comparison of antifungal activities of vietnamese citrus essential oils.citrus essential oils (eos) are volatile compounds from citrus peels and widely used in perfumes, cosmetics, soaps and aromatherapy. in this study, inhibition of citrus eos extracted from vietnamese orange (citrus sinensis), mandarin (citrus reticulata blanco), pomelo (citrus grandis osbeck) and lime (citrus aurantifolia swingle) on the growth of plant pathogenic fungi, mucor hiemalis, penicillium expansum and fusarium proliferatum was investigated. the eos of the citrus peels were obtained by c ...201322799453
antifungal and antipatulin activity of gluconobacter oxydans isolated from apple surface.fungicides are the most common agents used in postharvest treatment of fruit and are the most effective against blue mould, primarily caused by penicillium expansum. alternatively, blue mould can be treated with antagonistic microorganisms naturally occurring on fruit, such as the bacterium gluconobacter oxydans. the aim of this study was to establish the antifungal potential of the g. oxydans 1j strain isolated from apple surface against penicillium expansum in culture and apple juice and to co ...201323819937
ascorbic acid enhances oxidative stress tolerance and biological control efficacy of pichia caribbica against postharvest blue mold decay of apples.the effect of ascorbic acid (vc) on improving oxidative stress tolerance of pichia caribbica and biocontrol efficacy against blue mold caused by penicillium expansum on apples was investigated. p. caribbica showed susceptibility to the oxidative stress in vitro test, and 250 μg/ml vc treatment improved its oxidative stress tolerance. the higher viability exhibited by vc-treated yeast was associated with a lower intracellular ros level. the activities of antioxidant enzymes of p. caribbica were i ...201425029482
efficacy of pichia caribbica in controlling blue mold rot and patulin degradation in apples.the efficacy of pichia caribbica in controlling postharvest blue mold and natural decay development of apples and degrading the patulin produced by penicillium expansum was investigated. the decay incidence of the blue mold of apples treated by p. caribbica was significantly reduced compared with the control samples, and the higher the concentration of p. caribbica, the better the efficacy of the biocontrol. p. caribbica significantly controlled the natural decay development of apples following ...201323416552
effect of pyrimethanil on cryptococcus laurentii, rhodosporidium paludigenum, and rhodotorula glutinis biocontrol of penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.the effect of biocontrol yeasts and pyrimethanil at low concentration on inhibition of blue mold rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit was investigated. pyrimethanil at low concentration (40μg/ml) alone had little inhibitory activity against the p. expansum infection in pear fruit wounds although it was effective in inhibiting the survival of p. expansum on asp-agar medium. pyrimethanil at this low concentration significantly enhanced the efficacy of cryptococcus laurentii at 1×10(7)c ...201323673061
antifungal activity of essential oils against selected terverticillate penicillia.the aim of this study was to screen 15 essential oils of selected plant species, viz. lavandula angustifolia, carum carvi, pinus mungo var. pulmilio, mentha piperita, chamomilla recutita l., pinus sylvestris, satureia hortensis l., origanum vulgare l., pimpinella anisum, rosmarinus officinalis l., salvia officinalis l., abietis albia etheroleum, chamomilla recutita l. rausch, thymus vulgaris l., origanum vulgare l. for antifungal activity against five penicillium species: penicillium brevicompac ...201525780826
penicillium strains isolated from slovak grape berries taxonomy assessment by secondary metabolite profile.the secondary metabolite profiles of microfungi of the genus penicillium isolated from samples of grape berries collected in two different phases during two vegetative seasons in slovakia is described to assess the taxonomy. three slovak vine regions have been selected for this study, based on their climatic differences and national economic importance. cultures of microfungi isolated from berries were incubated on different selective media for macro and micromorphology identification. the speci ...201425109845
[investigation of mold fungi in air samples of elementary schools and evaluation of allergen-specific ige levels in students' sera].atmospheric fungal spores play important role in allergic reactions in atopic individuals. monitorization of those spores found in the environment of atopic cases is crucial for the choice of the antigens that will be included in allergen screening procedures and precautions to be taken against mold-originated health problems. since most of the people spend plenty of time indoors in recent years, the effects of exposure to indoor air fungi on human health have gained importance. this study was a ...201222639315
penicillium species present in uruguayan salami.the surface coverage of certain dry fermented sausages such as italian salami by some species of penicillium provides their characteristic flavor and other beneficial properties. one of them is the protective effect by means of a uniform film of white mold against undesirable microorganisms. the aim of this work was to identify and to isolate the fungal species present in mature italian type of salami and to evaluate if it is possible to obtain some of them as starters. in addition, the effects ...201522610286
molecular characterization of patulin producing and non-producing penicillium species in apples from morocco.the isolation of patulin-producing penicillia in apples collected in different markets in four localities in morocco is reported. fungi were identified by β-tubulin sequencing and further characterized using a specific pcr-based method targeting the isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene to discriminate between patulin-producing and non-producing strains. production of patulin was also evaluated using standard cultural and biochemical methods. results showed that 79.5% of contaminant fungi belonge ...201626513254
essential oil composition and antifungal activity of melissa officinalis originating from north-est morocco, against postharvest phytopathogenic fungi in investigate biological control methods against post-harvest phytopathogenic fungi in apples, tests on the antifungal activity of essential oil of melissa officinalis were carried out. the essential oil, obtained by hydrodistillation, was analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (gc-ms). analysis of the essential oil was able to detect 88.7% of the components. the main components are p-mentha-1,2,3-triol (13.1%), p-menth-3-en-8-ol (8.8%), pulegone (8.8%), piperitynone oxid ...201728389346
pcppi: a comprehensive database for the prediction of penicillium-crop protein-protein interactions.penicillium expansum , the causal agent of blue mold, is one of the most prevalent post-harvest pathogens, infecting a wide range of crops after harvest. in response, crops have evolved various defense systems to protect themselves against this and other pathogens. penicillium -crop interaction is a multifaceted process and mediated by pathogen- and host-derived proteins. identification and characterization of the inter-species protein-protein interactions (ppis) are fundamental to elucidating t ...201728365721
