an immunoperoxidase method of detecting respiratory syncytial virus antigens in paraffin sections of pneumonic bovine lung.using an avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex immunoperoxidase staining method, respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigen was demonstrated in glutaraldehyde-fixed, paraffin-processed lung sections from calves with induced rsv pneumonia. the virus also was detected in formalin-fixed, paraffin-processed lung sections from calves with naturally occurring rsv pneumonia. specific immunoperoxidase staining was detected within the cytoplasm of epithelial cells and syncytia in small bronchi, bronchioli, and ...19882458691
characteristics of in vitro production of mucosal antibody to respiratory syncytial virus in tonsillar tissue lymphocytes.tonsillar lymphocytes (tl) obtained from 39 subjects were established in culture in vitro, and analyzed for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) specific antibody synthesis after stimulation with pokeweed mitogen and live or ultraviolet light inactivated rsv. following stimulation with the virus, igg1, iga, and low levels of igg3 but no igg2, igg4, or ige anti-rsv antibody could be detected in the culture supernatants. the anti-rsv antibody production in tl did not show any correlation with the pre ...19882458875
formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine induces antibodies to the fusion glycoprotein that are deficient in fusion-inhibiting activity.the fusion (f) glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) induces neutralizing antibodies and antibodies that inhibit fusion of infected cells (fi antibody). it was previously shown that infants and children immunized with formalin-inactivated rsv 20 years ago developed antibodies that bound to the f glycoprotein but were deficient in neutralizing activity. a reexamination of these sera indicated that they were also deficient in fi activity. thus, formalin-inactivated rsv vaccine stimulat ...19882459154
neutralization of respiratory syncytial virus by individual and mixtures of f and g protein monoclonal antibodies.we identified several types of neutralization effected by f and g protein monoclonal antibodies (mabs) reacted individually or as mixtures against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). neutralizing activity was identified by a microneutralization test in which virus replication was determined by enzyme immunoassay. complete neutralization was seen only with mabs against the f protein. strain-specific neutralization, complete neutralization against some strains of rsv, and no neutralization against ...19882459412
mapping an antibody-binding site and a t-cell-stimulating site on the 1a protein of respiratory syncytial virus.a synthetic peptide modeled on residues 45 to 60 of the 1a protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus [1a(45-60)] was constructed and used for immunization of mice and rabbits. the immunoglobulin g fraction of the resulting rabbit antibody, purified on protein a-sepharose, immunoprecipitated from rs-infected hep-2 cells a protein with a molecular size of approximately 9.5 kilodaltons, which corresponds to the previously published molecular size of the 1a protein (y. t. huang, p. l. collins, and ...19882460636
molecular characterization of a prominent antigen of the vaccinia virus envelope.during vaccinia virus (vv) assembly a major polypeptide migrating with an apparent mw of 35k, designated ag35, is expressed as an early function and becomes an integral component of the lipoprotein envelope surrounding the mature virion. in a previous study evaluating humoral immunity to vv, a prominent response against ag35 was invariably detected in immunized mice. in the context of our continuing investigations of the structure and function of the vaccinia envelope, with a view to alteration ...19882462305
marked differences in the antigenic structure of human respiratory syncytial virus f and g glycoproteins.monoclonal antibodies directed against the glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus were used in competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for topological mapping of epitopes. whereas epitopes of the f glycoprotein could be ascribed to five nonoverlapping antigenic sites, anti-g antibodies recognized unique epitopes, many of whose competition profiles overlapped extensively. variant viruses selected with a neutralizing (47f) anti-f antibody lost the binding for only 47f and 49f an ...19892463385
antigenic variation of human rsv strains isolated in japan.antigenic variations of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strains were analyzed using a collection of nine, seven, two, and one monoclonal antibodies (mabs), respectively, raised against the fusion protein (f), large glycoprotein (g), nucleoprotein (np), and phosphoprotein (p) components of the long strain of rsv. competitive binding assay by these mabs demonstrated eight, four, and two distinct epitopes on f, g, and np components, respectively. comparison of prototype long with ten field strain ...19892466102
neutralization epitopes of the f glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus: effect of mutation upon fusion function.eighteen neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) specific for the fusion glycoprotein of the a2 strain of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) were used to construct a detailed topological and operational map of epitopes involved in neutralization and fusion. competitive binding assays identified three nonoverlapping antigenic sites (a, b, and c) and one bridge site (ab). thirteen mab-resistant mutants (marms) were selected, and the neutralization patterns of the mabs with either marms or rsv cli ...19892470922
recognition of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein by mouse cytotoxic t cell clones and a human cytotoxic t cell line.two mouse cytotoxic t cell (tc) clones, d5 and h11a, with specificity for the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion protein (f) were derived from balb/c mice primed intranasally (i.n.) with rsv (a2 strain). these clones possessed essentially the same characteristics, and only clone h11a is described here. tc clone h11a lysed target cells infected with a recombinant vaccinia virus (vv) expressing the rsv f gene, and similar target cells infected with rsv strains long, 8/60, or 18537. in additi ...19892471784
respiratory syncytial virus infection of human cord and adult blood monocytes and alveolar macrophages.we studied the permissiveness of human leukocytes, blood monocytes, alveolar macrophages, and cord blood monocytes to infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). specific immunofluorescence was used to determine the percentage of infected leukocytes. the results indicated that monocytes were the most susceptible human leukocyte to in vitro infection with rsv. polymorphonuclear leukocytes demonstrated no specific fluorescent staining after 24 h of exposure to rsv, whereas peripheral blood n ...19892476959
