failure to detect paramyxovirus sequences in paget's disease of bone using the polymerase chain is widely believed that paget's disease of bone is due to a "slow virus" infection of osteoclasts with one of the paramyxovirus group. controversy continues to surround the identity of the virus involved, however, since at different times evidence has been presented implicating measles virus (mv), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), and canine distemper virus (cdv) as putative infective agents. in this study we used the technique of reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (pcr) to ...19911805546
immunoprophylaxis of otitis media.prospects for an effective otitis media vaccine are bolstered by a number of encouraging observations. results of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine trials beginning in 1975, the enormously enhanced immunogenicity of protein-hib polysaccharide coupled vaccines in infants, and the apparent effectiveness of a protein-pcp coupled vaccine in experimental otitis media suggest that a pneumococcal vaccine targeted to prevent invasive and middle ear infections is not too distant. the identification of ...19911805562
comparative study of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates using conventional cell culture, shell viral centrifugation culture, immunofluorescence and biotin-avidin enzyme linked immunosorbent assays.133 nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) were simultaneously tested for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by conventional cell culture (ccc), shell vial centrifugation culture (svc), immunofluorescence assay (ifa) and biotin-avidin enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (b-a elisa). these yielded positive results in 32(24%), 45(33.8%), 36(27%) and 40(30%) of specimens, respectively. specimens positive by ifa and b-a elisa were all also positive by svc. the sensitivity of ccc, ifa, and b-a e ...19911807259
secretory antibodies to cow milk proteins and to respiratory syncytial virus. 19911809016
a chimeric glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus termed fg induces t-cell mediated immunity in mice.popliteal lymph node cells taken from mice vaccinated with the fg glycoprotein were exposed in vitro to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antigens. proliferation to fg or rsv antigens was blocked with anti-cd4 monoclonal antibody treatment. fg-vaccinated mice developed classical late delayed type hypersensitivity (dth) reactions when exposed to fg antigen in vivo.19911811371
"management of the infant with respiratory syncytial virus". 19911762047
[preliminary studies on subtypes of respiratory syncytial virus in china].an analysis of subtypes of 9 respiratory syncytial (rs) viruses isolated from guangzhou and nanjing areas of china was carried out with eight sweden rs-subtype specific monoclonal antibodies (mabs) and 7 internal anti-rs mabs. all these mabs directed against respectively the large glycoprotein (g), fusion protein (f), nucleoprotein (np), and phosphoprotein (p) components of the prototype long strain of rs virus. the patterns of the reactions of these mabs to the nine isolated strains of rs virus ...19911814050
clinical characteristics of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subgroup infections in japan.the subgroup characteristics of 130 strains of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolated in sapporo during 9 epidemic years 1980-1989 were determined. monoclonal antibodies raised against the rsv long strains were used. subgroup a included 77 (59.2%) isolates and subgroup b 52 (40.0%) strains, while 1 strain was considered to be a variant of a subgroup a strain. the distribution by age of infants and children was different for the 2 subgroups: less than 1 year of age infants with subgroup a inf ...19911815326
the pneumographic and medical investigation of infants suffering apparent life threatening episodes.investigation of 340 babies who suffered from apparent life threatening episodes (alte) was performed using pneumographic studies and a variety of medical investigations. a number of medical abnormalities were demonstrated by history or investigation, including gastro-oesophageal reflux (211), airways pathology (17), evidence of fits (25), brain-stem tumour (2), hypoglycaemia (2), respiratory syncytial virus (8) and possible munchausen by proxy (5). pneumographic abnormalities were detected in 2 ...19911756076
ventilatory casebook. respiratory syncytial virus infection complicating bronchopulmonary dysplasia. 19911770400
[atypical pathogen spectrum in community-acquired infections of the lower respiratory tract in childhood].over a period of 14 months, we obtained nasal and throat swabs for virological examinations from patients, admitted to hospital with suspected pneumonia. fifty-five cases of perihilar bronchitis and 103 cases of pneumonia were diagnosed based on radiological criteria. in 36% (n = 57) of the children, a pathogen could be determined by antigen elisa. we found the following spectrum: respiratory syncytial virus: 42%; influenza a: 8%; influenza b: 10%; parainfluenza 1: 3%; parainfluenza 2: 10%; para ...19911745250
severe bronchiolitis in children.acute viral bronchiolitis is one of the most common causes of paediatric respiratory disease, especially in the first year of life. young infants and those with pre-existent cardiorespiratory problems are at an increased risk of acute respiratory failure necessitating mechanical ventilation. a prospective study was carried out from november 1988 to october 1989, to analyse the clinical features, aetiology and outcome of patients with severe bronchiolitis. 52 (29.9%) out of 174 cases of acute bro ...19911812334
sequence of the major nucleocapsid protein gene of pneumonia virus of mice: sequence comparisons suggest structural homology between nucleocapsid proteins of pneumoviruses, paramyxoviruses, rhabdoviruses and filoviruses.the complete nucleotide sequence of gene 3 of pneumonia virus of mice has been determined, and the 5' end of the mrna mapped using a modification of the polymerase chain reaction technique. the gene contains a single open reading frame, beginning with a 5'-proximal aug initiation codon, encoding a polypeptide with a predicted mr of 43141. expression of the gene 3 protein in escherichia coli and in vitro showed that it reacted with virus-specific antiserum and comigrated with the major nucleocaps ...19911848602
high dose-short duration ribavirin aerosol treatment--a review.a high-dose, short-duration treatment with ribavirin aerosol consisting of a three-fold increase in concentration of drug (60 mg versus 20 mg of ribavirin per ml in the liquid reservoir of the generator administered for about one-third the time of the standard treatment) was as effective as the standard dosage in the treatment of experimental influenza a and b infections in mice and in the treatment of experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection in cotton rats. despite some minor pulmonar ...19911756300