secondary metabolism in penicillium expansum: emphasis on recent advances in patulin research.the plant pathogenic fungus penicillium expansum is a major concern of the global food industry due to its wide occurrence and ability to produce various mycotoxins, of which the most significant is patulin. relatively less highlighted in the literature, in comparison with the other food-borne mycotoxins, patulin is one of the main factors in economic losses of vegetables and fruits. otherwise, patulin is a health hazard which results in both short-term and long-term risks. this review includes ...201728362209
evaluation of penicillium expansum for growth, patulin accumulation, nonvolatile compounds and volatile profile in kiwi juices of different cultivars.patulin (pat) contamination and changes of nonvolatile and volatile compounds caused by penicillium expansum in fresh juices of 8 kiwi cultivars were investigated. growth and pat production of p. expansum were greater at 25°c than at 4°c. p. expansum grew in kiwi juices under ph ranging from 2.75 to 3.27 and produced 45.10-268.88μg/ml of pat at 25°c. decreases occurred in malic acid and soluble protein; while consumption and production simultaneously happened for reducing sugar, total soluble so ...201728317715
genotyping-by-sequencing markers facilitate the identification of quantitative trait loci controlling resistance to penicillium expansum in malus mold caused by penicillium expansum is the most important postharvest disease of apple worldwide and results in significant financial losses. there are no defined sources of resistance to blue mold in domesticated apple. however, resistance has been described in wild malus sieversii accessions, including plant introduction (pi)613981. the objective of the present study was to identify the genetic loci controlling resistance to blue mold in this accession. we describe the first quantitative ...201728257442
genome sequencing and analysis of the postharvest fungus penicillium expansum mold is the vernacular name of a common postharvest disease of stored apples, pears, and quince that is caused by several common species of penicillium this study reports the draft genome sequence of penicillium expansum strain r21, which was isolated from a red delicious apple in 2011 in pennsylvania.201728209811
patulin degradation by the biocontrol yeast sporobolomyces sp. is an inducible process.patulin is a mycotoxin produced by penicillium expansum and a common contaminant of pome fruits and their derived products worldwide. it is considered to be mutagenic, genotoxic, immunotoxic, teratogenic and cytotoxic, and the development of strategies to reduce this contamination is an active field of research. we previously reported that sporobolomyces sp. is able to degrade patulin and convert it into the breakdown products desoxypatulinic acid and ascladiol, both of which were found to be le ...201728208615
dry formulations of the biocontrol agent candida sake cpa-1 using fluidised bed drying to control the main postharvest diseases on fruits.the biocontrol agent candida sake cpa-1 is effective against several diseases. consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of c. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential for increasing its potential with respect to future commercial applications. the present study aimed to optimise the conditions for making a dry formulation of c. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against penic ...201728111760
the response of growth and patulin production of postharvest pathogen penicillium expansum to exogenous potassium phosphite this study, the effects of exogenous potassium phosphite (phi) on growth and patulin production of postharvest pathogen penicillium expansum were assessed. the results indicated that p. expansum under 5mmol/l phi stress presented obvious development retardation, yield reduction of patulin and lower infectivity to apple fruit. meanwhile, expression analysis of 15 genes related to patulin biosynthesis suggested that phi mainly affected the early steps of patulin synthetic route at transcription ...201728042969
proteome changes in penicillium expansum grown in a medium derived from host plant.penicillium expansum causes blue mold rot, a prevalent postharvest disease of pome fruit, and is also the main producer of the patulin. however, knowledge on the molecular mechanisms involved in this pathogen-host interaction remains largely unknown. in this work, a two-dimensional gel electrophoresis-based proteomic approach was applied to probe changes in p. expansum 3.3703 cultivated in apple juice medium, which was used to mimic the in planta condition. the results showed that the ph value a ...201727994211
patulin transformation products and last intermediates in its biosynthetic pathway, e- and z-ascladiol, are not toxic to human cells.patulin is the main mycotoxin contaminating apples. during the brewing of alcoholic beverages, this mycotoxin is degraded to ascladiol, which is also the last precursor of patulin. the present study aims (1) to characterize the last step of the patulin biosynthetic pathway and (2) to describe the toxicity of ascladiol. a pate deletion mutant was generated in penicillium expansum. in contrast to the wild strain, this mutant does not produce patulin but accumulates high levels of e-ascladiol with ...201627913847
combined effect of antagonistic yeast and modified atmosphere to control penicillium expansum infection in sweet cherries cv. ambrunés.fruit decay caused by pathogenic moulds is a major concern in the postharvest quality and shelf life of fruit. blue mould decay is caused by penicillium expansum (p. expansum) and is one of the most important postharvest diseases in cherries (prunus avium l.). synthetic fungicides are the main medium used to control pathogenic moulds. however, alternative approaches are available for developing safer technologies to control postharvest disease. an integrated approach that combines biological con ...201727821356
temperature, water activity and ph during conidia production affect the physiological state and germination time of penicillium species.conidial germination and mycelial growth are generally studied with conidia produced under optimal conditions to increase conidial yield. nonetheless, the physiological state of such conidia most likely differs from those involved in spoilage of naturally contaminated food. the present study aimed at investigating the impact of temperature, ph and water activity (aw) during production of conidia on the germination parameters and compatible solutes of conidia of penicillium roqueforti and penicil ...201727780083
bergamotane sesquiterpenes with alpha-glucosidase inhibitory activity from the plant pathogenic fungus penicillium expansum.two new bergamotane sesquiterpene lactones, named expansolides c and d (1 and 2), together with two known compounds expansolides a and b (3 and 4), were isolated from the plant pathogenic fungus penicillium expansum accc37275. the structures of the new compounds were established by detailed analyses of the spectroscopic data, especially 1d-, 2d-nmr, and hr-esi-ms. in an in vitro bioassay, the epimeric mixture of expansolides c and d (1 and 2) (in a ratio of 2:1 at the temprature of the bioassay) ...201727582055
laea regulation of secondary metabolism modulates virulence in penicillium expansum and is mediated by sucrose.penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould rot, is a critical health concern because of the production of the mycotoxin patulin in colonized apple fruit tissue. although patulin is produced by many penicillium species, the factor(s) activating its biosynthesis are not clear. sucrose, a key sugar component of apple fruit, was found to modulate patulin accumulation in a dose-responsive pattern. an increase in sucrose culture amendment from 15 to 175 mm decreased both patulin accumulation ...201627528575
