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re-examination of population structure and phylogeography of hawksbill turtles in the wider caribbean using longer mtdna sequences.management of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle in the wider caribbean (wc) has been hampered by knowledge gaps regarding stock structure. we carried out a comprehensive stock structure re-assessment of 11 wc hawksbill rookeries using longer mtdna sequences, larger sample sizes (n = 647), and additional rookeries compared to previous surveys. additional variation detected by 740 bp sequences between populations allowed us to differentiate populations such as barbados-windward and guadel ...201223045611
mtdna variation of the critically endangered hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) nesting on iranian islands of the persian gulf.genetic diversity of sea turtles (hawksbill turtle) was studied using sequencing of mitochondrial dna (mtdna, d-loop region). thirty dead embryos were collected from the kish and qeshm islands in the persian gulf. analysis of sequence variation over 890 bp of the mtdna control region revealed five haplotypes among 30 individuals. this is the first time that iranian haplotypes have been recorded. nucleotide and haplotype diversity was 0.77 and 0.001 for qeshm island and 0.64 and 0.002 for kish is ...201121823100
biotransformation of 2,2',5,5'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 52) and 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 77) by liver microsomes from four species of sea turtles.the rates of oxidative metabolism of two tetrachlorobiphenyl congeners were determined in hepatic microsomes from four species of sea turtles, green (chelonia mydas), olive ridley (lepidochelys olivacea), loggerhead (caretta caretta), and hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata). hydroxylation of 3,3',4,4'-tetrachlorobiphenyl (pcb 77), an ortho-meta unsubstituted rodent cytochrome p450 (p450) 1a substrate pcb, was not observed in sea turtle microsomes. sea turtle microsomes hydroxylated 2,2',5,5'-tetr ...201121480586
[gonadic histology and phenotypical maturation criteria in the marine turtles chelonia mydas and eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: chelonidae) from cuba].gonad maturity is usually evaluated through macroscopic analysis of the gonads. in sea turtles, the maturation stages are associated with body size, depending on the studied marine stock. fishermen classify turtles bigger than 65.0 cm as sexually mature. if they have secondary sex characters they are recorded as breeding males. we compared body size with macroscopic and microscopic gonad characteristics in two cuban turtles. eighteen individuals of c. mydas and twenty of e. imbricata was obtaine ...201020411723
coral reefs and residents of the u.s. virgin islands: a relationship of knowledge, outdoor activities and stewardship.to test the hypotheses that u.s. virgin islanders' knowledge about local coral reefs is correlated with behavior, and that different sociological groups of residents have different patterns of knowledge and behavior, a mixed approach to surveying residents was used: (1) personal interviews were held in public locations and (2) an online version of the survey was administered to residents of the u.s. virgin islands. from july-october 2008,462 residents over 18 years old were surveyed. results ind ...201021299104
comparative phylogeny and historical perspectives on population genetics of the pacific hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas), inferred from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan.mitochondrial dna sequence polymorphisms and patterns of genetic diversity represent the genealogy and relative impacts of historical, geographic, and demographic events on populations. in this study, historical patterns of population dynamics and differentiation in hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas) in the pacific were estimated from feeding populations in the yaeyama islands, japan. phylogenetic relationships of the haplotypes indicated that hawksbill and gre ...201020064003
detection of polymorphisms of the mtdna control region of caretta caretta (testudines: cheloniidae) by pcr-sscp.marine turtles are increasingly being threatened worldwide by anthropogenic activities. better understanding of their life cycle, behavior and population structure is imperative for the design of adequate conservation strategies. the mtdna control region is a fast-evolving matrilineal marker that has been employed in the study of marine turtle populations. we developed and tested a simple molecular tracing system for caretta caretta mtdna haplotypes by polymerase chain reaction-single strand con ...200919283688
the characterization of cytosolic glutathione transferase from four species of sea turtles: loggerhead (caretta caretta), green (chelonia mydas), olive ridley (lepidochelys olivacea), and hawksbill (eretmochelys imbricata).glutathione s-transferases (gst) play a critical role in the detoxification of exogenous and endogenous electrophiles, as well as the products of oxidative stress. as compared to mammals, gst activity has not been extensively characterized in reptiles. throughout the globe, most sea turtle populations face the risk of extinction. of the natural and anthropogenic threats to sea turtles, the effects of environmental chemicals and related biochemical mechanisms, such as gst catalyzed detoxification ...200919460460
