helper t cell recognition of respiratory syncytial virus in this study we aimed to define the protein and viral subtype specificities of helper th cells to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv). balb/c mice were primed by infection with rsv, or with vaccinia viruses (vv) containing genes encoding several individual rsv proteins. priming for th cell memory was assayed by stimulating spleen cells in vitro with different rsv isolates and measuring rsv-specific interleukin 2 (il-2) release by t cells into supernatants using an il-2-dependent ctll cell line. s ...19882963089
clinical signs following experimental lungworm infection and natural bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.similar clinical signs have been reported in calves infected either by dictyocaulus viviparus or bovine respiratory syncytial virus. three experiments were carried out to establish the clinical picture and the course of the disease in animals with these infections. the clinical signs of calves infected with lungworm included coughing, nasal discharge, tachypnoea, abdominal breathing and pyrexia, and auscultation of their lungs revealed increased bronchial sounds. similar signs were also observed ...19882973675
antiviral effect of flavonoids on human viruses.the effect of several naturally occurring dietary flavonoids including quercetin, naringin, hesperetin, and catechin on the infectivity and replication of herpes simplex virus type 1 (hsv-1), polio-virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3 (pf-3), and respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was studied in vitro in cell culture monolayers employing the technique of viral plaque reduction. quercetin caused a concentration-dependent reduction in the infectivity of each virus. in addition, it reduced intra ...19852981979
identification of respiratory virus antigens in middle ear fluids of children with acute otitis media.antigens of respiratory viruses were tested by immunoassay of the middle ear fluids and nasopharyngeal secretions of 137 children with acute otitis media. the following were found: (1) an epidemic of infection with respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) caused a significant increase in the occurrence of acute otitis media. (2) fifteen percent of the children had rsv antigens in middle ear fluid, and in 7% rsv was the sole pathogen found. adenovirus antigens were found in the middle ear fluid of 3% of ...19852982961
antiviral chemotherapy and chemoprophylaxis.antiviral compounds have been developed for use in chemoprophylaxis and chemotherapy of a variety of infections in humans, including those caused by influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and herpesviruses. the efficacy of several of these compounds has been demonstrated in rigorously controlled trials. advances in molecular virology have led to the identification of biochemically defined, virus-specific functions that serve as appropriate targets for the future development of antiviral ...19852983421
detection of viral and chlamydial antigens in open-lung biopsy specimens.the recovery of viruses and chlamydia trachomatis from cell cultures and the detection of their antigens in impression smears prepared from open-lung biopsy (olb) specimens from immunocompromised adults were compared. touch impression smears were prepared on three slides, each containing eight wells. olb tissue was homogenized (stomacher) and inoculated into mrc-5, primary monkey kidney, and mccoy cell cultures. the direct and indirect immunofluorescence (if) tests were used to detect antigens t ...19852983526
respiratory syncytial virus fusion glycoprotein: nucleotide sequence of mrna, identification of cleavage activation site and amino acid sequence of n-terminus of f1 subunit.the amino acid sequence of respiratory syncytial virus fusion protein (fo) was deduced from the sequence of a partial cdna clone of mrna and from the 5' mrna sequence obtained by primer extension and dideoxysequencing. the encoded protein of 574 amino acids is extremely hydrophobic and has a molecular weight of 63371 daltons. the site of proteolytic cleavage within this protein was accurately mapped by determining a partial amino acid sequence of the n-terminus of the larger subunit (f1) purifie ...19852987829
serum antibody to respiratory syncytial virus in goats in the uk. 19852988182
surveillance of respiratory viral infections by rapid immunofluorescence diagnosis, with emphasis on the epidemiological development of respiratory syncytial virus infections.surveillance of certain respiratory viral infections by applying immunofluorescence (if) examinations to samples of nasopharyngeal secretions has been evaluated using a simplified procedure for the preparation of cell smears. samples from 711 children living in different parts of norway were examined during the winter 1982/83 and a positive diagnosis was made for 290 children (41%). temporal epidemic peaks were observed for respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), parainfluenza virus type 3 and influe ...19852989359
acute respiratory tract infections of children in hospital: a viral and mycoplasma pneumoniae profile.respiratory specimens and blood were collected from all infants and children admitted with acute respiratory illness to a paediatric unit in christchurch from may to november (late autumn, winter and spring) 1983, to define the viral aetiological agents involved. a virus or mycoplasma pneumoniae was identified in 160 (50%) of 317 children studied by the rapid indirect immunofluorescence, virus culture and/or serological techniques. aetiological agents were detected in 71% of children with bronch ...19852991830
a viral antigen-bearing cell line derived from culture of paget's bone cells.this study documents the characteristics of a viral antigen-bearing cell line derived from co-culture of the bone from a 71-year-old woman with paget's disease of bone and hep-2 cells. the cell line has survived in continuous culture for 3 1/2 years and 185 subcultures. the cells are epithelioid in appearance, produce alkaline and acid phosphatase, increase alkaline phosphatase activity in response to 1,25-(oh)2-d3 and contain receptors for 1,25-(oh)2-d3. immunofluorescent studies utilizing anti ...19852996574
nucleotide sequences of the 1b and 1c nonstructural protein mrnas of human respiratory syncytial virus.the genes encoding the 1c and 1b mrnas of human respiratory syncytial (rs) virus are first in the order of viral transcription and encode nonstructural (ns) proteins of approximate molecular weights 14,000 and 11,000, respectively, estimated by gel electrophoresis. the complete nucleotide sequences of the 1c and 1b mrnas determined from several full-length cdna clones are described. the 1c and 1b mrnas contain 528 and 499 nucleotides, respectively, exclusive of poly(a), and encode proteins of 13 ...19852998021
