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development of a foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a empty capsid subunit vaccine using silkworm (bombyx mori) pupae.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals that inflicts severe economic losses in the livestock industry. in 2009, fmdv serotype a caused outbreaks of fmd in cattle in china. although an inactivated virus vaccine has proven effective to control fmd, its use may lead to new disease outbreaks due to a possible incomplete inactivation of the virus during the manufacturing process. here, we expressed the p1-2a and the 3c coding regions of a serotype a fmdv ...201222952788
robust expression and secretion of xylanase1 in chlamydomonas reinhardtii by fusion to a selection gene and processing with the fmdv 2a peptide.microalgae have recently received attention as a potential low-cost host for the production of recombinant proteins and novel metabolites. however, a major obstacle to the development of algae as an industrial platform has been the poor expression of heterologous genes from the nuclear genome. here we describe a nuclear expression strategy using the foot-and-mouth-disease-virus 2a self-cleavage peptide to transcriptionally fuse heterologous gene expression to antibiotic resistance in chlamydomon ...201222937037
interplay of foot-and-mouth disease virus, antibodies and plasmacytoid dendritic cells: virus opsonization under non-neutralizing conditions results in enhanced interferon-alpha responses.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly infectious member of the picornaviridae inducing an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. vaccine-induced immune protection correlates with the presence of high levels of neutralizing antibodies but also opsonising antibodies have been proposed as an important mechanism of the immune response contributing to virus clearance by macrophages and leading to the production of type-i interferon (ifn) by plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pdc). the present s ...201222934974
foot-and-mouth disease virus nonstructural protein 2c interacts with beclin1, modulating virus replication.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the causative agent of foot-and-mouth disease, is an apthovirus within the picornaviridae family. replication of the virus occurs in association with replication complexes that are formed by host cell membrane rearrangements. the largest viral protein in the replication complex, 2c, is thought to have multiple roles during virus replication. however, studies examining the function of fmdv 2c have been rather limited. to better understand the role of 2c in the ...201222933281
novel antiviral therapeutics to control foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals. vaccines require ∼7 days to induce protection; thus, before this time, vaccinated animals are still susceptible to the disease. our group has previously shown that swine inoculated with 1×10(11) focus forming units (ffu) of a replication-defective human adenovirus containing the gene for porcine interferon alpha (adt-pifn-α) are sterilely protected from fmdv serotypes a24, o1 manisa, or asia 1 when t ...201222924938
a safe foot-and-mouth disease vaccine platform with two negative markers for differentiating infected from vaccinated animals.vaccination of domestic animals with chemically inactivated foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is widely practiced to control fmd. currently, fmd vaccine manufacturing requires the growth of large volumes of virulent fmdv in biocontainment-level facilities. here, two marker fmdv vaccine candidates (a(24)ll3d(yr) and a(24)ll3b(pvkv)3d(yr)) featuring the deletion of the leader coding region (l(pro)) and one of the 3b proteins were constructed and evaluated. these vaccine candidates also contain e ...201222915802
identification of short hairpin rna targeting foot-and-mouth disease virus with transgenic bovine fetal epithelium cells.although it is known that rna interference (rnai) targeting viral genes protects experimental animals, such as mice, from the challenge of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), it has not been previously investigated whether shrnas targeting fmdv in transgenic dairy cattle or primary transgenic bovine epithelium cells will confer resistance against fmdv challenge.201222905125
human adenovirus-vectored foot-and-mouth disease vaccines: establishment of a vaccine product profile through in vitro testing.next generation, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) molecular vaccines based on replication deficient human adenovirus serotype 5 viral vectored delivery of fmd capsid genes (adfmd) are being developed by the united states dept. of homeland security and industry partners. the strategic goal of this program is to develop adfmd licensed vaccines for the usa national veterinary stockpile for use, if needed, as emergency response tools during an fmd outbreak. this vaccine platform provides a unique opport ...201222888605
recombinant viral protein vp1 suppresses her-2 expression and migration/metastasis of breast cancer.breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women worldwide and metastasis is the major cause of breast cancer death. development of new therapeutic agents for inhibiting breast cancer metastasis is therefore an urgent need. we previously demonstrated that recombinant dna-derived viral capsid protein vp1 (rvp1) of foot-and-mouth disease virus-induced apoptosis of mcf-7 breast cancer cells in vitro. here, we investigated whether rvp1 exhibits any inhibitory effects on migration/metastasis ...201222983836
humanization and characterization of an anti-ricin neutralization monoclonal antibody.ricin is regarded as a high terrorist risk for the public due to its high toxicity and ease of production. currently, there is no therapeutic or vaccine available against ricin. d9, a murine monoclonal antibody developed previously in our laboratory, can strongly neutralize ricin and is therefore a good candidate for humanization. humanization of d9 variable regions was achieved by a complementarity-determining region grafting approach. the humanized d9 (hd9) variable regions were further grafte ...201223049820
development of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o virus-like-particles (vlps) vaccine and evaluation of its potency.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant viral disease that rampage dairy and other livestock industries in many countries. the disease is being controlled by the use of an inactivated vaccine. however, a recombinant marker vaccine, which avoids the use of live virus, may be an option for the unambiguous differentiation of infected animals from vaccinated animals. a recombinant baculovirus clone containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) seroty ...201223043941
comparison of immune responses against fmd by a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is highly contagious and responsible for huge outbreaks among cloven hoofed animals. the aim of the present study is to evaluate a plasmid dna immunization system that expresses the fmdv/o/irn/2007 vp1 gene and compare it with the conventional inactivated vaccine in an animal model. the vp1 gene was sub-cloned into the unique kpn i and bamh i cloning sites of the pcdna3.1+ and pegfp-n1 vectors to construct the vp(1) gene cassettes. the transfected bhkt7 cells ...201223001482
enhanced inhibition of foot-and-mouth disease virus by combinations of porcine interferon-α and antiviral agents.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an economically significant animal disease because of the speed of its transmission. the current fmd vaccine provides no protection until 7days after the vaccination, which reduces its effectiveness in the case of an outbreak. therefore, to find an alternative method of applying antiviral agents for rapid and enhanced inhibition of the fmd virus (fmdv), we compared the antiviral effects of promising antiviral agents and attempted to apply them in combination. firs ...201223000495