[seafood poisoning in madagascar: current state of knowledge and results of a retrospective study of the inhabitants of coastal villages].in 1996 and 1997, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in 560 villages spread along the madagascar coasts, gathering 585,000 people. 175 serious and 205 mild seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occured during the period 1930 to 1996. squales (mainly sphyrnidae and cacharinidae familiesi) are the most often responsible of serious poisoning (48% of episodes), then other fishes (37%), and mainly of the clupeidae family (herrings, sa ...200910623871
turtle groups or turtle soup: dispersal patterns of hawksbill turtles in the caribbean.despite intense interest in conservation of marine turtles, spatial ecology during the oceanic juvenile phase remains relatively unknown. here, we used mixed stock analysis and examination of oceanic drift to elucidate movements of hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) and address management implications within the caribbean. among samples collected from 92 neritic juvenile hawksbills in the cayman islands we detected 11 mtdna control region haplotypes. to estimate contributions to the aggr ...200919889039
isolation and characterization of novel microsatellites from the critically endangered hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata).we isolated and characterized 12 microsatellite loci from the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata). the loci exhibited a variable number of alleles that ranged from three to 14 with an average observed heterozygosity of 0.70 (sd 0.18) across 40 hawksbill turtles from the caribbean. the polymorphism exhibited individually and in combination makes them suitable for fine-scale genetic studies. in particular, the low probability of identity and high paternity exclusion of these markers make ...200821585983
predicting species interactions from edge responses: mongoose predation on hawksbill sea turtle nests in fragmented beach habitat.because species respond differently to habitat boundaries and spatial overlap affects encounter rates, edge responses should be strong determinants of spatial patterns of species interactions. in the caribbean, mongooses (herpestes javanicus) prey on hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) eggs. turtles nest in both open sand and vegetation patches, with a peak in nest abundance near the boundary between the two microhabitats; mongooses rarely leave vegetation. using both artificial nests ...200818647718
formation and ossification of limb elements in trachemys scripta and a discussion of autopodial elements in turtles.though sequences of formation and ossification of bony elements have been described for many taxa, controversy surrounds the formation of limb elements in turtles. three hypotheses for patterns of formation of autopodial elements have been proposed, differing primarily in the origin of distal carpal/tarsal 3, the digital arch, and centrale 4. patterns of formation and ossification of limb elements are described for trachemys scripta. these patterns are compared to similar data for representative ...200818624573
specific accumulation of arsenic compounds in green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from ishigaki island, japan.concentrations of total arsenic (as) and individual compounds were determined in green and hawksbill turtles from ishigaki island, japan. in both species, total as concentrations were highest in muscle among the tissues. arsenobetaine was a major compound in most tissues of both turtles. high concentrations of trimethylarsine oxide were detected in hawksbill turtles. a significant negative correlation between standard carapace length (scl), an indicator of age, and total as levels in green turtl ...200817728031
dispersal, recruitment and migratory behaviour in a hawksbill sea turtle aggregation.we investigated the dispersal, recruitment and migratory behaviour of the hawksbill sea turtle (eretmochelys imbricata), among different life-history stages and demographic segments of the large hawksbill turtle aggregation at mona island, puerto rico. there were significant differences in both mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype diversity and haplotype frequencies among the adult males, females and juveniles examined, but little evidence for temporal heterogeneity within these same groups sampl ...200818208487
allometric scaling of lung volume and its consequences for marine turtle diving performance.marine turtle lungs have multiple functions including respiration, oxygen storage and buoyancy regulation, so lung size is an important indicator of dive performance. we determined maximum lung volumes (v(l)) for 30 individuals from three species (caretta caretta n=13; eretmochelys imbricata n=12; natator depressus n=5) across a range of body masses (m(b)): 0.9 to 46 kg. v(l) was 114 ml kg(-1) and increased with m(b) with a scaling factor of 0.92. based on these values for v(l) we demonstrated t ...200717596981
population genetics and phylogeography of sea turtles.the seven species of sea turtles occupy a diversity of niches, and have a history tracing back over 100 million years, yet all share basic life-history features, including exceptional navigation skills and periodic migrations from feeding to breeding habitats. here, we review the biogeographic, behavioural, and ecological factors that shape the distribution of genetic diversity in sea turtles. natal homing, wherein turtles return to their region of origin for mating and nesting, has been demonst ...200717944856