persistence of viruses in the nasopharynx of apparently healthy children aged 0-5 years. results of investigations performed in 1982-83.virus isolation attempts were made with nasopharyngeal secretions from 400 apparently healthy 0-5-year-old children of a semi-closed community. repeated virus isolations were achieved in 25 cases subjected to periodic investigations in 1982-83. one-two reisolation(s), 1-5 months apart, of the initially detected viral agents could be obtained in 15 out of the 25 children. the following viruses were reisolated (in decreasing order of frequency): adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus, coxsackie ...19853000066
a simple method for increased recovery of purified paramyxovirus virions.a simple method involving vigorous agitation of infected cell monolayers prior to collection of culture medium is described to greatly increase the recovery of purified virions of measles virus, respiratory syncytial virus and human parainfluenza virus. vigorous agitation of the flasks containing monolayers of infected cells increased the recovery of purified virions by at least 3- to 10-fold as judged by the intensity of [35s]methionine labeled viral proteins on sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacry ...19853001119
production of monoclonal antibodies against parainfluenza 3 virus and their use in diagnosis by immunofluorescence.monoclonal antibodies were produced against parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3) and used to identify pi-3 clinical isolates in cell culture and pi-3 antigen in cells obtained from nasopharyngeal (np) washes of patients. two (2e9 and 4g5) of the three monoclonal antibodies characterized reacted by immunoblotting with a 67,000-dalton pi-3 protein, and one antibody (4e5) reacted with two viral proteins in the range of 29,000 to 31,000 daltons. the three monoclonal antibodies did not cross-react by in ...19853001131
a survey of respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 neutralising and immunoprecipitating antibodies in relation to paget disease.the aetiology of paget disease of bone has not been established but certain features have suggested involvement of a parainfluenzalike virus. to seek further evidence of the possible role of paramyxoviruses in paget disease we have surveyed the presence of neutralising and immunoprecipitating antibodies to both respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus type 3 in the sera of patients attending a bone disease clinic. these two viruses were implicated by the sporadic observation of viral ...19853001223
parainfluenza virus bronchiolitis. epidemiology and investigation of the epidemiology and pathogenesis of bronchiolitis due to parainfluenza virus (pv) was carried out. bronchiolitis due to pv occurred most commonly in non-caucasian males. breast-fed infants exhibited a reduced risk of developing bronchiolitis. once an episode of pv bronchiolitis occurred, both exposure to cigarette smoke and bottle feeding were associated with an increased frequency of recurrent wheezing, and subsequent infection with respiratory virus almost uniformly result ...19863002169
seroepidemiologic survey for antibodies to selected viruses in the respiratory tract of lambs.a serologic study was conducted to determine the prevalence of antibodies to, and infection rate of, mastadenovirus ovi 5, m ovi 6, parainfluenza-3 (pi-3) virus, bovine herpesvirus-1 (bhv-1), respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), bovine viral diarrhea (bvd) virus, and ovine progressive pneumonia (opp) virus in lambs at a ram lamb growth-rate test station. for 2 consecutive years, serum samples were prepared from blood collected from 1- to 2-month-old ram lambs as they entered the test station (1st ...19853002217
the effects of acute respiratory virus infection upon tracheal mucous transport.tracheal mucous velocity was measured in 13 healthy non-smokers using a radioisotope-labeled aerosol and a multidetector probe during respiratory virus infections. the movement of boluses of tracheal mucous were either absent or reduced in number in five subjects with myxovirus infection (four influenza and one respiratory syncytial virus) within 48 hr of the onset of symptoms and in four subjects 1 wk later. one subject with influenza still had reduced bolus formation 12-16 wk after infection. ...19853002287
pneumonia associated with infection with pneumocystis, respiratory syncytial virus, chlamydia, mycoplasma, and cytomegalovirus in children in papua new guinea.paired serum samples were collected from 94 children with pneumonia admitted to goroka hospital, papua new guinea. all but three of the children were aged 1-24 months. only nine children were malnourished, with weight for age less than 70% of the harvard median (three had weight for age less than 60% of the harvard median). pneumocystis carinii antigen was detected in the serum of 23 children. twenty two children had serological evidence of recent infection with respiratory syncytial virus. five ...19863002538
role of respiratory viruses in exacerbations of primary nephrotic determine whether respiratory virus infections (uri) are associated with exacerbation of nephrotic syndrome (ns) in childhood, a prospective two-winter study of 32 children with ns was done. we obtained pre- and post-season viral serologic studies, biweekly nose and throat viral cultures, daily urinalysis, biweekly telephone follow-up for uri and renal complaints, and clinical assessments as indicated. when a uri occurred, viral cultures were done weekly if the child was at home and twice wee ...19863005537
serosurvey for selected pathogens in hunter-killed pronghorns in western nebraska.exposure of pronghorns (antilocapra americana) in western nebraska in 1983 to selected livestock pathogens was examined by serology and attempted virus isolation. antibodies were present to the agents of bluetongue, epizootic hemorrhagic disease, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus. there were no serologic reactors to brucella, and attempts to isolate the viruses of bluetongue and epizootic hemorrhagic disease were negative.19863005667
effect of recombinant dna-derived bovine and human interferons on replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses.antiviral effects of recombinant dna-derived bovine (bo) and human (hu) interferons (ifn) on the replication of bovine herpesvirus-1, parainfluenza-3, and respiratory syncytial viruses were studied. bovine monolayer cultures were treated with recombinant dna-produced bo ifn-alpha 1, bo ifn-beta 2, hu ifn-alpha a, or hu ifn-alpha a/d and then challenge exposed with bovine herpesvirus-1, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, or vesicular stomatitis virus. treatment with ...19863008606
