discussion of autopodial elements in turtles.though sequences of formation and ossification of bony elements have been described for many taxa, controversy surrounds the formation of limb elements in turtles. three hypotheses for patterns of formation of autopodial elements have been proposed, differing primarily in the origin of distal carpal/tarsal 3, the digital arch, and centrale 4. patterns of formation and ossification of limb elements are described for trachemys scripta. these patterns are compared to similar data for representative ...200818624573
specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from ishigaki island, japan.concentrations of total arsenic (as) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from ishigaki island, japan. in both species, total as concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. high concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. a significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (scl), an indicator of age, and total as levels in green turtl ...200817728031
predicting species interactions from edge responses: mongoose predation on hawksbill sea turtle nests in fragmented beach habitat.because species respond differently to habitat boundaries and spatial overlap affects encounter rates, edge responses should be strong determinants of spatial patterns of species interactions. in the caribbean, mongooses (herpestes javanicus) prey on hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) eggs. turtles nest in both open sand and vegetation patches, with a peak in nest abundance near the boundary between the two microhabitats; mongooses rarely leave vegetation. using both artificial nests ...200818647718
turtle groups or turtle soup: dispersal patterns of hawksbill turtles in the caribbean.despite intense interest in conservation of marine turtles, spatial ecology during the oceanic juvenile phase remains relatively unknown. here, we used mixed stock analysis and examination of oceanic drift to elucidate movements of hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) and address management implications within the caribbean. among samples collected from 92 neritic juvenile hawksbills in the cayman islands we detected 11 mtdna control region haplotypes. to estimate contributions to the aggr ...200919889039
the characterization of cytosolic glutathione transferase from four species of sea turtles: loggerhead (caretta caretta), green (chelonia mydas), olive ridley (lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata).glutathione s-transferases (gst) play a critical role in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous electrophiles, as well as the products of oxidative stress. as compared to mammals, gst activity has not been extensively characterized in reptiles. throughout the globe, most sea turtle populations face the risk of extinction. of the natural and anthropogenic threats to sea turtles, the effects of environmental chemicals and related biochemical mechanisms, such as gst catalyzed detoxification ...200919460460
detection of polymorphisms of the mtdna control region of caretta caretta (testudines: cheloniidae) by pcr-sscp.marine turtles are increasingly being threatened worldwide by anthropogenic activities. better understanding of their life cycle, behavior and population structure is imperative for the design of adequate conservation strategies. the mtdna control region is a fast-evolving matrilineal marker that has been employed in the study of marine turtle populations. we developed and tested a simple molecular tracing system for caretta caretta mtdna haplotypes by polymerase chain reaction-single strand con ...200919283688
[seafood poisoning in madagascar: current state of knowledge and results of a retrospective study of the inhabitants of coastal villages].in 1996 and 1997, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in 560 villages spread along the madagascar coasts, gathering 585,000 people. 175 serious and 205 mild seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occured during the period 1930 to 1996. squales (mainly sphyrnidae and cacharinidae familiesi) are the most often responsible of serious poisoning (48% of episodes), then other fishes (37%), and mainly of the clupeidae family (herrings, sa ...200910623871
[gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles chelonia mydas and eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: chelonidae) from cuba].gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. in sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. if they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. we compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two cuban turtles. eighteen individuals of c. mydas and twenty of e. imbricata was obtaine ...201020411723