characterization of a novel human respiratory syncytial virus chimeric fg glycoprotein expressed using a baculovirus vector.human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) codes for two glycoproteins (f and g) which have been shown to the major targets for the host antibody response. we have expressed a novel chimeric glycoprotein (fg) in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. the chimeric glycoprotein contains the signal and extracellular regions of the rsv f glycoprotein linked to the extracellular region of the rsv g glycoprotein. beginning at the amino terminus, the chimeric glycoprotein consists of amino acids 1 to 48 ...19892477497
a 16-amino acid peptide of respiratory syncytial virus 1a protein contains two overlapping t cell-stimulating sites distinguishable by class ii mhc restriction elements.the 1a protein of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus is a small, 64-amino acid hydrophobic protein expressed in infected cells. we previously showed that the c-terminal domain of 1a contained a site for stimulation of rs virus-reactive th lymphocytes in balb/c and sjl/j mice. in this report we modeled a series of overlapping synthetic peptides of the 1a protein and we present evidence to suggest that the c-terminal domain of the 1a protein contains not one, but two, th lymphocyte-stimulating sites ...19892478625
characterization of the surface topography and putative tertiary structure of the human cd7 molecule.the cd7 gp40 molecule is a member of the ig gene superfamily and is expressed on t cell precursors before their entry into the thymus during fetal development. n-terminal amino acids 1-107 of cd7 are highly homologous to ig kappa-l chains whereas the carboxyl-terminal region of the extracellular domain of cd7 is proline-rich and has been postulated to form a stalk from which the ig domain projects. to define potential functional regions of cd7, we have studied the surface topography of the cd7 a ...19892479685
comparison of antigenic sites of subtype-specific respiratory syncytial virus attachment proteins.a panel of 19 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) were used to probe the antigenic relationships between the g (attachment) proteins of a and b respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subtypes (ga and gb). at least three and two antigenic sites were present on ga and gb, respectively, including a shared neutralizing site. most of the antibodies had some degree of complement-independent neutralizing capacity, but in common was a large neutralization-resistant fraction of virus (range 13 to 78%). passive admin ...19892479715
[a stat-method of determining respiratory syncytial virus].for rapid detection of rs virus we have modified agglutination test with staphylococcus coated with rsv-antibody which allows the virus titer to be determined within 3-5 min. the results of rs virus titration in the yield compared with those obtained by cft and cpe tests showed our modified test to be twice as specific and sensitive (60-80 ng/ml). this modification of the coagglutination test with sensitized staphylococcus and the method of running the test on a row of slides may be used in viro ...19892480026
early identification and retrieval or deletion of human lymphocyte subpopulations responding to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus challenge.differences in immune responses of human mononuclear leukocytes (mnl) have been demonstrated following exposure in vitro to influenza virus or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). in the current studies, we sought to identify early differences in reactive subpopulations that emerge from within the heterogeneous resting mnl pool after challenge. mnl were sham-exposed or exposed to influenza virus or rsv, separated, and retrieved by countercurrent centrifugal elutriation after 3 d. exposure to influ ...19892480179
antigenic structure of the fusion glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus. 19892481965
natural killer cell response to respiratory syncytial virus in the balb/c mouse model. 19892482668
detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus using a heterologous antigen-capture enzyme immunoassay.based on the marked antigenic similarities that exist between antigens of the human and bovine strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), an enzyme immunoassay (eia) designed to detect human rsv was used to detect bovine rsv. the commercial test kit (rsv eia) consists of a solid phase (beads) coated with a capture antiserum prepared against the long strain of human rsv. the rsv eia test was compared with the method of inoculation of cell cultures and fluorescent antibody (fa) staining of lung ...19892488346
a blocking elisa for the detection of specific antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.a blocking enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) has been adapted to detect specific antibodies in bovine sera to respiratory syncytial virus using a horseradish peroxidase-labeled monoclonal antibody to the fusion protein of the virus. this assay plus an indirect blocking elisa and indirect elisa were used to detect antibodies to the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in 159 field-origin bovine sera. results of these assays were compared with serum antibody titers measured by the ser ...19892488716
acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.we studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. the diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. there was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory ...19892495520
nosocomial viral infections: recent developments and new strategies.surveillance studies generally have underestimated the importance of viruses in the pathogenesis of nosocomial respiratory tract infections. the development of rapid, sensitive and reliable diagnostic techniques has permitted documentation of viral respiratory pathogens and has led to increased understanding of the epidemiology of these organisms in the hospital. these advances are exemplified by studies of respiratory syncytial virus infections in hospitalized children. the pulmonary sequelae o ...19892495955
tracheitis and supraglottis associated with branhamella catarrhalis and respiratory syncytial virus. 19892496395
immunization of the gastrointestinal tract with bacterial and viral antigens: implications in mucosal immunity.the effects of oral immunization with pseudomonas aeruginosa (paoi), chlamydia trachomatis or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) on the development of specific antibody responses in the intestine, respiratory tract and genital secretions was studied in several animal models. oral immunization resulted in the development of specific immunity in distant mucosal sites. however, its role in influencing the outcome of reinfection challenge at the distant site varied with the antigen. little or no prot ...19892499537
evaluation of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetrasodium salt dihydrate (edta)-tween 20 treatment versus protease digestion of formalin-fixed tissue sections for detection of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antigen in infected ovine lung.the efficacy of protease and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, tetrasodium salt dihydrate (edta)-tween 20 in unmasking bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) antigens in formalin-fixed lung tissue was compared using avidin-biotin immunoperoxidase procedure. tissues were taken from experimentally infected lambs. brsv antigen stained in both techniques. treatment with edta-tween 20 resulted in more intense staining of brsv infected cells, more uniform cytoplasmic staining, less non-specific back ...19892503919