rapid diagnosis of respiratory virus infections in patients with acute respiratory disease.viral respiratory infections represent a significant segment of the total respiratory disease spectrum; however, until recently the laboratory diagnosis of viral respiratory infections was relatively inefficient. development of new and improved immunologic assay systems has paved the way for accurate and reliable rapid diagnostic tests that detect viral antigens in clinical specimens. we conducted a careful and elaborate study in which radioimmunoassay for antigen detection was compared with a b ...19863009083
simultaneous infections with different enteric and respiratory tract viruses.infants and young children with rotavirus (rv) or visualized adenovirus in their stools were tested for the simultaneous presence of a respiratory viral pathogen in their upper respiratory tract. overall, at least 10.7% of 484 study subjects had such dual infections, including 8.3% of 385 rv-positive gastroenteritis patients and 24.3% of 37 rv-positive respiratory disease patients. respiratory syncytial virus was present in 34.1% of 41 dual infections with rv and at least 40% of the 12 to 15 dua ...19863009527
evaluation of cell line 293 for virus isolation in routine viral diagnosis.cell line 293, a continuous line of transformed human embryonic kidney cells, has been recognized for its sensitivity in the isolation of adenoviruses, particularly the fastidious species 40 and 41, from stool specimens. to explore the possibility of using this cell line for the isolation of other viruses from clinical specimens, 293 cells were tested for their susceptibility to a variety of viruses including herpes simplex virus, parainfluenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and the enter ...19863009540
presence of respiratory viruses in middle ear fluids and nasal wash specimens from children with acute otitis media.during a 28-month period, 84 children with acute otitis media were studied by viral and bacterial cultures of middle ear fluid and viral cultures of nasal lavage fluid. viruses were isolated from the middle ear fluid of 17 (20%) patients. evidence of viral infection was demonstrated by positive viral cultures of middle ear fluid and/or nasal lavage fluid in 33 (39%) patients. rhinovirus in one patient and influenza b virus in another were the only pathogens isolated. influenza virus, enterovirus ...19863010225
patterns of viral respiratory tract infections in singapore.a second retrospective study on viral respiratory tract infections, based on 12 years' laboratory reports for the influenza viruses, and 9 years' reports for the other respiratory viruses was made. seasonal variation in incidence was found to occur with infections due to the influenza viruses, respiratory syncytial virus, and parainfluenzavirus type 1. observations made previously on the age distribution of specific respiratory viral infections, and the association of the viruses with various re ...19863010799
fusion glycoprotein of human parainfluenza virus type 3: nucleotide sequence of the gene, direct identification of the cleavage-activation site, and comparison with other paramyxoviruses.the complete sequences of the fusion (f) mrna and protein of human parainfluenza virus type 3 (pf3) were determined from overlapping cdna clones. to confirm the cdna sequence, the complete sequence of the f gene was determined independently by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of genomic rna using synthetic oligonucleotide primers. the mrna contains 1845 nucleotides, exclusive of poly (a), has an unusually long (193-nucleotide) 5' nontranslated region, and encodes an f0 protein of 539 amino acids. th ...19863012869
the association between serological titers in infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine virus diarrhea virus, parainfluenza-3 virus, respiratory syncytial virus and treatment for respiratory disease in ontario feedlot calves.a seroepidemiological study of the association between antibody titers to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, parainfluenza-3, bovine virus diarrhea and bovine respiratory syncytial viruses, and treatment for bovine respiratory disease was conducted. a total of 322 calves from five different groups were bled on arrival, then one month later all cases (cattle treated for bovine respiratory disease) were rebled together with an equal number of controls (cattle not treated for any disease). titers t ...19863017529
fever in respiratory virus infections.the case records of 258 children with adenovirus; influenza a or b virus; parainfluenza 1, 2, or 3 virus; or respiratory syncytial virus infections were studied retrospectively with special attention to the degree and duration of fever. a temperature of 39.0 degrees c or higher was most frequently recorded in adenovirus, influenza a, and influenza b virus infections (in 68%, 84%, and 65%, respectively). the mean highest degree of fever in respiratory virus infections (39.2 degrees c +/- 0.6 degr ...19863020965
ribavirin: a clinical overview.ribavirin, a broad spectrum, non-interferon-inducing virustatic chemotherapeutic agent, demonstrates activity against a wide range of rna and dna viruses, including the retrovirus known to cause the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. the drug's proposed mechanism of action, as well as pharmacokinetics are discussed, and preclinical toxicity, safety and clinical efficacy studies are presented. to date, the best success has occurred in the use of ribavirin to treat respiratory syncytial virus in ...19863021519
in vitro effect of ascorbic acid on infectivity of herpesviruses and paramyxoviruses.suspensions of herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, cytomegalovirus, and parainfluenzavirus type 2 were inactivated within 24 h when treated at 37 degrees c with 1 mg (5.05 mm) of copper-catalyzed sodium ascorbate per ml. the infectivity titer of respiratory syncytial virus was reduced substantially after 24 h but required 48 h for inactivation. under these conditions, inactivation of these viruses was also successfully achieved with 5.68 mm catalyzed ascorbic acid. copper (cu2+), when added with ...19863021808
clinical observations on mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure in unusually large number of infants (82) were admitted to stanford university hospital from november 1, 1983, through may 31, 1985, with a diagnosis of bronchiolitis requiring oxygen therapy. a larger percentage of these infants (17/82 = 21%) than generally expected required mechanical ventilation for respiratory failure. fourteen infants had respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections, and three had parainfluenza virus infections. ten patients had respiratory difficulties as neonates. the mec ...19863022224
nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion glycoprotein of newcastle disease virus.the nucleotide sequence of the gene encoding the fusion (f) glycoprotein of the beaudette c strain of newcastle disease virus (ndv) has been determined from cdna clones obtained from virion rna. the gene is 1792 nucleotides long, including mrna start and polyadenylation signals typical of paramyxoviruses. the single open reading frame encodes a polypeptide of 553 amino acids, with a predicted molecular weight of 59042. the f polypeptide has three regions of high hydrophobicity: an n-terminal sig ...19863025345
infant pneumonitis associated with cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, pneumocystis, and ureaplasma: follow-up.a total of 205 infants who were hospitalized when younger than 3 months of age for pneumonitis were followed longitudinally. of these patients, 145 (70%) had evidence of infection with one or more pathogens. the most common etiologic agents were chlamydia trachomatis 61/193 (36%), respiratory syncytial virus 33/142 (23%), cytomegalovirus 42/203 (20%), pneumocystis carinii 30/171 (17%), and ureaplasma urealyticum 21/125 (16%). the initial clinical presentation was characterized by cough, rales, n ...19873025807
immunofluorescence in the serological diagnosis of parainfluenza type 3 and respiratory syncytial virus infection in calves.the fluorescent antibody (fa) test is compared with the haemagglutination inhibition (hi) test for parainfluenza virus type 3 (pi-3) and virus neutralisation (vn) test for respiratory syncytial (rs) virus for detection and titration of virus-specific antibodies. in experimentally inoculated calves pi-3 and rs virus fa tests detected seroconversion at the same time as hi and vn tests, however, in serially diluted sera, the fa test was positive to higher dilution. in studies with paired samples fr ...19863027802
[rhinovirus and acute respiratory infections in infants].human leucocytary interferon (ifn) in a concentration of 2,000 ul/ml stops the development of 9 rhinovirus (rv) strains. the use of serum ifn antibodies (saif) reverses this effect. of 256 nasal aspirates culture negative for other respiratory viruses, 40 rv were isolated with saif as opposed to 19 without serum anti ifn. the frequency and some clinical aspects are emphasized in infants: 43% had bronchiolitis similar to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infections and atopy was frequent.19863028312
efficiency of immunofluorescence for rapid detection of common respiratory viruses.rapid immunofluorescence (fa) methods for the detection of common respiratory viruses were compared with culture results over a 3-year period to assess the relative efficiency of fa in a clinical laboratory setting. for respiratory syncytial virus, efficiencies were high (sensitivity, 90 to 95%; specificity, 92 to 95%). the sensitivity of fa for detection of parainfluenza virus type 1, parainfluenza virus type 3, influenza a virus, and adenoviruses ranged from 28 to 63%, but specificities for th ...19873029168
diseases of wapiti utilizing cattle range in southwestern alberta.specimens from 28 wapiti (cervus elaphus canadensis) were collected by hunters in southwestern alberta in 1984. various tests were performed to detect infections and conditions that could affect cattle sharing the range or cause disease in wapiti. serum antibodies were present against leptospiral serovars autumnalis (25%), bratislava (4%), and icterohaemorrhagiae (8%), and the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea (52%), infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (45%), and parainfluenza type 3 (13%). no sero ...19873029443
molecular cloning and sequence analysis of the human parainfluenza 3 virus gene encoding the matrix protein.the sequence of the matrix (m) protein gene and contiguous intergenic regions of the human parainfluenza 3 virus (pf3) was determined by molecular cloning. the encoded m protein contains 354 amino acids and has a predicted mol wt of 39,506. the m protein amino acid sequence was compared to the homologous proteins from other members of the paramyxoviridae family. the pf3 protein shared 61% homology with the sendai virus protein and approximately 35% homology with measles and canine distemper viru ...19873029963
seroepidemiological studies on the occurrence of common respiratory infections in paediatric student nurses and medical technology students.the occupational risk of acquiring minor respiratory infections for paediatric student nurses was estimated by performing serological examinations with influenza a, b, c, parainfluenza, mumps, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and mycoplasma pneumoniae at 6-month intervals over a period of 4 years in paediatric student nurses at two schools of nursing and students at one school of medical technology. titre increases against all tested agents occurred 1.86 times more often in the student nu ...19873030790
preparation of nasopharyngeal secretions for immunofluorescence by one-step centrifugation through percoll.a simple method was developed for separation of cells from nasopharyngeal secretion for the diagnosis of respiratory virus infections by immunofluorescence microscopy. the diluted specimen, containing dithiothreitol to break up the mucus, was centrifuged once through a cushion of 20% percoll (colloidal silica, a density gradient medium), which permitted sedimentation of cells through the cushion, but retained mucus on top of it. the pelleted cells were resuspended, and microscope slides were the ...19873034944
respiratory virus infection of peripheral blood monocytes: correlation with ageing of cells and interferon production in vitro.the ability of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) and parainfluenza virus type 3 (piv3) to replicate in peripheral blood monocytes cultured in vitro for 1, 2, 4 or 7 days prior to infection was investigated. inoculation of 1-day old monocytes produced at least tenfold less new virus than infection of the older, more macrophage-like cells for both viruses. piv3 induced extensive syncytium formation, whereas rsv caused a cytopathic effect manifest by increased rounding of the cells with minimal syn ...19873035067
epstein-barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and other viral infections in children after liver transplantation.we studied 51 consecutive pediatric patients for the frequency and morbidity of viral infections after liver transplantation. the incidence of primary (67%) and reactivation (48%) epstein-barr virus (ebv) infections and reactivation (88%) cytomegalovirus (cmv) infection was comparable to that seen in adult transplant recipients. however, fewer pediatric than adult transplant recipients experienced primary cmv infection (p less than .01). five (38%) of 13 cmv infections were symptomatic and inclu ...19873036964