[pneumonia caused by respiratory syncytial virus in the adult]. 19911768759
the role of passive immunity in bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected calves.the role of passive immunity in bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infections in neonatal calves was evaluated. calves were divided into groups as follows: colostrum-deprived, sham-inoculated; colostrum-deprived, brsv-inoculated; and colostrum-fed, brsv-inoculated. calves were inoculated with a low-passage field isolate of brsv for 4 consecutive days by a combined respiratory tract route and were euthanized 6 days after receiving the last inoculation. arterial oxygen tension (pao2) decrea ...19911847400
etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in gambian children: i. acute lower respiratory tract infections in infants presenting at the hospital.ninety infants less than 1 year of age with pneumonia and 43 control infants were investigated for viral and chlamydial infection with the use of culture and serology and for bacterial infection with the use of blood cultures, lung aspirates, antibody assays and antigen detection procedures. one or more potential pathogens were identified in 62 (69%) cases with pneumonia and in 12 (28%) controls. infection by respiratory viruses was identified in 42 (49%) cases and in 8 (19%) controls. respirato ...19911848364
effects of recombinant human alpha a interferon in gnotobiotic calves challenged with respiratory syncytial virus.the effects of recombinant human alpha a interferon were studied in gnotobiotic calves challenged with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). gnotobiotic calves given doses of interferon by intramuscular injection over five days showed a marked, dose-related, rise in rectal temperature and depression of circulating leucocytes. differential counts showed decreases in both lymphocytes and neutrophils. no significant pathological differences were found between treated and untreated calves, nor could an ...19911852059
[use of immunoenzyme analysis for detecting antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus with the aid of a conjugate of staphylococcal protein a with peroxidase]. 19911858364
synthetic oligonucleotide probes differentiate respiratory syncytial virus subgroups in a nucleic acid hybridization assay.a new approach to respiratory syncytial virus subgroup differentiation has been developed on the basis of the hybridization of subgroup-specific synthetic oligonucleotides with viral mrna. two oligonucleotide probes were designed from the nucleotide sequences of an a and a b subgroup respiratory syncytial virus glycoprotein g gene. all 28 virus isolates tested were correctly classified by subgroup with these probes.19911864945
[nosocomial virus infections in pediatric departments. rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus].rotavirus and respiratory syncytial virus are common causes of acute gastroenteritis and upper and lower respiratory diseases among infants and toddlers. both viruses occur as epidemics during the winter season. the symptoms may be quite severe and often lead to hospitalisation in paediatric wards i.e. about 2,000 children per year. the viruses frequently give rise to nosocomial infections in the infant/toddler wards about one third of the cases being nosocomial. recent studies have revealed tha ...19911866810
antibody enhancement of respiratory syncytial virus stimulation of leukotriene production by a macrophagelike cell line.the clinical and epidemiologic features of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections suggest that rsv-specific antibody may sometimes contribute to the disease process. recently, it has been demonstrated that virus-specific antibody can enhance rsv infection of macrophagelike cells in vitro. we evaluated the possibility that antibody might also enhance rsv stimulation of the bronchoactive mediator of inflammation leukotriene c-4 (ltc4)in a macrophagelike cell line, u937. the addition of rsv l ...19911870211
etiology of acute respiratory infections in children in tropical southern india.nasopharyngeal secretions and throat-swab specimens from 809 children less than 6 years old with acute respiratory infection were examined by culture and indirect immunofluorescence for the presence of virus or viral antigen. blood was cultured for the presence of bacteria in selected cases of lower respiratory infection (lri); pleural fluid also was cultured in cases of empyema. viruses were detected in 163 (49%) of 331 children with lri. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was the commonest agen ...19911862277
control of acute lower respiratory illness in the developing world: an assessment of vaccine intervention.the major bacterial and viral causes of morbidity and death due to acute lower respiratory infection (alri) in the developing world are amenable to control by vaccines. initially, full use of measles, pertussis, and diphtheria vaccines, in appropriately scheduled programs, can make an immediate contribution to the reduction of severe respiratory infection. emerging technologies offer the promise of vaccines against bacterial and viral respiratory pathogens that are suitable for infants and child ...19911862286
epidemiology of acute respiratory infections in children of developing countries.acute respiratory infections cause four and a half million deaths among children every year, the overwhelming majority occurring in developing countries. pneumonia unassociated with measles causes 70% of these deaths; post-measles pneumonia, 15%; pertussis, 10%; and bronchiolitis and croup syndromes, 5%. both bacterial and viral pathogens are responsible for these deaths. the most important bacterial agents are streptococcus pneumoniae, haemophilus influenzae, and staphylococcus aureus. the data ...19911862276
reinfection of mice with respiratory syncytial virus.a balb/c model of respiratory syncytial virus infection has been developed in which high-titered replication occurs in lung, immunological infiltrates in lung can be detected histologically, and illness can be consistently reproduced. the immunodeterminants of rsv reinfection in this system were investigated by rechallenging mice with rsv early (less than 2 months after primary infection) and late (16 to 21 months after primary infection) and correlating illness and titer of rsv isolated from lu ...19911885946
experimental reproduction of respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial experiment was conducted to reproduce respiratory tract disease with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in one-month-old, colostrum-fed calves. the hypothesized role of viral hypersensitivity and persistent infection in the pathogenesis of brsv pneumonia was also investigated. for brsv inoculation a field isolate of brsv, at the fifth passage level in cell culture, was administered by a combined respiratory tract route (intranasal and intratracheal) for four consecutive days. four grou ...19911887565