coral reefs and residents of the u.s. virgin islands: a relationship of knowledge, outdoor activities and stewardship.to test the hypotheses that u.s. virgin islanders' knowledge about local coral reefs is correlated with behavior, and that different sociological groups of residents have different patterns of knowledge and behavior, a mixed approach to surveying residents was used: (1) personal interviews were held in public locations and (2) an online version of the survey was administered to residents of the u.s. virgin islands. from july-october 2008,462 residents over 18 years old were surveyed. results ind ...201021299104
comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the pacific hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan.mitochondrial dna sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. in this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas) in the pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan. phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and gre ...201020064003
biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.the rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (chelonia mydas), olive ridley (lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (caretta caretta), and hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata). hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome p450 (p450) 1a substrate pcb, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetr ...201121480586
mtdna variation of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) nesting on iranian islands of the persian gulf.genetic diversity of sea turtles (hawksbill turtle) was studied using sequencing of mitochondrial dna (mtdna, d-loop region). thirty dead embryos were collected from the kish and qeshm islands in the persian gulf. analysis of sequence variation over 890 bp of the mtdna control region revealed five haplotypes among 30 individuals. this is the first time that iranian haplotypes have been recorded. nucleotide and haplotype diversity was 0.77 and 0.001 for qeshm island and 0.64 and 0.002 for kish is ...201121823100
ovarian follicular development in the hawksbill turtle (cheloniidae: eretmochelys imbricata l.).ovarian follicular development is an essential process in the determination of maturation stages associated with size. this association acquires importance when managing populations of threatened species. we histologically processed 11 prepubescent ovaries, four pubescent ovaries, and one breeding adult ovary with vitellogenic follicles using specific staining techniques to identify the follicular stages of eretmochelys imbricata. follicular stages were compared with maturation stages [including ...201222821844
enhancing the use of argos satellite data for home range and long distance migration studies of marine animals.accurately quantifying animals' spatial utilisation is critical for conservation, but has long remained an elusive goal due to technological impediments. the argos telemetry system has been extensively used to remotely track marine animals, however location estimates are characterised by substantial spatial error. state-space models (ssm) constitute a robust statistical approach to refine argos tracking data by accounting for observation errors and stochasticity in animal movement. despite their ...201222808241
factors affecting hatch success of hawksbill sea turtles on long island, antigua, west indies.current understanding of the factors influencing hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) hatch success is disparate and based on relatively short-term studies or limited sample sizes. because global populations of hawksbills are heavily depleted, evaluating the parameters that impact hatch success is important to their conservation and recovery. here, we use data collected by the jumby bay hawksbill project (jbhp) to investigate hatch success. the jbhp implements saturation tagging protoco ...201222802928
ultrastructural study of the male gamete of pleurogonius truncatus prudhoe, 1944 (platyhelminthes, digenea, pronocephalidae) parasite of eretmochelys imbricata (linnaeus, 1766).in pronocephaloidea, the spermatozoa of only two species have been studied today. because of this, we present in this work data concerning to a third specie, pleurogonius truncatus prudhoe, 1944. the mature spermatozoon of p. truncatus possesses two axonemes with the 9+"1" pattern typical of trepaxonemata, mitochondrion, nucleus, parallel cortical microtubules, spinelike bodies, cytoplasmic expansion and an external ornamentation of the plasma membrane. a particularity of the spermatozoon of p. ...201222578569
shifting the life-history paradigm: discovery of novel habitat use by hawksbill turtles.adult hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) are typically described as open-coast, coral reef and hard substrate dwellers. here, we report new satellite tracking data on female hawksbills from several countries in the eastern pacific that revealed previously undocumented behaviour for adults of the species. in contrast to patterns of habitat use exhibited by their caribbean and indo-pacific counterparts, eastern pacific hawksbills generally occupied inshore estuaries, wherein they had stron ...201221880620
efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata).the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) is a critically endangered species at a risk of extinction. preservation of the genomic and cellular information of endangered animals is important for future genetic and biological studies. here, we report the efficient establishment of primary fibroblast cultures from skin tissue of the hawksbill sea turtle. we succeeded in establishing 19 primary cultures from 20 hawksbill sea turtle individuals (a success rate of 95%). these cells exhibited a ...201223150139
relationships between carapace sizes and plasma major and trace element status in captive hawksbill sea turtles (eretmochelys imbricata).the aim of this study was to evaluate the relationships between carapace parameters as indicators of age and plasma elements in 25 captive hawksbill sea turtles. particle-induced x-ray emission allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements. there were significant but weak correlations between the virtual carapace surface area and plasma bromide (r = -0.552, p<0.01), phosphorus (r = 0.547, p<0.01), lead (r =-0.434, p<0.05) and strontium (r = 0.599, p<0.01), while there were no significant corr ...201222864474
re-examination of population structure and phylogeography of hawksbill turtles in the wider caribbean using longer mtdna sequences.management of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle in the wider caribbean (wc) has been hampered by knowledge gaps regarding stock structure. we carried out a comprehensive stock structure re-assessment of 11 wc hawksbill rookeries using longer mtdna sequences, larger sample sizes (n = 647), and additional rookeries compared to previous surveys. additional variation detected by 740 bp sequences between populations allowed us to differentiate populations such as barbados-windward and guadel ...201223045611
nuclear markers reveal a complex introgression pattern among marine turtle species on the brazilian coast.surprisingly, a high frequency of interspecific sea turtle hybrids has been previously recorded in a nesting site along a short stretch of the brazilian coast. mitochondrial dna data indicated that as much as 43% of the females identified as eretmochelys imbricata are hybrids in this area (bahia state of brazil). it is a remarkable find, because most of the nesting sites surveyed worldwide, including some in northern brazil, presents no hybrids, and rare caribbean sites present no more than 2% o ...201222780882
particle-induced x-ray emission analysis of elements in plasma from wild and captive sea turtles (eretmochelys imbricata, chelonia mydas, and caretta caretta) in okinawa, japan.the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of direct determination of trace and major element concentrations in plasma samples from wild (six hawksbill, nine green, and nine loggerhead) and captive sea turtles (25 howksbill, five green, and three loggerhead) in okinawa, japan. the particle induced x-ray emission method allowed detection of 23 trace and major elements (al, as, br, ca, cl, cr, cu, fe, hg, k, mg, mn, mo, ni, p, pb, s, se, si, sr, ti, y, and zn). the wild sea turtles were ...201222402882
identification of five reptile egg whites protein using maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms analysis.proteomics of egg white proteins of five reptile species, namely siamese crocodile (crocodylus siamensis), soft-shelled turtle (trionyx sinensis taiwanese), red-eared slider turtle (trachemys scripta elegans), hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricate) and green turtle (chelonia mydas) were studied by 2d-page using ipg strip ph 4-7 size 7 cm and ipg strip ph 3-10 size 24 cm. the protein spots in the egg white of the five reptile species were identified by maldi-tof mass spectrometry and lc/ms-ms ...201222266102
to eat or not to eat? debris selectivity by marine turtles.marine debris is a growing problem for wildlife, and has been documented to affect more than 267 species worldwide. we investigated the prevalence of marine debris ingestion in 115 sea turtles stranded in queensland between 2006-2011, and assessed how the ingestion rates differ between species (eretmochelys imbricata vs. chelonia mydas) and by turtle size class (smaller oceanic feeders vs. larger benthic feeders). concurrently, we conducted 25 beach surveys to estimate the composition of the deb ...201222829894
the role of turtles as coral reef macroherbivores.herbivory is widely accepted as a vital function on coral reefs. to date, the majority of studies examining herbivory in coral reef environments have focused on the roles of fishes and/or urchins, with relatively few studies considering the potential role of macroherbivores in reef processes. here, we introduce evidence that highlights the potential role of marine turtles as herbivores on coral reefs. while conducting experimental habitat manipulations to assess the roles of herbivorous reef fis ...201222768189