avidity and subtyping of specific antibodies applied to the indirect assessment of heterologous protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.serological assessment of the heterologous response among foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains is mainly performed by virus neutralization test (vnt), liquid phase blocking elisa and complement fixation assay. in this study two high-throughput elisa techniques, avidity and igg subtype elisa, were developed and used to further characterize heterologous antibody responses in cattle during vaccination and challenge. both assays were applied to a set of previously characterized sera from anim ...201223000129
genome sequences of sat 2 foot-and-mouth disease viruses from egypt and palestinian autonomous territories (gaza strip).two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome sequences have been determined for isolates collected from recent field outbreaks in north africa (egypt) and the middle east (palestinian autonomous territories). these data represent the first examples of complete genomic sequences for the fmdv sat 2 topotype vii, which is thought to be endemic in countries immediately to the south of the sahara desert. further studies are now urgently required to provide insights into the epidemiological links be ...201222843860
characteristics of serology-based vaccine potency models for foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccine potency testing involves hundreds of animals each year. despite considerable efforts during the past decades, a challenge-free alternative vaccine potency test to replace the european protective dose 50% test (pd(50)) has not been implemented yet. the aim of the present study was to further characterize the properties of serological vaccine potency models.201222824343
characterization of epitope-tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease of cloven-hoofed animals with an almost-worldwide distribution. conventional fmd vaccines consisting of chemically inactivated viruses have aided in the eradication of fmd from europe and remain the main tool for control in endemic countries. although significant steps have been made to improve the quality of vaccines, such as improved methods of antigen concentration and purification, manufacturing processe ...201222815275
synergistic effects of 2a-mediated polyproteins on the production of lignocellulose degradation enzymes in tobacco plants.cost-effective bioethanol production requires a supply of various low-cost enzymes that can hydrolyse lignocellulosic materials consisting of multiple polymers. because plant-based enzyme expression systems offer low-cost and large-scale production, this study simultaneously expressed β-glucosidase (bglb), xylanase (xylii), exoglucanase (e3), and endoglucanase (cel5a) in tobacco plants, which were individually fused with chloroplast-targeting transit peptides and linked via the 2a self-cleaving ...201222798663
double candida antarctica lipase b co-display on pichia pastoris cell surface based on a self-processing foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide.to develop a high efficiency candida antarctica lipase b (calb) yeast display system, we linked two calb genes fused with sacchromyces cerevisiae cell wall protein genes, the sed1 and the 3'-terminal half of sag1, separately by a 2a peptide of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in a single open reading frame. the calb copy number of recombinant strain kcse2acsa that harbored the orf was identified, and the quantity of calb displayed on the cell surface and the enzyme activity of the strain were ...201222797600
improved neutralising antibody response against foot-and-mouth-disease virus in mice inoculated with a multi-epitope peptide vaccine using polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid as an adjuvant.a peptide-based vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) was designed. the peptide immunogen had a g-h loop domain optimised for immunogenicity and broad-spectrum antigenicity to different lineages of serotype-o fmd viruses (fmdvs). polyinosinic and poly-cytidylic acid [poly (i:c)] was used as the adjuvant to overcome the low humoral antibody levels often observed in association with peptide-based vaccines. the multi-epitope peptide alone induced the secretion of a certain level of neutralising ...201222766183
mutagenesis-mediated decrease of pathogenicity as a feature of the mutant spectrum of a viral population.rna virus populations are heterogeneous ensembles of closely related genomes termed quasispecies. this highly complex distribution of variants confers important properties to rna viruses and influences their pathogenic behavior. it has been hypothesized that increased mutagenesis of viral populations, by treatment with mutagenic agents, can induce alterations in the pathogenic potential of a virus population. in this work we investigate whether mutagenized foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) pop ...201222761933
connecting network properties of rapidly disseminating epizoonotics.to effectively control the geographical dissemination of infectious diseases, their properties need to be determined. to test that rapid microbial dispersal requires not only susceptible hosts but also a pre-existing, connecting network, we explored constructs meant to reveal the network properties associated with disease spread, which included the road structure.201222761900
increased plasma cardiac troponin i concentration in lambs with myocarditis.cardiac troponin i (ctni) is a blood biomarker of myocardial injury. a human ctni assay may be useful for measuring ctni concentrations in lambs with naturally occurring myocarditis.201222747688
bola-drb3 gene polymorphism and fmd resistance or susceptibility in wanbei cattle.for the further characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-induced foot-and-mouth disease, we investigated the association between polymorphism of bola-drb3 gene and fmd resistance/susceptibility of wanbei cattle challenged with fmdv. one hundred cattle were challenged with fmdv and exon 2 of bola-drb3 genes was amplified by hemi-nested polymerase chain reaction from asymptomatic animals and from animals with fmd. pcr products were characterized by the rflp technique using restricti ...201222744423
foot-and-mouth disease virus 3c protease cleaves nemo to impair innate immune signaling.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral illness of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals. the causative agent, foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), replicates rapidly, efficiently disseminating within the infected host and being passed on to susceptible animals via direct contact or the aerosol route. to survive in the host, fmdv has evolved to block the host interferon (ifn) response. previously, we and others demonstrated that the leader proteinase (l(pro)) of fmdv is an ifn anta ...201222718831
field outbreak strains of serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus from india with a deletion in the immunodominant βg-βh loop of the vp1 protein.foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype o accounts for around 80 % of the outbreaks in india. although indian serotype o isolates belongs to the me-sa topotype, circulation of different lineages has been noted. after its emergence in the year 2001, the 'ind2001' lineage outcompeted the panasia lineage in causing serotype o outbreaks in the year 2009. three isolates had an amino acid deletion at position 139 in the vp1 coding region and grouped with the 'ind2001' lineage. the currently used indian ...201222707045
sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine construct encoding fmdv-specific multivalent epitope gene: studies on its immune responses in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is still a perennial global menace affecting livestock health and production. it is imperative to figure out new ways to curb this disease. in this study, a sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine, psincmv-vac-meg990, encoding a multivalent epitope gene (representing tandemly linked vp1 c-terminal halves of three foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes) was constructed. in vitro transfection studies in bhk-21 cells revealed that the construct was able to expr ...201222702835
mapping of antigenic determinants on a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus using chicken single-chain antibody fragments.recombinant single-chain variable fragments (scfvs) of antibodies make it possible to localize antigenic and immunogenic determinants, identify protective epitopes and can be exploited for the design of improved diagnostic tests and vaccines. a neutralizing epitope, as well as other potential antigenic sites of a sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were identified using phage-displayed scfvs. three unique zim/7/83-specific scfvs, designated scfv1, scfv2 and scfv3, were isolated. further cha ...201222698877
modulation of foot-and-mouth disease virus ph threshold for uncoating correlates with differential sensitivity to inhibition of cellular rab gtpases and decreases infectivity in vivo.the role of cellular rab gtpases that govern traffic between different endosome populations was analysed on foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. changes of viral receptor specificity did not alter rab5 requirement for infection. however, a correlation between uncoating ph and requirement of rab5 for infection was observed. a mutant fmdv with less acidic uncoating ph threshold was less sensitive to inhibition of rab5, whereas another mutant with more acidic requirements was more sensiti ...201222875255
expression and stability of foreign epitopes introduced into 3a nonstructural protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an aphthovirus that belongs to the picornaviridae family and causes one of the most important animal diseases worldwide. the capacity of other picornaviruses to express foreign antigens has been extensively reported, however, little is known about fmdv. to explore the potential of fmdv as a viral vector, an 11-amino-acid (aa) hsv epitope and an 8 aa flag epitope were introduced into the c-terminal different regions of 3a protein of fmdv full-length infectio ...201222848509
a critical role of n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c-induced apoptosis.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) 2c, is one of the most highly-conserved viral proteins among the serotypes of fmdv. however, its effect on host cells is not very clear. using yeast two-hybrid system and immunoprecipitation approaches, we found that fmdv 2c interacted with the n-myc and stat interactor (nmi) protein. when expressed in cells, fmdv 2c is mainly associated with endoplasmic reticulum in the forms of speckles. in the absence of fmdv 2c, nmi was distributed diffusely in the cytopla ...201222974759
effects of amino acid substitutions in the vp2 b-c loop on antigenicity and pathogenicity of serotype asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) exhibits a high degree of antigenic variability. studies of the antigenic diversity and determination of amino acid changes involved in this diversity are important to the design of broadly protective new vaccines. although extensive studies have been carried out to explore the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of serotype o and serotype a fmdv, there are few reports on asia1 serotype fmdv.201222963009
modelling the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle.in this paper we investigate the within-host dynamics of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in cattle using previously published data for 8 experimentally infected cows. an 8-compartment, 14-parameter differential equation model was fitted to data collected from each cow every 24 h over the course of an infection on: (i) the concentration of fmdv genomes in the blood, (ii) the concentration of infectious virus in the blood, (iii) antibody levels, and (iv) interferon levels. model parameters ...201222664068
plasma membrane phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate is required for internalization of foot-and-mouth disease virus and vesicular stomatitis virus.phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate, pi(4,5)p(2), is a phospholipid which plays important roles in clathrin-mediated endocytosis. to investigate the possible role of this lipid on viral entry, two viruses important for animal health were selected: the enveloped vesicular stomatitis virus (vsv) - which uses a well characterized clathrin mediated endocytic route - and two different variants of the non-enveloped foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with distinct receptor specificities. the express ...201223028825
interferon-γ induced by in vitro re-stimulation of cd4+ t-cells correlates with in vivo fmd vaccine induced protection of cattle against disease and persistent infection.the immune defense against fmdv has been correlated to the antibody mediated component. however, there are occasions when some animals with high virus neutralising (vn) antibody are not protected following challenge and some with low neutralising antibody which do not succumb to disease. the importance of cell mediated immunity in clinical protection is less clear and so we investigated the source and production of interferon-gamma (ifn-γ) in re-stimulated whole blood of fmdv immunized cattle an ...201223028529
emergence of foot-and-mouth disease virus sat 2 in egypt during 2012.the epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north africa is complicated by the co-circulation of endemic fmd viruses (fmdv), as well as sporadic incursions of exotic viral strains from the middle east and sub-saharan africa. this report describes the molecular characterization of sat 2 fmd viruses that have caused widespread field outbreaks of fmd in egypt during february and march 2012. phylogenetic analysis showed that viruses from these outbreaks fell into two distinct lineages within ...201223025522
sequence analysis of capsid coding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial passages in bhk-21 adherent and suspension cells.sequence variability within the capsid coding region of the foot-and-mouth disease virus type a vaccine strain during serial in vitro passage was investigated. specifically, two methods of virus propagation were utilized, a monolayer and suspension culture of bhk-21 cells. at three positions (vp2(131) e-k in both monolayer and suspension passages, vp3(85) h-r in late monolayer passages and vp3(139) k-e in only suspension passages), all mapped to surface exposed loops, amino acid substitutions we ...201223084588
spatial trend of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes in cattle and buffaloes, pakistan.the present study describes the frequency of foot and mouth disease (fmd) virus serotypes (o, a and asia-1) in major regions (all provinces) of pakistan using indirect sandwich elisa. also, spatial distribution of various fmd serotypes and their comparison is discussed. a total of 590 samples (epithelial tissue) have been analyzed during a period of five years (2005-2009). out of 590 samples, 180 were found positive, giving an overall confirmation of fmdv about 33.2 %. of the prevalent serotypes ...201223055008
