respiratory syncytial virus induces interleukin-10 by human alveolar macrophages. suppression of early cytokine production and implications for incomplete immunity.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) causes repeated infections thought to be due to an ineffective immune response. we examined the hypothesis that incomplete immunity may result, in part, from rsv-infected alveolar macrophage production of il-10 which can interfere with the production of immunoregulatory cytokines. we also assessed whether rsv induced the expression of the 2',5' oligoadenylate (2-5a)-dependent rnase l, an endoribonuclease involved in the antiviral activities of interferons. human ...19957593633
ribavirin therapy: implementation of hospital guidelines and effect on usage and cost of therapy.the american academy of pediatrics (aap) recommends that ribavirin be reserved for infants who are severely ill and who are at high risk of morbidity and mortality, based on underlying clinical conditions. the purpose of this study was to evaluate current ribavirin use in our institution, implement hospital-specific guidelines for use, develop a prospective surveillance system to monitor ribavirin therapy, and evaluate the impact of these guidelines on subsequent use and cost of therapy.19957596703
the role of bronchodilators in the management of bronchiolitis: a clinical trial.a randomized clinical trial was conducted on young children with bronchiolitis admitted to hospital with moderate illness to determine the efficacy of the bronchodilators salbutamol and ipratropium bromide, either as a single drug or in combination, given as a nebulized solution, compared with a normal saline placebo. eighty-nine patients, aged from 23 days to 11 months, were randomized into four groups, depending on administered drug or placebo, as follows: group 1--salbutamol (n = 20); group 2 ...19957598441
hydrophobicity engineering to increase solubility and stability of a recombinant protein from respiratory syncytial mutagenesis has been employed to engineer the hydrophobic properties of a 101-amino-acid fragment from the human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) major glycoprotein (g protein). when this protein was produced in escherichia coli, more than 70% of the gene product was found as inclusion bodies, and the product recovered from the soluble fraction was severely degraded. substitution of two cysteine residues for serine residues, did not significantly change the solubility or stability ...19957601124
respiratory syncytial virus infections in children in a desert country. 19957603818
inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1, respiratory syncytial virus and echovirus type 11 by peroxidase-generated hypothiocyanite.the human mouth is an important route of viral transmission and evidence exists that human saliva can neutralize some viruses, e.g. herpes simplex type 1 (hsv-1) and human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) in vitro. however, little is known of the actual antiviral agents in saliva. we have analyzed how hypothiocyanite (hoscn/-oscn) ions, present in human saliva and generated by salivary peroxidase systems, affect the viability of three different types of viruses; hsv-1 (capable of inducing oral lesio ...19957605114
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) or rous sarcoma virus (rsv)? 19957606981
polyanion inhibitors of human immunodeficiency virus and other viruses. 1. polymerized anionic surfactants.a series of polyanionic compounds was synthesized and evaluated for their activity against human immunodeficiency virus (hiv-1, hiv-2) and various other rna and dna viruses. several compounds, i.e., 2p, 3p, 8p, 13p, 14p, 15p, 17p, 18p, and 19p, proved active against hiv-1 within the concentration range of 0.1-3 micrograms/ml while not being toxic to the host cells (cem, mt-4) at concentrations up to 100 micrograms/ml or higher. as a rule, these polyanionic compounds proved also active, albeit at ...19957608908
human respiratory syncytial virus affects nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibition in cotton rat airways.a dysfunction of the nonadrenergic noncholinergic inhibitory (nanci) system has been invoked as a possible mechanism underlying or contributing to altered airway function. in the present study we assessed whether human respiratory syncytial virus (hrsv) infection affects the airways' neurally mediated contractile and relaxant (nanci) responses in vitro. nanci responses were studied on tracheal smooth muscle (tsm) segments obtained from young adult cotton rats, a well-established model for hrsv i ...19957611422
viral pulmonary infections in thoracic and cardiovascular surgery.viral respiratory infections are uncommon causes of pulmonary infiltrates in immunocompetent patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery. in winter months, however, influenza can be acquired in the community preoperatively or in the hospital setting. the recognition of influenza cases is essential to prevent nosocomial transmission. respiratory syncytial virus is also an important pulmonary pathogen in pediatric patients who undergo cardiothoracic surgery and may produce serious disease in child ...19957612760
assessment of eosinophils, viruses and ige antibody in wheezing infants and children. 19957613182
evaluation and application of an indirect elisa for the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in milk, bulk milk, and indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed at the national veterinary institute (nvi), uppsala, to detect antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) in serum and milk. for the evaluation of the nvi elisa, field sera collected from cattle in england and sweden were tested in parallel with an elisa in use at the central veterinary laboratory (cvl), weybridge. the tests showed 96% agreement. the sensitivity and specificity of the nvi elisa relative to the cvl e ...19957619898