[clinical studies on the secondary bacterial infection in respiratory syncytial virus infection of children].secondary bacterial infection was studied on 231 children admitted with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in the 10 years since 1987. of the 231 children, 56 (24.2%) had dual bacterial infection possibly due to secondary bacterial invasion. the diagnoses of bacterial disease were sepsis (2), pyothorax (2), pneumonias (41), otitis media (7), nasopharyngitis (2) and urinary tract infection (2). dual bacterial infections were more frequent in infants and children over 6 months than in inf ...19892504838
direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody staining techniques using commercial monoclonal antibodies for detection of respiratory syncytial virus.a comparison was made between direct and indirect fluorescent-antibody staining techniques using commercial monoclonal antibodies for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory secretions. overall agreement between the two tests was 94%. using virus isolation as the reference method, the indirect test had a higher sensitivity but a similar specificity when compared with the direct test. the slight delay in reporting using the indirect technique is not clinically significant and is o ...19892506043
immunohistochemical evidence of measles virus antigens in active otosclerosis.despite intensive investigation, the cause of otosclerosis remains uncertain. recent studies of paget's disease of bone have revealed a possible viral origin. because of similarities between otosclerosis and paget's disease, we have pursued investigation of a possible viral cause of otosclerosis. four temporal bone specimens from patients with otosclerosis, processed for immunohistochemistry, demonstrated positive specific reactivity with monoclonal antibodies to measles virus antigens using the ...19892508016
etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children based on antibody responses to bacterial and viral antigens.the serologic responses to bacterial and viral antigens were determined in paired serum samples from 336 children, ages 1 month to 15 years, with roentgenographically verified community-acquired pneumonia. significant increases in antibodies against one agent were found in 40% and against two or more agents in 8% of the children. there were significant increases in antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus in 20%, viruses of the influenza-parainfluenza group in 6% and adenovirus in 3%. a se ...19892516622
[laboratory diagnosis of infantile infections caused by the respiratory syncytial virus. report of 9 cases].nine cases of respiratory infections caused by syncytial respiratory virus which were diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence with monoclonal antibodies are presented here. six of them have been clinically diagnosed as bronchiolitis and the remaining three are diagnosed as obstructive bronchitis, upper respiratory cold and respiratory distress respectively. seven are male and two are female. their ages vary from 13 days to eleven months. its usefulness is indicated given its speed and the current ...19892519489
the 1b (ns2), 1c (ns1) and n proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) of antigenic subgroups a and b: sequence conservation and divergence within rsv genomic rna.a 2330 nucleotide sequence spanning the 1b (ns2), ic (ns1) and n genes and intergenic regions of human respiratory syncytial virus strain 18537, representing antigenic subgroup b, was determined by sequencing cloned cdnas of intracellular mrnas. comparison with the previously reported sequences for strain a2 of subgroup a showed that 1b, 1c and n were highly conserved at the nucleotide level (78, 78 and 86% identity, respectively) and at the amino acid level (92, 87 and 96% identity, respectivel ...19892525176
in vitro performance of the small particle aerosol generator (spag-2).the anti-viral drug ribavirin primarily used for the treatment of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in infants is delivered by continuous nebulization with the small particle aerosol generator (spag). clinical data suggest that the spag is an efficient nebulizer for ribavirin; it is also being used for the delivery of other pulmonary agents. the efficiency of a nebulizer can be defined in large part by delivering a major proportion of its output with a particle size of 1 to 5 microns w ...19892529473
priming for local and systemic antibody memory responses to bovine respiratory syncytial virus: effect of amount of virus, virus replication, route of administration and maternal antibodies.we studied the conditions under which calves can be primed for mucosal and serum antibody memory responses against bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), and the relationship between such responses and protection against the virus. calves were primed via the respiratory tract with a low or high amount of live virus, with killed virus, or intramuscularly with live virus. calves were challenged via the respiratory tract. priming with live virus via the respiratory tract induced primary antibod ...19892530685
t-cells in respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. 19892533461
processing, surface expression, and immunogenicity of carboxy-terminally truncated mutants of g protein of human respiratory syncytial virus.posttranslational processing and cell surface expression were examined for three c-terminally truncated mutants of the g protein of respiratory syncytial virus expressed from engineered cdnas. the truncated mutants, encoded by cdnas designated g71, g180, and g230, contained the n-terminal 71, 180, and 230 amino acids, respectively, of the 298-amino-acid g protein. to facilitate detection of g71, which reacted inefficiently with g-specific antisera, we constructed a parallel set of cdnas, designa ...19892535742
a neutrophil-derived antiviral protein: induction requirements and biological properties.polymorphonuclear neutrophilic granulocytes (pmn) have been implicated as playing a role in antiviral defense. in addition to having phagocytic and cytotoxic activities, pmn may produce an antiviral substance with interferon (ifn)-like activity. the product, for which the name polyferon (pf) has been coined, is produced upon direct encounter of pmn with bovine herpesvirus 1 (bhv-1)-infected bovine cells or membranes thereof. exposure to purified virus only does not induce pf. the intimate intera ...19892539494
evaluation of a monoclonal antibody pool for rapid diagnosis of respiratory viral infections.a pool of monoclonal antibodies (mabp) was evaluated both as a method of cell culture confirmation and as a rapid diagnostic screen for viral infection in respiratory secretions. the mabp was used in a two-step fluorescent staining procedure on cells harvested from cultures (phase 1) and on exfoliated nasopharyngeal or tracheal cells (phase 2). antibodies in the mabp were directed against respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, and 3, and influenza viruses a an ...19892541165