contextualising the last survivors: population structure of marine turtles in the dominican republic.nesting by three species of marine turtles persists in the dominican republic, despite historic threats and long-term population decline. we conducted a genetic survey of marine turtles in the dominican republic in order to link them with other rookeries around the caribbean. we sequenced a 740bp fragment of the control region of the mitochondrial dna of 92 samples from three marine turtle species [hawksbill (n = 48), green (n = 2) and leatherback (n = 42)], and incorporated published data from ...201323840394
anatomy of the fully formed chondrocranium of emydura subglobosa (chelidae): a pleurodiran turtle.the chondrocranium is a cartilaginous structure that forms around and protects the brain and sensory organs of the head. through ontogeny, this skeletal structure may become more elaborate, remodeled and reabsorbed, and/or ossified. though considerable attention has been given to the formation of the chondrocranium and a great amount of data has been gathered on the development of this structure among many craniates, the anatomy of this structure in turtles often is neglected. we describe the ma ...201322972700
in vitro thermal effects on embryonic cells of endangered hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata.the hawksbill turtle is an ectotherm, whose sex is determined by temperature during embryonic development. this study aimed to determine whether embryonic hawksbill turtle cells respond differently to temperature than mammalian cells. embryonic hawksbill turtle cells were established in culture, and thermal effects on these cells were investigated in vitro. cells were maintained in dulbecco's modified eagle medium supplemented with non-essential amino acids, vitamin solution, sodium pyruvate, an ...201324320182
attitudes and local ecological knowledge of experts fishermen in relation to conservation and bycatch of sea turtles (reptilia: testudines), southern bahia, brazil.the use of ethnoecological tools to evaluate possible damage and loss of biodiversity related to the populations of species under some degree of threat may represent a first step towards integrating the political management of natural resources and conservation strategies. from this perspective, this study investigates fishermen's ecological knowledge about sea turtles and attitudes towards the conservation and bycatch in ilhéus, southern bahia, brazil.201323448503
reconstructing paternal genotypes to infer patterns of sperm storage and sexual selection in the hawksbill turtle.postcopulatory sperm storage can serve a range of functions, including ensuring fertility, allowing delayed fertilization and facilitating sexual selection. sperm storage is likely to be particularly important in wide-ranging animals with low population densities, but its prevalence and importance in such taxa, and its role in promoting sexual selection, are poorly known. here, we use a powerful microsatellite array and paternal genotype reconstruction to assess the prevalence of sperm storage a ...201323379838
ghrelin and leptin modulate the feeding behaviour of the hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata during nesting season.female sea turtles have rarely been observed foraging during the nesting season. this suggests that prior to their migration to nesting beaches the females must store sufficient energy and nutrients at their foraging grounds and must be physiologically capable of undergoing months without feeding. leptin (an appetite-suppressing protein) and ghrelin (a hunger-stimulating peptide) affect body weight by influencing energy intake in all vertebrates. we investigated the levels of these hormones and ...201327293600
hexavalent chromium is cytotoxic and genotoxic to hawksbill sea turtle cells.sea turtles are a charismatic and ancient ocean species and can serve as key indicators for ocean ecosystems, including coral reefs and sea grass beds as well as coastal beaches. genotoxicity studies in the species are absent, limiting our understanding of the impact of environmental toxicants on sea turtles. hexavalent chromium (cr(vi)) is a ubiquitous environmental problem worldwide, and recent studies show it is a global marine pollutant of concern. thus, we evaluated the cytotoxicity and gen ...201424952338
characterization of a subtropical hawksbill sea turtle (eretmocheyles imbricata) assemblage utilizing shallow water natural and artificial habitats in the florida keys.in order to provide information to better inform management decisions and direct further research, vessel-based visual transects, snorkel transects, and in-water capture techniques were used to characterize hawksbill sea turtles in the shallow marine habitats of a marine protected area (mpa), the key west national wildlife refuge in the florida keys. hawksbills were found in hardbottom and seagrass dominated habitats throughout the refuge, and on man-made rubble structures in the northwest chann ...201425517946