reliability of two new test kits for rapid diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection.two new rapid enzyme immunoassays (eias) for detecting respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), directigen (becton dickinson microbiology systems) and testpack (abbott diagnostics) were compared with virus isolation and direct immunofluorescence by using fresh specimens. the sensitivities of both eias were low (72 to 73%), but when initial specimens were used, testpack had a high sensitivity (92%) in contrast to that of directigen (76%). because of its high sensitivity and specificity, testpack can be ...19911890186
community- and hospital-acquired respiratory syncytial virus infections in chile.nasopharyngeal aspirates were obtained on admission from 614 patients younger than 2 years of age who were hospitalized in a ward for acute respiratory infections from june 1988 through october, 1989, in santiago, chile. patients in two rooms were followed during the cold seasons by sampling aspirates every other day during the child's entire hospital stay. clinical features were recorded daily. indirect monoclonal immunofluorescent assay and isolation in hep-2 were used for respiratory syncytia ...19911891287
[dynamics of local defensive reactions in the lungs in acute experimental inflammatory process induced by respiratory syncytial virus].study has been made of broncho-associated lymphoid tissue (balt), the number and functional activity of lung phagocytes, with 42 mice balb/c, induced by respiratory-syncytial virus. with virus inflammation a decreased number of lung macrophages, their stronger attraction and increased lung chemotaxis have been observed. the addition of bacterial infection was accompanied by an increase in lung neutrophil, lymphocyte and macrophage, a decrease in lung neutrophil chemotaxis, an increase in macroph ...19911878569
current status of pediatric vaccines.pediatric immunization schedules have become more complex, especially with the approval of two new vaccines for haemophilus influenzae type b and changes in recommendations for measles vaccine. in addition, vaccines for other infections (eg, rotavirus, varicella, and respiratory syncytial virus) are in development and likely will become available in the future. these recent advances raise hope that the list of diseases eradicated through vaccination will be expanded.19911833727
evolution of the g and p genes of human respiratory syncytial virus (subgroup a) studied by the rnase a mismatch cleavage method.the g and p genes of human respiratory syncytial viruses (subgroup a), isolated between 1961 and 1989, were analyzed by rnase a one-dimensional fingerprinting, using the long strain as the reference. total rna extracted from cells infected with the different isolates was hybridized to radiolabeled antisense g or p rna probes of the long virus. the rna:rna heteroduplexes were digested with rnase a and the resistant products analyzed by gel electrophoresis. comparative analysis of the cleavage pat ...19911871967
nucleotide sequences of the 3' leader and 5' trailer regions of human respiratory syncytial virus genomic rna.the nucleotide sequences of the 3' extracistronic (leader) and 5' extracistronic (trailer) regions were determined for genomic rna (vrna) of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strain a2. to sequence the 3' leader region, vrna was extracted from purified virions, size-selected, polyadenylated, copied into cdna, amplified by the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. the 3' leader sequence is 44 nt, which is somewhat shorter than its counterparts (50 to 70 nt) in other nonsegmented ...19911840712
nucleotide sequence analysis of a matrix and small hydrophobic protein dicistronic mrna of bovine respiratory syncytial virus demonstrates extensive sequence divergence of the small hydrophobic protein from that of human respiratory syncytial virus.the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences of the matrix (m) and small hydrophobic (sh) proteins of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) have been determined from a dicistronic mrna. comparison of these sequences with the corresponding published sequences of human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) revealed extensive overall homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in the m protein, but low overall homology at both the nucleotide and amino acid levels in the sh protein. th ...19911856698
epidemiology of respiratory syncytial virus infection among infants over three winter seasons.a study involving respiratory syncytial virus was carried out on infants and young children hospitalised with acute respiratory tract infection over the period december 1987 to march 1990. during peak periods of rs virus activity 420 naso-pharyngeal aspirates were submitted to the virus reference laboratory, department of medical microbiology, u.c.d., mostly from the dublin region. using immunofluorescence, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and cell culture techniques 206 samples (49%) were iden ...19911885284
respiratory syncytial virus infection in anti-mu-treated mice.balb/c mice were depleted of b cells by anti-mu treatment to investigate the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in the absence of antibody. termination of rsv replication after primary infection occurred with the same kinetics in anti-mu-treated mice as in phosphate-buffered saline (pbs)-treated controls. yet, when rechallenged, anti-mu-treated mice were more permissive to rsv replication than pbs-treated controls. anti-mu-treated mice also experienced greater illness th ...19911908028
erythromycin and phenoxymethylpenicillin (penicillin v) in the treatment of respiratory tract infections as related to microbiological findings and serum c-reactive protein.respiratory tract pathogens (beta-haemolytic streptococci groups a, c and g, haemophilus influenzae, branhamella catarrhalis or pneumococci), were isolated from nasopharyngeal and/or throat swabs in 73/138 (53%) patients greater than 10 years of age with a clinical diagnosis of acute sinusitis, acute tonsillitis, purulent nasopharyngitis or acute bronchitis. serological evidence of a viral infection (influenza a and b, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus) or mycopla ...19911909052
microbiology of airway disease in patients with cystic fibrosis.individuals with cystic fibrosis have abbreviated life spans primarily due to chronic airway infection. a limited number of types of organisms are responsible for these infections, with staphylococcus aureus and pseudomonas aeruginosa being of primary importance. in the pre-antibiotic era, greater than 90% of deaths due to infection were caused by s. aureus and death usually occurred in the first 2 years of life. with the advent of effective antistaphylococcal therapy, life spans increased and p ...19911900735