development and application of a microneutralization elisa for the detection of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial viruses.a microneutralization enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (elisa) was developed to detect specific antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial viruses (brsvs) in cattle sera using a monoclonal antibody to the fusion protein of the virus. serum from 20 naturally exposed, 24 experimentally infected, and 15 immunized cattle were evaluated using 3 different brsv isolates. antibody titers determined with the microneutralization elisa were compared with those derived from a classical virus neutralization ...19957619899
experimental respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves and lambs. 19957619920
occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus subtypes in mexican infants with acute lower respiratory tract disease.the occurrence of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) subtypes in mexico city was studied by searching for the virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 82 infants, less than 12 months of age, hospitalized for acute lower respiratory tract disease with diagnosis of bronchitis, bronchiolitis, pneumonia and laryngotracheobronchitis. the presence of respiratory virus was determined by observation of cytopathic effect in cell monolayers; samples which produced a clear syncytia were considered positive and ...19957620276
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a heart transplant recipient presenting as fever of unknown origin diagnosed by gallium scan. 19957622401
respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a infections in the hospitalized elderly.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in the institutionalized elderly have been described; however, there is little information on the impact of rsv infection on community-dwelling elderly. the purpose of this study was to determine the relative numbers of hospitalizations associated with rsv infection and compare the clinical manifestations with influenza a infection. between november and april during 1989-1992, persons > or = 65 years old hospitalized with acute cardiopulmonary conditi ...19957622882
combination vaccines for diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, and haemophilus influenzae type b.the ability to combine the standard dtp and haemophilus b conjugate vaccine considerably simplifies the childhood immunization schedule and process. in addition to reducing the number of immunizations by half, the combination product reduces administrative aspects associated with vaccination including tracking. simplification of the immunization process should have a positive impact on the vaccine delivery and utilization. perhaps more importantly, an ability to create combination vaccines will ...19957625644
safety and pharmacokinetics of vitamin a therapy for infants with respiratory syncytial virus infections.infants with respiratory syncytial virus infection have low serum vitamin a levels. we treated 21 respiratory syncytial virus-infected children with 12,500 to 25,000 iu of oral vitamin a. vitamin a levels were normalized at 6 h, and none of the children experienced vitamin a toxicity or exacerbation of respiratory illness. vitamin a treatment of previously healthy respiratory syncytial virus-infected infants at these doses is safe and well tolerated.19957625814
oxidant tone regulates il-8 production in epithelium infected with respiratory syncytial virus.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is an important respiratory pathogen that preferentially infects epithelial cells in the airway, and causes a local inflammatory response. although it has been previously demonstrated that rsv-infected airway epithelial produce cytokines, including interleukin-8 (il-8), which contributes to the inflammatory response, the regulation of this effect of rsv is unknown. to further characterize the mechanisms by which rsv infection triggers release of il-8, we first e ...19957626291
sensitization (ige antibody) to food allergens in wheezing infants and children. 19957636067
community-acquired infections among children in an urban environment: a 2-year prospective study in liverpool, infections are an important cause of admission of children to hospital. we have made a 2-year prospective study of 1,599 children admitted with infection to the royal liverpool children's hospital in order to determine the pattern of infections, their seasonal distribution and the role of the laboratory in isolating causative agents. respiratory infections (32% cases) and gastroenteritis (28% cases) were the principal causes of admission. of all admissions, 64% were children a ...19957636287
sequential respiratory syncytial virus and cytomegalovirus pneumonia following bone marrow transplantation.a 6-month-old child with familial hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (fhl) experienced early sequential pneumonia due to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and cytomegalovirus (cmv) following bone marrow transplantation (bmt). the patient was deficient in natural killer (nk) cell activity (as found frequently in patients with fhl), and this risk factor may have played a major role in the concomitant infection by the two viral pathogens. rapid diagnostic methods for both viruses are essential and ...19957636507
rna replication by respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is directed by the n, p, and l proteins; transcription also occurs under these conditions but requires rsv superinfection for efficient synthesis of full-length mrna.previously, a cdna was constructed so that transcription by t7 rna polymerase yielded a approximately 1-kb negative-sense analog of genomic rna of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) containing the gene for chloramphenicol acetyltransferase (cat) under the control of putative rsv transcription motifs and flanked by the rsv genomic termini. when transfected into rsv-infected cells, this minigenome was "rescued," as evidenced by high levels of cat expression and the production of transmissible ...19957637014
present and future challenges of immunizations on the health of our patients.a recent analysis demonstrated a change in incidence approaching 100% for diseases against which we routinely immunize in the united states. at present, measles, mumps, rubella, invasive haemophilus disease, poliomyelitis, diphtheria and tetanus are well-controlled but not eliminated. diseases that now pose special problems include pertussis, hepatitis a and b and varicella. the incidence of pertussis surged in 1994, possibly in part because of waning immunity in the immunized population. acellu ...19957638035
