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diagnostic application of recombinant non-structural protein 3a to detect antibodies induced by foot-and-mouth disease virus infection.detection of antibodies to the non-structural proteins (nsps) of fmd virus (fmdv) is the preferred differential diagnostic method for identification of fmd-infected animals in the vaccinated population. nevertheless, due to the observed variability in the antibody response to nsps, the likelihood of screening or confirming the fmd infection status in animals is increased if an antibody profile to multiple nsps is considered for diagnosis. in order to develop and evaluate an additional nsp-based ...201626995490
development of high-affinity single chain fv against foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is caused by the fmd virus (fmdv) and results in severe economic losses in livestock farming. for rapid fmd diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, an effective antibody against fmdv is needed. here, we developed a high-affinity antibody against fmdv by facs-based high throughput screening of a random library. with the fitc-conjugated vp1 epitope of fmdv and high-speed facs sorting, we screened the synthetic antibody (scfv) library in which antibody variants are display ...201626827774
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201628118140
outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease in libya and saudi arabia during 2013 due to an exotic o/me-sa/ind-2001 lineage virus.foot-and-mouth disease viruses are often restricted to specific geographical regions and spread to new areas may lead to significant epidemics. phylogenetic analysis of sequences of the vp1 genome region of recent outbreak viruses from libya and saudi arabia has revealed a lineage, o-ind-2001, normally found in the indian subcontinent. this paper describes the characterization of field viruses collected from these cases and provides information about a new real-time rt-pcr assay that can be used ...201625483996
development of a multiplex luminex assay for detecting swine antibodies to structural and nonstructural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus in taiwan.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) and swine vesicular disease (svd) are serious vesicular diseases that have devastated swine populations throughout the world. the aim of this study was to develop a multianalyte profiling (xmap) luminex assay for the differential detection of antibodies to the fmd virus of structural proteins (sp) and nonstructural proteins (nsp).201625074628
a refined guinea pig model of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection for assessing the efficacy of antiviral compounds.an antiviral containment strategy for foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) outbreaks could support or replace current contingency plans in case of an outbreak in europe and could spare many healthy animals from being pre-emptively culled. recently, substantial progress has been made towards the development of small molecule drugs that inhibit fmd virus (fmdv) replication in vitro. for the initial in vivo evaluation of antiviral lead molecules, a refined fmdv-infection model in guinea pigs (gp) is herewi ...201625164494
serotype diversity of foot-and-mouth-disease virus in livestock without history of vaccination in the far north region of cameroon.little information is available about the natural cycle of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in the absence of control measures such as vaccination. cameroon presents a unique opportunity for epidemiological studies because fmd vaccination is not practiced. we carried out a prospective study including serological, antigenic and genetic aspects of fmd virus (fmdv) infections among different livestock production systems in the far north of cameroon to gain insight into the natural ecology of the virus. ...201624735162
detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna and capsid protein in lymphoid tissues of convalescent pigs does not indicate existence of a carrier state.a systematic study was performed to investigate the potential of pigs to establish and maintain persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection. infectious virus could not be recovered from sera, oral, nasal or oropharyngeal fluids obtained after resolution of clinical infection with any of five fmdv strains within serotypes a, o and asia-1. furthermore, there was no isolation of live virus from tissue samples harvested at 28-100 days post-infection from convalescent pigs recovered from ...201624943477
effect of foot-and-mouth disease virus infection on the frequency, phenotype and function of circulating dendritic cells in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is a highly contagious virus that causes one of the most devastating diseases in cloven-hoofed animals. disease symptoms develop within 2 to 3 days of exposure and include fever and vesicular lesions on the tongue and hooves. dendritic cells (dc) play an essential role in protective immune responses against pathogens. therefore, investigating their role during fmdv infection would lead to a better understanding of host-pathogen interactions. in this study, fol ...201627008425
foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural protein 3a inhibits the interferon-β signaling pathway.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of fmd, which affects cloven-hoofed animals. the pathophysiology of fmdv has not been fully understood and the evasion of host innate immune system is still unclear. here, the fmdv non-structural protein 3a was identified as a negative regulator of virus-triggered ifn-β signaling pathway. overexpression of the fmdv 3a inhibited sendai virus-triggered activation of irf3 and the expressions of rig-i/mda5. transient transfection and co-im ...201626883855
live attenuated vaccine based on duck enteritis virus against duck hepatitis a virus types 1 and 3.as causative agents of duck viral hepatitis, duck hepatitis a virus type 1 (dhav-1) and type 3 (dhav-3) causes significant economic losses in the duck industry. however, a licensed commercial vaccine that simultaneously controls both pathogens is currently unavailable. here, we generated duck enteritis virus recombinants (rc-kce-2vp1) containing both vp1 from dhav-1 (vp1/dhav-1) and vp1 from dhav-3 (vp1/dhav-3) between ul27 and ul26. a self-cleaving 2a-element of fmdv was inserted between the tw ...201627777571
detection of multiple viral infections in cattle and buffalo with suspected vesicular disease in brazil.vesicular diseases are of high importance for livestock, primarily because of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), which is a high-morbidity disease that generates direct losses caused by low milk production, weight loss, and indirect losses because of the need for sanitary barriers. other vesicular diseases are also of importance for livestock because of direct impacts or because their clinical signs may be confused with those of fmd. we report herein the detection of multiple infections in cattle wit ...201627154321
reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification assays for rapid identification of eastern and western strains of bluetongue virus in india.bluetongue virus (btv) infects all ruminants, including cattle, goats and camelids, causing bluetongue disease (bt) that is often severe in naïve deer and sheep. reverse-transcription-loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification (rt-lamp) assays were developed to detect eastern or western topotype of btv strains circulating in india. each assay uses four primers recognizing six distinct sequences of btv genome-segment 1 (seg-1). the eastern (e)rt-lamp and western (w)rt-lamp assay detected btv rna in a ...201627054888