penicillium expansum link strain for a biometallurgical method to recover rees from weee.due to the wide range of applications in high-tech solutions, rare earth elements (rees) have become object of great interest. in the last years several studies regarding technologies for ree extraction from secondary resources have been carried out. in particular biotechnologies, which use tolerant and accumulator microorganisms to recover and recycle precious metals, are replacing traditional methods. this paper describes an original biometallurgical method to recover rees from waste electrica ...201727520390
effects of the protective, curative, and eradicative applications of chitosan against penicillium expansum in is one of the most important temperate fruit to brazil economy, and the use of synthetic chemicals has been the main method for reducing postharvest diseases, such as the blue mold, caused by penicillium expansum. this work intends to evaluate the practical utilization of chitosan for blue mold control. for this purpose, fruits were treated in a preventive and curative way, immersing the fruits in chitosan solution (5 or 10mgml(-1)), or adding a single drop of this solution (10mgml(-1)) di ...201727515465
comparison of the effects of three types of aminobutyric acids on the control of penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit.aminobutyric acids were reported to have inhibitory effects on postharvest fungal diseases. the effects of α-aminobutyric acid (aaba), β-aminobutyric acid (baba) and γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba) on the control of penicillium expansum infection in pear fruit were compared in the present study.201727392194
a study on the physicochemical parameters for penicillium expansum growth and patulin production: effect of temperature, ph, and water activity.penicillium expansum is among the most ubiquitous fungi disseminated worldwide, that could threaten the fruit sector by secreting patulin, a toxic secondary metabolite. nevertheless, we lack sufficient data regarding the growth and the toxigenesis conditions of this species. this work enables a clear differentiation between the favorable conditions to the p. expansum growth and those promising for patulin production. a mathematical model allowing the estimation of the p. expansum growth rate acc ...201627386110
metabolomic and transcriptomic comparison of solid-state and submerged fermentation of penicillium expansum kacc 40815.penicillium spp. are known to harbor a wide array of secondary metabolites with cryptic bioactivities. however, the metabolomics of these species is not well-understood in terms of different fermentation models and conditions. the present study involved metabolomics profiling and transcriptomic analysis of penicillium expansum 40815 under solid-state fermentation (ssf) and submerged fermentation (smf). metabolite profiling was carried out using ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadruple t ...201626863302
efficacy of salicylic acid to reduce penicillium expansum inoculum and preserve apple fruits.apples are among the most commonly consumed fruits worldwide. blue mold (penicillium expansum) is one of the major diseases in apples postharvest, leading to wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products to control the pathogen. in this context, this study aimed to evaluate the potential of salicylic acid (sa) as an alternative product to control blue mold and to preserve the physicochemical characteristics of apple fruit postharvest. the antimicrobial effect of sa was determine ...201626808096
isoepoxydon dehydrogenase (idh) gene expression in relation to patulin production by penicillium expansum under different temperature and atmosphere.penicillium expansum growth and patulin production occur mainly at post-harvest stage during the long-term storage of apples. low temperature in combination with reduced oxygen concentrations is commonly applied as a control strategy to extend apple shelf life and supply the market throughout the year. our in vitro study investigated the effect of temperature and atmosphere on expression of the idh gene in relation to the patulin production by p. expansum. the idh gene encodes the isoepoxydon de ...201626788884
post-harvest proteomics of grapes infected by penicillium during withering to produce amarone wine.the study of withered grape infection by penicillium, a potentially toxigenic fungus, is relevant to preserve grape quality during the post-harvest dehydration process. this report describes the first proteomic analysis of amarone wine grapes, infected by two strains of penicillium expansum (pe1) and penicillium crustosum (pc4). protein identification by ms analysis allowed a better understanding of physiological mechanisms underlying the pathogen attack. the pe1 strain had a major impact on vit ...201626776019
contrasting genomic diversity in two closely related postharvest pathogens: penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum.penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum are two closely related fungal plant pathogens causing green and blue mold in harvested fruit, respectively. the two species differ in their host specificity, being p. digitatum restricted to citrus fruits and p. expansum able to infect a wide range of fruits after harvest. although host-specific penicillium species have been found to have a smaller gene content, it is so far unclear whether these different host specificities impact genome variation ...201526672008
phytic acid enhances biocontrol activity of rhodotorula mucilaginosa against penicillium expansum contamination and patulin production in apples.the effect of rhodotorula mucilaginosa in combination with phytic acid (pa) on blue mold decay and patulin contamination of apples was investigated. results from this study show that different concentrations of pa were effective in reducing the disease incidence of apples and that pa at concentration of 4 μmol/ml, decreased the incidence of blue mold decay in apples from 86.1 to 62.5%, and showed higher control efficacy compared to untreated, control fruit during storage at 20°c. however, r. muc ...201526635764
tissue oxidative stress induced by patulin and protective effect of crocin.patulin (pat) is a secondary toxic metabolite produced principally by penicillium expansum. this mycotoxin is known to be teratogenic, mutagenic, immunotoxic and neurotoxic, and it has been shown to cause damage in several organs in laboratory animals. this study focuses on the prevention of experimental murine pat-induced nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. we investigate the ability of a natural product, crocin (cro), to counteract the toxic effects of pat. pre-treatment of mice with cro preven ...201626584762
patulin is a cultivar-dependent aggressiveness factor favouring the colonization of apples by penicillium expansum.the blue mould decay of apples is caused by penicillium expansum and is associated with contamination by patulin, a worldwide regulated mycotoxin. recently, a cluster of 15 genes (pata-pato) involved in patulin biosynthesis was identified in p. expansum. blast analysis revealed that patl encodes a cys6 zinc finger regulatory factor. the deletion of patl caused a drastic decrease in the expression of all pat genes, leading to an absence of patulin production. pathogenicity studies performed on 13 ...201626582186