unravelling the microbiome of eggs of the endangered sea turtle eretmochelys imbricata identifies bacteria with activity against the emerging pathogen fusarium falciforme.habitat bioaugmentation and introduction of protective microbiota have been proposed as potential conservation strategies to rescue endangered mammals and amphibians from emerging diseases. for both strategies, insight into the microbiomes of the endangered species and their habitats is essential. here, we sampled nests of the endangered sea turtle species eretmochelys imbricata that were infected with the fungal pathogen fusarium falciforme. metagenomic analysis of the bacterial communities ass ...201424743166
global analysis of anthropogenic debris ingestion by sea turtles.ingestion of marine debris can have lethal and sublethal effects on sea turtles and other wildlife. although researchers have reported on ingestion of anthropogenic debris by marine turtles and implied incidences of debris ingestion have increased over time, there has not been a global synthesis of the phenomenon since 1985. thus, we analyzed 37 studies published from 1985 to 2012 that report on data collected from before 1900 through 2011. specifically, we investigated whether ingestion prevale ...201423914794
hawksbill × loggerhead sea turtle hybrids at bahia, brazil: where do their offspring go?hybridization between hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and loggerhead (caretta caretta) breeding groups is unusually common in bahia state, brazil. such hybridization is possible because hawksbill and loggerhead nesting activities overlap temporally and spatially along the coast of this state. nevertheless, the destinations of their offspring are not yet known. this study is the first to identify immature hawksbill × loggerhead hybrids (n = 4) from this rookery by analyzing the mitochondrial d ...201424688839
patterns and inferred processes associated with sea turtle strandings in paraíba state, northeast brazil.this study analysed sea turtle strandings on the coast of paraíba state, northeastern brazil, from august 2009 to july 2010. a total of 124 strandings were recorded in this period: green turtle chelonia mydas (n = 106), hawksbill eretmochelys imbricata (n = 15), olive ridley lepidochelys olivacea (n = 2) and loggerhead caretta caretta (n = 1). of all turtles for which the curved carapace length (ccl) was measured (n = 122), only 12 individuals (9.7%) were adults. twenty individuals had synthetic ...201425166312
fishery gear interactions from stranded bottlenose dolphins, florida manatees and sea turtles in florida, u.s.a.documenting the extent of fishery gear interactions is critical to wildlife conservation efforts, especially for reducing entanglements and ingestion. this study summarizes fishery gear interactions involving common bottlenose dolphins (tursiops truncatus truncatus), florida manatees (trichechus manatus latirostris) and sea turtles: loggerhead (caretta caretta), green turtle (chelonia mydas), leatherback (dermochelys coriacea), hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata), kemp's ridley (lepidochelys kemp ...201424613263
monitoring organic and inorganic pollutants in juvenile live sea turtles: results from a study of chelonia mydas and eretmochelys imbricata in cape verde.despite the current environmental concern regarding the risk posed by contamination in marine ecosystems, the concentrations of pollutants in sea turtles have not been thoroughly elucidated. in the current study, we determined the concentrations of 18 organochlorine pesticides (ocps), 18 polychlorinated biphenyls (pcbs), 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (pahs) and 11 inorganic elements (cu, mn, pb, zn, cd, ni, cr, as, al, hg and se) for the first time in two sea turtle species (chelonia mydas ...201424602915
induction of oviposition by the administration of oxytocin in hawksbill turtles.we set out to develop an oviposition induction technique for captive female hawksbill turtles eretmochelys imbricata. the infertile eggs of nine females were induced to develop by the administration of follicle-stimulating hormone, after which we investigated the effects of administering oxytocin on oviposition. seven of the turtles were held in a stationary horizontal position on a retention stand, and then oxytocin was administrated (0.6-0.8 units/kg of body weight; 5 ml). the seven turtles we ...201425483795
spatio-temporal variation in the incubation duration and sex ratio of hawksbill hatchlings: implication for future management.climate change poses a unique threat to species with temperature dependent sex determination (tsd), such as marine turtles, where increases in temperature can result in extreme sex ratio biases. knowledge of the primary sex ratio of populations with tsd is key for providing a baseline to inform management strategies and to accurately predict how future climate changes may affect turtle populations. however, there is a lack of robust data on offspring sex ratio at appropriate temporal and spatial ...201425086976