immunogenicity and protective efficacy of recombinant major envelope protein (rh3l) of buffalopox virus in animal models.buffalopox virus, a zoonotic indian vaccinia-like virus, is responsible for contagious disease affecting mainly buffaloes, cattle and humans. h3l gene, encoding for an immunodominant major envelope protein of intracellular mature virion of orthopoxviruses, is highly conserved and found to elicit neutralizing antibodies. therefore in the present study, the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the recombinant h3l protein of buffalopox virus in laboratory animal models has been evaluated. a pa ...201626723250
rapid detection of contagious ecthyma by loop-mediated isothermal amplification and epidemiology in jilin province china.the aim of this experiment was to develop a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (lamp) assay and to research the recent epidemiology of contagious ecthyma in jilin province, china, using the assay. a lamp assay targeting a highly conserved region of the f1l gene was developed to detect contagious ecthyma virus (cev). three hundred and sixty-five cases from 64 flocks in 9 different areas of jilin province, china, from 2011 to 2014 were tested using the lamp assay. the results showed that the s ...201626346652
companion animals as a source of viruses for human beings and food production animals.companion animals comprise a wide variety of species, including dogs, cats, horses, ferrets, guinea pigs, reptiles, birds and ornamental fish, as well as food production animal species, such as domestic pigs, kept as companion animals. despite their prominent place in human society, little is known about the role of companion animals as sources of viruses for people and food production animals. therefore, we reviewed the literature for accounts of infections of companion animals by zoonotic viru ...201627522300
a transgenic plant cell-suspension system for expression of epitopes on chimeric bamboo mosaic virus particles.we describe a novel strategy to produce vaccine antigens using a plant cell-suspension culture system in lieu of the conventional bacterial or animal cell-culture systems. we generated transgenic cell-suspension cultures from nicotiana benthamiana leaves carrying wild-type or chimeric bamboo mosaic virus (bamv) expression constructs encoding the viral protein 1 (vp1) epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). antigens accumulated to high levels in bdt38 and bdt19 transgenic cell lines co-ex ...201625879277
a prime-boost vaccination strategy in cattle to prevent foot-and-mouth disease using a "single-cycle" alphavirus vector and empty capsid particles.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most economically important infectious diseases of production animals globally. vaccination can successfully control this disease, however, current vaccines are imperfect. they are made using chemically inactivated fmd virus (fmdv) that is produced in large-scale mammalian cell culture under high containment conditions. here, we have expressed the fmdv capsid protein precursor (p1-2a) of strain o1 manisa alone or with the fmdv 3c protease (3cpro) u ...201627294397
a universal next-generation sequencing protocol to generate noninfectious barcoded cdna libraries from high-containment rna viruses.several biosafety level 3 and/or 4 (bsl-3/4) pathogens are high-consequence, single-stranded rna viruses, and their genomes, when introduced into permissive cells, are infectious. moreover, many of these viruses are select agents (sas), and their genomes are also considered sas. for this reason, cdnas and/or their derivatives must be tested to ensure the absence of infectious virus and/or viral rna before transfer out of the bsl-3/4 and/or sa laboratory. this tremendously limits the capacity to ...201627822536
rapid detection of highly pathogenic porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by a fluorescent probe-based isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assay.a novel fluorescent probe-based real-time reverse transcription recombinase polymerase amplification (real-time rt-rpa) assay was developed for rapid detection of highly pathogenic type 2 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (hp-prrsv). the sensitivity analysis showed that the detection limit of rpa was 70 copies of hp-prrsv rna/reaction. the real-time rt-rpa highly specific amplified hp-prrsv with no cross-reaction with classic prrsv, classic swine fever virus, pseudorabies virus ...201627534870
rapid and specific detection of porcine parvovirus by isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification assays.porcine parvovirus (ppv) is a major cause of swine reproductive failure and reported in many countries worldwide. recombinase polymerase amplification (rpa) assays using a real-time fluorescent detection (ppv real-time rpa assay) and a lateral flow dipstick (ppv rpa lfd assay) were developed targeting ppv ns1 gene. the detection limit of ppv real-time rpa assay was 300 copies per reaction within 9 min at 38 °c, while the rpa lfd assay has a detection limit of 400 copies per reaction in less than ...201627593155
a promising trigene recombinant human adenovirus vaccine against classical swine fever virus.classical swine fever (csf) vaccine based on hadv-5 had achieved an efficient protection in swine. both classical swine fever virus (csfv) e0 glycoprotein and e2 glycoprotein were the targets for neutralizing antibodies and related to immune protection against csf. interleukin-2 (il2), as an adjuvant, also had been used in csf vaccine research. in this study, coexpression of the csfv e0, e2, and il2 genes by hadv-5 (radv-e0-e2-il2) was constructed and immunized to evaluate its efficacy. three ex ...201626918463
complexities in isolation and purification of multiple viruses from mixed viral infections: viral interference, persistence and exclusion.successful purification of multiple viruses from mixed infections remains a challenge. in this study, we investigated peste des petits ruminants virus (pprv) and foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mixed infection in goats. rather than in a single cell type, cytopathic effect (cpe) of the virus was observed in cocultured vero/bhk-21 cells at 6th blind passage (bp). pprv, but not fmdv could be purified from the virus mixture by plaque assay. viral rna (mixture) transfection in bhk-21 cells produc ...201627227480
development of a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans.a new vector using soybean yellow common mosaic virus (sycmv) was constructed for gene function study or heterologous protein expression in soybeans. the in vitro transcript with a 5' cap analog m7gpppg from an sycmv full-length infectious vector driven by a t7 promoter infected soybeans (psycmvt7-full). the symptoms observed in the soybeans infected with either the sap from sycmv-infected leaves or psycmvt7-full were indistinguishable, suggesting that the vector exhibits equivalent biological a ...201626569351
molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants in iran.a molecular and serological survey of selected viruses in free-ranging wild ruminants was conducted in 13 different districts in iran. samples were collected from 64 small wild ruminants belonging to four different species including 25 mouflon (ovis orientalis), 22 wild goat (capra aegagrus), nine indian gazelle (gazella bennettii) and eight goitered gazelle (gazella subgutturosa) during the national survey for wildlife diseases in iran. serum samples were evaluated using serologic antibody test ...201627997620