generation of monoclonal antibodies against non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease virus.to identify linear epitopes on the non-structural protein 3ab of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), babl/c mice were immunized with the 3ab protein and splenocytes of balb/c mice were fused with myeloma sp2/0 cells. two hybridoma monoclonal antibodies (mabs) cell lines against the 3ab protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were obtained, named c6 and e7 respectively. the microneutralization titer was 1:1024 for mab c6, and 1:512 for e7. both mabs contain kappa light chains, and were of ...201223055007
sequential administration of cytokine genes to enhance cellular immune responses and cd4 (+) t memory cells during dna vaccination.antigen specific memory t cells (tm) have shown to be an important factor in protecting hosts against subsequent infection by previously encountered pathogens. during t-cell activation, several cytokines including il-6, il-7 and il-15, play crucial roles in the development of t cells into memory t cells. with the aim of generating specific tm, we examined a strategy of sequential administration of molecular adjuvants. in this strategy a dna vaccine encoding the vp1 capsid protein of foot and mou ...201223151452
use of the foot-and-mouth disease virus 2a peptide co-expression system to study intracellular protein trafficking in arabidopsis.a tool for stoichiometric co-expression of effector and target proteins to study intracellular protein trafficking processes has been provided by the so called 2a peptide technology. in this system, the 16-20 amino acid 2a peptide from rna viruses allows synthesis of multiple gene products from single transcripts. however, so far the use of the 2a technology in plant systems has been limited.201223251667
a bayesian inference framework to reconstruct transmission trees using epidemiological and genetic data.the accurate identification of the route of transmission taken by an infectious agent through a host population is critical to understanding its epidemiology and informing measures for its control. however, reconstruction of transmission routes during an epidemic is often an underdetermined problem: data about the location and timings of infections can be incomplete, inaccurate, and compatible with a large number of different transmission scenarios. for fast-evolving pathogens like rna viruses, ...201223166481
mutagenesis-mediated virus extinction: virus-dependent effect of viral load on sensitivity to lethal defection.lethal mutagenesis is a transition towards virus extinction mediated by enhanced mutation rates during viral genome replication, and it is currently under investigation as a potential new antiviral strategy. viral load and virus fitness are known to influence virus extinction. here we examine the effect or the multiplicity of infection (moi) on progeny production of several rna viruses under enhanced mutagenesis.201222442668
promotion of viral internal ribosomal entry site-mediated translation under amino acid starvation.cap-dependent and internal ribosomal entry site (ires)-mediated translation are regulated differently within cells. viral ires-mediated translation often remains active when cellular cap-dependent translation is severely impaired under cellular stresses induced by virus infection. to investigate how cellular stresses influence the efficiency of viral ires-mediated translation, we used a bicistronic luciferase reporter construct harbouring ires elements from the following viruses: encephalomyocar ...201222302880
characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone and a gfp reporter derivative of the oncolytic picornavirus svv-001.seneca valley virus (svv-001) is an oncolytic picornavirus with selective tropism for a subset of human cancers with neuroendocrine differentiation. to characterize further the specificity of svv-001 and its patterns and kinetics of intratumoral spread, bacterial plasmids encoding a cdna clone of the full-length wild-type virus and a derivative virus expressing gfp were generated. the full-length cdna of the svv-001 rna genome was cloned into a bacterial plasmid under the control of the t7 core ...201222971818
[construction of a full-length infectious cdna clone of inter-genotypic chimeric foot-and-mouth disease virus].a series of type o foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks occurred in china seriously affect development of chinese husbandry. its causative agent-type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been evolved three topotypes: cathay, middle east-south asia and southeast asia, specifically, the viruses of cathay topotype are highly adapted to pig, representing the biggest threat on chinese pig industry. the available fmd vaccine in china provides insufficient protection against some arising viruses ...201222489468
interaction of paramecium caudatum and picornaviruses.in our paper we have researched the relationship between picornaviruses (poliovirus, foot-and-mouth disease virus and encephalomyocarditis virus) and ciliata (paramecium caudatum). we show that the number of paramecium in medium sharply increased during coincubation with picornaviruses within 2-5 days. this cannot be explained only by the fact that viruses were nutrient source for paramecium because in case of inactivated viruses the number of infusorians in medium increased a little. at the sam ...201224293830
coordinate lentiviral expression of cre recombinase and rfp/egfp mediated by fmdv 2a and analysis of cre activity.the site-specific recombination mediated by cre recombinase has been utilized extensively in genetic engineering and gene function studies. efficient delivery of a cre enzyme with enzymatic activity and the ability to monitor the enzyme expression are required in applications, and lentiviral constructs with a fluorescent protein (fp) to report the cre expression are suitable for most studies. however, the current lentiviral vector systems have some deficiencies in precise reporting the cre expre ...201222532014
[construction and functional characterization of a monocistronic replicon based on the hcv genotype 2a promotor].to construct a hepatitis c virus (hcv) genotype 2a monocistronic replicon and investigate its replication capabilities in the human hepatocarcinoma cell lines, huh7.5 and huh7.1, in order to determine its potential as a molecular tool for future in vitro studies of hcv replication and selection studies for putative anti-hcv drugs. site-directed mutagenesis was used to delete the core-e1-e2-p7-ns2 fragment (about 3090 bp) from plasmid pj6jfh1blarl. the resultant trianglepj6jfh1blarl plasmid was d ...201222464780
exploring the dynamics of four rna-dependent rna polymerases by a coarse-grained model.in this article, we present a hybrid enm/martini coarse-grained model and examine the impact of reduced chemical detail on both static and dynamic properties by comparing against explicit atomistic simulations. this methodology complements the advanced molecular characterization and dynamics of proteins for medical and bioengineering applications by developing a fundamental understanding of how the motion and molecular characteristics of proteins, viruses, their precursors, and their interaction ...201223157550
mutations that hamper dimerization of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3a protein are detrimental for infectivity.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) nonstructural protein 3a plays important roles in virus replication, virulence, and host range. in other picornaviruses, homodimerization of 3a has been shown to be relevant for its biological activity. in this work, fmdv 3a homodimerization was evidenced by an in situ protein fluorescent ligation assay. a molecular model of the fmdv 3a protein, derived from the nuclear magnetic resonance (nmr) structure of the poliovirus 3a protein, predicted a hydrophobic in ...201222787230
