computerization of foot and mouth disease virus strain relationship data.since 1976 the two dimensional microneutralization test has been adopted in our laboratory as the reference test for foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) strain differentiation. large numbers of homologous-heterologous comparisons have been performed and manual storage and retrieval of the data had become cumbersome. the objective of computerization was to provide a databank with fast easy access to enable accurate statistical calculations to be performed on the raw data entries and to simplify t ...19836099643
response of sheep vaccinated with large doses of vaccine to challenge by airborne foot and mouth disease virus.administration of three-fold or six-fold larger doses of conventional monovalent type o foot and mouth disease (fmd) vaccine to sheep prevented viraemic distribution of virus after exposure to airborne virus one week later. however, virus replication in the respiratory tract or excretion in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids and breath was not prevented. the implication of these findings for the use of vaccine as an adjunct to a 'stamping out' policy for countries which are free from fmd and which do ...19846099647
mimicking foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens with synthetic peptides. 19846100728
[early stages in the replication of aphthous fever virus. kinetics of partial degradation and sites for the establishment of penetrating residual virus].at input multiplicities between 5-10 ufp/cell fmdv o1 caseros adsorb in bhk21 clon 13 cells at a rate of 5-20% depending whether cells are in suspension or in monolayers. at least four washings with medium are required to eliminate non specifically adsorbed virions. the remaining attached virus appears to be in contact with "specific" receptors of the cytoplasmic membrane. after penetration, 80% of virus became degraded to slow molecular weight material which is detected at first in the subcellu ...19826101001
a micro-enzyme-lavelled immunosorbent assay (micorelisa) for the detection of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen and antibody.the indirect technique of a micro-enzyme-labelled immunosorbent assay (microelisa) was standardized and found efficient in detecting the foot-and-mouth disease virus antigen in cell culture fluids, mice carcases and cattle tongue epithelium as well as the antibody titre of sera.19816112866
subtyping of foot-and-mouth disease virus by the micro-enzyme-labelled immunosorbent assay (microelisa).the micro-enzyme-labelled immunosorbent assay (microelisa) was used successfully for the subtyping of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus strains recovered from field outbreaks. the rabbit anti-guinea pig globulin-peroxidase conjugate employed in the indirect microelisa has the advantage of being used with any of the seven types of fmd virus.19816112867
transformation and foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) productivity of some bhk cell lines. 19836140842
[enzymatic synthesis and properties of dna, complementary to foot and mouth disease virus rna].the rnas of the aphthosa virus, serotypes a and o were isolated and characterized. the complementary dnas used in experiments on molecular hybridization with matrix rnas were synthesized on virion rnas by means of reverse transcriptase.19806165404
neutralization of foot-and-mouth disease virus. i. sensitization of the 140s virion by antibody also reactive with the 12s protein subunit.the in vitro interaction of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) with an immune serum resulted in a fraction of virus which failed to be neutralized. this inability of antibody to neutralize the entire population of a virus preparation was studied with emphasis on the antigenic specificity of the antibody-virus reaction. antibody to fmdv recognized multiple antigenic determinants. immunoabsorbent fractionation of the serum into 12s subunit cross-reactive and 140s virion-specific antibody revealed ...19816169797
quantification, characterisation and safety testing of foot-and-mouth disease virus antigens eluted from alhydrogel vaccines.different methods for the elution and the concentration of fmdv-antigen from formaldehyde-inactivated alhydrogel vaccines were compared. with locally produced vaccines the best results were obtained if the antigen was eluted with potassium phosphate buffer and the concentration was performed by ultrafiltration. final recoveries of 50% of the 140-s antigen could be obtained. for innocuity control 1-3 mg of 140-s antigen was eluted from 21 vaccine. sds-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and iso-el ...19816176487
location and characterization of the antigenic portion of the fmdv immunizing protein.purified foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) to type o1k was treated with several endopeptidases of differing specificity. the immunizing protein vpthr was cleaved into two detectable fragments by all enzymes except for glutamic acid-specific staphylococcus aureus v8 protease. the longest fragments were generated by mouse submaxillary gland protease and the shortest by trypsin treatment of the intact virion. several fragments, including the peptides resulting from the cyanogen bromide (cnbr) cle ...19826176678
stimulation by heterotypic antigens of foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies in vaccinated cattle.immunisation of cattle with foot-and-mouth disease virus failed to raise a level of antibody that provides protection against heterotypic challenge. further the 12s substructure, produced from the 146s particle, was ineffective in providing protection against challenge by homotypic virus. these findings suggest considerable antigenic differences in the virus serotypes and between the virus and its substructure. inoculation of homologous 12s and heterologous 1246s and 12s antigens into vaccinated ...19826179141
synthesis of long dna molecules complementary to foot-and-mouth disease virus rna. 19826181010
monoclonal antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus 146s and 12s particles.this paper is the first description of monoclonal antibodies specific for foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). using these antibodies, it was possible to distinguish similar and unique antigenic sites on complete (146s) or subunit (12s) virus particles. some of these monoclonal antibodies could also distinguish between 12s subunits made by acid degradation of 146s virus (12sa) and those viral components found in infected cell lysates which sediment in sucrose density gradients as "12s subunits" ...19826186225
identification of an exposed region of the immunogenic capsid polypeptide vp1 on foot-and-mouth disease virus.iodination of intact foot-and-mouth disease virus results in the selective labeling of vp1, substantiating its exposed location on the virion. a comparison of tryptic peptides revealed that a single tyrosine-containing peptide was labeled with iodine on intact or protease-cleaved virus. the labeled peptide from intact and protease-cleaved virus was characterized by molecular weight sizing and sequence analysis. carboxypeptidase digestion of intact vp1, limited trypsin-cleaved vp1, and vp1 purifi ...19836186823