modification of the internal ribosome entry site element impairs the growth of foot-and-mouth disease virus in porcine-derived cells.the 5' untranslated region (5'utr) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) contains an internal ribosome entry site (ires) that facilitates translation initiation of the viral orf in a 5' (m7gpppn) cap-independent manner. ires elements are responsible for the virulence phenotypes of several enteroviruses. here, we constructed a chimeric virus in which the ires of fmdv was completely replaced with that of bovine rhinitis b virus (brbv) in an infectious clone of serotype o fmdv. the resulting ires- ...201626795299
foot-and-mouth disease virus viroporin 2b antagonizes rig-i-mediated antiviral effects by inhibition of its protein expression.the role of retinoic acid-inducible gene i (rig-i) in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv)-infected cells remains unknown. here, we showed that rig-i inhibits fmdv replication in host cells. fmdv infection increased the transcription of rig-i, while it decreased rig-i protein expression. a detailed analysis revealed that fmdv leader proteinase (l(pro)), as well as 3c proteinase (3c(pro)) and 2b protein, decreased rig-i protein expression. l(pro) and 3c(pro) are viral proteinases that can cleave v ...201627707918
equine rhinitis a virus mutants with altered acid resistance unveil a key role of vp3 and intrasubunit interactions in the control of the ph stability of the aphthovirus capsid.equine rhinitis a virus (erav) is a picornavirus associated with respiratory disease in horses and is genetically closely related to foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), the prototype aphthovirus. erav has recently gained interest as an fmdv alternative for the study of aphthovirus biology, including cell entry and uncoating or antiviral testing. as described for fmdv, current data support that acidic ph inside cellular endosomes triggers erav uncoating. in order to provide further insights into ...201627535044
evaluation of the flinders technology associates cards for storage and temperature challenges in field conditions for foot-and-mouth disease virus surveillance.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) samples transported to the laboratory from far and inaccessible areas for diagnosis and identification of fmdv pose a major problem in a tropical country like india, where wide fluctuation of temperature over a large geographical area is common. inadequate storage methods lead to spoilage of fmdv samples collected from clinically positive animals in the field. such samples are declared as non-typeable by the typing laboratories with the consequent loss of valu ...201625598192
a tale of tails: dissecting the enhancing effect of tailed primers in real-time pcr.non-specific tail sequences are often added to the 5'-terminus of primers to improve the robustness and overall performance of diagnostic assays. despite the widespread use of tailed primers, the underlying working mechanism is not well understood. to address this problem, we conducted a detailed in vitro and in silico analysis of the enhancing effect of primer tailing on 2 well-established foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rt-qpcr assays using an fmdv reference panel. tailing of the panfmdv-5 ...201627723800
characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses collected in nigeria between 2007 and 2014: evidence for epidemiological links between west and east africa.this study describes the molecular characterization of 47 foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) viruses recovered from field outbreaks in nigeria between 2007 and 2014. antigen elisa of viral isolates was used to identify fmd virus serotypes o, a and sat 2. phylogenetic analyses of vp1 nucleotide sequences provide evidence for the presence of multiple sublineages of serotype sat 2, and o/east africa 3 (ea-3) and o/west africa topotypes in the country. in contrast, for serotype a, a single monophyletic cl ...201627718336
infection dynamics of foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle following intranasopharyngeal inoculation or contact exposure.for the purpose of developing an improved experimental model for studies of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, three different experimental systems based on natural or simulated natural virus exposure were compared under standardized experimental conditions. ante-mortem infection dynamics were characterized in cattle exposed to fmdv through a novel, simulated natural intranasopharyngeal (inp) inoculation system or through standardized and controlled systems of within- or be ...201627697284
molecular epidemiology of senecavirus a associated with vesicular disease in pigs in brazil.senecavirus a (sv-a) may cause vesicular disease and neonatal mortality in pigs, and was first detected in brazil in 2015. samples including tissues and serum from pigs with suspected vesicular diseases were collected from january to august in 2015 from farms in the states of minas gerais, santa catarina, goiás and rio grande do sul, brazil, and tested for the presence of sv-a by reverse transcriptase pcr. all samples were negative for foot and mouth disease virus, as well as 13 other infectious ...201627687954
scotti: efficient reconstruction of transmission within outbreaks with the structured coalescent.exploiting pathogen genomes to reconstruct transmission represents a powerful tool in the fight against infectious disease. however, their interpretation rests on a number of simplifying assumptions that regularly ignore important complexities of real data, in particular within-host evolution and non-sampled patients. here we propose a new approach to transmission inference called scotti (structured coalescent transmission tree inference). this method is based on a statistical framework that mod ...201627681228
construction of stabilized and tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious and economically devastating disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. construction and purification of stable antigen for vaccine are necessary but technically difficult and laborious. here, we have tried to investigate an alternative method by inserting a hexa-histidine tag (6xhis) in the vp1 c-terminal for easy purification and replacing two amino acids of vp1/vp2 to enhance the stability of the capsid of the fmd virus (fmdv) asi ...201627659244
transcriptomic analysis of persistent infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus in cattle suggests impairment of apoptosis and cell-mediated immunity in the nasopharynx.in order to investigate the mechanisms of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection in cattle, transcriptome alterations associated with the fmdv carrier state were characterized using a bovine whole-transcriptome microarray. eighteen cattle (8 vaccinated with a recombinant fmdv a vaccine, 10 non-vaccinated) were challenged with fmdv a24 cruzeiro, and the gene expression profiles of nasopharyngeal tissues collected between 21 and 35 days after challenge were compared between 11 pe ...201627643611
systemic immune response and virus persistence after foot-and-mouth disease virus infection of naïve cattle and cattle vaccinated with a homologous adenovirus-vectored vaccine.in order to investigate host factors associated with the establishment of persistent foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection, the systemic response to vaccination and challenge was studied in 47 steers. eighteen steers that had received a recombinant fmdv a vaccine 2 weeks earlier and 29 non-vaccinated steers were challenged by intra-nasopharyngeal deposition of fmdv a24. for up to 35 days after challenge, host factors including complete blood counts with t lymphocyte subsets, type i/iii i ...201627634113