detection of foot-and-mouth disease serotype o by elisa using a monoclonal antibody.an elisa assay with monoclonal antibody (melisa) was used to type serotype o of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). all fmdv serotype o reference strains were positive by melisa, while other viruses such as fmdv serotypes asia 1, c, a and classical swine fever virus, swine vesicular disease virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus remained negative. further, fmdv serotype o positive samples were able to be detected by melisa. this assay may be particularly suitable for dia ...201223244327
a dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid precursor polypeptide p1 and the enhancing effect of bovine herpesvirus 1 vp22 protein as molecular adjuvant.dna vaccines containing the capsid precursor polypeptide p1 gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) alone or combined with the vp22 gene of bovine herpesvirus 1 (bvp22) as molecular adjuvant were constructed and used for immunization of balb/c mice. the latter were challenged with fmdv and their humoral as well as cell-mediated immune responses and virus clearance capacity were assayed. both dna vaccines elicited specific immune responses, however, the dna vaccine with the bvp22 adjuvant sho ...201222720700
acute bovine viral diarrhea associated with extensive mucosal lesions, high morbidity, and mortality in a commercial feedlot.in 2008, a northwest texas feedlot underwent an outbreak of bovine viral diarrhea virus (bvdv) causing high morbidity and mortality involving 2 lots of calves (lots a and b). severe mucosal surface lesions were observed grossly in the oral cavity, larynx, and esophagus. mucosal lesions varied from small (1-3 mm) infrequent mucosal ulcerations to large (5 mm to 1 cm) and coalescing ulcerations. necrotic debris was present in ulcerations of some mortalities with some having plaque-like debris, but ...201222379057
quantitative trait loci associated with the immune response to a bovine respiratory syncytial virus vaccine.infectious disease is an important problem for animal breeders, farmers and governments worldwide. one approach to reducing disease is to breed for resistance. this linkage study used a charolais-holstein f2 cattle cross population (n = 501) which was genotyped for 165 microsatellite markers (covering all autosomes) to search for associations with phenotypes for bovine respiratory syncytial virus (brsv) specific total-igg, igg1 and igg2 concentrations at several time-points pre- and post-brsv va ...201222438944
homology modeling and analysis of structure predictions of the bovine rhinitis b virus rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp).bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) is a picornavirus responsible for mild respiratory infection of cattle. it is probably the least characterized among the aphthoviruses. brbv is the closest relative known to foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) with a ~43% identical polyprotein sequence and as much as 67% identical sequence for the rna dependent rna polymerase (rdrp), which is also known as 3d polymerase (3d(pol)). in the present study we carried out phylogenetic analysis, structure based sequence a ...201222942748
foot-and-mouth disease virus induces autophagosomes during cell entry via a class iii phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-independent pathway.autophagy is an intracellular pathway that can contribute to innate antiviral immunity by delivering viruses to lysosomes for degradation or can be beneficial for viruses by providing specialized membranes for virus replication. here, we show that the picornavirus foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) induces the formation of autophagosomes. induction was dependent on atg5, involved processing of lc3 to lc3ii, and led to a redistribution of lc3 from the cytosol to punctate vesicles indicative of a ...201222993157
ns2b/3 proteolysis at the c-prm junction of the tick-borne encephalitis virus polyprotein is highly membrane dependent.the replication of tick-borne encephalitis virus (tbev), like that of all flaviviruses, is absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. production of the mature proteins c and prm from their common precursor requires the activity of the viral ns2b/3 protease (ns2b/3(pro)) at the c-terminus of protein c and the host signal peptidase i (spasei) at the n-terminus of protein prm. recently, we have shown in cell culture that the cleavage of protein c and the subsequent production of tbev particles ...201222727684
exploring ires region accessibility by interference of foot-and-mouth disease virus infectivity.translation initiation of picornavirus rna is driven by an internal ribosome entry site (ires) element located upstream of the initiator codon. rna structure organization as well as rna-protein interaction plays a fundamental role in internal initiation. ires activity has been mainly analyzed in the context of reporter genes, lacking regions of the viral genome potentially affecting translation efficiency. with the aim to understand the vulnerability of the ires and translation start region to s ...201222815996
protection against west nile virus infection in mice after inoculation with type i interferon-inducing rna transcripts.west nile virus (wnv) is a neurovirulent single stranded rna mosquito-borne flavivirus, whose main natural hosts are birds, but it also infects humans and horses. nowadays, no human vaccine is commercially available and clinical treatment is only supportive. recently, it has been shown that rna transcripts, mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions (ncrs) of the foot-and mouth disease virus (fmdv) induce a potent ifn response and antiviral activity in transfected cultured cells, and ...201223166685
xenoepitope substitution avoids deceptive imprinting and broadens the immune response to foot-and-mouth disease virus.many rna viruses encode error-prone polymerases which introduce mutations into b and t cell epitopes, providing a mechanism for immunological escape. when regions of hypervariability are found within immunodominant epitopes with no known function, they are referred to as "decoy epitopes," which often deceptively imprint the host's immune response. in this work, a decoy epitope was identified in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o vp1 g-h loop after multiple sequence alignment of 1 ...201222323558
reconstruction of the transmission history of rna virus outbreaks using full genome sequences: foot-and-mouth disease virus in bulgaria in 2011.improvements to sequencing protocols and the development of computational phylogenetics have opened up opportunities to study the rapid evolution of rna viruses in real time. in practical terms, these results can be combined with field data in order to reconstruct spatiotemporal scenarios that describe the origin and transmission pathways of viruses during an epidemic. in the case of notifiable diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), these analyses provide important insights into the epi ...201223226216
gemin5 proteolysis reveals a novel motif to identify l protease targets.translation of picornavirus rna is governed by the internal ribosome entry site (ires) element, directing the synthesis of a single polyprotein. processing of the polyprotein is performed by viral proteases that also recognize as substrates host factors. among these substrates are translation initiation factors and rna-binding proteins whose cleavage is responsible for inactivation of cellular gene expression. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) encodes two proteases, l(pro) and 3c(pro). widespr ...201222362733