bronchiolitis. origins and optimal management.there is currently no prospect of an end to the annual epidemics of acute bronchiolitis, which cause considerable morbidity in previously healthy infants and are a major threat to the well-being of infants with underlying cardiac, respiratory or immunological disease. the respiratory syncytial virus remains the major cause of this condition, and prospects of developing a vaccine remain bleak while our understanding of the viral-host interaction remain incomplete. treatment of patients with this ...19957641603
heavy chain dimers as well as complete antibodies are efficiently formed and secreted from drosophila via a bip-mediated pathway.we have constructed a stable drosophila cell line co-expressing heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) immunoglobulins of a humanized monoclonal antibody (mab) that recognizes the f antigen of respiratory syncytial virus (tempest, p. r., bremmer, p., lambert, m., taylor, g., furze, j. m., carr, f. j., and harris, w. j. (1991) bio/technology 9, 266-271. these cells efficiently secrete antibody with substrate binding activity indistinguishable from that produced from vertebrate cell lines. signific ...19957649989
comparison of rapid immunofluorescence procedure with testpack rsv and directigen flu-a for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a virus.a rapid immunofluorescence format requiring 20 min for completion was as effective as conventional indirect and direct immunofluorescence procedures for detecting respiratory syncytial virus and influenza a virus antigens in clinical specimens. rapid immunofluorescence was more sensitive than testpack rsv and comparable to directigen flu-a immunosorbent assays, which require 20 min for completion.19957650206
paramyxovirus infection in lung transplant recipients.respiratory infections are common after lung transplantation. the significance of respiratory paramyxoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenza virus in lung transplant recipients has not been determined.19957654733
pathological case of the month. peripheral blood 'virocytes' associated with respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis. 19957655590
interleukin-12 treatment during immunization elicits a t helper cell type 1-like immune response in mice challenged with respiratory syncytial virus and improves vaccine immunogenicity.adjuvant effects of exogenous interleukin (il)-12 on induction of immune responses against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in mice were evaluated. giving recombinant il-12 at the time of immunization with a formalin-inactivated alum-precipitated rsv preparation resulted in significant reduction of virus replication in lungs 4 days after rsv challenge. intraperitoneal or intramuscular il-12 was effective when given at the time of immunization but not at the time of challenge. il-12 tr ...19957658066
albuterol responsiveness in infants with respiratory failure caused by respiratory syncytial virus assess the bronchodilator effect of inhaled albuterol in the acute stage of severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection.19957658285
synthesis and antiviral activity of benzyl-substituted imidazo [1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine (5,8-diaza-7,9-dideazapurine) derivatives.a variety of imidazo[1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazine derivatives carrying c-, o-, and s-benzyl and/or 4-methylbenzyl groups were synthesized and examined for their inhibitory effects on the replication of ortho- and paramyxoviruses. the key compounds 8-r-2-thioxo-2,3-dihydroimidazo [1,5-a]-1,3,5-triazin-4(1h)-ones 3a,b,d were synthesized by chlorotrimethylsilane/hmds-effected cyclization--rearrangement of the corresponding 6-amino-5-(formylamino)-5-r-2-mercaptopyrimidin-4(5h)-ones 2a,b,d (r = benzyl, 4-me ...19957658442
pediatric infectious disease emergencies.infectious diseases are the cause of the majority of pediatric emergency visits, although only a minority constitute true emergencies. progress in identifying the true emergencies continues.19957663618
effect of age on concentrations of serum antibodies to viral, bacterial, and food antigens in elderly swiss people.serum antibody concentrations to two viral, five bacterial, and two food antigens were investigated in 307 elderly swiss subjects, and the hypothesis of whether serum antibody titers decreased with age was tested. the cross-sectional part of the study consisted of 216 unselected consecutive patients hospitalized in one geriatric hospital. the patients were divided into two age groups (65 to 84 and 85 to 102 years old), and their antibody titers were compared. no age-related decreases in antibody ...19957664170
development of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor alpha activity in nasopharyngeal secretions of infants and children during infection with respiratory syncytial virus.cytokine (interleukin 6 [il-6] and tumor necrosis factor alpha [tnf-alpha]) activity in nasopharyngeal secretions of 21 infants and children (19 days to 16 months old) infected with primary respiratory syncytial virus was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. il-6 and tnf-alpha were detectable in 100% (21 of 21) and 67% (14 of 21) of cases during the course of infection, respectively. generally, tnf-alpha activity was high in the acute phase and declined thereafter, sometimes to un ...19957664179
respiratory syncytial virus infection in isolated populations. 19957667066
incidence of mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia trachomatis, and viral infections in pneumonia cases under six months of age, bangkok, thailand.the incidence of infections by mycoplasma pneumoniae, chlamydia trachomatis and respiratory viruses was investigated in 76 pneumonic patients aged under 6 months who attended ramathibodi and siriraj hospitals in bangkok during two study periods. m. pneumoniae infection was not found in any case from either hospital by serological diagnosis. by the isolation method, c. trachomatis infection was found in 7(16.7%) of 42 patients from ramathibodi hospital and 5(21.7%) of 23 patients from siriraj hos ...19947667709