in-cell shape uncovers dynamic interactions between the untranslated regions of the foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.the genome of rna viruses folds into 3d structures that include long-range rna-rna interactions relevant to control critical steps of the viral cycle. in particular, initiation of translation driven by the ires element of foot-and-mouth disease virus is stimulated by the 3'utr. here we sought to investigate the rna local flexibility of the ires element and the 3'utr in living cells. the shape reactivity observed in vivo showed statistically significant differences compared to the free rna, revea ...201627608725
dna vaccine (p1-2a-3c-pcdna) co-administered with bovine il-18 gives protective immune response against foot and mouth disease in cattle.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals causing considerable economic loss in the affected countries. presently used tissue culture inactivated vaccine protects the vaccinated animals for a short duration. dna vaccines along with appropriate adjutants is one of the approach for the development of alternative vaccine. in the present study, we constructed p1-2a-3cpcdna (containing p1-2a-3c coding sequences of fmdv asia-1 ind 63/72) and bovine il-18 pcdn ...201627599937
field-deployable reverse transcription-insulated isothermal pcr (rt-iipcr) assay for rapid and sensitive detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals, which can decimate the livestock industry and economy of countries previously free of this disease. rapid detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is critical to containing an fmd outbreak. availability of a rapid, highly sensitive and specific, yet simple and field-deployable assay would support local decision-making during an fmdv outbreak. here we report validation of a novel reverse transcript ...201627589902
the serological response against foot and mouth disease virus elicited by repeated vaccination of dairy cattle.in israel, cattle are annually vaccinated against foot and mouth disease (fmd). if infections with fmd virus occur in dairy farms it mainly involves heifers and calves, while older dairy cows seldom become infected. we hypothesized that this difference in susceptibility between adult cows and the young heifers and calves is due to stronger and more stable immune response elicited by multiple vaccinations. in order to test this hypothesis, 99 dairy cattle, divided into six groups according to num ...201627576078
development and evaluation of tailored specific real-time rt-pcr assays for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes circulating in east africa.rapid, reliable and accurate diagnostic methods provide essential support to programmes that monitor and control foot-and-mouth disease (fmd). while pan-specific molecular tests for fmd virus (fmdv) detection are well established and widely used in endemic and fmd-free countries, current serotyping methods mainly rely either on antigen detection elisas or nucleotide sequencing approaches. this report describes the development of a panel of serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays (rrt-pcr) tail ...201627575682
protection of a novel epitope-rna vlp double-effective vlp vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease.foot and mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious viral disease of cloven-hoofed animals. previously, we found that the epitope peptide ep141-160 displayed on virus-like particles (vlp) for use as a vaccine showed high immunoreactivity and conferred partially effective protection to animals. in this study, we first combined antisense rna with vlp as a vaccine against the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) by using a prokaryotic co-expression system. the antisense rna against the 3d genes of f ...201627565990
complete genome sequence of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype sat3 zimbabwe/4/81.the complete genome sequence of a foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) serotype sat3 virus zim/4/81, which belongs to a topotype 1 (sez), is reported here.201627563037
efficient production of a bioactive bevacizumab monoclonal antibody using the 2a self-cleavage peptide in transgenic rice callus.bevacizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody (mab) targeting to the vascular endothelial growth factor (vegf), has been widely used in clinical practice for the treatment of multiple cancers. bevacizumab was mostly produced by the mammalian cell expression system. we here reported the first plant-derived bevacizumab by using transgenic rice callus as an alternative gene expression system. codon-optimized bevacizumab light chain (blc) and bevacizumab heavy chain (bhc) genes were designed, synthes ...201627555853
the first identification and complete genome of senecavirus a affecting pig with idiopathic vesicular disease in china.senecavirus a (sva) infection was recently confirmed in pigs in brazil. in march, 2015, an outbreak of vesicular disease occurred in guangdong, china, characterized by vesicular lesions in sows and acute death of neonatal piglets. cumulative incidence of porcine idiopathic vesicular disease in farm a was 258, which had a total number of 5500 sows. sows in farm b displayed typical vesicular symptoms by may, 2015, which also had 5500 sows. a total of 278 and 142 of 5500 sows in farm b demonstrated ...201627539949
foot-and-mouth disease in a small sample of experimentally infected pronghorn (antilocapra americana).there is limited information on the pathogenesis and epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) in north american wildlife and none concerning pronghorn ( antilocapra americana ). in an experimental study of 13 pronghorn and six steers ( bos taurus ), we compared the susceptibility of pronghorn to fmd virus (fmdv) strain o, with that of cattle ( bos taurus ). we also determined the potential for intra- and interspecies transmission of fmdv strain o in pronghorn and cattle, assessed the applica ...201627525593
expanding specificity of class i restricted cd8(+) t cells for viral epitopes following multiple inoculations of swine with a human adenovirus vectored foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) vaccine.the immune response to the highly acute foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is routinely reported as a measure of serum antibody. however, a critical effector function of immune responses combating viral infection of mammals is the cytotoxic t lymphocyte (ctl) response mediated by virus specific cd8 expressing t cells. this immune mechanism arrests viral spread by killing virus infected cells before new, mature virus can develop. we have previously shown that infection of swine by fmdv results i ...201627498407
truncated bovine integrin alpha-v/beta-6 as a universal capture ligand for fmd diagnosis.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is endemic in many regions of the world and is one of the most prevalent epizootic animal diseases. fmd affects livestock, such as cattle, sheep, goats and pigs, and causes enormous economic losses due to reduced productivity and trade restrictions. preparedness and early diagnosis are essential for effective control of fmd. many diagnostic assays are dependent on raising high-affinity, anti-fmd virus (fmdv) serotype-specific antibodies in small animals (rabbits and ...201627494135
genetic characterization of serotypes a and asia-1 foot-and-mouth disease viruses in balochistan, pakistan, in 2011.this study reports characterization of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) in samples collected from balochistan, pakistan. fmdv was detected by pan-fmdv real-time rt-pcr in 31 samples (epithelial and oral swabs) collected in 2011 from clinical suspect cases. of these, 29 samples were serotyped by serotype-specific real-time rt-pcr assays and were confirmed by sequencing the vp1 coding region. sixteen samples were found positive for serotype a and eight for serotype asia-1, whereas five samples ...201627484792