mixed-stock analysis reveals the migrations of juvenile hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) in the caribbean sea.hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) migrate between nesting beaches and feeding habitats that are often associated with tropical reefs, but it is uncertain which nesting colonies supply which feeding habitats. to address this gap in hawksbill biology, we compile previously published and new mitochondrial dna (mtdna) haplotype data for 10 nesting colonies (n = 347) in the western atlantic and compare these profiles to four feeding populations and four previously published feeding samples ( ...200717181720
hawksbill sea turtles: can phylogenetics inform harvesting? 200717845423
whose turtles are they, anyway?the hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata), listed since 1996 by the iucn as critically endangered and by the convention on international trade in endangered species (cites) as an appendix i species, has been the subject of attention and controversy during the past 10 years due to the efforts of some nations to re-open banned international trade. the most recent debate has centred on whether it is appropriate for cuba to harvest hawksbills from shared foraging aggregations within her national ...200717181717
inter-seasonal maintenance of individual nest site preferences in hawksbill sea turtles.within a single population of hawksbill sea turtles (eretmochelys imbricata), we found a behavioral polymorphism for maternal nest site choice with respect to beach microhabitat characteristics. some females preferred to nest in littoral forest and in places with overstory vegetation cover, and others preferred to nest in more open, deforested areas. nest site choice was consistent within and between nesting seasons two years apart. this was not a result of females simply returning to the same l ...200617168038
[tanycytoglia in the diencephalon of cryptodirous tortoises (testudines, reptilia). i. matrix dynamics and development of the ependyma in emys orbicularis l. compared with the behavior in eretmochelys imbricata l]. 20065399725
distorting gene pools by conservation: assessing the case of doomed turtle eggs.sea turtles have a high reproductive output and high mortality at early stages of the life cycle. in particular, many nests are laid below or close to high tide lines, and subsequently large numbers of eggs may be inundated and destroyed. a common conservation procedure is to relocate such doomed eggs to higher ground. this article examines this practice in the light of recent data revealing that some individual turtles tend to nest relatively near the water and others relatively higher up the b ...200616841174
vitellogenin in black turtle (chelonia mydas agassizii): purification, partial characterization, and validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for its detection.black turtle plasmatic vitellogenin (vtg) was purified from 17beta-estradiol-induced males using ion-exchange chromatography. the isolated protein was identified as vtg by its glycolipoprotein nature and amino acid sequence homology with other vertebrate vtg. it was characterized as a 500-kda dimer composed of two identical, 200- to 240-kda monomers. polyclonal antibodies raised against black turtle vtg showed high titer and specificity, as demonstrated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and w ...200616519309
deforestation: risk of sex ratio distortion in hawksbill sea turtles.phenotypic sex in sea turtles is determined by nest incubation temperatures, with warmer temperatures producing females and cooler temperatures producing males. the common finding of highly skewed female-biased hatchling sex ratios in sea turtle populations could have serious repercussions for the long-term survival of these species and prompted us to examine the thermal profile of a relatively pristine hawksbill nesting beach in guadeloupe, french west indies. data loggers placed at nest depth ...200616826992
geographic variation in marine turtle fibropapillomatosis.we document three examples of fibropapillomatosis by histology, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qpcr), and sequence analysis from three different geographic areas. tumors compatible in morphology with fibropapillomatosis were seen in green turtles from puerto rico and san diego (california) and in a hybrid loggerhead/ hawksbill turtle from florida bay (florida). tumors were confirmed as fibropapillomas on histology, although severity of disease varied between cases. polymerase chain reac ...200517312778
fine-scale tracking of marine turtles using gps-argos ptts.high-accuracy location data of wildlife telemetry using conventional satellite location systems are difficult to obtain. however, such data are necessary to clarify the nature of movements and home range sizes of animals. in order to measure the high-accuracy location data, we developed new gps-argos platform terminal transmitters (ptts) which transmit both the conventional location and gps location simultaneously. two experiments, one in an artificial rearing pond and the other in the open sea, ...200515930827