pneumonias in adults due to mycoplasma, chlamydiae, and viruses.pneumonias in adults due to mycoplasma, chlamydiae, and viruses are a common clinical problem. these microorganisms contribute to the etiologies in 6-35% of all cases of pneumonia and are the sole pathogens in 1-17% of hospitalized cases. important trends and developments in the field include the emergence of a chlamydia psittaci strain (twar) that is passaged from human to human, causes a mycoplasma-like illness, and that is relatively resistant to erythromycin, the recognition of respiratory s ...19873037901
respiratory syncytial virus infections and intravenous gamma-globulins.the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a common cause of bronchiolitis and pneumonia in infants and young children. throughout the world annual rsv epidemics result in numerous hospitalizations, substantial morbidity and some mortality. until the recent introduction of ribavirin only supportive therapy has been available for treating these infections. the development of animal models of rsv infection and the observation that some lots of immunoglobulin prepared for intravenous administration c ...19883041354
non-neoplastic pulmonary multinucleate giant cells. comparative study of multinucleate giant cells in porcine dermatosis vegetans and other polykaryocytic conditions.pulmonary multinucleate giant cells (mgcs) in porcine dermatosis vegetans (dv) were compared with virus-induced and inflammatory-associated mgcs, with particular attention to mechanisms involved in the formation of such cells. ultrastructurally, pigs with dv showed numerous pulmonary mgcs with transversely-sectioned interdigitating microvillous structures. microvilli were observed closely apposed to type-ii pneumocytes and with morphological characteristics of membrane bridge formation. rabbits ...19883044400
respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia in a cardiac transplant recipient. 19883045218
respiratory syncytial virus: heterogeneity of subgroup b order to investigate further possible structural differences among the two subgroups of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv), we analysed the antigenic characteristics and size of structural proteins of 20 subgroup a and 43 subgroup b strains by their reactions with monoclonal antibodies (mabs) directed against the proteins of rsv using immunofluorescence, elisa and radioimmunoprecipitation assays. the latter test also enabled determination of the size of different structural components. the 37 ...19883045252
bovine respiratory syncytial virus-specific monoclonal antibodies.five hybridomas were produced which secreted monoclonal antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv). two antibodies (8g12, 15c7) neutralized the virus and inhibited syncytia formation in vitro. these monoclonal antibodies also stained, by indirect fluorescent assay, an external envelope protein of living virus-infected cells, and recognized the 48k subunit of the viral fusion protein by western blot analysis of bovine respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates. three other mon ...19883046116
ribavirin in respiratory syncytial virus infection. a double blind placebo controlled trial is needed. 19883046516
passive transfer of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antiserum suppresses the immune response to the rsv fusion (f) and large (g) glycoproteins expressed by recombinant vaccinia young infants who possess maternally derived respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) antibodies, the antibody response to rsv glycoproteins is relatively poor, despite extensive replication of rsv. in the present study, it was found that cotton rat rsv hyperimmune antiserum suppressed the antibody response to the rsv glycoproteins but not the response to vaccinia virus antigens when the antiserum was passively transferred to cotton rats prior to infection with vaccinia recombinant viruses expressin ...19883047432
comparison of the abbott and ortho enzyme immunoassays and cell culture for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal specimens.a comparison of the abbott laboratories and the ortho diagnostic systems respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) enzyme immunoassays (eia) and hep-2 cell culture for the detection of rsv in 81 nasopharyngeal (np) specimens from pediatric patients with lower respiratory tract infection was carried out. the sensitivity and specificity of the abbott test compared to confirmed infection was 92.3% and 100.0%, respectively. the sensitivity and specificity of the ortho test was 87.5% and 80.3%, respectively. ...19883053011
rapid diagnosis of infections caused by respiratory syncytial virus. 19883053459
diagnosis of respiratory syncytial virus infection. 19883054781
detection, pathogenesis, and therapy of respiratory syncytial virus infections.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection is a major cause of serious lower respiratory disease in infancy and early childhood. the unique pathogenesis of lower respiratory illness due to rsv offers some intriguing clues to the role of the human immune system in both protection against and development of respiratory illness. more than any other virus, rapid diagnostic techniques have been especially successful in identifying rsv infection. many of these techniques could be easily adaptable to ...19883060243
[the status of research to develop new vaccines against infection caused by the respiratory syncytial virus]. 19883064426
the effect of common bovine respiratory diseases on tidal breathing flow-volume order to better understand the bovine breathing pattern, tidal breathing flow-volume loops (tbfvl) were analyzed in 24 healthy cattle of different body weights (range: 37-660 kg) (group a) and in 28 cattle suffering from the common respiratory diseases: verminous bronchitis (group b); shipping fever (group c); acute respiratory distress syndrome (group d); respiratory syncytial virus pneumonia (group e); organophosphate poisoning (group f); and necrotic laryngitis (group g). respiratory airfl ...19883066008
respiratory syncytial virus.rsv is now understood to be the most significant viral respiratory pathogen of infants and is capable of causing both bronchiolitis and pneumonia. it is a particular risk to hospitalized infants as the virus is easily spread through close contact. the most vulnerable infants are those who suffer with either congenital heart disease or bronchopulmonary dysplasia who easily fall prey to pulmonary complications of infection. strict environmental control and the use of protective clothing and eyewea ...19883066824