efficacy of viral components of a nonabortigenic combination vaccine for prevention of respiratory and reproductive system diseases in cattle.efficacy and safety of components of an im-administered vaccine for prevention of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (ibrv), parainfluenza type-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and campylobacteriosis and leptospirosis were evaluated in cattle, including calves and pregnant cows. challenge of immunity tests were conducted in calves for ibrv, pi-3 virus, or bvdv vaccinal components. all inoculated calves developed serum-neutr ...19892542202
clinical manifestations of respiratory tract infections due to respiratory syncytial virus and rhinoviruses in hospitalized children.from september 1984 to may 1986, nasopharyngeal secretions were obtained from 519 children with some form of respiratory tract infection. the nasal secretions were screened for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), rhinoviruses, adenoviruses, parainfluenza virus types 1, 2, 3, influenza virus types a and b, and enteroviruses by tissue culture virus isolation technique and/or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. a uniform questionnaire gave information about age, sex, individual signs and symptoms, fi ...19892545074
comparative susceptibility of respiratory viruses to recombinant interferons-alpha 2b and -beta.intranasal recombinant interferon-alpha 2b (rifn-alpha 2b) protects against natural colds due to rhinoviruses, but apparently not against those caused by viruses. because rifn-beta serine17 (rifn-beta ser) appears less active than rifn-alpha 2b in preventing natural rhinovirus colds, we compared the two ifns in two in vitro assays against selected respiratory viruses. in a yield reduction assay, both ifns had comparable activity against rhinovirus types 39 and 1a and coronavirus 229e, which were ...19892545792
pulmonary infection in human immunodeficiency disease: viral pulmonary infections.viral pneumonitides are among the known pulmonary complications of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection. cytomegalovirus (cmv) pneumonitis is the most frequently recognized viral infection involving the lung. although cmv may occasionally be the sole pathogen found to be responsible for severe pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (aids), in most cases, its role in causing pulmonary disease is less clear, primarily because of the propensity to infect with a ...19892546236
comparison of monoclonal antibody time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibody capture-biotinylated detector enzyme immunoassay for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus antigen all-monoclonal antibody, time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay was compared with several enzyme immunoassays for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 1, 2, and 3 antigens in clinical specimens. the most sensitive enzyme immunoassay for parainfluenza virus type 1 was an all-monoclonal antibody assay with biotin-labeled detector antibody and streptavidin-peroxidase conjugate, but for respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus types 2 and 3 the most sensit ...19892546973
comparison of three techniques for detection of respiratory viruses in nasopharyngeal aspirates from children with lower acute respiratory infections.a comparison of immunofluorescence (if), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa), and isolation in tissue culture (tc) for detection of respiratory viruses was performed on 496 nasopharyngeal aspirates from children under 5 years of age with lower acute respiratory infections who were receiving attention at three hospitals in buenos aires, argentina. all samples were tested by the three methods for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), influenza a and b, adenovirus, and parainfluenza 1 and 3. vir ...19892547019
study of virus isolation from pharyngeal swabs in children with varicella.we performed virus isolations from the pharyngeal swabs in 117 children with varicella who were aged from 22 days to 15 years and 70 healthy children who were aged from 3 months to 15 years, by using human embryonic lung cell cultures. viral isolates were confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence method or by neutralization with well-characterized antibodies. five varicella-zoster virus isolates (4.3%), 23 cytomegalovirus isolates (19.7%), five herpes simplex virus isolates (4.3%), and one res ...19892556024
the development of a novel immunoassay amplification system and its use in viral detection.a novel amplification system has been developed for the detection of free or antibody-conjugated alkaline phosphatase. the amplification system provides a 100 fold enhancement in the detection of the enzyme, compared to direct detection with chromogenic substrates. the key to the amplification system is the dephosphorylation of a potent phosphorylated inhibitor, and the visualization of this inhibitor using a second, indicator, reaction. this system is shown to provide increased sensitivity for ...19892558598
epidemiologic survey of bovine diseases in suriname.a seroepidemiologic survey of cattle diseases was undertaken in suriname in 1985 to help assess the livestock disease situation in that country. the six diseases covered by the survey were bovine coronavirus infection, bovine rhinotracheitis, bovine virus diarrhea, brucellosis, parainfluenza-3 infection, and respiratory syncytial virus infection. the results indicated relatively low prevalences of these diseases compared to the prevalences found in most developed countries. the reasons for this ...19892558753
alkaline phosphatase fusions to the respiratory syncytial virus f protein as an approach to analyze its membrane topology.manoil and beckwith (1985) have constructed a transposon, tnphoa, that permits the generation of hybrid proteins composed of alkaline phosphatase (ap) lacking its signal peptide fused to amino-terminal sequences of other proteins. this transposon has been used to localize export signals and analyze membrane topology of bacterial proteins. we have applied this approach to the membrane fusion protein (f) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). the transposon tnphoa and a plasmid directing bacterial ...19892558867
[serological investigation on infant virus pneumonia in beijing].antibody against adenovirus in paired sera of 171 cases of infant virus pneumonia observed in 7 winter-spring periods was assayed by hemagglutination-inhibition test and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. a 4-fold or greater rise in the titer was found in 56 cases (32.75%). type 3 and type 7 were predominant. antibody against influenza virus was assayed in paired sera of 129 cases in 6 winter-spring periods. a 4-fold or greater increase in the titer was observed in 11 cases (8.53%), with predomi ...19892560411