respiratory syncytial virus and supraventricular tachycardia in an infant.a 7-week infant admitted with bronchiolitis proven to be caused by respiratory syncytial virus developed a supraventricular tachycardia which responded to digitalization. she has remained well and no longer requires medication 6 months later, her electrocardiogram now being normal. the course of the illness suggests an association between infection with respiratory syncytial virus and the development of the tachycardia.19911917175
defective synthesis of envelope proteins by temperature-sensitive mutants representing complementation groups b and d of respiratory syncytial virus.the phenotypes of two complementing temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus indicate that the mutational lesions involve the attachment (g) and matrix (m) proteins of the viral envelope. synthesis of the g protein was affected in cells infected with mutant tsa2 (complementation group b); the p50 precursor of the g protein was synthesized normally, but further maturation to the fully glycosylated form was defective at 39 degrees c. a non-ts alteration in the efficie ...19911919527
genes 1 and 2 of pneumonia virus of mice encode proteins which have little homology with the 1c and 1b proteins of human respiratory syncytial virus.genes 1 and 2 of pneumonia virus of mice (pvm) consist of 410 and 571 nucleotides and encode proteins of 113 and 156 amino acids respectively. the proteins show no extensive (gene 1 analogous to 1c) or low (gene 2 analogous to 1b) homology to their presumed counterparts in human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv). the strongest homology is between regions of approximately 35 amino acids located near the carboxy termini of the gene 2 product and the 1b protein with 29% identity, although a lower ...19911919530
clinical observations on lower respiratory tract infections with special reference to serum ige examine if the occurrence of wheezing among children with lower respiratory tract infections is associated with atopic predisposition, serum levels of ige were determined for groups of children with or without wheezing, during infection with mycoplasma pneumoniae or respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). in m. pneumoniae infection, more than 60% of wheezy children over 2 years of age showed a high ige level (200 iu/ml or more), while ige levels were less than 200 iu/ml in 73% of non-wheezy childr ...19911923666
subacute effects of respiratory syncytial virus infection on lung function in lambs.we examined the effects of ovine respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection on lung mechanics, lung histology, and airway reactivity in lambs. nine lambs were inoculated with ovine rsv and seven control lambs with normal saline or viral media. serum neutralization titers were obtained prior to and 3 weeks post-inoculation (pi). open lung biopsies were performed 1 and 3 weeks pi. lung mechanics including dynamic compliance (cdyn), resistance of the lung (rl), and functional residual capacity (fr ...19911923668
effect of respiratory syncytial virus infection on mice with protein malnutrition.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) pulmonary infection was produced in balb/c mice fed protein-deficient diets in an effort to understand the severity of viral pneumonia in infants in developing countries. as in previously published experiments with sendai virus, animals on the deficient diet became clinically malnourished, and certain aspects of their cell-mediated immunity were altered. the course of rsv infection in protein-deprived mice was essentially identical to that in normally nourished ...19911906929
association between secretor status and respiratory viral determine whether non-secretion of blood group antigens is associated with respiratory virus diseases.19911932971
role of t lymphocyte subsets in the pathogenesis of primary infection and rechallenge with respiratory syncytial virus in mice.the role of cd4+ and cd8+ t lymphocytes in terminating respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) replication, causing disease, and protecting from reinfection was investigated using a balb/c mouse model in which cd4+ or cd8+ lymphocytes or both were depleted by injections of mab directed against the respective mouse lymphocyte determinants. kinetics of rsv replication, illness, and pathology were assessed after primary infection and rechallenge. both cd4+ and cd8+ lymphocyte subsets were involved in ter ...19911909350
value of bronchoalveolar lavage in diagnosing severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in infants. 19911941381
nutritional effects on response of children in developing countries to respiratory tract pathogens: implications for vaccine development.malnutrition and respiratory disease commonly occur together, and the immunologic defects caused by malnutrition may affect clinical responses and the impact of vaccines. these defects include impaired maturation and function of t lymphocytes, diminished secretory immune responses, poor humoral antibody responses to polysaccharide antigens, deficient complement activity (especially the alternative pathway), and impaired antimicrobial mechanisms by phagocytic cells. in addition, protein-energy ma ...19911907399
tissue distribution of mucosal antibody-producing cells specific for respiratory syncytial virus in severe combined immune deficiency (scid) mice engrafted with human tonsils.groups of c.b-17 scid mice were reconstituted intraperitoneally with human tonsillar mononuclear cells (hu-tmc) from children seropositive for antibody to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and subsequently challenged intraperitoneally with inactivated rsv or sham-immunized. the synthesis and the distribution characteristics of human antibody to rsv in various murine tissues were studied using an enzyme-linked immunospot assay (elispot). no specific antibody was observed in sham-immunized animals ...19911893614
effect of salbutamol on oxygen saturation in bronchiolitis.inhaled sympathomimetic agents are often used in bronchiolitis with little objective evidence of benefit. the arterial oxygen saturation (sao2) reflects the adequacy of ventilation-perfusion balance. the aim of the current study was to determine the effect of inhaled salbutamol on sao2. in a randomised, double blind study, 21 infants, admitted with bronchiolitis positive for respiratory syncytial virus, had continuous sao2 measurements made before and after nebulised salbutamol or placebo. sao2 ...19911929514
a controlled trial of aerosolized ribavirin in infants receiving mechanical ventilation for severe respiratory syncytial virus infection.although the antiviral agent ribavirin improves the course of lower respiratory tract disease in spontaneously breathing infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection, it is not known whether ribavirin can benefit infants with severe respiratory syncytial virus disease who require mechanical ventilation.19911904551