interplay between plasma hormone profiles, sex and body condition in immature hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) subjected to a capture stress protocol.we investigated plasma hormone profiles of corticosterone and testosterone in immature hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) in response to a capture stress protocol. further, we examined whether sex and body condition were covariates associated with variation in the adrenocortical response of immature turtles. hawksbill turtles responded to the capture stress protocol by significantly increasing plasma levels of corticosterone over a 5 h period. there was no significant sex difference in t ...200414720605
comparison of functional aspects of the coagulation cascade in human and sea turtle plasmas.functional hemostatic pathways are critical for the survival of all vertebrates and have been evolving for more than 400 million years. the overwhelming majority of studies of hemostasis in vertebrates have focused on mammals with very sparse attention paid to reptiles. there have been virtually no studies of the coagulation pathway in sea turtles whose ancestors date back to the jurassic period. sea turtles are often exposed to rapidly altered environmental conditions during diving periods. thi ...200415325341
a survey of the epibiota of eretmochelys imbricata (testudines: cheloniidae) of mona island, puerto rico.epibiotic organisms inhabiting non-nesting hawksbill sea turtles, eretmochelys imbricata (linnaeus, 1766), are described from mona and monito islands, puerto rico. epibiont samples from 105 turtles of shallow (< 40 m) water foraging habitats were collected and identified to the lowest possible taxon. this epibiotic assemblage consisting of at least 4 algal functional groups and 12 animal phyla represents the greatest phylogenetic diversity for marine turtle epibiota. six groups are considered ne ...200315264558
arsenic accumulation in livers of pinnipeds, seabirds and sea turtles: subcellular distribution and interaction between arsenobetaine and glycine betaine.concentrations of total arsenic and individual arsenic compounds were determined in liver samples of pinnipeds (northern fur seal callorhinus ursinus and ringed seal pusa hispida), seabirds (black-footed albatross diomedea nigripes and black-tailed gull larus crassirostris) and sea turtles (hawksbill turtle eretmochelys imbricata and green turtle chelonia mydas). among these species, the black-footed albatross contained the highest hepatic arsenic concentration (5.8+/-3.7 microg/g wet mass). ars ...200315012900
subcellular distribution of trace elements in the liver of sea turtles.subcellular distribution of cu, zn, se, rb, mo, ag, cd and pb was determined in the liver of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from yaeyama islands, japan. also, hepatic cytosol from sea turtles was applied on a sephadex g-75 column and elution profiles of trace elements were examined. copper, zn, se, rb, ag and cd were largely present in cytosol in the liver of both species, indicating that cytosol was the significant site for the accumulation of thes ...200212398389
asynchronous emergence by loggerhead turtle (caretta caretta) hatchlings.for many decades it has been accepted that marine turtle hatchlings from the same nest generally emerge from the sand together. however, for loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) nesting on the greek island of kefalonia, a more asynchronous pattern of emergence has been documented. by placing temperature loggers at the top and bottom of nests laid on kefalonia during 1998, we examined whether this asynchronous emergence was related to the thermal conditions within nests. pronounced thermal variat ...200111402844
trophic status drives interannual variability in nesting numbers of marine turtles.large annual fluctuations are seen in breeding numbers in many populations of non-annual breeders. we examined the interannual variation in nesting numbers of populations of green (chelonia mydas) (n = 16 populations), loggerhead (caretta caretta) (n = 10 populations), leatherback (dermochelys coriacea) (n = 9 populations) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) (n = 10 populations). interannual variation was greatest in the green turtle. when comparing green and loggerhead turtles nestin ...200111454292
trace element accumulation in hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) and green turtles (chelonia mydas) from yaeyama islands, japan.concentrations of 18 trace elements (v, cr, mn, co, cu, zn, se, rb, sr, zr, mo, ag, cd, sb, ba, hg, tl, and pb) were determined in the liver, kidney, and muscle of green turtles (chelonia mydas) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata) from yaeyama islands, okinawa, japan. accumulation features of trace elements in the three tissues were similar between green and hawksbill turtles. no gender differences in trace element accumulation in liver and kidney were found for most of the elements. ...200111764164
using open robust design models to estimate temporary emigration from capture-recapture data.capture-recapture studies are crucial in many circumstances for estimating demographic parameters for wildlife and fish populations. pollock's robust design, involving multiple sampling occasions per period of interest, provides several advantages over classical approaches. this includes the ability to estimate the probability of being present and available for detection, which in some situations is equivalent to breeding probability. we present a model for estimating availability for detection ...200111764251