new strategies for the control of viral infection in organ transplantation.control of viral infection in organ transplant recipients requires attention to the following interventions: prevention, whenever possible of viral acquisition; the proper deployment of active and passive immunization, with hyperimmune globulin preparations directed against cytomegalovirus, hepatitis b, varicella, and, perhaps, respiratory syncytial virus, offering significant benefit when used appropriately; and the prescription of antiviral agents at critical points in the post-transplant cour ...19957670172
neonatal nosocomial respiratory infection with coronavirus: a prospective study in a neonatal intensive care unit.the aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of viral respiratory infection in hospitalized premature newborn infants and to assess the role of coronaviruses. all hospitalized premature infants with a gestational age less than or equal to 32 weeks were included. tracheal or nasopharyngal specimens were studied by immunofluorescence for coronaviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, adenoviruses, influenza and parainfluenza viruses. forty premature infants were included; 13 sample ...19957670241
rsv and chronic asthma. 19957674741
incidence of adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in chronic otitis media with effusion using the polymerase chain reaction.the aim of this study is to investigate the role of adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus in the cause of chronic otitis media with effusion by use of the polymerase chain reaction for detection. the polymerase chain reaction has proved to be more sensitive and specific than viral cultures and immunoassays in the detection of viruses in other specimens. adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus were chosen because these viruses have been the most commonly isolated viruses in middle ear eff ...19957675483
three antigenic variant groups in human respiratory syncytial virus subgroup b isolated in japan.nineteen hybridomas producing monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against the structural proteins of strain 58-17, a subgroup b field strain of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolated in japan, were obtained by fusion of x63 myeloma cells with spleen cells from balb/c mice immunized with the virus-infected hep-2 cells. seven clones were found to produce antibodies against the fusion protein (f), five against the large glycoprotein (g), five against the nucleoprotein (np) and two against the 22k prot ...19937678192
frequent polymerase errors observed in a restricted area of clones derived from the attachment (g) protein gene of respiratory syncytial virus.sequence analysis of a large number of clones derived from the carboxy-terminal one-third of the attachment (g) protein gene of subgroup a respiratory syncytial viruses revealed a region very prone to polymerase errors which resulted mainly in frameshifts because of the insertion or deletion of adenosine residues in some but not all runs of such residues. such mutations were detected in 14% of clones derived from mrna, 58% of clones derived from genomic-sense rna, and 50% of clones derived from ...19937678299
respiratory syncytial virus. 19937681743
location of bovine respiratory syncytial virus antigens in the lung of experimentally-infected lambs: comparative study using indirect fluorescent antibody test, avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex and transmission electron microscopy.the experiments were designed to analyse the efficiency of the indirect fluorescent antibody test (ifat), the avidin-biotin-peroxidase complex (abpc) and transmission electron microscopy (tem) in detecting bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) antigen in ovine lung. 25 gnotobiotic merino lambs each received an intratracheal injection of 20 ml of brsv infected cell culture suspension (strain nmk-7) diluted at the concentration of 1.26 x 10(6) tcid50/ml. results showed that the immunological t ...19937682871
human monoclonal antibodies against a plethora of viral pathogens from single combinatorial libraries.conventional antibody generation usually requires active immunization with antigen immediately prior to the preparation procedure. combinatorial antibody library technology offers the possibility of cloning a range of antibody specificities at a single point in time and then accessing these specificities at will. here we show that human monoclonal antibody fab fragments against a plethora of infectious agents can be readily derived from a single library. further examination of a number of librar ...19937683424
immunization of mice with vaccinia virus-m2 recombinant induces epitope-specific and cross-reactive kd-restricted cd8+ cytotoxic t cells.the m2 protein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a protective antigen in h-2d, but not h-2b or h-2k mice. none of the other rsv proteins, excluding the surface glycoproteins that induce neutralizing antibodies, is protective in mice bearing these haplotypes. thus, the m2 protein stands alone as a nonglycoprotein-protective antigen of rsv. the m2 protein is a target for murine kd-restricted cytotoxic t lymphocytes (ctls), and the resistance induced by infection with a vaccinia virus-rsv m2 ...19937685408
identification of t-cell epitopes adjacent to neutralizing antigenic domains on the fusion protein of respiratory syncytial virus.f glycoprotein has been identified as an important target structure in the immunological response following respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. two sequential b epitopes corresponding to amino acids 200 to 225 and 255 to 278 have already been defined with anti-rsv rabbit serum. the t helper response to peptides which belong to these sequences was investigated in this study. proliferative t-cell responses to these peptides were analysed in balb/c mice (h-2d) and others strains: sjl (h-2s ...19937685537