a recombinant adenovirus expressing p12a and 3c protein of the type o foot-and-mouth disease virus stimulates systemic and mucosal immune responses in mice.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious livestock disease of cloven-hoofed animals which causes severe economic losses. the replication-deficient, human adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine has been proven effective against fmd. however, the role of t-cell-mediated antiviral responses and the mucosae-mediated antiviral responses induced by the adenovirus-vectored fmd vaccine was rarely examined. here, the capsid protein precursor p1-2a and viral protease 3c of the type o fmdv were express ...201627478836
constitutively active irf7/irf3 fusion protein completely protects swine against foot-and-mouth disease.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) remains one of the most devastating livestock diseases around the world. several serotype-specific vaccine formulations exist, but they require about 5 to 7 days to induce protective immunity. our previous studies have shown that a constitutively active fusion protein of porcine interferon (ifn) regulatory factors (irf) 7 and 3 [irf7/3(5d)] strongly induced type i ifn and antiviral genes in vitro and prevented mortality in an fmd mouse model when delivered with a rep ...201627466421
tracking the antigenic evolution of foot-and-mouth disease virus.quantifying and predicting the antigenic characteristics of a virus is something of a holy grail for infectious disease research because of its central importance to the emergence of new strains, the severity of outbreaks, and vaccine selection. however, these characteristics are defined by a complex interplay of viral and host factors so that phylogenetic measures of viral similarity are often poorly correlated to antigenic relationships. here, we generate antigenic phylogenies that track the p ...201627448206
proper timing of foot-and-mouth disease vaccination of piglets with maternally derived antibodies will maximize expected protection levels.we investigated to what extent maternally derived antibodies interfere with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccination in order to determine the factors that influence the correct vaccination for piglets. groups of piglets with maternally derived antibodies were vaccinated at different time points following birth, and the antibody titers to fmd virus (fmdv) were measured using virus neutralization tests (vnt). we used 50 piglets from 5 sows that had been vaccinated 3 times intramuscularly in the n ...201627446940
identification of a conserved linear neutralizing epitope recognized by monoclonal antibody 9a9 against serotype a foot-and-mouth disease virus.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd), caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), is a highly contagious infectious disease that affects domestic and wild cloven-hoofed animals worldwide. in recent years, a series of outbreaks of serotype a fmd have occurred in many countries. high-affinity neutralizing antibodies against a conserved epitope have the potential to provide protective immunity against diverse subtypes of fmdv serotype a and to protect against future pandemics. in this study, we produced ...201627422396
investigating intra-host and intra-herd sequence diversity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.due to the poor-fidelity of the enzymes involved in rna genome replication, foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus samples comprise of unique polymorphic populations. in this study, deep sequencing was utilised to characterise the diversity of fmd virus (fmdv) populations in 6 infected cattle present on a single farm during the series of outbreaks in the uk in 2007. a novel rt-pcr method was developed to amplify a 7.6kb nucleotide fragment encompassing the polyprotein coding region of the fmdv genom ...201627421209
evaluation of antiviral activity of plant extracts against foot and mouth disease virus in vitro.the aim of this study was to evaluate antiviral activity of chloroformic leaves extracts of three plants: azadirachta indica, moringa oleifera and morus alba against foot and mouth disease virus using mtt assay (3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide). antiviral and cytotoxic activity of each extract was evaluated as cell survival percentage and results were expressed as means ± s.d. the concentrations which resulted in cell survival percentages of greater than 50% are co ...201627393440
a disposable, continuous-flow polymerase chain reaction device: design, fabrication and evaluation.polymerase chain reaction (pcr) is used to amplify a specific segment of dna through a thermal cycling protocol. the pcr industry is shifting its focus away from macro-scale systems and towards micro-scale devices because: micro-scale sample sizes require less blood from patients, total reaction times are on the order of minutes opposed to hours, and there are cost advantages as many microfluidic devices are manufactured from inexpensive polymers. some of the fastest pcr devices use continuous f ...201627393216
redefining the "carrier" state for foot-and-mouth disease from the dynamics of virus persistence in endemically affected cattle populations.the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) "carrier" state was defined by van bekkum in 1959. it was based on the recovery of infectious virus 28 days or more post infection and has been a useful construct for experimental studies. using historic data from 1,107 cattle, collected as part of a population based study of endemic fmd in 2000, we developed a mixed effects logistic regression model to predict the probability of recovering viable fmdv by probang and culture, conditional on the animal's ag ...201627381947
induction of systemic ifitm3 expression does not effectively control foot-and-mouth disease viral infection in transgenic pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious disease of cloven-hoofed animals, and can cause severe economic loss. interferon-induced transmembrane (ifitm) proteins constitute a family of viral restriction factors that can inhibit the replication of several types of viruses. our previous study showed that overexpression of swine ifitm3 (sifitm3) impeded replication of the fmd virus (fmdv) in bhk-21 cells and mice. in this study, sifitm3-transgenic (tg) pigs were produced by handmade cloni ...201627374903
application of mouse model for effective evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine.efficacy evaluation of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) vaccines has been conducted in target animals such as cows and pigs. in particular, handling fmd virus requires a high level of biosafety management and facilities to contain the virulent viruses. the lack of a laboratory animal model has resulted in inconvenience when it comes to using target animals for vaccine evaluation, bringing about increased cost, time and labor for the experiments. the fmd mouse model has been studied, but most fmd vir ...201627340094
biological function of foot-and-mouth disease virus non-structural proteins and non-coding elements.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) represses host translation machinery, blocks protein secretion, and cleaves cellular proteins associated with signal transduction and the innate immune response to infection. non-structural proteins (nsps) and non-coding elements (nces) of fmdv play a critical role in these biological processes. the fmdv virion consists of capsid and nucleic acid. the virus genome is a positive single stranded rna and encodes a single long open reading frame (orf) flanked by a ...201627334704