alkaloids with cardiovascular effects from the marine-derived fungus penicillium expansum y32.three new alkaloids (1, 4 and 8), together with nine known analogues (2, 3, 5-7, and 9-12), were isolated from the marine-derived fungus penicillium expansum y32. their structures including the absolute configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic and mosher's and marfey's methods, along with quantum electronic circular dichroism (ecd) calculations. each of the compounds was evaluated for cardiovascular effects in a live zebrafish model. all of the compounds showed a significant mitigative ef ...201526506361
the ability of a cold-adapted rhodotorula mucilaginosa strain from tibet to control blue mold in pear fruit.cold-adapted yeasts were isolated from soil samples collected in tibet and evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against blue mold (penicillium expansum) of pear fruit in cold storage. yc1, an isolate identified as rhodotorula mucilaginosa, was found to exhibit the greatest biocontrol activity among the different isolates that were screened. a washed cell suspension of yc1 exhibited the best biocontrol activity among three different preparations that were used in the current study. a concentr ...201526454432
modelling the effect of essential oil of betel leaf (piper betle l.) on germination, growth, and apparent lag time of penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic media.the current study aimed at characterizing the chemical components of betel leaf (piper betle l. var. tamluk mitha) essential oil (bleo) and modelling its effect on growth of penicillium expansum on semi-synthetic medium. gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry (gc-ms) analysis of bleo revealed the presence of different bioactive phenolic compounds in significant amounts. among 46 different components identified, chavibetol (22.0%), estragole (15.8%), β-cubebene (13.6%), chavicol (11.8%), and c ...201526439423
ammonia activates pacc and patulin accumulation in an acidic environment during apple colonization by penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mould rot, causes severe post-harvest fruit maceration simultaneously with the secretion of d-gluconic acid (gla) and the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. the factor(s) inducing patulin biosynthesis during colonization of the host acidic environment is unclear. during the colonization of apple fruit in vivo and growth in culture, p. expansum secretes ph-modulating gla and ammonia. although patulin and its possible opportunistic precursor gla a ...201626420024
antifungal activity of salicylic acid against penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of is a fruit widely produced and consumed around the world. blue mold (penicillium expansum) is one of the main postharvest diseases in apples, leading to a wide use of fungicides and the search for alternative products. the aim of this study was to assess the effect of salicylic acid (sa) against p. expansum, elucidating its mechanisms of action. the antimicrobial effect was determined by exposing conidia to a 2.5 mm sa solution for 0 to 120 min, followed by incubation. the effect of ph on ...201526340673
pre-harvest application of oxalic acid increases quality and resistance to penicillium expansum in kiwifruit during postharvest storage.kiwifruit (actinidia deliciosa cv. bruno) fruits were sprayed with 5mm oxalic acid (oa) at 130, 137, and 144 days after full blossom, and then harvested at commercial maturity [soluble solid content (ssc) around 10.0%] and stored at room temperature (20 ± 1 °c). pre-harvest application of oa led to fruit with higher ascorbic acid content at harvest, slowed the decreases in fruit firmness and ascorbic acid content and increase in ssc during storage, and also decreased the natural disease incidenc ...201626213007
antifungal effect of gamma irradiation and sodium dichloroisocyanurate against penicillium expansum on pears.gamma irradiation (gi) was evaluated for its in vitro and in vivo antifungal activity against penicillium expansum on pear fruits. gi showed a complete inhibition of spore germination, germ tube elongation and mycelial of p. expansum, especially 1·8 kgy. gi affected the membrane integrity and cellular leakage of conidia in a dose-dependent manner. furthermore, the leakage of protein and sugar from mycelia increased along with the dose. gi was evaluated at lower doses in combination with a chlori ...201526174206
factors affecting the content of the ursolic and oleanolic acid in apple peel: influence of cultivars, sun exposure, storage conditions, bruising and penicillium expansum infection.for health promotion and as part of natural plant protection, it might be of interest to increase the content of oleanolic acid (oa) and ursolic acid (ua) by biofortification in breeding programs, although the extent of the influence of genetic and environmental factors needs to be clarified. the objective of this study was to determine the effect of cultivar, sun exposure, storage, bruising and fungal infection on the oa and ua content in apple peel.201626147234
in vitro antifungal activity of allyl isothiocyanate (aitc) against aspergillus parasiticus and penicillium expansum and evaluation of the aitc estimated daily intake.isothiocyanates (itcs) are natural compounds derived from cruciferous vegetables produced by enzymatic conversion of metabolites called glucosinolates. they are potentially useful antimicrobial compounds for food applications have been shown to be promising agents against cancer in human cell culture, animal models, and in epidemiological studies. in this study, the antifungal activity of the allyl isothiocyanate (aitc) was evaluated on two mycotoxigenic fungi as aspergillus parasiticus and peni ...201526140951
crocin prevents patulin-induced acute toxicity in cardiac tissues via the regulation of oxidative damage and apoptosis.patulin (pat) is a mycotoxin produced by several species of the genera of penicillium, aspergillus, and byssochlamys principally by penicillium expansum. this mycotoxin is suspected to affect several organs including kidney and liver. however, its toxic effect on heart remains unknown. the present study investigated for the first time the cardiotoxic effect of pat in mice. we demonstrated that pat increased creatinin phosphokinase (cpk) level, induced lipoperoxydation and protein oxidation, and ...201526095701
kinetics of biofilm formation by drinking water isolated penicillium expansum.current knowledge on drinking water (dw) biofilms has been obtained mainly from studies on bacterial biofilms. very few reports on filamentous fungi (ff) biofilms are available, although they can contribute to the reduction in dw quality. this study aimed to assess the dynamics of biofilm formation by penicillium expansum using microtiter plates under static conditions, mimicking water flow behaviour in stagnant regions of drinking water distribution systems. biofilms were analysed in terms of b ...201526010032
effects of carbon, nitrogen and ambient ph on patulin production and related gene expression in penicillium expansum.patulin, a potent mycotoxin which can cause serious health concerns, is mainly produced in foods by penicillium expansum. environmental factors play important roles in regulating biosynthesis of mycotoxins; however, information about the effects of environmental factors on patulin production and the involved mechanisms in p. expansum is limited. here, we investigated the effects of different carbon (c) and nitrogen (n) sources, and ambient ph on patulin production in three p. expansum strains t0 ...201526001378