current use and future directions of adenovirus vaccine.adenoviruses are a major cause of respiratory illnesses in military recruits and also are common causes of respiratory and gastrointestinal infections during childhood. forty-one serotypes of human respiratory and enteric adenoviruses have been identified. live, oral adenovirus vaccines developed for the military and tested in large clinical trials have proved to be safe and highly effective in decreasing hospitalizations related to adenoviral acute respiratory diseases. studies have demonstrate ...19892560582
comparative virulence of respiratory syncytial virus subgroups a and b. 19892564579
synthesis of respiratory syncytial virus rna in cell-free extracts.a cell-free system has been used to synthesize respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) rna in vitro. polyadenylated species representing all size classes of rsv mrnas were labelled. some of the labelled rna was seen in a cscl gradient at the density characteristic of negative-strand viral nucleocapsids. experiments using a thiotriphos-phorylated nucleotide indicate that rna chains are initiated de novo in the cell-free system.19892567342
effects of norakin on respiratory syncytial virus in tissue culture and in mice.norakin at 1 microgram/ml inhibits the reproduction of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in vero cells to 50% and at 5 micrograms/ml to 90%. the development of lung lesions in rsv-infected balb/c mice was suppressed by 70% when the animals were treated with two doses (25 mg/kg each) of norakin, 30 min before and 4 hr post infection. (p.i.), respectively.19892569812
respiratory syncytial virus subgroups and pneumonia in children. 19892572768
antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus strains with monoclonal study the antigenic characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), we developed and evaluated monoclonal antibodies (mabs) to three strains of rsv: 11 to long, 4 to 18537, and 9 to a2. six of these mabs immunoprecipitated the nucleoprotein, six the large glycoprotein, and 11 the fusion protein. by the pattern of the reactions of these mabs to 16 strains of rsv in an indirect immunofluorescence assay or enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, we were able to distinguish three subgroups. with ...19852579169
antigenic analysis of a putative new strain of respiratory syncytial virus.a recent isolate (9320) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) that had been reported to differ from all previous strains was compared with rsv strains isolated over a period of 23 years by using the techniques of in vitro neutralization by specific antiserum and in vivo resistance to infection in cotton rats. the 9320 strain did not appear to be a novel antigenic variant and exhibited greater homology to several prototype strains than did an earlier isolate. the antigenic differences detected by ...19852579170
ribavirin inhibits proliferation of bovine respiratory syncytial virus in vitro.bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) is an important pathogen in bovine respiratory diseases in the united states. proliferation of the disease can reach epidemic proportions with mortality reaching as high as 20%. in vitro work shown here suggests that the antiviral compound ribavirin will be effective in the treatment of infected animals. treatment at three dose levels with ribavirin have shown significant inhibition of brsv proliferation. bovine turbinate cells were host cells for this s ...19892582739
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia. 19892584435
serum antibodies against respiratory tract viruses: a prospective three-year follow-up from birth.acute otitis media (aom) has been epidemiologically related to viral respiratory tract infections, and viral antigens have also been detected in middle ear secretion in some aom episodes. successive serum samples from children followed prospectively for three years from birth were analysed for igg antibodies against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), adenoviruses and influenza a virus. values from serum antibody activity gradually decreased during the first six months of life, followed by a grad ...19892584849
respiratory syncytial virus: a nursing perspective.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), a common winter illness, is most devastating in infants with underlying pulmonary and cardiovascular disease. ribavirin aerosol is an effective treatment when used with appropriate nursing management.19892587088
high prevalence of serum antibody against human t cell leukemia virus type i (htlv-i) among the bismam asmat population (indonesian new guinea).an unusually high prevalence (45%) of serum antibodies to human t cell leukemia virus type i (or to an antigenically related virus) in comparison with that observed against other viral pathogens (human immunodeficiency virus type 1, herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, varicella zoster virus, and respiratory syncytial virus) has been observed in a group of bismam asmat (papua) subjects, living in a very limited and geographically isolated area of indonesian new guinea.19892590558
detection of multiple viral agents in nasopharyngeal specimens yielding respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). an assessment of diagnostic strategy and clinical significance.a retrospective study of 6 years (1981-1987) experience with clinical specimens of pediatric patients submitted for identification of respiratory viruses was undertaken to determine the prevalence of multiple viral isolates and to assess the impact of dual infections on severity of clinical disease. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), the most frequently identified agent, was detected in cell culture and/or by immunofluorescence (if) in 666 of 2,415 specimens examined. a second virus was isolated ...19892591168
hla class i antigens in severe rsv bronchiolitis.cytotoxic t-lymphocytes (ctl) recognize virus-infected cells in association with hla class i antigens. there is strong evidence of the importance of ctl in respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. we looked for but were unable to demonstrate an association between particular hla class i antigens and severe rsv bronchiolitis in infants.19892595727
a severe outbreak of respiratory tract disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus probably enhanced by vaccination with modified live vaccine.a severe outbreak of respiratory tract disease associated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) on a large beef-fattening farm is described. the outbreak started two days after five- to seven-month-old calves were vaccinated with a modified live brsv vaccine. the disease ran a very severe course among five- to seven-month-old vaccinated calves, but disease was absent in eight-month-old an older non-vaccinated calves. the presence of igm antibodies in sera of non-vaccinated calves indica ...19892603358
[severe respiratory syncytial virus infections. study of 87 infants hospitalized in an epidemic].during a winter epidemic, 87 infants were admitted to necker-enfants-malades hospital with a severe respiratory syncitial virus (rsv) infection. these infants fell into two groups: 37 infants without any medical history and 50 showing an underlying pathology (immune deficiencies, heart disease, cns disorders, digestive malformations, allergic manifestations). of the 37 infants with no medical history, most were below the age of 6 months and the rsv infection was manifested clinically by bronchio ...19892604509