acquiring transgenic tobacco plants with insect resistance and glyphosate tolerance by fusion gene transformation.the advantages of gene 'stacking' or 'pyramiding' are obvious in genetically modified (gm) crops, and several different multi-transgene-stacking methods are available. using linker peptides for multiple gene transformation is considered to be a good method to meet a variety of needs. in our experiment, the bt cry1ah gene, which encodes the insect-resistance protein, and the mg ( 2 ) -epsps gene, which encodes the glyphosate-tolerance protein, were connected by a 2a or lp4/2a linker. linker 2a is ...201222777591
expression of vp1 protein of serotype a and o of foot-and-mouth disease virus in transgenic sunnhemp plants and its immunogenicity for guinea pigs.recently, transgenic plants expressing immunogenic proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) have been used as oral or parenteral vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). they exhibit advantages like cost effectiveness, absence of processing, thermostability, and easy oral application. fmdv vp1 protein of single serotype has been mostly used as immunogen. here we report the development of a bivalent vaccine with tandem-linked vp1 proteins of two serotypes, a and o, present in transge ...201222720698
structure, assembly, and dna packaging of the bacteriophage t4 head.the bacteriophage t4 head is an elongated icosahedron packed with 172 kb of linear double-stranded dna and numerous proteins. the capsid is built from three essential proteins: gp23*, which forms the hexagonal capsid lattice; gp24*, which forms pentamers at 11 of the 12 vertices; and gp20, which forms the unique dodecameric portal vertex through which dna enters during packaging and exits during infection. intensive work over more than half a century has led to a deep understanding of the phage ...201222420853
gegenees: fragmented alignment of multiple genomes for determining phylogenomic distances and genetic signatures unique for specified target groups.the rapid development of next generation sequencing technologies leads to the accumulation of huge amounts of sequencing data. the scientific community faces an enormous challenge in how to deal with this explosion. here we present a software tool, 'gegenees', that uses a fragmented alignment approach to facilitate the comparative analysis of hundreds of microbial genomes. the genomes are fragmented and compared, all against all, by a multithreaded blast control engine. ready-made alignments can ...201222723939
immunogenicity of foot-and-mouth disease virus structural polyprotein p1 expressed in transgenic rice.transgenic plants have become developed as bioreactors for producing heterologous proteins and may even form edible vaccines. in the present study, a transgenic rice expressing the capsid precursor polypeptide (p1) gene of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), under the control of a dual cauliflower mosaic virus (camv 35s) promoter, was generated by agrobacterium-mediated transformation. southern blot, northern blot, western blot, and elisa analyses confirmed that the p1 gene was integrated into ...201222274594
[construction and identification of a recombinant prrsv expressing protective antigens of type o foot-and-mouth disease virus].using mutation pcr, we cloned the target gene containing 421-480nt (141-160aa) and 598-639nt (200-213aa) of vp1 gene of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) into the deleted region (508-532aa) of nsp2 gene of a highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus derived vaccine strain (hun4-f112) that was used as vector. the recombinant cdna was in vitro transcribed followed by transfection of bhk-21 cells for 36 h. then, the supernatant of the cell culture was continuously seed ...201223593867
probability of introducing foot and mouth disease into the united states via live animal importation.foot and mouth disease (fmd) continues to be a disease of major concern for the united states department of agriculture (usda) and livestock industries. foot and mouth disease virus is a high-consequence pathogen for the united states (usa). live animal trade is a major risk factor for introduction of fmd into a country. this research estimates the probability of fmd being introduced into the usa via the legal importation of livestock. this probability is calculated by considering the potential ...201223520732
a quantitative assessment of the risk of introducing foot and mouth disease virus into the united states via cloned bovine embryos.the trade of livestock or their products between nations requires information on the risk of introducing infectious agents such as foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv). although transmission pathways for fmdv vary, a recent concern in the united states (usa) is that it might enter via cloned embryos. a quantitative risk assessment model was developed to determine the scenarios (with mathematical probabilities) that could lead to the introduction and maintenance of fmdv via the importation of clon ...201223520731
infectious diseases of economic importance: molecular biological characteristics of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in tanzania from 1967 to 2009.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in tanzania. since the first reports in 1954, fmd has caused significant economic losses in the country due to mortality and morbidity of livestock and costs associated with controlling the disease. the aim of this study was to review the serotype and genetic relationships of the fmd virus (fmdv) recovered from outbreaks in tanzania, and compare them with viruses detected from elsewhere in the sub-saharan region. at the world reference laboratory for foot- ...201223327397
foot-and-mouth disease control in zambia: a review of the current situation.zambia has been experiencing low livestock productivity as well as trade restrictions owing to the occurrence of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and contagious bovine pleura pneumonia (cbpp). foot-and-mouth disease was first recorded in zambia in 1933 in the western province and since then the country has experienced repeated outbreaks. bearing in mind the pressure that may be existing on the many risk factors for fmd including climate change, there is need to review our knowledge on fmd control. w ...201223327395
foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes detected in tanzania from 2003 to 2010: conjectured status and future prospects.this study was conducted to investigate the presence of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in different geographic locations of tanzania. epithelial tissues and fluids (n = 364) were collected from cattle exhibiting oral and foot vesicular lesions suggestive of fmd and submitted for routine fmd diagnosis. the analysis of these samples collected during the period of 2002 and 2010 was performed by serotype-specific antigen capture elisa to determine the presence of fmdv. the results of this study ...201223327382
new technologies to diagnose and monitor infectious diseases of livestock: challenges for sub-saharan africa.using foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) as an example, this review describes new tools that can be used to detect and characterise livestock diseases. in recent years, molecular tests that can detect and characterise pathogens in a diverse range of sample types have revolutionised laboratory diagnostics. in addition to use in centralised laboratories, there are opportunities to locate diagnostic technologies close to the animals with suspected clinical signs. work in this area has developed simple-to ...201223327376