vitamin a status of children with a history of respiratory syncytial virus infection in order to extend our earlier observation that children who experience frequent respiratory episodes may benefit from vitamin a supplementation, 206 children aged 2-7 years who had been hospitalized for bronchiolitis during infancy were randomized into a controlled trial of vitamin a supplementation. of these, 149 met the criteria of protocol compliance after 12 months of follow-up. mean plasma retinol at baseline was 39.2 micrograms/100 ml (s.e.m. = 1.0) and did not increase after 12 months (m ...19883067695
time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay compared with virus isolation for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal aspirates.two monoclonal antibodies against two distinct conserved epitopes of the respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) nucleocapsid protein were used in a direct time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (tr-fia) for the detection of rsv antigens in nasopharyngeal aspirates. the capture antibody was adsorbed to the solid phase of microdilution strip wells, and the indicator antibody was labeled with a europium chelate. specimens and label were incubated simultaneously for 1 h at 37 degrees c in the coated wells. afte ...19883068251
can we predict or prevent sudden unexpected deaths during infancy?mechanisms for sudden unexpected infant deaths remain unproven but the possibilities include cardiac arrhythmias, hypoglycaemia, prolonged apnoea from central respiratory control failure, seizure-induced apnoea, prolonged airway obstruction and alveolar atelectasis. many of these mechanisms could be treated if the infant at risk could be identified. to date, identification programmes have not been sufficiently sensitive or specific. all the evidence presently available suggests that clinical and ...19883068658
[bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus in very young infants and transmitted maternal antibodies].the study with an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay of the sera of 57 infants aged less than 9 weeks and developing a bronchiolitis, argues for the absence of a protective role for the maternally transmitted anti-respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) igg and for the existence of a positive relationship between these antibodies levels - which are not neutralizing - and the severity of rsv bronchiolitis.19883071286
evaluation in non-human primates of the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the f or g glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial has been shown previously that immunization with recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing the f or g envelope glycoprotein of human respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) strain a2 induced a protective immune response in the lower respiratory tract of cotton rats against live rsv challenge. as a continuation of these studies, the safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of these recombinant vaccinia viruses was evaluated in non-human primates. rhesus and patas monkeys were each inoculated intradermally ...19883072795
[comparison between immunofluorescence and immunoenzymatic assay for the rapid diagnosis of the respiratory syncytial virus in nasopharyngeal secretions].an enzyme immunoassay, rsv-eia abbot, was evaluated by comparison with indirect immunofluorescence. nasopharyngeal secretions obtained from 95 infants and young children with acute respiratory infections were examined for the presence of respiratory syncytial virus antigens with both methods. specimens were stored at -70 degrees c before being tested by eia. out of 60 samples positive by indirect immunofluorescence, 46 were also positive by rsv-eia (sensitivity 78.7%) and 34 out of 35 immunofluo ...19883073406
respiratory syncytial virus--oklahoma. 19863081783
evaluation of a commercially available direct immunofluorescent staining reagent for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory secretions.a commercially-available direct immunofluorescence (if) reagent (imagen; boots-celltech, slough, berkshire, united kingdom) was similar in sensitivity and specificity to the conventional indirect if test for the detection of respiratory syncytial virus in respiratory secretions. both if tests were more sensitive than culture, particularly for specimens transported from outside the institution.19863088032
specific human cytotoxic t cells recognize b-cell lines persistently infected with respiratory syncytial virus.the t-lymphocyte response to respiratory syncytial (rs) virus has been invoked to explain the bronchiolitis and pneumonia caused by rs virus in human infants. however, t cells also appear to play a role in protection against rs virus infection. although rs virus-specific human lymphocytes have been demonstrated, neither the phenotype nor the function of the lymphocytes was characterized. we describe here the induction of anti-rs virus cytotoxic t lymphocytes, in both bulk culture and restimulate ...19863097646
respiratory syncytial virus infection in hospitalized children over one year of age. 19863110028
expression and glycosylation of the respiratory syncytial virus g protein in saccharomyces cerevisiae.a cdna encoding the entire amino acid sequence of the g glycoprotein of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was inserted into a yeast-escherichia coli shuttle vector such that expression of the virus gene was regulated by the yeast gal1 promoter. transformation of saccharomyces cerevisiae with the vector led to the formation of the g protein when cells were grown in the presence of galactose. under these conditions the rsv g appeared as a 60- to 65-kda glycosylated protein. expression of the g cdn ...19873113070
[characteristics of viral infections in patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis].virological and immunological studies on 53 patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis at the clinical stage of fading exacerbation were conducted. a high percentage of active viral infection (43%), persistence of viruses (25%) and virus-specific components (ribonucleoprotein in influenza) in the cells of brush biopsy bronchial mucosa specimens was characteristic for these patients. the respiratory-syncytial virus was the most common persisting virus (11%). a high percentage of association (72 ...19873118490
on the diagnostic significance of cft in respiratory-syncytial virus infection in children over one year old. 19873133290