high rates of growth recorded for hawksbill sea turtles in anegada, british virgin islands.management of species of conservation concern requires knowledge of demographic parameters, such as rates of recruitment, survival, and growth. in the caribbean, hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) have been historically exploited in huge numbers to satisfy trade in their shells and meat. in the present study, we estimated growth rate of juvenile hawksbill turtles around anegada, british virgin islands, using capture-mark-recapture of 59 turtles over periods of up to 649 days. turtles wer ...201424834324
determination and maternal transfer of heavy metals (cd, cu, zn, pb and hg) in the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) from a nesting colony of qeshm island, iran.this study was conducted to determine trace metal concentrations (cd, cu, zn, pb and hg) in blood and three egg fractions from eretmochelys imbricata nesting on qeshm island in iran. the results showed detectable levels of all analytes in all fractions. pb and hg were detectable in the blood and eggs, reflecting a maternal transfer. with the exception of cu and pb, analyzed elements in eggs were concentrated in yolk. only zn in blood had a significant correlation with the body size and weight (p ...201424705701
plasma biochemical and pcv ranges for healthy, wild, immature hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles.in recent years, the use of blood chemistry as a diagnostic tool for sea turtles has been demonstrated, but much of its effectiveness relies on reference intervals. the first comprehensive blood chemistry values for healthy wild hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) sea turtles are presented. nineteen blood chemistry analytes and packed cell volume were analysed for 40 clinically healthy juvenile hawksbill sea turtles captured from a rocky reef habitat in northern australia. we used four statistica ...201424675772
molecular identification and first report of mitochondrial coi gene haplotypes in the hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: cheloniidae) in the colombian caribbean nesting colonies.hawksbill sea turtles eretmochelys imbricata are found extensively around the world, including the atlantic, pacific, and indian oceans; the persian gulf, and the red and mediterranean seas. populations of this species are affected by international trafficking of their shields, meat, and eggs, making it a critically endangered animal. we determined the haplotypes of 17 hawksbill foraging turtles of islas del rosario (bolivar) and of the nesting beach don diego (magdalena) in the colombian caribb ...201424634300
genetic structure and natal origins of immature hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) in brazilian waters.understanding the connections between sea turtle populations is fundamental for their effective conservation. brazil hosts important hawksbill feeding areas, but few studies have focused on how they connect with nesting populations in the atlantic. here, we (1) characterized mitochondrial dna control region haplotypes of immature hawksbills feeding along the coast of brazil (five areas ranging from equatorial to temperate latitudes, 157 skin samples), (2) analyzed genetic structure among atlanti ...201424558419
comparative cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of soluble and particulate hexavalent chromium in human and hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) skin cells.chromium is both a global marine pollutant and a known human health hazard. in this study, we compare the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of both soluble and particulate chromate in human and hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) skin fibroblasts. our data show that both soluble and particulate cr(vi) induce concentration-dependent increases in cytotoxicity, genotoxicity, and intracellular cr ion concentrations in both human and hawksbill sea turtle fibroblasts. based on administered conce ...201526440299
genetic variation, multiple paternity, and measures of reproductive success in the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata).the yucatán peninsula in mexico contains some of the largest breeding groups of the globally distributed and critically endangered hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata). an improved understanding of the breeding system of this species and how its genetic variation is structured among nesting areas is required before the threats to its survival can be properly evaluated. here, we genotype 1195 hatchlings and 41 nesting females at 12 microsatellite loci to assess levels of multiple paternity, ...201526811751
trace elements distribution in hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtle (chelonia mydas) tissues on the northern coast of bahia, brazil.concentrations of elements (as, al, ba, ca, cd, co, cr, cu, fe, hg, k, mg, mn, mo, na, ni, pb, sb, se, sr, v, zn) were determined in liver, kidneys and bones of eretmochelys imbricata and chelonia mydas specimens found stranded along the northern coast of bahia, brazil. results showed that the concentrations of cd, cu, ni and zn in the liver and kidneys of juvenile c. mydas were the highest found in brazil. we also observed a significant difference (p<0.05) on the bioaccumulation of trace elemen ...201525796544