development of a real-time pcr assay for penicillium expansum quantification and patulin estimation in apples.due to the occurrence and spread of the fungal contaminants in food and the difficulties to remove their resulting mycotoxins, rapid and accurate methods are needed for early detection of these mycotoxigenic fungi. the polymerase chain reaction and the real time pcr have been widely used for this purpose. apples are suitable substrates for fungal colonization mostly caused by penicillium expansum, which produces the mycotoxin patulin during fruit infection. this study describes the development o ...201525998812
evaluation of yeasts from tibetan fermented products as agents for biocontrol of blue mold of nashi pear fruits.a total of 20 strains of yeast isolated from tibetan fermented products were screened for antagonism against blue mold of pear caused by penicillium expansum. six isolates that inhibited incidence of postharvest decay by 35% or more were selected for further screening. among them, the most effective was rhodotorula mucilaginosa. the results showed that washed cell suspensions of r. mucilaginosa yielded better antagonistic efficacy than unwashed cell-culture mixtures, cell-free culture filtrates, ...201525845361
highly efficient and regioselective synthesis of dihydromyricetin esters by immobilized lipase.dihydromyricetin is the principle component of the chinese herbal tea teng-cha and a promising ingredient for functional food and nutraceuticals, but its low solubility limits its application potentials. this study explored enzymatic acylation of dihydromyricetin to improve its solubility in lipid systems. acylation was achieved with several lipases with the synthesis of a major (>86%) product and a minor product. isolation and purification of the products by preparative hplc followed by lc-ms, ...201525701177
effect of the yeast rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest decay and patulin accumulation in apples and pears.the effect of a strain of marine yeast rhodosporidium paludigenum on postharvest blue mold and patulin accumulation in apples and pears stored at 23°c was evaluated. the occurrence and severity of apple and pear decay caused by penicillium expansum were significantly inhibited by r. paludigenum. however, the application of the yeast at a high concentration (10(8) cells per ml) enhanced patulin accumulation after 7 days of storage; the amount of patulin increased 24.2 times and 12.6 times compare ...201525581191
development of a novel quantitative pcr assay as a measurement for the presence of geosmin-producing provide an efficient technique for monitoring the off-flavoured fungal compound geosmin.201525580564
elucidation of the concise biosynthetic pathway of the communesin indole alkaloids.the communesins are a prominent class of indole alkaloids isolated from penicillium species. owing to their daunting structural framework and potential as pharmaceuticals, communesins have inspired numerous synthetic studies. however, the genetic and biochemical basis of communesin biosynthesis has remained unexplored. herein, we report the identification and characterization of the communesin (cns) biosynthetic gene cluster from penicillium expansum. we confirmed that communesin is biosynthesiz ...201525571861
poly(-β-hydroxybutyrate) (phb) depolymerase phaz pen from penicillium expansum: purification, characterization and kinetic studies.very few studies have been dedicated to r-hydroxyacids (r-ha) production using extracellular polyhydroxyalkanoate depolymerases (ephazs). penicillium expansum produced maximum extracellular polyhydroxybutyrate depolymerase (~6 u/ml) by 72 h when grown in mineral salt medium containing 0.2 % w/v phb, ph 5.0, at 30 °c and 200 rpm shaking conditions. partial purification of the extracellular poly(-β-hydroxybutyrate) depolymerase phaz pen from p. expansum by two steps using ammonium sulphate (80 % s ...201528324398
characterizing the proteome and oxi-proteome of apple in response to a host (penicillium expansum) and a non-host (penicillium digitatum) pathogen.apples are subjected to both abiotic and biotic stresses during the postharvest period, which lead to large economic losses worldwide. to obtain biochemical insights into apple defense response, we monitored the protein abundance changes (proteome), as well as the protein carbonyls (oxi-proteome) formed by reactive oxygen species (ros) in 'golden smoothee' apple in response to wounding, penicillium expansum (host) and penicillium digitatum (non-host) pathogens with select transcriptional studies ...201525464364
mechanism of h₂o₂-induced oxidative stress regulating viability and biocontrol ability of rhodotorula glutinis.the use of antagonistic yeasts to control postharvest pathogens is a promising alternative to fungicides. the effectiveness of the antagonists against fungal pathogens is greatly dependent on their viability, which is usually mediated by reactive oxygen species (ros). here, we investigated the effects of h₂o₂-induced oxidative stress on the viability and biocontrol efficacy of rhodotorula glutinis and, using flow cytometric analysis, observed the changes of ros accumulation and apoptosis in the ...201525462935
genome, transcriptome, and functional analyses of penicillium expansum provide new insights into secondary metabolism and pathogenicity.the relationship between secondary metabolism and infection in pathogenic fungi has remained largely elusive. the genus penicillium comprises a group of plant pathogens with varying host specificities and with the ability to produce a wide array of secondary metabolites. the genomes of three penicillium expansum strains, the main postharvest pathogen of pome fruit, and one pencillium italicum strain, a postharvest pathogen of citrus fruit, were sequenced and compared with 24 other fungal species ...201525338147
the effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films on the growth of penicillium expansum in apples.penicillium expansum causes a major post-harvest disease of apples. the aim of this study was to investigate the inhibition effect of chitosan and whey proteins-chitosan films containing different amounts of quince and cranberry juice against p. expansum on the simulation medium and on apples. the mechanical properties of films were also evaluated.201525074824
growth parameters of penicillium expansum calculated from mixed inocula as an alternative to account for intraspecies variability.the aim of this work was to compare the radial growth rate (μ) and the lag time (λ) for growth of 25 isolates of penicillium expansum at 1 and 20 ºc with those of the mixed inoculum of the 25 isolates. moreover, the evolution of probability of growth through time was also compared for the single strains and mixed inoculum. working with a mixed inoculum would require less work, time and consumables than if a range of single strains has to be used in order to represent a given species. suitable pr ...201425033331
effects of the mycotoxin patulin at the level of nuclear receptor transcriptional activity and steroidogenesis in vitro.patulin (pat) is a mycotoxin produced by various species of fungi, with penicillium expansum being the most commonly occurring. apples and apple products are the main sources of pat contamination. this mycotoxin has been shown to induce toxic effects in animals, a few of which include reproductive toxicity and interference with the endocrine system. here the endocrine disrupting potential of pat has been investigated in vitro to identify disruption at the level of oestrogen, androgen, progestage ...201424995434