mapping of monoclonal antibody epitopes of the human respiratory syncytial virus p protein.the epitopes of 10 monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the phosphoprotein (p) of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus (long strain) were mapped onto the protein primary structure by testing their reactivity with both protein fragments and synthetic peptides. seven epitopes were clustered in the n-terminal end, two others were located in the central region, and one epitope was mapped in the c-terminal end of the p molecule. the location of epitopes in the p protein sequence correlated ...19937686311
influence of the t-helper epitope on the titre and affinity of antibodies to b-cell epitopes after co-immunization.we have assessed the influence of different t-helper cell epitopes on the level and affinity of antibody to b-cell epitopes induced following co-immunization with free peptides mimicking epitopes from measles and respiratory syncytial virus envelope proteins. the responses obtained following co-immunization have been compared to those obtained following immunization with chimeric synthetic peptide immunogens in which the epitopes were covalently coupled. the results show that covalent linkage of ...19937688851
nosocomial spread of rsv infection. 19937693189
intranasal monoclonal immunoglobulin a against respiratory syncytial virus protects against upper and lower respiratory tract infections in mice.the role of secretory antibody in protection against respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection was examined by using monoclonal immunoglobulin a (iga) antibody for intranasal passive immunization of mice. eight anti-rsv iga hybridomas were produced by fusing myeloma cells with lung lymphocytes from rsv-immunized mice. five iga antibodies recognized rsv strains of both the a and the b subgroups, and two of these neutralized virus in a plaque reduction assay. monoclonal iga antibody hnk20, which ...19947695263
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection in preterm infants and the protective effects of rsv immune globulin (rsvig). respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin study evaluate the safety and efficacy of respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin (rsvig) in the prevention of severe respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) lower respiratory tract infection (lrti) in infants born prematurely with or without bronchopulmonary dysplasia (bpd).19957700741
asthma and immunoglobulin e antibodies after respiratory syncytial virus bronchiolitis: a prospective cohort study with matched study the occurrence of bronchial obstructive symptoms and immunoglobulin (ig) e antibodies after respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis in infancy. previous studies of this subject have mostly been retrospective or without controls, or the controls have not been followed prospectively.19957700748
[treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections--treatment suggestions according to data from the literature. 2]. 19957703157
respiratory syncytial virus and bronchiolitis. 19947704632
a seroepidemiological study of the importance in cow-calf pairs of respiratory and enteric viruses in beef operations from northwestern quebec.serum antibody analyses for bovine herpesvirus type 1 (bhv-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv), bovine coronavirus (bcv), and bovine rotavirus (brv) were performed on 527 randomly selected cows, before calving, and on 407 three-week-old calves. in cows and calves, bcv and brv were the most seroprevalent viruses (80% to 100% according to virus and vaccination status). bovine respiratory syncytial virus was the least seroprevalent in the cows, independ ...19957704839
hyperimmune globulins in prevention and treatment of respiratory syncytial virus infections.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is an important community and nosocomial respiratory pathogen for infants and young children. rsv causes especially severe disease in the prematurely born or those with chronic cardiopulmonary diseases. elderly persons and those with t-cell deficiencies, such as bone marrow transplant recipients, are also at high risk for serious lower respiratory tract infections. to date, prevention of rsv infections by vaccination has proven elusive and no preventive drugs ex ...19957704893
evolution of subgroup a respiratory syncytial virus: evidence for progressive accumulation of amino acid changes in the attachment protein.the variability of the attachment (g) proteins of 48 subgroup a isolates of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) isolated over 38 years has been examined. nucleotide sequences of two variable regions of the g protein genes were determined following amplification by pcr. the isolates showed temporal rather than geographical clustering, and there was evidence for progressive accumulation of amino acid changes at an average rate of approximately 0.25% per year estimated over the entire protein. the co ...19957707517
rsv and the high-risk infant.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common cause of lower respiratory tract infection in infants and young children. it is most devastating to infants with certain underlying conditions such as cardiovascular and pulmonary disease, immunosuppressed infants, and those with a history of prematurity. management of the high-risk infant with rsv is a complex process and requires an understanding of epidemiology, mode of transmission, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, medical tre ...19947708456
inhibition of replication of human respiratory syncytial virus by 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine.the effect of 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (l-don), a glutamine analog, on rsv replication was studied. at a concentration of 0.01 mm l-don, 99% of rsv replication in treated cv-1 cells was inhibited. at this concentration of l-don, the level of cellular protein synthesis was identical to untreated control cells. trypan blue staining revealed that all the cells remained viable even at concentrations of l-don as high as 10 mm. in addition, l-don added as late as 24 h post infection can effectively ...19947710273