antiviral activities and the mechanism of 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-6-alkylthiopurines on several rna viruses from animals.a series of 9-beta-d-ribofuranosyl-6-alkylthiopurines (6-alkyl ti) were found to inhibit in vitro replication of infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (ihnv), human influenza virus (ifv) and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) with ic50 values of about 0.06 microgram/ml, 0.7-1.5 micrograms/ml and 1-3 micrograms/ml, respectively. viral rna synthesis in infected cells in the presence of actinomycin d was inhibited by treatment with the compounds dose-dependently. it was also found that the decreas ...19892608474
[the immunization of adults against respiratory syncytial virus infection].the results of the comparative study of the immunological effectiveness of experimental samples of respiratory syncytial (rs) viral vaccine, prepared from a live attenuated strain and introduced in a single administration to young adults by the intranasal, intradermal and combined intranasal-intradermal) routes, are presented. the effectiveness of intranasal immunization was inversely related to the level of previously existing humoral (serum, secretory) antibodies. intradermal immunization enha ...19892609811
[virologic and serologic observations in an outbreak of infantile bronchopneumonitis].from december 1985 to february 1986 in si hong county, jiang su province an outbreak of bronchopneumonitis occurred. in december the number of admitted infant cases with bronchopneumonitis was 32% of total hospitalized cases. the youngest infant was 28 days in age and the oldest was one and half years. 71.5% percent occurred in children less than six months in age. from nasopharyngeal washing of acute cases were isolated 6 strains of viruses. the result of identification of them revealed that th ...19892611868
production, characterization, and utility of monoclonal antibodies which react with a novel chimeric glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus termed fg.primary immunization of mice with recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the f or g glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus followed by an intravenous boost with crude fg chimeric glycoprotein resulted in the generation of hybridomas each specific for either the f or g portion of fg. characterization of each mab was determined following binding to various viral and glycoprotein antigens, by immunoprecipitation, by competition binding and by subclass determination. relative affinity was ...19892613268
interferon alfa, infectious virus, and virus antigen secretion in respiratory syncytial virus infections of graded severity.interferon alfa was measured by an immunoradiometric assay in the nasopharyngeal secretions of a group of infants admitted to hospital with respiratory syncytial virus infection. virus replication in the upper respiratory tract was assessed by infectivity assay and by an enzyme linked immunoadsorbent assay for the viral fusion protein on the same nasopharyngeal secretions. all infants were examined daily while in hospital and allocated a score based upon a subjective assessment of the severity o ...19892624471
igg and igm antibodies to viral glycoproteins in respiratory syncytial virus infections of graded severity.serum antibodies to the fusion (f) and large glycoprotein (g) of respiratory syncytial virus in the serum of 57 infected infants were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (elisa). most serum samples taken at the time of admission to hospital contained antibodies to both glycoproteins, and overall there was no significant evidence of a selective deficiency of antibody to either viral antigen. less than a quarter of the infants showed rising igg antibody titres to either glycoprotein afte ...19892624472
[respiratory syncytial virus antibody levels in the 13-25 age group of healthy people using a microneutralization test].in this study antibody levels to respiratory syncytial virus were investigated in 181 serum samples obtained from healthy individuals by using microneutralization test. 25 out of 181 sera (13.8%) were found positive at 1/5 dilution. serum neutralization50 (sn50) value of these sera were detected at different titers which varied from 1/7.08 to 1/79.5.19892626101
increases in plasma concentrations of a prostaglandin metabolite in acute airway obstruction.plasma concentrations of a stable prostaglandin f2 alpha metabolite were measured by radioimmunoassay during and after recovery from acute airway obstruction in 15 infants. mean (sem) metabolite concentrations (ng/l) in plasma obtained both before (1033 (418)) and after (1470 (413)) initial treatment for airway obstruction were significantly higher than those obtained from the same subjects after resolution of the obstruction--25.5 (6.6)--and those obtained from two comparison groups. infants po ...19892641987
immunization of cotton rats with the human respiratory syncytial virus f glycoprotein produced using a baculovirus vector.the f glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus in insect cells was produced using a baculovirus expression vector to examine its potential as a subunit vaccine. two different forms of the f glycoprotein were expressed: the intact f (f) glycoprotein and the truncated (ft) glycoprotein, in which the cooh-terminal anchor region was deleted. the f glycoprotein remained cell associated, whereas the ft glycoprotein was secreted into the media of infected cells. in contrast to the processing of the ...19892644369
in situ enzyme immunoassay for antiviral susceptibility testing of respiratory syncytial enzyme immunoassay (eia), performed directly on fixed infected monolayers of hep-2 cells in microtiter plates, was compared with the conventional plaque reduction assay (pra) method for the determination of antiviral activity of ribavirin against respiratory syncytial virus. a 50% reduction in virus replication was observed at 3.4 and 5.9 mg/l of the drug by eia and pra, respectively. eia is simple to perform and reproducible and has objective end points. moreover, eia has advantages over pra ...19892646911
respiratory virus infection in immunocompromised patients.seventy-eight immunocompromised patients were prospectively evaluated for infection with respiratory viruses including parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, influenza viruses and adenoviruses beginning before marrow transplant and continuing to 60 days after transplant or discharge from hospital. patients were studied both on a fixed surveillance schedule and at any time upper or lower respiratory symptoms developed. fifteen (19%) patients had a respiratory virus detected including ...19892647186