draft genome sequence of penicillium expansum strain r19, which causes postharvest decay of apple fruit.among the species that cause blue mold, isolates of penicillium expansum are the most prevalent and virulent species, causing more than 50 percent of postharvest decay. we report the draft genome sequence of p. expansum r19 in order to identify fungal virulence factors and to understand the mechanism of infection.201424948776
γ-aminobutyric acid induces resistance against penicillium expansum by priming of defence responses in pear fruit.the results from this study showed that treatment with γ-aminobutyric acid (gaba), at 100-1000 μg/ml, induced strong resistance against blue mould rot caused by penicillium expansum in pear fruit. moreover, the activities of five defence-related enzymes (including chitinase, β-1,3-glucanase, phenylalnine ammonialyase, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) and the expression of these corresponding genes were markedly and/or promptly enhanced in the treatment with gaba and inoculation with p. expansu ...201424767023
inhibitory effect of selenium against penicillium expansum and its possible mechanisms of action.some organic and inorganic salts could inhibit the growth of many pathogens. selenium (se), as an essential micronutrient, was effective in improving the plant resistance and antioxidant capacity at a low concentration. penicillium expansum is one of the most important postharvest fungal pathogens, which can cause blue mold rot in various fruits and vegetables. in this study, the inhibitory effect of se against p. expansum was evaluated. the result showed that se strongly inhibited spore germina ...201424682262
mechanism of penicillium expansum in response to exogenous nitric oxide based on proteomics analysis.penicillium expansum is an important fungal pathogen, which causes blue mold rot in various fruits and produces a mycotoxin (patulin) with potential damage to public health. here, we found that nitric oxide (no) donor could significantly inhibit germinability of p. expansum spores, resulting in lower virulence to apple fruit. based on two dimension electrophoresis (2-de) and mass spectrometry (ms) analysis, we identified ten differentially expressed proteins in response to exogenous no in p. exp ...201424675182
acidification of apple and orange hosts by penicillium digitatum and penicillium information about virulence mechanisms of penicillium digitatum and penicillium expansum could be an important avenue to control fungal diseases. in this study, the ability of p. digitatum and p. expansum to enhance their virulence by locally modulating the ph of oranges and apples was evaluated. for each host, ph changes with a compatible pathogen and a non-host pathogen were recorded, and the levels of different organic acids were evaluated to establish possible relationships with host ph ...201424667317
characterization of the 5' flanking region of lipase gene from penicillium expansum and its application in molecular breeding.a major challenge for further promotion of lipase productivity in penicillium expansum pe-12 is to find a suitable promoter that can function efficiently in this industrial strain. in this study, the 5' flanking region of p. expansum lipase (ppel) containing a putative novel promoter sequence was characterized by fusing to β-glucuronidase (gus) and subsequently introducing into p. expansum. as a result, all the transformants showed blue color quickly after incubation in gus detection buffer, sug ...201524502561
effects of electromagnetically signalized media on host-pathogen interaction.up to date, limited data are available about electromagnetic phase signaling effects on host-pathogen interactions during the postharvest of horticultural commodities. inspired by the last striking works on water physics, quantum signaling through phase transfer and its impact on biological and histological structures, we studied the effect of different electromagnetic signals on pome blue mold (penicillium expansum) pathogenesis. tags with different electromagnetic-signals (ems) were used to ge ...201426080485
residue val237 is critical for the enantioselectivity of penicillium expansum lipase.the shape of the hydrophobic tunnel leading to the active site of penicillium expansum lipase (pel) was redesigned by single-point mutations, in order to better understand enzyme enantioselectivity towards naproxen. a variant with a valine-to-glycine substitution at residue 237 exhibited almost no enantioselectivity (e = 1.1) compared with that (e = 104) of wild-type pel. the function of the residue, val237, in the hydrophobic tunnel was further analyzed by site-directed mutagenesis. for each of ...201424338160
description of the mechanisms underlying geosmin production in penicillium expansum using proteomics.a 2d-dige proteomics experiment was performed to describe the mechanism underlying the production of geosmin, an earthy-smelling sesquiterpene which spoils wine, produced by penicillium expansum. the strains were identified by sequencing of the its and beta-tubulin regions. this study was based on a selection of four strains showing different levels of geosmin production, assessed by gc-ms/ms. the proteomics study revealed the differential abundance of 107 spots between the different strains; th ...201424189443
accumulation of the mycotoxin patulin in the presence of gluconic acid contributes to pathogenicity of penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest fruit maceration through secretion of d-gluconic acid (gla) and secondary metabolites such as the mycotoxin patulin in colonized tissue. gla involvement in pathogenicity has been suggested but the mechanism of patulin accumulation and its contribution to p. expansum pathogenicity remain unclear. the roles of gla and patulin accumulation in p. expansum pathogenicity were studied using i) glucose oxidase gox2-rnai m ...201424024763
sustainable bio-production of styrene from forest waste.a strain of penicillium expansum was studied for the production of styrene using forest waste biomass as a feeding substrate. the fungal strain was cultivated on bark of various trees supplemented with yeast extract and the volatiles produced were collected on tenax ta and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. fungus cultured on grated soft bark of pine (pinus sylvestris) stems (gpb) and mature bark of oak (quercus robur) supplemented with yeast extract produced relatively the highes ...201323899574
kinetics of patulin degradation in model solution, apple cider and apple juice by ultraviolet radiation.patulin is a mycotoxin produced by a wide range of molds involved in fruit spoilage, most commonly by penicillium expansum and is a health concern for both consumers and manufacturers. the current study evaluated feasibility of monochromatic ultraviolet (uv) radiation at 253.7 nm as a possible commercial application for the reduction of patulin in fresh apple cider and juice. the r-52g mineralight® uv bench top lamp was used for patulin destruction. it was shown that 56.5%, 87.5%, 94.8% and 98.6 ...201323729413
genetic structure and natural variation associated with host of origin in penicillium expansum strains causing blue mould, caused by penicillium expansum, is one of the most economically damaging postharvest diseases of pome fruits, although it may affect a wider host range, including sweet cherries and table grapes. several reports on the role of mycotoxins in plant pathogenesis have been published, but few focussed on the influence of mycotoxins on the variation in host preference amongst producing fungi. in the present study the influence of the host on p. expansum pathogenicity/virulence was investig ...201323728428