dna prime-protein boost strategy with replicase-based dna vaccine against foot-and-mouth disease in bovine calves.the limited efficacy of dna vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in cattle and other natural hosts has prompted a search for a more effective vaccination regimen. in this study we tested a dna prime-protein boost vaccination strategy against fmd in bovine calves. we used purified recombinant fmdv specific multi-epitope protein (rmeg990) and an optimized sindbis virus replicase-based dna vaccine expressing this protein (psincmv-vac-meg990). we demonstrate that vaccination with a low dose ...201223305616
candidate rna structures for domain 3 of the foot-and-mouth-disease virus internal ribosome entry site.the foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) utilizes non-canonical translation initiation for viral protein synthesis, by forming a specific rna structure called internal ribosome entry site (ires). domain 3 in fmdv ires is phylogenetically conserved and highly structured; it contains four-way junctions where intramolecular rna-rna interactions serve as a scaffold for the rna to fold for efficient ires activity. although the 3d structure of domain 3 is crucial to exploring and deciphering the initia ...201223275533
translation directed by hepatitis a virus ires in the absence of active eif4f complex and eif2.translation directed by several picornavirus ires elements can usually take place after cleavage of eif4g by picornavirus proteases 2a(pro) or l(pro). the hepatitis a virus (hav) ires is thought to be an exception to this rule because it requires intact eif4f complex for translation. in line with previous results we report that poliovirus (pv) 2a(pro) strongly blocks protein synthesis directed by hav ires. however, in contrast to previous findings we now demonstrate that eif4g cleavage by foot-a ...201223272212
design of different strategies of multivalent dna-based vaccination against rabies and canine distemper in mice and dogs.during the vaccination campaigns, puppies younger than 3 months old are not targeted and remain unvaccinated for at least the first year of their lives. almost half of the reported rabid dogs are 6 months or younger. hence, we should recommend the vaccination against rabies of young puppies. unfortunately, owing to the exposure of puppies to infections with either canine parvovirus (cpv) or distemper virus (cdv) after the intervention of the vaccinators, owners are reluctant to vaccinate puppies ...201223270301
a proposal for an alternative quality control test procedure for inactivated vaccines against food-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) control in brazil includes a strict mandatory vaccination program with vaccines produced in certified laboratories subject to inspection by the brazilian ministry of agriculture, livestock, and food supply (mapa). the fmd vaccine's potency is tested through antibodies titration against structural viral proteins in sera from cattle that have not had any exposure to food-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), at 28 days post-vaccination. biological product testing using large ...201223267841
recombinant adenovirus expressing type asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins induces protective immunity against homologous virus challenge in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease worldwide affecting cloven-hoofed animals that is caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the fmdv capsid polyprotein and 3c proteinase are required for capsid precursor processing and assembly. the fmdv capsid protein, which contains the entire repertoire of immunogenic sites, can stimulate both humoral immunity and t-cell-mediated immune responses. in this study, we constructed a recombinant adenovirus, radv-asi-05, that expres ...201223267820
field application of a recombinant protein-based elisa during the 2010 outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease type a in south korea.a recombinant protein-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (rp elisa) exists for the detection of antibodies to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) type a. in this study, the efficacy of the rp elisa was compared to that of other current tests by examining sera collected in the field during an fmd type a outbreak in south korea in 2010. the rp elisa detected early antibodies to fmdv with the same sensitivity as the liquid-phase blocking elisa (lpb elisa), identifying fmd farm outbreaks correc ...201222001272
role of arginine-56 within the structural protein vp3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) o1 campos in virus virulence.fmdv o1 subtype undergoes antigenic variation under diverse growth conditions. of particular interest is the amino acid variation observed at position 56 within the structural protein vp3. selective pressures influence whether histidine (h) or arginine (r) is present at this position, ultimately influencing in vitro plaque morphology and in vivo pathogenesis in cattle. using reverse genetics techniques, we have constructed fmdv type o1 campos variants differing only at vp3 position 56, possessin ...201222036313
Normal variation in thermal radiated temperature in cattle: implications for foot-and-mouth disease detection.ABSTRACT:201122104039
foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) leader proteinase negatively regulates the porcine interferon-λ1 pathway.foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) of wild and domestic cloven-hoofed animals, and causes an economically important disease in the swine industry. in this study, we found that the replication of fmdv in ibrs-2 cells could be significantly inhibited after treatment with the purified recombinant porcine interferon lambda 1 (ifn-λ1), a newly identified type iii interferon. however, fmdv could not activate the ifn-λ1 promoter and ...201121975014
impact of gene vector design on the control of recombinant monoclonal antibody production by chinese hamster ovary cells.in this study, we systematically compare two vector design strategies for recombinant monoclonal antibody (mab) synthesis by chinese hamster ovary (cho) cells; a dual open reading frame (orf) expression vector utilizing separate cytomegalovirus (cmv) promoters to drive heavy chain (hc) and light chain (lc) expression independently, and a single orf vector design employing a single cmv promoter to drive hc and lc polypeptide expression joined by a foot and mouth disease virus f2a polypeptide self ...201121882365
lethal mutagenesis of foot-and-mouth disease virus involves shifts in sequence space.lethal mutagenesis or virus transition into error catastrophe is an antiviral strategy that aims at extinguishing a virus by increasing the viral mutation rates during replication. the molecular basis of lethal mutagenesis is largely unknown. previous studies showed that a critical substitution in the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) polymerase was sufficient to allow the virus to escape extinction through modulation of the transition types induced by the purine nucleoside analogue ribavirin. ...201121917974
recombinant non-structural polyprotein 3ab-based serodiagnostic strategy for fmd surveillance in bovines irrespective of vaccination.in india, the proportion of bovines vaccinated against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is increasing since the implementation of the government supported 'fmd control programme', and non-structural protein (nsp)-based serological assays for discriminating between antibodies induced by infection or vaccination (diva) could be useful. the fmd virus nsp 3ab was expressed in a prokaryotic system and an indirect elisa (r3ab(3) i-elisa) was developed and validated as a screening assay for detecting virus ...201121864578
developing vaccines against foot-and-mouth disease and some other exotic viral diseases of livestock.vaccines remain the main tool for the control of livestock viral diseases that pose a serious threat to animal and occasionally human health, reduce food security, distort trade in animals and their products, and undermine agricultural development in poor countries. globalization and climate change increase the likelihood for new patterns of emergence and spread of livestock viruses. conventionally attenuated and killed virus products have had spectacular success, and recent examples include the ...201121893540