recombinant aav vectors for enhanced expression of authentic igg.adeno-associated virus (aav) has become a vector of choice for the treatment of a variety of genetic diseases that require safe and long-term delivery of a missing protein. muscle-directed gene transfer for delivery of protective antibodies against aids viruses and other pathogens has been used experimentally in mice and monkeys. here we examined a number of variations to aav vector design for the ability to produce authentic immunoglobulin g (igg) molecules. expression of rhesus igg from a sing ...201627332822
foot-and-mouth disease virus genome replication is unaffected by inhibition of type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes economically damaging infections of cloven-hooved animals, with outbreaks resulting in large financial losses to the agricultural industry. due to the highly contagious nature of fmdv, research with infectious virus is restricted to a limited number of key facilities worldwide. fmdv sub-genomic replicons are therefore important tools for the study of viral translation and genome replication. the type iii phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (pi4ks) are a fami ...201627323707
construction of a stable w/o nano-emulsion as a potential adjuvant for foot and mouth disease virus vaccine.a stable and bio-compatible w/o nano-emulsion was developed as adjuvant for foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine with isopropyl myristate as oil phase, polyglycerol polyricinoleate, and tween 80 as surfactants. dissolving tween 80 in aqueous phase decreased the droplet size and improved stability of the emulsion through narrowing size distribution, increasing viscosity, and reducing the interfacial tension between oil and water. the nano-emulsion was then formulated with inactivated fmd virus an ...201627322345
evaluation of fta(®) card for the rescue of infectious foot-and-mouth disease virus by chemical transfection of extracted rna in cultured cells.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is a highly contagious epidemic disease of transboundary importance. inadequate storage and shipment of suspected clinical samples can compromise the ability to detect and characterise fmd virus (fmdv) in endemic countries, thereby, leading to the loss of valuable virological and epidemiological data. this study, investigates the potential of using fta(®) cards for dry transportation of clinical samples and subsequent recovery of infectious fmdv by chemical transfect ...201627321701
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 7 - pathogenesis and molecular biology.we assessed research knowledge gaps in the fields of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) pathogenesis and molecular biology by performing a literature review (2011-15) and collecting research updates (2014) from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future research. there have been important advances in fmdv pathogenesis; fmdv remains in lymph nodes of many recovered animals that otherwise do not appear persistently infected, even in species previ ...201627320168
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 6 - immunology.this study assessed gaps and priorities for fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) research in the field of immunology. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. improved understanding of fmdv immunology facilitates the development of vaccines, adjuvants and diagnostic tests, and will allow better assessment and prediction o ...201627320167
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 5 - biotherapeutics and disinfectants.we assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research. findings are reported in a series of papers, and in this article, we consider biotherapeutics and disinfectants. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-2015) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. while vaccines will remain the key immunological intervention used against fmd virus (fmdv) for t ...201627320166
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 4 - diagnostics.this study assessed knowledge gaps in foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) research in the field of diagnostics. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from around the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd research. molecular and genetic technologies, including sequencing, are developing at an increasing rate both in terms of capability and affordability. these advances potentiate progress ...201627320165
global foot-and-mouth disease research update and gap analysis: 3 - vaccines.this study assessed research knowledge gaps in the field of fmdv (foot-and-mouth disease virus) vaccines. the study took the form of a literature review (2011-15) combined with research updates collected in 2014 from 33 institutes from across the world. findings were used to identify priority areas for future fmd vaccine research. vaccines play a vital role in fmd control, used both to limit the spread of the virus during epidemics in fmd-free countries and as the mainstay of disease management ...201627320164
establishment and validation of two duplex one-step real-time rt-pcr assays for diagnosis of foot-and-mouth disease.two duplex one-step taqman-based rt-pcr protocols for detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were established and validated. each rt-pcr test consists of a ready-to-use master mix for simultaneous detection of the well established 3d or ires fmdv targets and incorporates the host β-actin mrna as an internal control target, in a single-tube assay. the two real-time rt-pcr 3d/β-actin and ires/β-actin tests are highly sensitive and able to detect up to 7tcid50/ml of fmdv and 10 copies/1μl ...201627317973
esterase d enhances type i interferon signal transduction to suppress foot-and-mouth disease virus replication.the enzymatic activities of esterase d (esd) are involved in many human diseases. however, no antiviral property of esd has been described to date. foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the etiological agent of foot-and-mouth disease. in this study, we showed that fmdv infection triggered esd expression. overexpression of esd significantly suppressed fmdv replication and knockdown of esd expression enhanced virus replication, showing an essential antiviral role of esd. furthermore, we found tha ...201627267271
effect of the nucleotides surrounding the start codon on the translation of foot-and-mouth disease virus rna.as for the alternative augs in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv), nucleotide bias of the context flanking the aug(2nd) could be used as a strong signal to initiate translation. to determine the role of the specific nucleotide context, dicistronic reporter constructs were engineered to contain different versions of nucleotide context linking between internal ribosome entry site (ires) and downstream gene. the results indicate that under fmdv ires-dependent mechanism, the nucleotide contexts fla ...201627265464
retraction notice to “sequence variability in the structural protein-encoding region of foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype a and o of ethiopian isolates” [res. vet. sci. volume 96, issue 3, june 2014, pages 558–566]. 201627263135
the b-cell response to foot-and-mouth-disease virus in cattle following vaccination and live-virus challenge.antibodies play a pivotal role against viral infection, and maintenance of protection is dependent on plasma and memory b-cells. understanding antigen-specific b-cell responses in cattle is essential to inform future vaccine design. we have previously defined t-cell-dependent and -independent b-cell responses in cattle, as a prelude to investigating foot-and-mouth-disease-virus (fmdv)-specific b-cell responses. in this study, we have used an fmdv o-serotype vaccination (o1-manisa or o skr) and l ...201627260141