pediatric critical care physicians' attitudes about guidelines for the use of ribavirin in critically ill children with respiratory syncytial virus determine the attitude of pediatric critical care physicians concerning the use of ribavirin in children with respiratory syncytial virus lung disease in light of the revised american academy of pediatrics practice guidelines.19957712769
aerosolized ribavirin in mechanically ventilated children with respiratory syncytial virus lower respiratory tract disease. 19957712775
acute exacerbations of asthma in adults: role of chlamydia pneumoniae infection.respiratory infections precipitate wheezing in many asthmatic patients and may be involved in the aetiopathogenesis of asthma. several studies have demonstrated that viral infections may provoke asthma. bacterial infections seem to play a minor role. however, chlamydia pneumoniae has been recently reported as a possible cause of asthma. the aim of the present study was to evaluate the role of c. pneumoniae infection in acute exacerbations of asthma in adults. seventy four adult out-patients with ...19947713198
optimization of pcr and automated sequencing of clinical isolates of respiratory syncytial virus.a streamlined protocol was developed to carry out nucleotide sequence analysis on pcr products obtained from regions of the rna genome of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). whole cell rna extracted from tissue culture cells inoculated with rsv-infected nasopharyngeal aspirates was used as a template for single-tube cdna synthesis and pcr amplification of specific regions of the rsv fusion (f) protein gene. the products were then purified using sephacryl spin columns and digested using lambda-exo ...19947714055
routine diagnosis of seven respiratory viruses and mycoplasma pneumoniae by enzyme immunoassay.a composite eia, using 8-well microstrips, was used for the rapid detection of seven respiratory viruses and m. pneumoniae. the viruses included influenza a and b, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, adenovirus and respiratory syncytial virus. during the 61 month period--june 1988 to june 1993--17326 respiratory specimens, submitted from three states, were tested by this eia. the specimens were mainly from a paediatric population (hospitals and private physicians). rsv was the predominant virus detected, ...19947714062
water intoxication after nebulised tribavirin. 19957715363
hospitalizations for respiratory syncytial virus infection in alaska native characterize the epidemiology of alaska native children hospitalized for respiratory syncytial virus infections, we reviewed records of hospitalizations during the winter seasons of 1991 to 1992 and 1992 to 1993 at a hospital in anchorage and a rural hospital in the yukon kuskokwim delta (ykd) region of southwestern alaska. the median age of hospitalization for respiratory syncytial virus infection was 2 months of age for ykd residents and 4.5 months for anchorage residents. sixteen percent o ...19957715985
nonstructural protein 2 (ns2) of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) detected by an antipeptide serum.the human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is often associated with airway obstruction and is suspected to induce bronchial hyperreactivity. interactions of viral proteins with cellular components may be responsible for epithelial damage leading to bronchial hyperreactivity. in this study, we describe the localization of the 14.7-kd nonstructural protein 2 (ns2) in rsv-infected cells. the detection of ns2 was performed using antipeptide antibodies elicited against amino acids 109-123 of the pre ...19957716351
respiratory syncytial virus--how soon will we have a vaccine? 19957717728
diagnosing respiratory syncytial virus by nasal lavage.nasal lavage was compared with nasopharyngeal aspiration for diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. nasal lavage and nasopharyngeal aspiration were performed on 50 occasions in 32 infants (median age 5.6 months) with acute viral wheezing. compared with nasopharyngeal aspiration, nasal lavage had a positive predictive value of 95.6% and negative predictive value of 92.5%. these comparable results and lack of adverse effects make nasal lavage the preferred method.19957717742
tryptase and ige concentrations in the respiratory tract of infants with acute has been proposed that a specific ige response contributes to the immunopathology of acute respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) bronchiolitis but previous work has been difficult to replicate. indirect evidence that might support this contention was sought by measuring total ige concentrations in bronchoalveolar lavage (bal) samples obtained from intubated infants and by attempting to detect mrna for ige in cells obtained from both the upper and lower respiratory tract. evidence of significant m ...19957717746
effect of malnutrition in ecuadorian children on titers of serum antibodies to various microbial antigens.the titers of serum antibodies to natural infection with enteric and respiratory pathogens, to a food antigen and to tetanus and diphtheria toxoid were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 1,554 ecuadorian children younger than 5 years of age. the nutritional status of the children was assessed by anthropometry and measurement of biochemical status indicators. the children were enrolled in a representative national nutrition and health survey. antibody titers were analyzed as a func ...19957719915
bronchiolitis. tribavirin may be helpful. 19957728067
fever without apparent source on clinical examination, lower respiratory infections in children, bacterial infections, and acute gastroenteritis and diarrhea of infancy and early childhood.this section focuses on issues in infectious disease that are commonly encountered in pediatric office practice. paul mccarthy discusses recent literature regarding the evaluation and management of acute fevers without apparent source on clinical examination in infants and children and the evaluation of children with prolonged fevers of unknown origin. david bachman reviews recent literature about lower respiratory tract infection in children and focuses on community-acquired lower respiratory i ...19957728195
childhood asthma and the environment. 19947728229