infectious diseases of new-world camelids (nwc).although there are notable infectious conditions that are capable of producing clinical disease in the nwc, overall, these species are quite healthy. of the bacterial diseases, enterotoxemia caused by clostridium perfringens types c and d would be deemed the most significant in north america, while type a also would be regarded as important in south america. other important bacterial infections of potential concern are tuberculosis, johne's disease, anthrax, malignant edema, actinomycosis, tetan ...19892647231
the 1a protein of respiratory syncytial virus is an integral membrane protein present as multiple, structurally distinct species.the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) 1a protein was previously identified as a 7.5-kilodalton (kda) nonglycosylated species that, on the basis of its predicted sequence determined from the sequence of its mrna, contains a hydrophobic central domain that was suggestive of membrane interaction. here, four major, structurally distinct intracellular species of the 1a protein were identified in cells infected by rsv or by a recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the 1a gene. the four species of 1a we ...19892649692
infections in pediatric orthotopic heart transplant recipients.the infectious complications of 31 orthotopic heart transplants in 27 patients performed between 1982 and 1987 were reviewed. fifteen patients (56%) are alive 704 to 1829 days posttransplantation. five of the 27 patients died within the first week posttransplantation of noninfectious causes. infection occurred in 17 of the remaining 22 patients and was the major cause of death in 3 of the 12 fatalities. there were 10 proved and 4 probable bacterial infections. three of the 10 proved bacterial in ...19892649868
comparison of the anti-respiratory syncytial virus activity and toxicity of papaverine hydrochloride and pyrazofurin in vitro and in vivo.based on reports describing their broad antiviral activity, the toxicity and antiviral efficacy of papaverine hydrochloride and pyrazofurin against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection were tested in vitro in tissue culture cells and in vivo in cotton rats. papaverine inhibited rsv replication in vitro; however, the median minimal toxic dose-median minimal inhibitory concentration ratios (mtd50:mic50) in vitro and in vivo for papaverine were less than 4. further work with this compound wa ...19892653219
[infection and asthma].infection is frequent in all stages and forms of asthma. it is a source of exacerbations of all degrees of severity. bacterial infection, especially with commensal organisms from the upper respiratory tract, may cause bronchial hyperreactivity (hrb) by various mechanisms, specific--microbial delayed hypersensitivity, probably rate; ige-dependent hypersensitivity others non-specific: bronchial inflammation, source of mediators of bronchial constriction; activation of complement, direct histamine ...19892653352
[atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip) in calves and young cattle in schleswig-holstein in conjunction with an infection by the bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv)].it is reported on atypical interstitial pneumonia (aip) in 16 mostly holstein-frisian calves and feeders from 13 different farms in schleswig-holstein in association with an infection by the respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). all animals were submitted with identical clinical histories. macroscopically the lung lesions were characterized by alveolar and interstitial edema and emphysema. microscopically there was a diffuse interstitial pneumonia with formation of hyaline membranes and multinucle ...19892653786
use of high-speed rolling to detect respiratory syncytial virus in cell culture.we examined the effect of motion on respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) growth in cell culture. infected cultures were incubated stationary, rolling, or on an orbital shaker. enzyme immunoassay (eia) results for cultures infected with high concentrations of a laboratory strain of rsv were similar for all incubation conditions. however, cultures infected with low concentrations of virus and rolled at 96 rpm had a significantly greater mean eia optical density (1.78 +/- 0.22) than cultures rolled at ...19892654185
respiratory syncytial virus alters electrophysiologic properties in cotton rat airway epithelium.the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on the electrophysiologic properties of the airway epithelium was studied in tracheas obtained from cotton rats, after in vivo exposure to the virus. rsv infection was documented by tissue culture infectivity and immunofluorescent antibody techniques. light microscopic studies of the tracheas 72 hours after exposure to rsv revealed normal epithelial morphology. rsv infection produced a 28% decrease in short-circuit current (isc) and an al ...19892654848
mechanism of lung injury in cotton rats immunized with formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) seronegative cotton rats were immunized intramuscularly at four and eight weeks of age with either formalin-inactivated, alum-precipitated rsv grown in hep-2 cell tissue cultures or virus-free hep-2 cell tissue cultures similarly prepared. sham-immunized animals served as controls. at 12 weeks of age, all animals were challenged with 6 x 10(5) plaque forming units of live rsv via the intranasal route. animals were killed at predetermined days and evaluated for r ...19892655343
evaluation of the abbott testpack rsv enzyme immunoassay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal swab specimens.the abbott testpack rsv assay (abbott laboratories, north chicago, ill.), a rapid (20-min) enzyme immunoassay, was compared with culture and direct immunofluorescence (dfa) of nasopharyngeal cells for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in nasopharyngeal swab specimens. nasopharyngeal swab specimens, collected from 234 infants, were placed in viral transport medium. portions of specimen in transport medium were used for each test. of 234 specimens, 70 (30%) were culture positive, ...19892666434
development of cell-mediated cytotoxic immunity to respiratory syncytial virus in human infants following naturally acquired infection.with virus-infected autologous and allogenic mononuclear cells as specific targets, the development of cell-mediated cytotoxic reactivity to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was studied in peripheral blood lymphocytes (pbl) in groups of infants with acute rsv infection and in other control groups of subjects during a community outbreak of rsv infection. no rsv-specific cellular cytotoxicity was observed in cord blood lymphocytes and in other uninfected controls. the pbl of infants with acute rs ...19892666570
routine viral culture for pediatric respiratory specimens submitted for direct immunofluorescence testing.from 1986 to 1987, 69 (25%) of 274 specimens from children with lower respiratory tract syndromes were positive for respiratory syncytial virus antigen by direct immunofluorescence assay (dfa). comprehensive viral culture was performed on all 205 dfa-negative specimens, and 72 specimens yielded viruses; 5 specimens yielded multiple agents. thus, 52% of specimens yielded a specific virus, supporting the routine use of viral culture. isolates from the dfa-negative specimens included respiratory sy ...19892671012