effects of bovine respiratory syncytial virus on airway function in neonatal calves.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection causes severe lower respiratory tract disease in infants and calves. neonatal respiratory tract infection in children often produces persistent changes in lung function. the specific objective of this study was to determine whether neonatal calves have transient or persistent alterations in pulmonary function and airway reactivity following rsv infection. six 2- to 3-day-old holstein bull calves were inoculated with 10 ml of bovine respiratory syncytia ...19911952323
characteristics of fusion of respiratory syncytial virus with hep-2 cells as measured by r18 fluorescence dequenching assay.the characteristics of fusion of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) with hep-2 cells were studied by the r18 fluorescence dequenching assay of membrane fusion. a gradual increase in fluorescence intensity indicative of virion-cell fusion was observed when r18-labeled rsv was incubated with hep-2 cells. approximately 35% dequenching of the probe fluorescence was observed in 1 h at 37 degrees c. fusion showed a temperature dependence, with significant dequenching occurring above 18 degrees c. the d ...19911906550
respiratory syncytial virus infection among intubated adults in a university medical intensive care unit.respiratory syncytial virus is the major cause of lower respiratory tract infection in children. adults who are immunocompromised, aged, institutionalized, and/or have underlying medical diseases may be at risk for severe rsv infection. intubated adults in an micu were evaluated for evidence of rsv infection. respiratory secretions were analyzed by cell culture and rsv eia. serologic testing was obtained. respiratory secretions from micu personnel with acute respiratory symptoms and patients adm ...19911935297
ultrastructural features of alveolar lesions in induced respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia of calves.ultrastructural changes occurred in alveolar epithelium in the acute and repair stages of induced respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia induced in eight calves (calf nos. 1-7, 3 to 6 days old and calf no. 8, 2 weeks old), using a bovine strain of respiratory syncytial virus. five of the calves were friesians, three were hereford x friesians, and all were male. tissues from three mock-infected control calves (two friesian, one hereford x friesian) were also examined. evidence of respiratory syncy ...19911949507
[hospital acute respiratory infections].to study the incidence of nosocomial respiratory tract infection along the first week after admission, 31 children under 2 years of age admitted to the pediatric wards of a general hospital at metropolitan santiago, chile, with the diagnosis of lower respiratory tract infection, were studied for viral agents by immunofluorescence tests, viral isolation from pharyngeal aspirates, paired serum viral antibodies and bacterial cultures, all of them performed at admission and 4 to 5 days later from ma ...19901965058
ribavirin therapy of adult respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis.respiratory syncytial virus is a common respiratory tract pathogen in infants. pulmonary infection in adult and elderly populations can occur with severe and even fatal pneumonitis having been reported in several recent outbreaks. we present a previously healthy adult patient who developed respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia severe enough to require mechanical ventilation. antiviral therapy with aerosolized ribavirin was successfully undertaken and the patient recovered completely. respiratory ...19911953237
cytotoxic t cell responses in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial virus.the role of cell-mediated immune response in the immunopathogenesis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) infection is not well established. in the present study, cytotoxic t cell responses of brsv-infected lambs were examined using the chromium release assay. lambs experimentally infected with brsv developed cytotoxic lymphocytes in the peripheral blood and the spleen, which lysed brsv-infected but not uninfected cells. peak cytotoxic activity occurred 10-14 days after infection. pretrea ...19911949569
detection of respiratory syncytial virus antigen and nucleic acid in clinical specimens using synthetic oligonucleotides.rapid detection of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus in nasopharyngeal secretions (nps) was carried out on cytospin cell preparations using a directly labelled monoclonal antiserum to rs virus to detect viral antigen and digoxigenin-labelled synthetic oligonucleotides to detect viral nucleic acid. sequences of 27 and 30 bases in length from within the fusion protein and nucleocapsid genes respectively were selected for use as probes. the oligonucleotide in situ hybridization test was easy to perf ...19911955489
ribavirin therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infections. a scientific workshop. long beach, california, september 26-27, 1989. proceedings. 19901978280
influenza virus detection in clinical specimens.the authors compared the results of influenza a (h1n1) and influenza a (h3n2) virus detection in nasopharyngeal swabs from flu patients by molecular hybridization (mh), elisa, virus isolation and seroconversion. using the immunofluorescence (if) technique influenza virus was detected in cell suspensions from the first chick embryo passage. altogether 63 swabs from various epidemic seasons were separated into 3 groups according to specimen sampling and storage. it was shown that influenza virus r ...19901981455
interleukin-1-inhibitor activity induced by respiratory syncytial virus: abrogation of virus-specific and alternate human lymphocyte proliferative responses.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection has been shown to induce human mononuclear leukocyte (mnl) production of net interleukin-1 (il-1)-inhibitor activity. in the current studies of il-1-inhibitor effects, rsv-exposed cells were compared with autologous mnl that were sham-exposed or exposed to inactivated rsv or influenza virus (which induces net il-1 activity and commonly elicits effective homotypic immunity). exposure of mnl to influenza virus or inactivated rsv resulted in increased exp ...19911984478
immunisation practice in developed countries.immunization practice in 32 countries in europe, north america, japan, and australia is reviewed. in most countries, immunization practices are set by the federal government which sometimes works with the private sector. almost all countries routinely immunize against diphtheria, tetanus, whooping cough, polio, and measles. about half try to prevent rubella, several try to prevent mumps, usually in combination with measles and rubella (mmr). more than half use bacillus calmette-guerin (bgg) ...19901969069