carboxyl ester hydrolase from penicillium expansum: cloning, characterization and overproduction by penicillium this study, a gene that encodes a carboxylesterase (carb) in penicillium expansum gf was cloned, sequenced and overexpressed by penicillium griseoroseum pg63, and the enzyme was characterized.201323581645
molecular characterization, fitness and mycotoxin production of benzimidazole-resistant isolates of penicillium expansum.penicillium expansum field-strains resistant to benzimidazole fungicides were isolated in high frequency from decayed apple fruit collected from packinghouses and processing industries located in the region of imathia, n. greece. in vitro fungitoxicity tests resulted in the identification of two different resistant phenotypes: highly (ben-hr) and moderately (ben-mr) carbendazim-resistant. thirty seven percent of the isolated p. expansum strains belonged to the ben-hr phenotype, carried no appare ...201323454814
molecular cloning and characterization of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene from penicillium expansum pe-12.penicillium expansum produces large amounts of lipase, which is widely used in laundry detergent and leather industry. we isolated the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene (pegpd) from p. expansum pe-12 through reverse transcriptase pcr and 5'-3' rapid amplification of cdna ends (race-pcr). the gene is 1266 bp long, including an orf of 1014 bp, encoding a polypeptide chain of 337 amino acids. a phylogenetic tree based on gpd proteins showed that p. expansum is close to aspergillus speci ...201323420404
enzymatic regioselective acylation of nucleosides in biomass-derived 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: kinetic study and enzyme substrate recognition.enzymatic regioselective acylation of pyrimidine nucleosides was mediated by immobilized lipase from penicillium expansum in 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (methf), a bio-solvent derived from biomass. despite of the moderate dissolution ability of methf toward nucleosides, the initial enzymatic reaction rate was much higher in this eco-friendly solvent than in other commonly used organic solvents. this could be explained by the lower apparent activation energy of the enzymatic reaction (24.5 vs. 43.3-5 ...201323337886
penicillium expansum volatiles reduce pine weevil attraction to host plants.the pine weevil hylobius abietis (l.) is a severe pest of conifer seedlings in reforested areas of europe and asia. to identify minimally toxic and ecologically sustainable compounds for protecting newly planted seedlings, we evaluated the volatile metabolites produced by microbes isolated from h. abietis feces and frass. female weevils deposit feces and chew bark at oviposition sites, presumably thus protecting eggs from feeding conspecifics. we hypothesize that microbes present in feces/frass ...201323297108
effects of aliphatic aldehydes on the growth and patulin production of penicillium expansum in apple juice.the effects of 16 aliphatic aldehydes with 3-10 carbons on the growth and patulin production of penicillium expansum were examined. when p. expansum spores were inoculated into apple juice broth, some alkenals, including 2-propenal, (e)-2-butenal, (e)-2-pentenal, and (e)-2-hexenal, inhibited fungal growth and patulin production. their minimal inhibitory concentrations were 5, 50, 80, and 80 µg/ml respectively. vital staining indicated that these alkenals killed mycelia within 4 h. treatment of t ...201323291770
effect of different gras compounds in the control of apples blue mould.the most important pathogen for apples is penicillium expansum that is the causal organism of blue mould. postharvest losses are controlled with chemical fungicides such as tbz but a growing concern for human health and a greater awareness for environmental conservation have multiplied the studies on new ecological technologies. in the search of new environment and consumer friendly technologies that can reduce toxic residues, the use of gras compounds represent a valid alternative to the use of ...201325151836
native pears of sardinia affect penicillium expansum pathogenesis.penicillium expansum causes blue mould rot, a serious post-harvest disease of pome fruits and is the main producer of the mycotoxin patulin. the occurrence of natural resistance against different hostpathogens, has been evidenced in some pear accessions of the sardinian germoplasm. the aim of this research was to correlate p. expansum growth and patulin production on these indigenous pear accessions. in vitro and in vivo experiments were carried out with seven accessions ('sarmentina', 'vacchesa ...201325151833
inhibition of penicillium expansum by an oxidative treatment.several oxidizing compounds such as sodium hypochlorite (naclo) and hydrogen peroxide (h(2)o(2)) are used to control postharvest decay in fresh fruit due to their antimicrobial effects. here, we applied these compounds in vitro, in the presence of cuso(4), against penicillium expansum, causal agent of apple blue mold. mics were 50 mg l(-1) and 400 mmol l(-1) for naclo and h(2)o(2), respectively, when these compounds were individually applied to conidia suspensions during 2 min. a combined oxidat ...201323200664
cytotoxic polyphenols from the fungus penicillium expansum 091 006 endogenous with the mangrove plant excoecaria part of our ongoing chemical investigation of biologically active metabolites from marine-derived fungi, four new polyphenols containing both phenolic bisabolane and diphenyl ether units, expansols c-f (1-4), and one new diphenyl ether derivative, 3-o-methyldiorcinol (5), as well as twelve known compounds (6-17), were isolated from penicillium expansum 091006 endogenous with the mangrove plant excoecaria agallocha (euphorbiaceae). the structures of the new metabolites were determined on the b ...201223059631
substitution of val72 residue alters the enantioselectivity and activity of penicillium expansum lipase.error-prone pcr was used to create more active or enantioselective variants of penicillium expansum lipase (pel). a variant with a valine to glycine substitution at residue 72 in the lid structure exhibited higher activity and enantioselectivity than those of wild-type pel. site-directed saturation mutagenesis was used to explore the sequence-function relationship and the substitution of val72 of p. expansum lipase changed both catalytic activity and enantioselectivity greatly. the variant v72a, ...201322972595
patulin and secondary metabolite production by marine-derived penicillium strains.genus penicillium represents an important fungal group regarding to its mycotoxin production. secondary metabolomes of eight marine-derived strains belonging to subgenera furcatum and penicillium were investigated using dereplication by liquid chromatography (lc)-diode array detector (dad)-mass spectrometry (ms)/ms. each strain was grown on six different culture media to enhance the number of observable metabolites. thirty-two secondary metabolites were detected in crude extracts with twenty fir ...201222954338
regioselective enzymatic undecylenoylation of 8-chloroadenosine and its analogs with biomass-based 2-methyltetrahydrofuran as solvent.2-methyltetrahydrofuran (methf), a biomass-derived compound, is a promising medium for biocatalysis and organometallic reactions. the regioselective acylation of 8-chloroadenosine (8-cl-ado) and its analogs was carried out in methf with immobilized penicillium expansum lipase. the lipase displayed more than twofold higher catalytic activity and much better thermostability in methf than in other organic solvents and co-solvent systems. the optimum reaction medium, enzyme dosage, molar ratio of vi ...201222705510