an analysis of the growth based on the size and age distributions of the hawksbill sea turtle inhabiting cuban waters.the first costal scute (c 1) collected from 2, 749 hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) captured in cuban waters in 1993 and 1994 were analyzed to determine their body size and age distributions. the c 1 width (c 1 w) was converted to the straight carapace length (scl) using a formula, scl = 4.3527 (c 1 w)0.8484, to examine its body size distribution. the scl ranged from 51.3 to 96.1 cm with 68.8 cm of mean and 68.6 cm of median. ages of captured turtles estimated from the c 1 surface patte ...200011236275
arsenic accumulation in three species of sea turtles.arsenic in the liver, kidney and muscle of three species of sea turtles, e.g., green turtles (chelonia mydas), loggerhead turtles (caretta caretta) and hawksbill turtles (eretmochelys imbricata), were determined using hg-aas, followed by arsenic speciation analysis using hplc-icp-ms. the order of arsenic concentration in tissues was muscle > kidney > liver. unexpectedly, the arsenic concentrations in the hawksbill turtles feeding mainly on sponges were higher than the two other turtles primarily ...200011127896
[kap study (knowledge-attitude-practice) on seafood poisoning on the southwest coast of madagascar].in june and july 1996, a knowledge, attitude and practice survey concerning seafood poisonings was conducted in tuléar province, 41 villages spread along 300 km of cost, with some 34,000 inhabitants, were included in the survey. 84 seafood poisonings after fish, shark and turtle meals occurred during the period 1931 to 1995; 14 of them were responsible of deaths. the family of toxic fishes are clupeidae, tetraodontidae, scaridae and siganidae. sphyrna lewini is the shark species the most often r ...199910214522
maximum likelihood estimation of population divergence times and population phylogenies under the infinite sites model.in this paper, a maximum likelihood estimator of population divergence time based on the infinite sites model is developed. it is demonstrated how this estimator may be applied to obtain maximum likelihood estimates of the topology of population phylogenies. this approach addresses several classical problems occurring in the inference of the phylogenetic relationship of populations, most notably the problem of shared ancestral polymorphisms. the method is applied to previously published data set ...19989615473
spongivory on caribbean reefs releases corals from competition with sponges.competition for space is an important process on tropical coral reefs. few studies have examined the role sponges play in community structure despite the fact that many sponges are competitively superior to reef-building corals in space acquisition. surveys conducted throughout the florida keys indicated that chondrilla nucula was involved in about 30% of all coral-sponge interactions; this sponge has also been observed in 40-50% of coral-sponge interactions on other caribbean reefs. c. nucula i ...199828308480
observations of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles (chelonia mydas) in indonesia.to determine the prevalence and manifestations of fibropapillomatosis in green turtles in indonesia, to identify any relationship between fibropapillomatosis and concurrent parasitic infection, to ascertain the effect of fibropapillomatosis on health, and to examine whether environment might have an effect on the prevalence of fibropapillomatosis.19979406633
molecular phylogeny for marine turtles based on sequences of the nd4-leucine trna and control regions of mitochondrial dna.marine turtles are divided into two families, the dermochelyidae and the cheloniidae. the majority of species are currently placed within the two tribes of the cheloniidae, the chelonini and the carettini, but debate continues over generic and tribal affinities as well as species boundaries. we used nucleotide sequences (907 bp) from the nd4-leu trna region and the control region (526 bp) of mitochondrial dna to resolve areas of uncertainty in marine turtle (chelonioidae) systematics. the nd4-le ...19968744764
testing models of female reproductive migratory behaviour and population structure in the caribbean hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata, with mtdna sequences.information on the reproductive behaviour and population structure of female hawksbill turtles, eretmochelys imbricata, is necessary to define conservation priorities for this highly endangered species. two hypotheses to explain female nest site choice, natal homing and social facilitation, were tested by analyzing mtdna control region sequences of 103 individuals from seven nesting colonies in the caribbean and western atlantic. under the social facilitation model, newly mature females follow o ...19968688954
fine structure of the dorsal lingual epithelium of the juvenile hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata bissa.various species of turtles are adapted to different environments, such as freshwater, seawater, and terrestrial habitats. comparisons of histological and ultrastructural features of the tongue of the juvenile hawksbill turtle, eretmochelys imbricata bissa, with those of freshwater turtles should reveal some aspects of the relationship between the structure of the lingual epithelium and the environment.19968694279