immunocytochemical evidence of listeria, escherichia coli, and streptococcus antigens in crohn's disease.infectious agents have long been suspected of playing a role in the initiation of crohn's disease. the objective of this study was to search for likely microbial agents in diseased tissues using immunocytochemical techniques.19957729631
[progress in surveillance of acute respiratory infections in the republic of cuba].a process of techniques perfection of the epidemiologic surveillance of morbidity by acute respiratory infections, with the purpose of obtaining a better and more appropriate description of the problem, was carried out.19937732296
treatment of respiratory failure in an infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia infected with respiratory syncytial virus using inhaled nitric oxide and high frequency ventilation.a 2-month-old, former 28-week premature infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia infected with respiratory syncytial virus was treated with nitric oxide and high frequency oscillatory ventilation after conventional therapy failed. nitric oxide and high frequency oscillatory ventilation rapidly improved oxygenation allowing recovery without the need for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. this treatment regimen should be considered as an option in high-risk infants with respiratory syncytial virus ...19957734888
[comparative study of nebulized sambutol against placebo in the acute phase of bronchiolitis in 33 infants aged 1 to 6 months].the therapeutic role of bronchodilators in bronchiolitis remains controversial. the aim of this study is to evaluate the safety and the clinical response to nebulized salbutamol in infants with mild acute bronchiolitis.19957735418
sequelae of respiratory syncytial virus infections. a role for intervention studies.the association between respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections in infancy and respiratory abnormalities later in life has been attributed both to a direct effect of the infection itself and to an inherent susceptibility. observational studies do not allow a rigorous test of these hypotheses. respiratory syncytial virus infection is universal in the first years of life and no uninfected control group exists. randomized, controlled trials using new prophylactic agents such as vaccines or spe ...19957735633
production and characterization of monoclonal antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus.monoclonal antibodies to the smithkline beecham animal health brsvr vaccine strain (375 isolate of bovine respiratory syncytial virus) were produced and then characterized by radioimmunoprecipitation followed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, virus neutralization, inhibition of viral-induced fusion and isotype. nineteen hybridomas produced antibodies that were reactive with the f0, f1, n or p viral proteins of bovine respiratory syncytial virus. one hybridoma (1e72c4) ...19957740764
transplacental transfer of antibodies to some respiratory viruses.a group of 200 paired mother-newborn sera (umbilical sera) were used for the determination, by hemagglutination inhibition test of antibody levels for parainfluenza virus types 1, 2 and 3 and, by elisa test of class igg antibodies for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). in 54 paired sera the rsv antibodies also were determined in igg subclasses and in 4 paired sera rsv protein antibodies were determined by western-blot in igg class and igg subclasses. parainfluenza virus antibodies were found to ...19947740985
respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antibodies in different immunoglobulin classes in small children.percent of rsv antibodies in the individual immunoglobulin classes and igg subclasses was determined by elisa and the immune response to rsv infection was evaluated in children 0-2 years of age. in the first 6 months percent of sera containing igg-rsv declined to reach minimal in the 7th-9th month, then it rose to 100% in children 2 years of age. percent of positive igm-rsv and iga-rsv gradually increased with age. the ige antibodies occurred in highest percent (20%) in the youngest children, an ...19947740986
the immune response of small children by antibodies of different classes to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) proteins.a group of 18 paired sera, obtained from rsv-infected children were assayed by western-blot for antibodies for rsv proteins in the immunoglobulin classes igg, igm, iga and ige and in the igg subclasses. the igg antibodies for the protein g were found in almost half of the sera tested, while in the other immunoglobulin classes the antibodies occurred in a much lower number of the sera. the antibodies for protein f1 were detected first of all in the igg class and subclasses. the antibodies for pro ...19947740987
a cold-passaged, attenuated strain of human respiratory syncytial virus contains mutations in the f and l previous studies, a mutant (cp-rsv) of the rsv a2 strain derived from 52 serial cold passages in bovine embryonic tissue culture was highly attenuated in seropositive adults and children but caused upper respiratory tract disease in seronegative infants. we investigated the genetic basis for this attenuation phenotype by comparing the complete genomic rna sequence of this virus with the published sequence of strain a2 as well as with that of its unattenuated wild-type parent (hek-7) virus. rn ...19957747420
antigenic analysis of chimeric and truncated g proteins of respiratory syncytial virus.extensive antigenic variation occurs on the attachment glycoprotein g between the two major respiratory syncytial (rs) virus groups. restriction fragment exchanges were performed among regions of the group a and group b g protein cdnas to produce chimeric molecules to use in a study of the antigenic structure of the g protein. proteins were expressed from these chimeric cdnas using the vaccinia virus t7 bacteriophage polymerase system. region 1 [a1 or b1, g protein amino acids (aa) 1 to 173] inc ...19957747486