Generation and genetic stability of tick-borne encephalitis virus mutants dependent on processing by FMDV 3C protease.Mature capsid protein C of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) is cleaved from the polyprotein precursor by the viral NS2B/3 protease (NS2B/3pro). We showed previously that replacement of the NS2B/3pro cleavage site at the C-terminus of protein C by the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) 2A Stop/Go sequence leads to the production of infectious virions (Schrauf, S., Mandl, C.W., Bell-Sakyi, L. and Skern, T. 2009. J. Virol. 83: 11201-11210). Here, we show that infectious virions can also be pro ...201122131310
intranasal delivery of cationic plga nano/microparticles-loaded fmdv dna vaccine encoding il-6 elicited protective immunity against fmdv challenge.mucosal vaccination has been demonstrated to be an effective means of eliciting protective immunity against aerosol infections of foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) and various approaches have been used to improve mucosal response to this pathogen. in this study, cationic plga (poly(lactide-co-glycolide)) nano/microparticles were used as an intranasal delivery vehicle as a means administering fmdv dna vaccine encoding the fmdv capsid protein and the bovine il-6 gene as a means of enhancing muco ...201122110686
reanalysis of the start of the uk 1967 to 1968 foot-and-mouth disease epidemic to calculate airborne transmission probabilities.the aims of this study were to statistically reassess the likelihood that windborne spread of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus (fmdv) occurred at the start of the uk 1967 to 1968 fmd epidemic at oswestry, shropshire, and to derive dose-response probability of infection curves for farms exposed to airborne fmdv. to enable this, data on all farms present in 1967 in the parishes near oswestry were assembled. cases were infected premises whose date of appearance of first clinical signs was within ...201121846685
Factors associated with within-herd transmission of serotype A foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle, during the 2001 outbreak in Argentina: a protective effect of vaccination.Argentina suffered an extensive foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) epidemic between July 2000 and January 2002, 3 months after obtaining the official FMD-free without vaccination status conferred by the World Organization for Animal Health. This is one of the largest FMD epidemics controlled by implementation of a systematic mass vaccination campaign in an FMD-free country. In 2000, 124 herds were reported as FMD positive, 2394 herds in 2001 and one in January 2002; the total number of cattle herds in ...201121896154
molecular characterization of serotype asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in pakistan and afghanistan; emergence of a new genetic group and evidence for a novel recombinant virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in pakistan and afghanistan. the fmd virus serotypes o, a and asia-1 are responsible for the outbreaks in these countries. diverse strains of fmdv, even within the same serotype, co-circulate. characterization of the viruses in circulation can facilitate appropriate vaccine selection and tracing of outbreaks. the present study characterized foot-and-mouth disease serotype asia-1 viruses circulating in pakistan and afghanistan during the period 1998-2009. p ...201121983559
Genetic characterization of a new pandemic Southeast Asia topotype strain of serotype O foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated in China during 2010.The full-length nucleotide sequence of the foot-and-mouth disease virus O/BY/CHA/2010 strain, Mya-98 lineage of Southeast Asia (SEA) topotype, was determined and compared with O/HKN/20/2010 and other known FMDV strains. Homology analysis indicated >98.0% nucleotide identity between O/BY/CHA/2010 and the epidemic strains, O/HKN/20/2010, and O/VN/2009. However, with the exception of the VP4, 2A, and 3BCD regions, O/BY/CHA/2010 showed a lower similarity with SEA topotype strains, O/VN/2006, and HLJ ...201121932049
a rapid molecular strategy for early detection and characterization of vietnamese foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes o, a, and asia 1.a one-step rt-pcr method using newly designed primers vn-vp1f/vn-vp1r targeting the full vp1 capsid protein-coding gene, combined with direct sequencing of its pcr product, has been developed successfully for universal detection and characterization of vietnamese fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1 directly from clinical samples. the one-step rt-pcr amplified 821-bp dsdna products covering the entire vp1 gene of fmdv serotypes o, a, and asia 1. the obtained dsdna products were suitable for direct se ...201122172973
vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein g carrying a tandem dimer of foot and mouth disease virus antigenic site a can be used as dna and peptide vaccine for cattle.effective foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) peptide vaccines for cattle have two major constraints: resemblance of one or more of the multiple conformations of the major vp1 antigenic sites to induce neutralizing antibodies, and stimulation of t cells despite the variable bovine-mhc polymorphism. to overcome these limitations, a chimeric antigen was developed, using vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein (vsv-g) as carrier protein of an in tandem-dimer of fmdv antigenic site a (asa), the majo ...201121889542
Role of macrophages in early protective immune responses induced by two vaccines against foot and mouth disease.Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) is an acute disease of cloven-hoofed species. We studied the protection and early immune response induced in the murine model by vaccines formulated with inactivated virus and two different adjuvants. The presence of IMS12802PR or ISA206VG adjuvants yielded protection against viral challenge at early times post vaccination and induced FMDV-specific, but non neutralizing, antibody titers. In vivo macrophage depletion in vaccinated mice severely decreased the protectio ...201121878353
Development of a serotype colloidal gold strip using monoclonal antibody for rapid detection type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease.In this study, we developed a rapid, one step colloid gold strip (CGS) capable of specifically detecting type Asia1 foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). We have produced two monoclonal antibodies (mAb) to type Asia1 FMD (named 1B8 and 5E2). On the test strip, the purified 1B8 labelled with the colloidal gold was used as the detector, and the purified 5E2 and goat anti-mouse antibodies were wrapped onto nitrocellulose (NC) membranes as the test and the control line, respectively. The rapid colloi ...201121880157
Validation of an r3AB1-FMDV-NSP ELISA to distinguish between cattle infected and vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus.Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed livestock which has a drastic economic impact for affected countries. Although FMDV is distributed worldwide, many regional programs have been effective eradicating this agent. In Argentina, as in many other regions of South America, the combination of a systematic vaccination plan, together with an effective detection system capable of differentiating infection from vaccination, has been successful for eradicating this ...201121946290
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