commercial monoclonal antibodies for rapid detection of respiratory syncytial virus by direct immunofluorescence.a commercially available direct immunofluorescence (if) test using a reagent consisting of a pool of two monoclonal antibodies against selected surface and internal proteins of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was evaluated in comparison with the indirect if technique using a commercial bovine anti-rsv hyperimmune serum for the rapid detection of rsv in nasopharyngeal aspirates from 228 hospitalized children. overall agreement between the two if methods was 95%. the direct if test was quicker t ...19883134216
prospective study on the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adults in spain.the cause of primary pneumonia was diagnosed in 157 of 198 children and 165 of 207 adults seen as inpatients or outpatients in a 12-month period. in children mycoplasma pneumoniae and pneumococcus were identified in 79 and 29 cases respectively. twenty-nine of 53 cases of viral infection in children were caused by respiratory syncytial virus, two-thirds of the cases occurring in children under three years of age. no children died of pneumonia. in adults pneumococcus was the most common pathogen, ...19883137033
topically administered immunoglobulin reduces pulmonary respiratory syncytial virus shedding in owl monkeys.a human intravenous immunoglobulin preparation containing neutralizing antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) was utilized for intratracheal and topical treatment of laboratory-induced rsv infections in owl monkeys (aotus trivirgatus). topically administered antibodies induced significant reductions in rsv shedding in the lower respiratory tract.19883142351
branhamella catarrhalis septicemia in an infant with aids.branhamella catarrhalis was isolated in blood culture from a 6-month-old infant with aids. the child had a nasopharyngeal infection with respiratory syncytial virus and pneumonitis with pneumocystis carinii. commensal organisms such as b. catarrhalis may be potential pathogens in infants with aids.19883146808
respiratory syncytial virus infection in infants with congenital heart disease and treatment with human leukocyte interferone. 19883148257
pulmonary infections with respiratory syncytial virus and chlamydia trachomatis in early infancy. 19883150205
epidemiological and clinical features of influenza and respiratory syncytial virus infections among children in japan. 19883150206
[method of spread of respiratory syncytial virus infection in a neonatology unit]. 19853157115
the fusion glycoproteins of human respiratory syncytial virus of subgroups a and b: sequence conservation provides a structural basis for antigenic relatedness.two major antigenic subgroups (a and b) have been described for human respiratory syncytial virus. the complete nucleotide sequence was determined for the fusion (f) mrna of the subgroup b strain 18537 and the amino acid sequence of the f protein deduced, for comparison with the previously described sequences for the a2 strain of subgroup a. the f proteins (excluding the cleaved signal peptide) were 91% identical between the subgroups, consistent with the previously described high degree of anti ...19883171553
immunogenicity and pathogenicity of temperature-sensitive modified respiratory syncytial virus in adult volunteers.single temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of a subgroup a strain of respiratory syncytial (rs) virus whose multiplication is restricted at 39 degrees c in mrc-6 cells and double ts mutants that are restricted at 38 degrees c, were obtained following mutagenesis using 5-fluorouracil and acridine-like compounds. isolation and propagation of the parental rss-2 strain of rs virus and its derived ts mutants were carried out entirely in mrc-5 human diploid cells. the immunogenicity and disease-produci ...19883171557
a survey of virus infections in new zealand, 1982-6.between 1982 and 1986 virus infections were identified in 16,372 cases. these identifications were based on virus isolation and/or serological evidence of infection by the main virus diagnostic laboratories at auckland, waikato, christchurch and dunedin hospitals, and at the national health institute. the most frequent virus identifications reported were herpes simplex (46.7%), rotavirus (11.8%), respiratory syncytial virus (5.7%), and adenovirus (5.6%). during this period of surveillance, the m ...19883173872
the release of leukotrienes in the respiratory tract during infection with respiratory syncytial virus: role in obstructive airway disease.samples of nasopharyngeal secretions from a group of 73 infants with bronchiolitis or upper respiratory illness alone during infection with respiratory syncytial virus were analyzed for leukotriene c4 (ltc4) content using a reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography assay with confirmation by radioimmunoassay. titers of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv)-specific ige in nasopharyngeal secretion (nps) specimens were determined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. the highest concentr ...19883174295
prevalence and specificity of antibodies to bovine respiratory syncytial virus in sera from feedlot and range cattle.the specificity of serum antibodies for the polypeptides of bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) was examined, using sera obtained from feedlot and range cattle. test results in sera from feedlot cattle indicated a 60% rate of seroconversion and 95% seropositivity to brsv, associated with lack of clinical signs indicative of respiratory tract disease. exposure to other common respiratory tract viruses also was high (greater than or equal to 92% to bovine herpesvirus type 1, bovine viral dia ...19883178027
studies on the pathogenesis and interspecies transmission of respiratory syncytial virus isolated from sheep.inoculation of lambs with an ovine isolate of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) by a combined intranasal and intratracheal route resulted in mild respiratory tract illness, with respiratory tract lesions. lung lesions were characterized by bronchitis and bronchiolitis, hyperplasia of bronchial and bronchiolar epithelium, peribronchiolar and perivascular accumulations of lymphocytes, alveolar septal thickening, and collapse. respiratory syncytial virus was recovered from the respiratory tract of ...19883178037
direct observation of the budding and fusion of an enveloped virus by video microscopy of viable microscopy and digital image processing were used to observe the assembly, budding, and fusion of respiratory syncytial virus. viral filaments were seen to bud from the plasma membrane of viable infected cells to a final length of 5-10 micron with an average speed of elongation of 110-250 nm/s. the rapidity of viral assembly and its synchronous occurrence (leading to the production of several viral particles per minute from the same surface domain) suggests a directed process of r ...19883182934