comparison of organochlorine pesticides and pcb residues among hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green (chelonia mydas) turtles in the yucatan peninsula and their maternal transfer.organochlorine pesticides and pcb (pops) concentrations were determined in the blood and eggs of green and hawksbill turtles. we compared concentrations between species, analyzed the relationship between turtle size and the pops concentrations and the relationship between the concentrations in the blood of the nesting turtles and their eggs. we expected higher concentrations in the hawksbill turtle because of its higher trophic level, but concentrations were not higher in all the cases. signific ...201525549825
core and body surface temperatures of nesting leatherback turtles (dermochelys coriacea).leatherback turtles (dermochelys coriacea) are the largest species of marine turtle and the fourth most massive extant reptile. in temperate waters they maintain body temperatures higher than surrounding seawater through a combination of insulation, physiological, and behavioural adaptations. nesting involves physical activity in addition to contact with warm sand and air, potentially presenting thermal challenges in the absence of the cooling effect of water, and data are lacking with which to ...201525965013
evidence of fluconazole-resistant candida species in tortoises and sea turtles.the aim of this study was to evaluate the antifungal susceptibility of candida spp. recovered from tortoises (chelonoidis spp.) and sea turtles (chelonia mydas, caretta caretta, lepidochelys olivacea, eretmochelys imbricata). for this purpose, material from the oral cavity and cloaca of 77 animals (60 tortoises and 17 sea turtles) was collected. the collected specimens were seeded on 2% sabouraud dextrose agar with chloramphenicol, and the identification was carried out by morphological and bioc ...201526363919
impact of jaguar panthera onca (carnivora: felidae) predation on marine turtle populations in tortuguero, caribbean coast of costa rica.little is known about the effects of jaguars on the population of marine turtles nesting in tortuguero national park, costa rica. this study assessed jaguar predation impact on three species of marine turtles (chelonia mydas, dermochelys coriacea and eretmochelys imbricata) that nest in tortuguero beach. jaguar predation data was obtained by using two methodologies, literature review (historical records prior the year 2005) and weekly surveys along the 29 km stretch of beach during the period 20 ...201526666135
solomon islands largest hawksbill turtle rookery shows signs of recovery after 150 years of excessive exploitation.the largest rookery for hawksbill turtles in the oceanic south pacific is the arnavon islands, which are located in the manning strait between isabel and choiseul province, solomon islands. the history of this rookery is one of overexploitation, conflict and violence. throughout the 1800s roviana headhunters from new georgia repeatedly raided the manning strait to collect hawksbill shell which they traded with european whalers. by the 1970s the arnavons hawksbill population was in severe decline ...201525853880
signals of vitellogenesis and estrus in female hawksbill turtles.this study reports a viable means of identifying the vitellogenic cycle and limited estrus period in hawksbill turtles for the purposes of developing captive breeding program, based on the combination of blood metabolite parameters (triglyceride, total protein, and calcium levels), feeding status, and ovary condition. follicle size of two focal captive females showed clear seasonal changes, with major development occurring between march and may (19.0-24.4 mm), and exceeding 25 mm between june an ...201525660704
helminth parasites of the juvenile hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: cheloniidae) in brazil.the helminth fauna of 31 juvenile specimens of eretmochelys imbricata from the brazilian coast was examined. seventeen individuals were infected with helminths (54.8%). the helminths found were: diaschistorchis pandus, cricocephalus albus, metacetabulum invaginatum, pronocephalus obliquus (pronocephalidae), cymatocarpus solearis (brachycoeliidae), styphlotrema solitaria (styphlotrematidae), carettacola stunkardi, amphiorchis caborojoensis (spirorchiidae), orchidasma amphiorchis (telorchiidae), a ...201525738321
age and body size of captive hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development.the aim of this study was to record the age and body size of 23 captive female hawksbill turtles at the onset of follicular development. the age, straight carapace length (scl), and body mass (bm) of the turtles were recorded between 2006 and 2014 at follicular development (determined via ultrasonography) these parameters were 17.7 ± 1.7 years (range: 13-20 years), 77.7 ± 3.3 cm (73.3-83.5 cm), and 61.1 ± 8.0 kg (48.2-76.1 kg), respectively. when the year of the onset of follicular development w ...201625536010
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