viruses associated with acute lower respiratory tract infections in children from the eastern highlands of papua new guinea (1983-1985).this study, conducted at goroka hospital from january 1983 to june 1985, examined the viruses identified in nasopharyngeal aspirates (npa) and urines collected from 716 hospitalised children with moderate or severe pneumonia, in npa from 170 children with mild pneumonia treated as outpatients and in npa from a control group of 428 children attending the outpatient department of goroka hospital suffering from minor ailments other than upper or lower respiratory tract infections. one or more virus ...19901963705
effectiveness of enteric immunization in the development of secretory immunoglobulin a response and the outcome of infection with respiratory syncytial virus.cotton rats were immunized via intranasal, intradermal, or enteric routes with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) or a live recombinant vaccinia virus expressing the rsv f glycoprotein (vaccinia f). the animals were tested for the appearance of rsv-specific antibody responses in the serum, bronchoalveolar lavage, and nasal wash after immunization and for virus replication 4 days after intranasal challenge with rsv. rsv antibody response in the serum and respiratory tract was demonstrated in all i ...19911987374
ultrastructural features of lesions in bronchiolar epithelium in induced respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia of calves.ultrastructural changes were observed in bronchioles in acute and repair stages of respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia induced in eight young calves (calf nos. 1-8) using a bovine strain of respiratory syncytial virus. five of the calves were friesians and three were hereford x friesians and all were male. tissues from three mock-infected control calves (two friesian, one hereford x friesian) were also examined. calves were from 3 to 6 days old at the time of first inoculation, with the except ...19911949508
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus mrna encoding the major nucleocapsid protein.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the major nucleocapsid (n) protein of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) has been determined. the n mrna is 1196 nucleotides long with a single, large open reading frame. the derived polypeptide has 391 amino acids corresponding to a calculated molecular weight of 42,600 da. this is in agreement with the molecular weight of 43,000 da determined for the brsv n protein by sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (page). comparison of the nucleotide ...19911984667
nosocomial transmission of respiratory syncytial virus in immunocompromised adults.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolates obtained from nine infected immunocompromised adult patients hospitalized during two consecutive winters (january through april 1987 and 1988) were collected and analyzed against a panel of monoclonal antibodies by an enzyme immunoassay. the history of the patients' illness, onset of symptoms, and date of initial isolation of virus was correlated with the hospital ward and time of hospitalization. three patients died of respiratory failure related to rs ...19911993745
a single-season epidemic with respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b2 during 10 epidemic years, 1978 to 1988.respiratory syncytial virus strains isolated from infants and children hospitalized with acute respiratory tract disease in huntington, w. va., from july 1979 through june 1988 were categorized by subgroup by using two panels of monoclonal antibodies specific for subgroup a and subgroup b. of 405 strains tested, 319 (78.8%) were subgroup a, 73 (18.0%) were subgroup b1, and 13 (3.2%) were subgroup b2. the subgroup b2 strains occurred as a single-season epidemic during the epidemiologic year july ...19911993752
respiratory syncytial virus heterogeneity during an epidemic: analysis by limited nucleotide sequencing (sh gene) and restriction mapping (n gene).the genes encoding the small hydrophobic (sh) proteins of a series of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus strains were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction, cloned and sequenced. analysis of the sh gene sequences from 12 rs virus strains isolated between 1956 and 1989 confirmed the homogeneity of the two subgroups. a and b, previously defined serologically. although there is only 76% deduced amino acid sequence identity of sh proteins between subgroups, there was little variation in deduce ...19911993875
antiviral effects of xanthate d609 on the human respiratory syncytial virus growth cycle.the antiviral compound tricyclo-decan-9-yl-xanthogenate (d609) inhibits respiratory syncytial (rs) virus growth in human epithelial (hep 2) cells. d609 treatment resulted in a decrease in the accumulation of viral proteins, in the phosphorylation of the viral phosphoprotein, and in the amount of extracellular antigens and infectious particles. the relative accumulation of viral proteins was also unbalanced, however no differences were found in the amount of viral rna with plus or minus polarity. ...19911994569
nucleotide sequence analysis of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein mrna and expression from a recombinant vaccinia virus.bovine respiratory syncytial (brs) virus is an important cause of serious respiratory illness in calves. the disease caused in calves is similar to that caused by human respiratory syncytial (hrs) virus in children. the two viruses, however, have distinct host ranges and the attachment glycoproteins, g, have no antigenic cross-reactivity. the fusion glycoproteins, f, of the hrs and brs viruses, however, have some antigenic cross-reactivity. to further compare the brs virus and hrs virus fusion p ...19911994571
pattern of respiratory syncytial virus epidemics in finland: two-year cycles with alternating prevalence of groups a and b.time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies distinguishing between respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) group a and b strains was used to analyze their prevalence in finland during 1981-1990 among 3285 patients with laboratory diagnosis of rsv, most of them hospitalized. the group typing of antigens in 608 rsv-positive nasopharyngeal aspirates showed a regular alternation of group prevalence, following the cyclic occurrence of the virus. group a predominated in 73%-90% of specimens f ...19911995719
vaccination of cotton rats with a chimeric fg glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus induces minimal pulmonary pathology on challenge.the cotton rat model of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was used to study the safety and efficacy of a chimeric fg glycoprotein that was expressed in insect cells using a baculovirus vector. histologic and virologic examination of vaccinated rat lungs was done after challenge with rsv. when rats were challenged 1 month after vaccination, severe pulmonary inflammation characterized by both a mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell infiltrate and 30%-40% involvement of lung tissue ...19911995720