antigenic characterization of respiratory syncytial virus associated with acute respiratory infections in uruguayan children from 1985 to 1987.the occurrence of subgroup a and b strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was studied during three epidemic years, 1985 to 1987, in uruguay. a set of monoclonal antibodies was selected according to their reactivity with local rsv isolates and used for the typing of rsv directly in nasopharyngeal cells by indirect immunofluorescence. of 77 specimens, 69 could be typed as belonging to subgroup a or b, 5 could not be typed with the restricted set of monoclonal antibodies employed, and 3 react ...19892671013
detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by dna-rna hybridization.we have developed an rna-cdna hybridization assay for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) rna in nasopharyngeal samples. we chose to use as probe a cdna complementary to the nucleocapsid protein gene of rsv, integrated into the plasmid vector pbr322. the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay is 8.2 x 10(2) pfu of the long strain of rsv. in throat washes with added cell-free virus, the assay can detect 3.3 x 10(3) pfu of rsv. respiratory secretions were collected from a group of ...19892671029
immunosuppression of the antibody response to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by pre-existing serum antibodies: partial prevention by topical infection of the respiratory tract with vaccinia virus-rsv recombinants.immunization strategies to prevent respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) disease will involve immunization of infants less than 2 months of age who possess maternally derived rsv antibodies. vaccinia-rsv recombinant viruses are useful tools for defining parameters important in immunization against rsv and also are being considered as live virus vaccines for use in humans. previous studies demonstrated that passively acquired rsv antibodies can suppress the immune response and the protective efficacy ...19892671259
rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions by immunofluorescence and elisa does not justify discontinuation of virus fluorescent antibody assay (dfa) using monoclonal antibody and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) were compared with conventional virus isolation and identification procedures in cell cultures. when 134 nps were examined from infants and young children with acute respiratory tract infection, 42 (31%) were culture-positive for rsv and 31 of these were detected by the appearance of a typical c ...19892674634
viral etiology in acute lower respiratory infections in children from a closed community.the aim of this study was to determine the viral agents associated with acute lower respiratory infections (alri) in young children. during a 2-yr period, 204 nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) from children under 4 yr of age living in an orphanage and exhibiting febrile alri were studied by both indirect immunofluorescence (iif) and isolation in four cell lines. npa cell smears as well as tissue culture cells exhibiting cytopathic effect (cpe) or hemadsorption were stained by iif for respiratory sy ...19892675703
protection of cotton rats against human respiratory syncytial virus by vaccination with a novel chimeric fg glycoprotein.the cotton rat model of experimental human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was used to study the efficacy of fg, a novel chimeric glycoprotein which was expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. fg contained the extracellular regions of the f (fusion) and g (attachment) glycoproteins of rsv. vaccination with fg resulted in induction of neutralizing antibody and was correlated with protection of lung tissue from rsv challenge against both serogroup a and b virus strains. b ...19892677234
structure and cell surface maturation of the attachment glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus in a cell line deficient in o glycosylation.the synthesis of the extensively o-glycosylated attachment protein, g, of human respiratory syncytial virus and its expression on the cell surface were examined in a mutant chinese hamster ovary (cho) cell line, ldld, which has a defect in protein o glycosylation. these cells, used in conjunction with an inhibitor of n-linked oligosaccharide synthesis, can be used to establish conditions in which no carbohydrate addition occurs or in which either n-linked or o-linked carbohydrate addition occurs ...19892677404
respiratory syncytial virus-induced acute lung injury in adult patients with bone marrow transplants: a clinical approach and review of the literature.acute lung injury induced by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients who have undergone bone marrow transplantation. twenty-nine of the 74 patients who received bone marrow transplants at the university of minnesota during a 1-year period developed evidence of acute lung injury, and rsv was identified as the cause in 8. we discuss the clinical course of these 8 patients and offer a clinical approach to rsv infection occurring after bone marrow tr ...19892677595
comparison of nasal brush and nasopharyngeal aspirate techniques in obtaining specimens for detection of respiratory syncytial viral antigen by immunofluorescence.diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus by antigen detection is dependent on obtaining adequate respiratory epithelial cells. two specimen collection methods, nasopharyngeal aspiration (npa) and nasal brushing (nb), were compared. thirty-two pediatric patients with presumed viral pneumonia or bronchiolitis (34 episodes) had both npa and nb performed. of 34 specimens 15 were culture-positive for respiratory syncytial virus. of these 12 npa samples and 10 nb samples had viral inclusions by immuno ...19892677955
[outbreak of respiratory syncytial virus in a neonatal unit].described is an outbreak of nosocomial rsv infection, following the admission of a 20-day-old and 11-day-old newborn with lower respiratory infections, diagnosed as being caused by rsv through detection of viral antigens by direct fat (fluorescent antibody test) of nasopharyngeal samples. later on, 5 of the other 20 newborn in patients in the same care unit also showed positive results in direct fat, for rsv. the clinical manifestations of these patients were mild even in those cases with underl ...19892679277
immunization of cotton rats with the fusion (f) and large (g) glycoproteins of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) protects against rsv challenge without potentiating rsv disease.a formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) vaccine tested 22 years ago failed to protect infant vaccinees against rsv infection or disease. instead, lower respiratory tract disease was enhanced during subsequent infection by rsv. enhancement of pulmonary pathology is also observed when cotton rats are immunized with formalin-inactivated rsv and subsequently infected with this virus. a major question that must be addressed for each new paramyxovirus vaccine is whether the immunogen ...19892692334
antiviral factors in human milk: implications in respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19892692385
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