aerosol transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus asia-1 under experimental conditions.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) control measures rely on understanding of virus transmission mechanisms. direct contact between naïve and infected animals or spread by contaminated fomites is prevented by quarantines and rigorous decontamination procedures during outbreaks. transmission of fmdv by aerosol may not be prevented by these control measures and this route of transmission may allow infection of animals at distance from the infection source. understanding the potential for aerosol s ...201627259825
the critical role of vp1 in forming the necessary cavities for receptor-mediated entry of fmdv to the host cell.the antigenic inconsistency of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is very broad, such that a vaccine made from one isolate will not offer protection against infection with other isolates from the same serotype. viral particles (vps) or surface exposed capsid proteins, vp1-vp3, of fmdv determine both the antigenicity of the virus and its receptor-mediated entry into the host cell. therefore, modifications of these structural proteins may alter the properties of the virus. here we show putati ...201627249937
the pathogenesis of foot-and-mouth disease in pigs.the greatest proportion of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) clinical research has been dedicated to elucidating pathogenesis and enhancing vaccine protection in cattle with less efforts invested in studies specific to pigs. however, accumulated evidence from fmd outbreaks and experimental investigations suggest that critical components of fmd pathogenesis, immunology, and vaccinology cannot be extrapolated from investigations performed in cattle to explain or to predict outcomes of infection or vacc ...201627243028
construction and characterization of a full-length infectious cdna clone of foot-and-mouth disease virus strain o/jpn/2010 isolated in japan in 2010.a full-length infectious cdna clone of the genome of a foot-and-mouth disease virus isolated from the 2010 epidemic in japan was constructed and designated psvl-f02. transfection of cos-7 or ibrs-2 cells with this clone allowed the recovery of infectious virus. the recovered virus had the same in vitro characterization as the parental virus with regard to antigenicity in neutralization and indirect immunofluorescence tests, plaque size and one-step growth. pigs were experimentally infected with ...201627234555
partial deletion of stem-loop 2 in the 3' untranslated region of foot-and-mouth disease virus identifies a region that is dispensable for virus replication.the 3' untranslated region (3' utr) of the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) genome plays an essential role in virus replication, but the properties of the 3' utr are not completely defined. in order to determine the role of different regions of the 3' utr in fmdv replication, we conducted site-directed mutagenesis of the 3' utr of fmdv serotype o ind r2/1975 using a cdna clone. through independent serial deletions in various regions of the 3' utr, we demonstrated that deletion of nucleotides ...201627233801
serological and molecular detection of senecavirus a associated with an outbreak of swine idiopathic vesicular disease and neonatal mortality.we performed a longitudinal field study in a swine breeding herd that presented with an outbreak of vesicular disease (vd) that was associated with an increase in neonatal mortality. initially, a usda foreign animal disease (fad) investigation confirmed the presence of senecavirus a (sva) and ruled out the presence of exotic agents that produce vesicular lesions, e.g., foot-and-mouth disease virus and others. subsequently, serum samples, tonsil swabs, and feces were collected from sows (n = 22) ...201627225408
genomics and outbreaks: foot and mouth disease.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) is an animal pathogen of global economic significance. identifying the sources of outbreaks plays an important role in disease control; however, this can be confounded by the ease with which fmdv can spread via movement of infected livestock and animal products, aerosols or fomites, e.g. contaminated persons and objects. as sequencing technologies have advanced, this review highlights the uses of viral genomic data in helping to understand the global distribut ...201627217177
neonatal mortality, vesicular lesions and lameness associated with senecavirus a in a u.s. sow farm.a 300-sow farrow-to-finish swine operation in the united states experienced a sudden and severe increase in mortality in neonatal piglets with high morbidity followed by vesicular lesions on the snout and feet of adult females and males. affected live piglets were submitted for diagnostic investigation. samples tested polymerase chain reaction (pcr) negative for foot-and-mouth disease virus, porcine delta coronavirus, porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus, porcine rotavirus types a, b and c, transmis ...201627213868
novel 6xhis tagged foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine bound to nanolipoprotein adjuvant via metal ions provides antigenic distinction and effective protective immunity.here, we engineered two fmd viruses with histidine residues inserted into or fused to the fmdv capsid. both 6xhis viruses exhibited growth kinetics, plaque morphologies and antigenic characteristics similar to wild-type virus. the 6xhis tag allowed one-step purification of the mutant virions by co(2+) affinity columns. electron microscopy and biochemical assays showed that the 6xhis fmdvs readily assembled into antigen: adjuvant complexes in solution, by conjugating with ni(2+)-chelated nanolipo ...201627209448
both cis and trans activities of foot-and-mouth disease virus 3d polymerase are essential for viral rna replication.the picornaviridae is a large family of positive-sense rna viruses that contains numerous human and animal pathogens, including foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the picornavirus replication complex comprises a coordinated network of protein-protein and protein-rna interactions involving multiple viral and host-cellular factors. many of the proteins within the complex possess multiple roles in viral rna replication, some of which can be provided in trans (i.e., via expression from a separate ...201627194768
proof-of-concept study: profile of circulating micrornas in bovine serum harvested during acute and persistent fmdv infection.changes in the levels of circulating micrornas (mirnas) in the serum of humans and animals have been detected as a result of infection with a variety of viruses. however, to date, such a mirna profiling study has not been conducted for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection.201728388926
safe and cost-effective protocol for shipment of samples from foot-and-mouth disease suspected cases for laboratory diagnostic.an essential step towards the global control and eradication of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is the identification of circulating virus strains in endemic regions to implement adequate outbreak control measures. however, due to the high biological risk and the requirement for biological samples to be shipped frozen, the cost of shipping samples becomes one of major obstacles hindering submission of suspected samples to reference laboratories for virus identification. in this study, we report the ...201728387065