age-related prevalence of serum antibody to respiratory syncytial virus in ecuadorian and german children. 19911995747
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) f, g, m2 (22k), and n proteins each induce resistance to rsv challenge, but resistance induced by m2 and n proteins is relatively short-lived.the ability of recombinant vaccinia viruses that separately encoded 9 of the 10 known respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) proteins to induce resistance to rsv challenge was studied in balb/c mice. resistance was examined at two intervals following vaccination to examine early (day 9) as well as late (day 28) immunity. balb/c mice were inoculated simultaneously by the intranasal and intraperitoneal routes with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding one of the following rsv proteins: f, g, n, p, sh, ...19911995956
rescue of synthetic analogs of respiratory syncytial virus genomic rna and effect of truncations and mutations on the expression of a foreign reporter gene.the viral genomic rna (vrna) of human respiratory syncytial virus is a nonsegmented negative strand that is not infectious alone. to develop methods for complementing synthetic vrna with viral proteins, a cdna was constructed to encode a vrna in which all of the viral protein-coding sequences were removed and replaced with a negative-sense copy of the bacterial chloramphenicol acetyltransferase gene. upon transfection into respiratory syncytial virus-infected cells, the synthetic vrna was "rescu ...19911946383
clinical and immunologic response of cattle to administration of a vaccine containing modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus.healthy yearling beef and dairy cattle were inoculated with a vaccine containing modified-live bovine respiratory syncytial virus (ml-brsv), and sequential changes in clinical signs of disease, blood leukocyte subsets, brsv-specific antibody titer, and in vitro lymphocyte blastogenic responses were monitored. vaccination with ml-brsv did not cause pyrexia, local or systemic hypersensitivity reaction, or respiratory tract disease. episodes of leukopenia, abnormalities in lymphocyte subsets, or de ...19901968056
respiratory syncytial virus infection in special care nursery. 19901970055
antiviral drug therapy.major advances in molecular virology have led to the development of new antiviral compounds. these drugs include ribavirin, used in the treatment of severe respiratory syncytial virus infection in children; amantadine, used in the prophylaxis and treatment of influenza a infection; acyclovir, used in a variety of herpesvirus infections, including primary gingivostomatitis, genital herpes and herpes zoster; ganciclovir, used in the treatment of retinitis due to cytomegalovirus, and zidovudine, us ...19911986488
handwashing and cohorting in prevention of hospital acquired infections with respiratory syncytial acquired infections with respiratory syncytial virus are a major problem. the virus is spread predominantly by infected nasal secretions and we investigated whether we could reduce its incidence by cohorting babies on each ward into designated areas and encouraging staff and parents to wash their hands. we examined the incidence of hospital acquired infection due to respiratory syncytial virus in all children less than 2 years old and in those with congenital heart disease. in 1986-7, b ...19912001109
deduced amino acid sequence of the fusion glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus has greater identity with that of human respiratory syncytial virus, a pneumovirus, than that of paramyxoviruses and morbilliviruses.the sequence of the fusion (f) glycoprotein of turkey rhinotracheitis virus (trtv) has been deduced from cdna clones derived from oligo(dt)-selected infected cell rna. the protein consists of 538 amino acids, the f2 and f1 subunits containing 102 (including the f2-f1 connecting peptide rrrr) and 436 residues, respectively. each subunit has one potential n-linked glycosylation site. the protein has 38 to 39% amino acid identity with the f protein of respiratory syncytial virus (pneumovirus genus) ...19911990068
respiratory syncytial virus infections at rhode island hospital: use of ribavirin. 19912000472
comparison of the virulence of wild-type thymidine kinase (tk)-deficient and tk+ phenotypes of vaccinia virus recombinants after intranasal inoculation of mice.a recombinant vaccinia virus vector was constructed which expressed the major surface glycoprotein g of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and the thymidine kinase (tk) gene of vaccinia virus. the virulence of this tk+ recombinant virus was compared with that of a tk- recombinant and the wild-type (wt) virus after intranasal inoculation of mice. respiratory infection with wt virus resulted in a lethal infection with widespread dissemination of virus. in contrast, infection with the tk- reco ...19911990060
etiology of acute lower respiratory tract infections in gambian children: ii. acute lower respiratory tract infection in children ages one to nine years presenting at the hospital.seventy-four children ages 1 to 9 years hospitalized because of severe pneumonia were investigated using blood cultures, lung aspirates, nasopharyngeal aspirates, serology and antigen detection procedures. a bacterial infection was identified in 57 (77%), a viral infection was seen in 25 (34%) and 18 (24%) had mixed viral-bacterial infections. the bacterial pathogens most frequently identified were streptococcus pneumoniae and haemophilus influenzae found in 61 and 15% of patients, respectively. ...19912003054
respiratory syncytial virus infection of human mononuclear phagocytes stimulates synthesis of platelet-activating factor.production of platelet-activating factor 1-o-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (paf), a potent mediator of inflammation, by mononuclear phagocytes varies with their stage of cellular differentiation and the nature of the eliciting stimulus. the human monocytic cell line u937 can be induced to differentiate to a macrophage-like cell following phorbol myristate acetate exposure, and after differentiation, these cells efficiently support replication of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). u ...19912005091
[virologic diagnosis of interstitial pneumonia].viral pneumonia is not very frequent in healthy adults; it is mostly observed in elderly subjects infected with an influenza virus, a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) or an adenovirus (adv). in immunocompromised subjects, cytomegalovirus (cmv) is the most common of causal agents. from the point of view of clinicians, virological diagnostic methods must be rapid and specific, and for this reason direct examination techniques for respiratory specimens and immunological detection of virus are curr ...19912008581
evaluation of immunofluorescence, two enzyme immunoassays and the shell-vial assay for detection of respiratory syncytial virus. 19912009879