[growth, food conversion and mortality in eretmochelys imbricata (reptilia: chelonidae) in artificial ponds in costa rica].growth rates, feed conversion and mortality of cultured eretmochelys imbricata (hawksbill turtle) were studied in concrete raceways by feeding with fresh fish meal (tilapia) and in duplicate (tanks of 21 m2). the turtles were 11 months old at the beginning of the experiment, with and average caparace straight length of 23.64 +/- 1.94 cm, an average caparace curved length of 24.15 +/- 1.94 cm and an average weight of 1527 +/- 2.54 g. the experiment was carried out during six months and a density ...19969332616
monoclonal antibodies for the measurement of class-specific antibody responses in the green turtle, chelonia mydas.monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were developed against the known immunoglobulin classes of the green turtle, chelonia mydas. plasma protein fractions enriched for 5.7s igy, 7s igy, and igm turtle immunoglobulins were used to immunize balb/c mice for hybridoma production and for hybridoma screening. fifteen hybridomas produced mabs with specificity for turtle immunoglobulins and for affinity purified dinitrophenol (dnp) specific turtle antibodies. three mabs specific for either turtle 5.7s igy heavy ...19957502491
hybridization among the ancient mariners: characterization of marine turtle hybrids with molecular genetic assays.reports of hybridization between marine turtle species (family cheloniidae) have been difficult to authenticate based solely on morphological evidence. here we employ molecular genetic assays to document the sporadic, natural occurrence of viable interspecific hybrids between species representing four of the five genera of cheloniid sea turtles. using multiple dna markers from single-copy nuclear loci, eight suspected hybrids (based on morphology) were confirmed to be the products of matings inv ...19957657993
a molecular phylogeny for marine turtles: trait mapping, rate assessment, and conservation relevance.nucleotide sequences from the cytochrome b gene of mitochondrial dna were employed to resolve phylogenetic controversies and to assess molecular evolutionary rates in marine turtles (chelonioidea). findings of special relevance to conservation biology include discovery of a distant relationship between natator and other cheloniid species, the paraphyly of chelonia mydas with respect to chelonia agassizi, and genetic distinctiveness of lepidochelys kempi from lepidochelys olivacea. a longstanding ...19938516304
ocular dimensions and schematic eyes of freshwater and sea turtles.measurements were made of the ocular dimensions from living and frozen eyes of one species of freshwater turtle, pseudemys scripta elegans, and of three species of marine turtles, chelonia mydas, dermochelys cariacea, and eretmochelys imbricata. estimates of refractive error by retinoscopy were also obtained with eyes in air and under water. the results suggest that unaccommodated eyes of all four species are approximately emmetropic in air but strongly hyperopic in water. schematic eyes were ca ...19911772809
studies on cardiovascular fluke (digenea: spirorchiidae) infections in sea turtles from the great barrier reef, queensland, australia.twenty-seven sea turtles (23 chelonia mydas and four eretmochelys imbricata) from northeast queensland were found to be infected with cardiovascular flukes and/or their eggs. five had originated from turtle farms in the torres strait, five from an oceanarium on magnetic island (146 degrees 56'e, 19 degrees s) and the remainder from coral reefs in the torres strait or near townsville. the incidence of flukes and/or eggs in the groups was 4.8 per cent (5 of 104), 33.3 per cent (5 of 15) and 72.2 p ...19892584443
spongivory in hawksbill turtles: a diet of glass.the hawksbill(eretmochelys imbricata), an endangered marine turtle associated with coral reefs throughout the tropics, feeds almost exclusively on sponges in the caribbean, and possibly throughout its range. it is one of fewer than a dozen vertebrates that are known to specialize on this widely distributed but well-defended food resource. the diet is taxonomically narrow and highly uniform geographically, includes sponges that are toxic to other vertebrates, and contains more silica than that of ...198817836872
salmonella regent: a new species associated with colitis in a pacific hawksbill turtle (eretmochelys imbricata bissa). 19685691244
turtle meat (eretmochelys imbricata) poisoning in netherlands new guinea. 195613384194
[turtle (eretmochelys imbricata) meat poisoning in netherlands new guinea]. 195613322089
reefs and islands of the chagos archipelago, indian ocean: why it is the world's largest no-take marine protected area.the chagos archipelago was designated a no-take marine protected area (mpa) in 2010; it covers 550 000 km(2), with more than 60 000 km(2) shallow limestone platform and reefs. this has doubled the global cover of such mpas.it contains 25-50% of the indian ocean reef area remaining in excellent condition, as well as the world's largest contiguous undamaged reef area. it has suffered from warming episodes, but after the most severe mortality event of 1998, coral cover was restored after 10 years.c ...025505830
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