effects of esterified lactoferrin and lactoferrin on control of postharvest blue mold of apple fruit and their possible mechanisms of action.the effects of esterified lactoferrin (elf) and lactoferrin (lf) on blue mold caused by penicillium expansum in apple fruit stored at 25 °c were investigated. both elf and lf provided an effective control and strongly inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of p. expansum in vitro. assessment by propidium iodide staining combined with fluorescent microscopy revealed that the plasma membrane of p. expansum spores was damaged more seriously by elf than by lf treatment, and the leakage ...201222663181
biodiversity of antifungal lactic acid bacteria isolated from raw milk samples from cow, ewe and goat over one-year period.antifungal lactic acid bacteria (alab) biodiversity was evaluated in raw milk from ewe, cow and goat over one year period. lactic acid bacteria were enumerated using 8 semi-selective media, and systematically screened for their antifungal activity against 4 spoilage fungi commonly encountered in dairy products. depending on the selective medium, between 0.05% (elliker agar) and 5.5% (lamvab agar) screened colonies showed an antifungal activity. the great majority of these active colonies origina ...201222364725
a penicillium expansum glucose oxidase-encoding gene, gox2, is essential for gluconic acid production and acidification during colonization of deciduous fruit.penicillium expansum, the causal agent of blue mold rot, causes severe postharvest maceration of fruit through secretion of total, d-gluconic acid (gla). two p. expansum glucose oxidase (gox)-encoding genes, gox1 and gox2, were analyzed. gox activity and gla accumulation were strongly related to gox2 expression, which increased with ph to a maximum at ph 7.0, whereas gox1 was expressed at ph 4.0, where no gox activity or extracellular gla were detected. this differential expression was also obse ...201222352719
alternative methods to control postharvest decay caused by penicillium expansum in plums (prunus domestica l.).in the latest years, investigation on postharvest treatments has been increasingly addressed to preserve human health and environment safeguard. several preservative compounds, physical treatments and biological control agents to restrain postharvest pathogens on horticultural products have been widely studied. among them potassium sorbate (ks) has been generally recognized as safe for use in foods and personal care products. it acts as microbial growth inhibitor and fungistatic agent in foods, ...201223885418
ultrasound application for the control of decay on apple at different stage of ripening.ultrasonic technology is known for many years and is used for several purposes such as sonochemistry, extraction of natural compounds, degassing of solvent, inactivation of enzymes and microorganism. in postharvest ultrasound is applied in not destructive analysis of crop for the determination of the maturation stage. until now, however, the potential of the sonication as a physical mean for not conventional postharvest treatment of fresh fruit has been little investigated. here we report on the ...201223885417
patulin accumulation in apples during storage by penicillium expansum and penicillium griseofulvum strains.a part of apples destined to juice production is generally of poor quality. apples from cold storage or recently harvest (ground harvested or low quality apples) are stored under ambient conditions until they are processed. since penicillium expansum and p. griseofulvum are the principal fungal species isolated from stored apples in brazil, the objective of this study was to investigate the ability of these strains to produce patulin in apples and report the consequences of this type of storage ...201124031618
potential of patulin production by penicillium expansum strains on various this study, we investigated the pathogenicity and patulin production by ten strains of penicillium expansum on various fruits (apples, apricots, kiwis, plums and peaches) at two (4°c and 25°c) different temperature regimes. all strains caused the infectious rots on all fruits at 4 and 25°c except one strain (pex 09) at 4°c. two strains (pex 20 and pex 12) out of ten produced the highest amounts of patulin on all fruits tested. the patulin production by p. expansum is high at 25°c compared to ...201023605488
production of patulin and citrinin by penicillium expansum from british columbia (canada) apples.twenty-four isolates of penicillium expansum link from british columbia (canada) apples were cultured in yeast-extract sucrose (yes) at 25°c for 28 days to investigate production of patulin and citrinin. these isolates proved to be potent producers of citrinin, patulin, or in most cases, both mycotoxins. in every isolate, citrinin, patulin, or both compounds were produced at levels as high as 565 µg/ml (mean 269 µg/ml) and 100 µg/ml (mean 31 µg/ml), respectively. of the 24 isolates, 4 produced c ...200923604983
patulin in apple juices: incidence and likely intake in an indian population.fifty samples of apple juices were investigated for patulin levels using hplc with uv detection. it was found that 38 (76? samples contained no detectable patulin (lod = 7.5 µg l(-1)), but some samples had high patulin levels (845 µg l(-1)) compared to other branded mixed juices (21-70 µg l(-1)) and apple juices procured from local vendors (191 µg l(-1)). the survey provides evidence of a need to educate the apple-juice industry in the use of good quality apples for juice production. in addition ...200824784811
occurrence of patulin and its dietary intake through pear, peach, and apricot juices in italy.pear, peach, apricot, and mixed juices (125 samples) were purchased in italian supermarkets and organic food shops and analysed for patulin content. an overall incidence of 34.4% was observed in the fruit juices, with a mean contamination level of 3.6 µg kg(-1). no one sample exceeded 50 µg kg(-1), the maximum permitted limit according to european legislation. however, 19 positive samples contained more than 10 µg kg(-1) of patulin, which is the maximum level permitted for baby food. the inciden ...200824784810
occurrence ofpenicillium expansum and patulin in apples as raw materials for processing of foods - case study.the contamination of apples gloster variety withpenicillium expansum was investigated in the case study. the apples serve as a raw material in thefood industry for processing of baby foodstuffs and other apple products. the core of 3 - 5 % apple samples has been contaminated with spores and mycelium of untested microfungi. the surface tissue of stored apples has not been damaged. penicillium expansum was isolated in all tested apple samples. patulin has been found at levels tens to hundreds of ü ...200423604993
measurement of feruloyl/p-coumaroyl esterase by capillary zone electrophoresis.ferulic andp-coumaric acid can be separated from their corresponding aliphatic methyl esters by capillary zone electrophoresis, which allows the convenient determination of feruloyl andp-coumaroyl esterase activities using synthetic esters as substrates. a feruloyl-containing sugar ester from wheat bran was also efficiently separated and used as substrate for the enzyme assays.penicillium expansum was shown to produce feruloyl/p-coumaroyl esterase activity when grown on wheat bran in solid-state ...199524414493
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