chimeric virus-like particles elicit protective immunity against serotype o foot-and-mouth disease virus in guinea pigs.foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) is an acute and highly contagious disease caused by foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) that can affect cloven-hoofed animal species, leading to severe economic losses worldwide. therefore, the development of a safe and effective new vaccine to prevent and control fmd is both urgent and necessary. in this study, we developed a chimeric virus-like particle (vlp) vaccine candidate for serotype o fmdv and evaluated its protective immunity in guinea pigs. chimeric vlps w ...201728365796
insights into jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6): a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus replication in cells.the jumonji c-domain containing protein 6 (jmjd6) has had a convoluted history, and recent reports indicating a multifactorial role in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) infection have further complicated the functionality of this protein. it was first identified as the phosphatidylserine receptor on the cell surface responsible for recognizing phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells resulting in their engulfment by phagocytic cells. subsequent study revealed a nuclear subcellular ...201728364140
adjuvanticity of a ctla-4 3' utr complementary oligonucleotide for emulsion formulated recombinant subunit and inactivated vaccines.cytotoxic t-lymphocyte antigen 4 (ctla-4) is recognized as a critical inhibitory regulator of t-cell proliferation and activation, opposing the action of cd28-mediated co-stimulation. interfering or blocking ctla-4 can result in continuous t-cell activation required for the full immune response to pathogenic microbes and vaccines. to test if nucleic acid-based ctla-4 inhibitors could be developed into a novel adjuvant, we designed two oligonucleotides, cmd-1 and cmd-2, with the sequences complem ...201728359618
processing and targeting of proteins derived from polyprotein with 2a and lp4/2a as peptide linkers in a maize expression system.in the transformation of multiple genes, gene fusion is an attractive alternative to other methods, including sexual crossing, re-transformation, and co-transformation, among others. the 2a peptide from the foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) causes the co-translational "cleavage" of polyprotein and operates in a wide variety of eukaryotic cells. lp4, a linker peptide that originates from a natural polyprotein occurring in the seed of impatiens balsamina, can be split between the first and secon ...201728358924
outbreak investigations and molecular characterization of foot-and-mouth disease viruses circulating in south-west niger.in niger, the epidemiological situation regarding foot-and-mouth disease is unclear as many outbreaks are unreported. this study aimed (i) to identify foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains currently circulating in cattle herds, and (ii) to identify risk factors associated with foot-and-mouth disease (fmd)-seropositive animals in clinical outbreaks. epithelial tissues (n = 25) and sera (n = 227) were collected from cattle in eight districts of the south-western part of niger. testing of cli ...201728345819
outbreak of foot and mouth disease and peste des petits ruminants in sheep flock imported for immediate slaughter in riyadh.to detect and identify the causative agent or agents of the following clinical symptoms which were fever, lack of appetite, salivation, vesiculation, erosions of the buccal mucosa, nose, and feet. the signs vary from mild to severe. the mortality rate of the disease is high. the morbidity rate reaches up to 100%. sheep also show bloody diarrhea and rapid respiration. sheep flock resident in el-kharje governorate.201728344409
antigenic and immunogenic spectrum of foot-and-mouth disease vaccine strain o1 campos against representative viruses of topotypes that circulated in asia over the past decade.identifying vaccine strains to control outbreaks of foot-and-mouth disease virus that could spread to new regions is essential for contingency plans. this is the first report on the antigenic/immunogenic relationships of the south american o1/campos vaccine strain with representative isolates of the three currently active asian type o topotypes. virus neutralization tests using o1/campos post-vaccination sera derived from cattle and pigs predicted for both species acceptable cross-protection, ev ...201728343779
stabilization study of inactivated foot and mouth disease virus vaccine by size-exclusion hplc and differential scanning calorimetry.the inactivated foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), which has a sedimentation coefficient of 146s, is crucial to the efficacy of vaccine preparations, but extremely unstable in vitro. it is prone to dissociate into smaller particles referred to as 12s with a concomitant decrease in immunogenicity; therefore, it is of great importance to find the best condition for stabilizing the fmdv. in the present work, the effects of solution ph and temperature on the dissociation of 146s was investigated a ...201728342666
quantitative assessment of the risk of release of foot-and-mouth disease virus via export of bull semen from israel.various foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strains circulate in the middle east, causing frequent episodes of fmd outbreaks among israeli livestock. since the virus is highly resistant in semen, artificial insemination with contaminated bull semen may lead to the infection of the receiver cow. as a non-fmd-free country with vaccination, israel is currently engaged in trading bull semen only with countries of the same status. the purpose of this study was to assess the risk of release of fmd viru ...201728334452
favipiravir can evoke lethal mutagenesis and extinction of foot-and-mouth disease virus.antiviral agents are increasingly considered an option for veterinary medicine. an understanding of their mechanism of activity is important to plan their administration either as monotherapy or in combination with other agents. previous studies have shown that the broad spectrum antiviral agent favipiravir (t-705) and its derivatives t-1105 and t-1106 are efficient inhibitors of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) replication in cell culture and in vivo. however, no mechanism for their activity ...201728322918
combined administration of synthetic rna and a conventional vaccine improves immune responses and protection against foot-and-mouth disease virus in swine.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is the causative agent of a highly contagious disease and a major concern in animal health worldwide. we have previously reported the use of rna transcripts mimicking structural domains in the non-coding regions of the fmdv rna as potent type-i interferon (ifn) inducers showing antiviral effect in vivo, as well as their immunomodulatory properties in combination with an fmd vaccine in mice. here, we describe the enhancing effect of rna delivery on the immunoge ...201728315707
sat2 foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) structurally modified for increased thermostability.foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is notoriously unstable, particularly the o and sat serotypes. consequently, vaccines derived from heat-labile sat viruses have been linked to the induction of poor duration immunity and hence require more frequent vaccinations to ensure protection. in-silico calculations predicted residue substitutions that would increase interactions at the inter-pentameric interface supporting increased stability. we assessed the stability of the 18 recombinant mutant virus ...201728298597
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