dual-enzyme cascade-magnetic separation immunoassay for respiratory syncytial virus.a new immunoassay developed for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) makes use of magnetic separation and amplification by a dual-enzyme cascade for signal generation. magnetic particles are conjugated to monoclonal anti-rsv antibodies through the heterobifunctional crosslinker sulfosuccinimidyl 4-(maleimidomethyl)cyclohexane-1-carboxylate, yielding particles of high specific activity and low background. the dual-enzyme cascade is initiated by activation of a masked inhibitor for t ...19912010616
multicenter study of strains of respiratory syncytial virus.two major groups of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strains, a and b, have been identified and their patterns of isolation determined in different communities but not simultaneously in multiple communities. in this study, we tested 483 rsv isolates from 14 university laboratories in the united states and canada for the 1984/1985 and 1985/1986 rsv seasons; 303 (63%) isolates were group a, 114 (24%) were group b, and 66 (14%) could not be grouped. isolates were subdivided into six subgroups with ...19912010623
immunity to and frequency of reinfection with respiratory syncytial better understand the duration of immunity against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and the role of serum antibodies to the surface glycoproteins, f and g, in susceptibility to reinfection, 15 adults with previous natural rsv infection were challenged with rsv of the same strain group (a) at 2, 4, 8, 14, 20, and 26 months after natural infection. by 2 months about one-half and by 8 months two-thirds of the subjects became reinfected. each challenge resulted in infection in at least one-fourt ...19912010624
antigenic and genomic diversity within group a respiratory syncytial virus.antigenic analysis using monoclonal antibodies and genomic analysis using ribonuclease protection was done on 47 isolates of group a respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) recovered from children in st. louis during four rsv seasons. antigenic analysis identified four subgroups; of the three that included more than one member, those designated a/2 and a/2v had characteristic ribonuclease protection patterns. a third subgroup, a/4, exhibited more extensive genomic heterogeneity, but all isolates were ...19912010638
respiratory syncytial virus infections on an adult medical ward.eleven cases of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection occurred in acutely ill hospitalized adults over a 7-week period. nosocomial illness was suspected in two patients. because rsv can cause serious infections in immunocompromised adults with the potential for nosocomial spread, the following recommendations are indicated: (1) during the winter months, early recognition and diagnosis of rsv infections both in hospital staff and in patients should be encouraged; (2) infected hospital perso ...19912012452
clinical and epidemiologic aspects of respiratory syncytial virus antigenic variants in argentinian children. 19912019767
breast-feeding and health in the 1980s: a global epidemiologic view of the significant and articulate minority view among pediatricians that breast feeding is not "worth the bother" in developed countries, this review of the literature delves into the evidence from both developed and developing countries for the advantages of breastfeeding, both in infants and for long-term health. infants in developed settings experience twice the hospitalization rate and more severe illness from lower respiratory tract infection, primarily respiratory syncytial virus. ...19912019919
management of the infant with respiratory syncytial virus.this article examines updated clinical information concerning respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection including epidemiology, pathology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, treatment, nosocomial infection, and prognosis. also presented is current information on ribavirin therapy, its side effects, and precautions. research related to the most effective isolation methodology is discussed, as well as nursing diagnoses based on gordon's functional health patterns and interventions for the infan ...19912019971
human and bovine respiratory syncytial virus: immunopathologic mechanisms.human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) is the major respiratory tract pathogen of infants and young children. bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) is recognised as an important cause of respiratory tract disease in calves. both of these viruses and their respective diseases share many similarities. immunopathologic mechanisms have been proposed to be involved in the pathogenesis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. this review examines the current understanding of the role of ...19912021054
culture vs direct antigen assays for detection of microbial pathogens from lower respiratory tract specimens suspected of containing the respiratory syncytial virus.following the introduction of effective antiviral chemotherapy, rapid antigen assays have been utilized increasingly, instead of cell cultures, for detection of the respiratory syncytial virus from lower respiratory tract specimens. because antigen assays, unlike cell culture, cannot amplify low levels of the virus to a detectable level, assay sensitivity is especially dependent on high-quality specimens. in addition, the assays are unable to detect other viruses or bacteria with which the patie ...19912021312
cytotoxic t cell activity against the 22-kda protein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is associated with a significant reduction in pulmonary rsv replication.recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the rsv f glycoprotein (vac-f), or a previously described chimeric protein consisting of the extracellular domains of the f and g glycoproteins (vac-fg), or the 22-kda membrane protein (vac-22 kda) were evaluated for their ability to protect balb/c mice against infection by rsv subgroup a or subgroup b viruses and for their ability to induce a humoral immune response or a cytolytic t lymphocyte (ctl) response. immunization with vac-f or vac-fg fully protec ...19912024493
extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for nonneonatal respiratory failure.extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ecmo) has been used for 20 years in neonates and children with cardiac and respiratory failure. the number of neonates treated with ecmo has increased exponentially, but the number of older children treated is small. the selection and exclusion criteria for pediatric ecmo are poorly defined, and the results vary because of variable selection criteria and institutional experience with the technique. in order to help define the role of pediatric ecmo, we review ...19912030480
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