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific immune responses in calves after inoculation with commercially available vaccines.a study was designed to determine if inactivated bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) vaccines induce the same types of antibody and cellular responses as does a modified-live brsv vaccine. ninety mixed-breed, 5- to 6-month-old beef calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 6 groups with 15 animals/group. calves in 5 of the groups were inoculated on days 0 and 14 with 1 of 4 inactivated virus vaccines or with a modified-live virus vaccine. the remaining 15 calves were maintained as unvaccinated ...19957751246
is bell's palsy a reactivation of varicella zoster virus?despite various pointers to an infectious aetiology, the cause of bell's palsy remains obscure. we examined paired sera from 62 patients with facial palsy and 50 age and sex matched contemporaneous controls. significantly more patients than controls had igm antibodies by elisa to varicella zoster virus (56.5% vs. 20%, p = 0.0001) and herpes simplex virus (41.9% vs. 18%, p = 0.006). additionally, significantly more patients than controls were positive for cf antibody to varicella zoster virus (14 ...19957751662
[respiratory tract infection and respiratory syncytial virus in young infants].we investigated the role of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) in respiratory tract infections of up-to-3-months old infants. this prospective study was carried out from april 1993 to march 1994. detection of rsv antigen in nasopharyngeal specimens was done by enzyme immunoassay using testpack rsv at our out patient clinic. during this study period, 65 young infants with respiratory tract infection visited our clinic. seventeen patients (26%) were diagnosed as having rsv infection. fifteen out of ...19957751737
cost of ribavirin therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19957752021
risk of acute otitis media in relation to the viral etiology of infections in children.we carried out a prospective case-control study to analyze the etiology of respiratory tract infections among children with and without acute otitis media (aom). of the 658 patients admitted to our hospital during the period concerned, 197 (29.9%) had aom, and for each such child the next patient of the same age was chosen as a control. the total number of virologically positive samples was 99 (50.3%) among the patients with aom vs. 93 (47.2%) among the controls. the only etiologic agent that wa ...19957756470
lesions in lambs experimentally infected with bovine respiratory syncytial experimental model was designed to characterize lesions in the lung of lambs inoculated with bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). 25 merino lambs of both sexes, with a live weight of 17 +/- 3 kg, received an intratracheal inoculation of 20 ml saline solution containing 1.26 x 10(6) tcid50 brsv (strain nmk-7) per ml. lambs were slaughtered 1, 3, 7, 11 and 15 postinoculation days (pid), and histopathological, immunohistochemical and electron microscopic studies were performed. results ref ...19957756746
a prototype recombinant vaccine against respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3.we have produced a genetically-engineered chimeric protein composed of the external domains of the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) fusion (f) protein and the parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv-3) hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (hn) protein in insect cells using the baculovirus expression system. the yield of the soluble chimeric frsv-hnpiv-3 protein could be increased approximately 2-fold by using trichoplasia ni (high five) insect cells in place of spodoptera frugiperda (sf9) for expression. the ch ...19947765021
nosocomial viral pneumonia in the intensive care unit.the role viruses play in nosocomial icu pneumonias is not well documented except for outbreaks of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections. clinically, viral pneumonias are difficult to differentiate from bacterial pneumonias, and most routine diagnostic tests are able to diagnose viral pathogens. therefore, the incidence of viral pneumonias is almost certainly underestimated. the likelihood of a viral pneumonia is increased if the patient is not responding to antimicrobial age ...19957768085
topical immunoprophylaxis of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-challenged mice with rsv-specific immune globulin.the modulatory effects of passive antibody on viral replication, illness, and immunity were investigated in a murine model of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection. nasally administered rsv-specific immune globulin (rsvig) given prophylactically in a large volume (100 microl) reduced illness and rsv replication in lung after primary challenge. however, passive antibody treatment diminished the host antibody response to primary rsv infection. this resulted in greater susceptibility to reinf ...19957769280
epidemiological views into possible components of paediatric combined vaccines in 2015.efforts to develop combined vaccines for childhood immunization schedules will during the next years focus on combined administration of the existing vaccines which have already shown their impact. first candidate components for more wide-spectrum combinations could be the new antigens against severe invasive infections caused by encapsulated bacteria. multivalent pneumococcal and meningococcal group a and c conjugate vaccines are already in clinical trials, and the same is true of the first can ...19947779356
the contribution of respiratory viruses to severe exacerbations of asthma in adults.viral infections are known to be associated with severe exacerbations of asthma in children. in contrast, there is limited data that viral infections evoke acute episodes of asthma that require emergency care in adults. to determine the role of viral infections in exacerbations of asthma in adults, we examined 33 patients who presented to the emergency room with 35 exacerbations of asthma between september 1990 and march 1991 for the presence of a viral infection. a nasal swab was obtained for v ...19957781348
[is the respiratory syncytial virus underestimated as an etiological factor of severe respiratory tract diseases among the elderly?]. 19957792967
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