the a and b subgroups of human respiratory syncytial virus: comparison of intergenic and gene-overlap sequences.intergenic and flanking gene regions for the 1c-1b, 1b-n, n-p, m-1a, g-f and f-22k gene junctions of respiratory syncytial virus strain 18537, representing antigenic subgroup b, were determined by dideoxynucleotide sequencing of polycistronic cdnas and mrnas. comparison with their counterparts from the subgroup a strain a2 showed that the intergenic sequences were not conserved within or between the strains. flanking non-coding gene sequences also were generally not conserved except for the high ...19883183631
primary respiratory syncytial virus infection in mice.a mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) infection is described. a high-titered, large-volume inoculum results in replication of rsv to a high titer in lungs of balb/c mice. mice older than 15 weeks of age are more susceptible to rsv infection. titers up to 10(6.9) plaque-forming units (pfu)/gram lung can be attained in 32-week-old mice. older mice experience a clinical illness manifested by ruffled fur, reduced activity, and weight loss. lung histology of older mice infected with rsv ...19883183639
role of respiratory syncytial virus in early hospitalizations for respiratory distress of young infants with cystic determine the frequency of respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) as the cause of hospitalization for acute pulmonary exacerbations in young infants with cystic fibrosis (cf), and to assess the clinical effects of rsv infections, we prospectively followed 48 children with a diagnosis of cf after identification by newborn screening. at a mean follow-up age of 28.8 months (range 5 to 59), 18 infants (38%) had been hospitalized a total of 30 times for acute respiratory distress. at the time of admiss ...19883183835
[blood titers of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus].the variations in titre of the bovine respiratory syncytial virus were determined in young calves. as soon as maternal immunity was no longer detectable, the calves were inoculated. inoculations in animals which were less than four months of age gave rise to only a slight increase in titres. the increases in titre in calves over this age varied markedly.19883187970
an epizootic of mycoplasma ovipneumoniae infection in captive dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli).in late spring of 1986, 10 of 23 dall's sheep (ovis dalli dalli) at the metropolitan toronto zoo were moved to a new exhibit, where all developed severe respiratory signs refractory to anthelmintic and antibiotic therapy. in july, two animals died with chronic active bronch-pneumonia, and a third was euthanized because of pneumonia several months later. bacteria were not isolated from the lungs of the first, steptococci and pasteurella hemolytica were isolated from the other two, respectively; m ...19883193557
fatal respiratory syncytial virus pneumonitis in a previously healthy child.respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in infants and children with an immunocompromised status or a congenital heart disease. the following case describes a 6 8/12-year-old, previously normal child who had a fatal interstitial pneumonitis caused by rsv. documentation of rsv as the etiologic agent and documentation of her immune status are presented. in light of recent advances in the rapid diagnosis and treatment of rsv, this virus should be consider ...19883195838
the effect of altitude and weather on the occurrence of outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus infections. 19883198947
production and characterization of bovine monoclonal antibodies to respiratory syncytial virus.six interspecific hybridomas (heterohybridomas) secreting bovine monoclonal antibodies (mabs) against respiratory syncytial (rs) virus were produced. four of the heterohybridomas were formed using the mouse myeloma cell line ns1 as the fusion partner, one using ns0, and the remaining heterohybridoma was formed using a bovine x murine hybridoma as the fusion partner. five heterohybridomas secreted bovine igg1 and one secreted igg2. all six mabs recognized human subtype a and b viruses as well as ...19883199102
osteoclasts in human osteopetrosis contain viral-nucleocapsid-like nuclear inclusions.we report the discovery of nuclear inclusions in the osteoclasts of three unrelated patients with benign osteopetrosis that resemble the osteoclast inclusions characteristic of paget's disease of bone. these inclusions are morphologically and dimensionally identical to the nucleocapsids of a virus of the paramyxoviridae family. supporting a possible viral association with benign osteopetrosis in the observation of the presence of antigens of respiratory syncytial virus, measles virus, and/or mum ...19883213601
a study of intranasally administered interferon a (rifn-alpha 2a) for the seasonal prophylaxis of natural viral infections of the upper respiratory tract in healthy volunteers.the efficacy of interferon a (rifn-alpha 2a), an escherichia coli-derived interferon, in the prophylaxis of acute upper respiratory tract infection, was evaluated in a community-based double-blind placebo-controlled study in the australian winter of 1985. the trial population of 412 healthy volunteers (190 males and 222 females, aged 18-65 years) self-administered 1.5, 3.0 and 6.0 megaunits (mu) of interferon a per day or a placebo, intranasally for 28 days. the period of study coincided with an ...19883215290
viruses and airborne allergens as precipitants of obstructive respiratory difficulties in children.findings of virus infection were prospectively studied in 133 episodes of obstructive respiratory difficulty in 90 children aged 2 to 15 years. a viral infection was confirmed in 16 episodes (12%). in a further 11% of cases serological evidence of a recent viral infection was found. respiratory syncytial virus (rsv) accounted for half of the positive viral results. skin prick tests were performed after the second episode of bronchial obstruction. of the 79 children tested, 57% had at least one p ...19883218914
measles pneumonia in a newborn.we report a 21-day-old preterm infant who had severe respiratory distress of 6 days' duration and whose lungs revealed a giant cell pneumonia at necropsy. measles antigen was demonstrated in mononuclear and multinucleated epithelial cells of the lung by immunoperoxidase staining. we recommend the immunostaining procedure to differentiate measles from other viruses, such as parainfluenza 2 or 3, and respiratory syncytial virus, all of which may produce giant cell pneumonias.19883227007
Displaying items 901 - 1000 of 11972