the main antigenic determinant detected by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies on the intact foot-and-mouth disease virus particle is absent from isolated vpi.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus type o1 reacted with intact virus and trypsin-treated virus particles. some of the monoclonal antibodies showed a slight but definite reaction with the 12s subunit, but none of them reacted with the isolated capsid protein vp1 or any of the other viral proteins. these results confirm the difference between the neutralizing antigenic determinants exposed on intact virus particle and on isolated capsid protein vp ...19836188800
the influence of normal guinea-pig serum and tissue culture assay system on foot-and-mouth disease virus neutralisation.the inclusion of normal guinea-pig serum in neutralisation reactions involving foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) increased the neutralisation titre and rate of neutralisation by guinea-pig antiserum derived from animals convalescent from fmdv. such inclusion had little or no effect on neutralisation involving guinea-pig antiserum collected early in infection or early or convalescent bovine antisera. higher neutralisation titres and more rapid neutralisation were found from assay in bovine thyr ...19836189669
synthetic peptides mimic subtype specificity of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the major immunogen of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) is located between amino acids 141-160 of the capsid protein vp1. synthetic peptides corresponding to the major immunogenic region give good neutralising antibody responses and protection in guinea pigs. to define more precisely the immunogenic site of the virus, we have examined serological differences between subtypes of the a serotype using synthetic peptides covering the 141-160 region. we show that these synthetic peptides carry det ...19836190676
comparison of the major antigenic determinants of different serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.complete nucleotide sequences which code for the capsid protein vp1 of two foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes, o1campos/brazil/58 and c3indaial/brazil/71, have been determined. ten available vp1 sequences (three serotype o, three serotype c, and four serotype a) were aligned and compared. our evidence suggests that o1bfs/britain/68 and o1k/germany/66 are closely related to o1campos/brazil/58. significant variations were observed between the nucleotide sequences of c3indaial determined by two ...19836194313
the molecular basis of the antigenic variation of foot-and-mouth disease virus.we have cloned and sequenced the viral protein (vp1)-coding regions of two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotypes (c1 and a5). comparison of the derived amino acid sequences with the known vp1 sequence of fmdv o1k and the two fmdv a subtypes a10 and a12 shows two highly variable regions in the protein, at positions 40-60 and 130-160, as possible antigenic sites. in both variable regions, several sites could be detected where all three sequences of the a subtypes are identical but the thre ...19836194987
[isolation of foot-and-mouth disease virus antibodies using affinity chromatography]. 19836197566
demonstration of neutralizing and non-neutralizing epitopes on the trypsin-sensitive site of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the isolation of monoclonal antibodies directed against the trypsin-sensitive site on the 140s particle of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has enabled the demonstration of at least three distinct epitopes within this site. reaction with two of these resulted in neutralization of virus infectivity. none of the epitopes appeared to be present on the 12s particles, and one of the neutralizing epitopes was sensitive to even milder configurational changes of the particle.19846198448
antibodies against a preselected peptide recognize and neutralize foot and mouth disease virus.a major antibody combining site on foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv) serotype o1k has been identified in a predicted surface helix of viral protein 1 (vp1) between amino acid residues 144 and 159. a hexadecapeptide covering this sequence elicits high titers of antibodies that specifically recognize and neutralize fmdv. the high quality of the immune response is attributed to a particularly stable conformation of the antigenic amino acid sequence, which is most likely an alpha-helix.19826203738
evaluation of the antigenic variation within type-a foot and mouth disease virus isolates from asia.the serological interrelationships among 17 type a fmd virus strains from eight asian countries were studied by the two-dimensional microneutralization test. complex direct and indirect relationships were observed. overall, however, the virus strains studied could be classified as belonging to the a22 group on the basis of r value differentiation at p less than 0.01.19846203914
use of peptide synthesis to probe viral antigens for epitopes to a resolution of a single amino acid.a procedure is described for rapid concurrent synthesis on solid supports of hundreds of peptides, of sufficient purity to react in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. interaction of synthesized peptides with antibodies is then easily detected without removing them from the support. in this manner an immunogenic epitope of the immunologically important coat protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus (type o1) is located with a resolution of seven amino acids, corresponding to amino acids 146-152 ...19846204335
epitopes on foot-and-mouth disease virus outer capsid protein vp1 involved in neutralization and cell attachment.foot-and-mouth disease virus structural protein vp1 elicits neutralizing and protective antibody and is probably the viral attachment protein which interacts with cellular receptor sites on cultured cells. to study the relationships between epitopes on the molecule related to neutralization and cell attachment, we tested monoclonal antibodies prepared against type a12 virus, isolated a12 vp1, and a cnbr-generated a12 vp1 fragment for neutralization and effect on viral absorption. the antibodies ...19846205165
localization of a neutralization epitope of foot-and-mouth disease virus using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies.neutralizing monoclonal antibodies raised against intact foot-and-mouth disease virus reacted with intact particles and with isolated vp1 from different strains from the same subtype. prior treatment of the virus with either trypsin or with arginine-specific protease abolished recognition of both the virus and of vp1, suggesting the presence of a neutralization epitope in the central region of vp1 cleaved by these two enzymes. a synthetic peptide analogue of part of this region showed poor react ...19846206202
chemical basis of antigenic variation in foot-and-mouth-disease virus. 19846208066
[trials to obtain conjugates for the passive hemagglutination test with chromium chloride and their use in studying foot-and-mouth disease viruses].experiments were carried out to produce conjugates for the hemagglutination-inhibition reaction with the aid of chromic chloride. studies with reference f.m.d. viruses and with cft revealed that the antibody erythrocyte diagnostic agents were highly specific, and were stable in storage at +4 degrees c and in freeze-drying. it was found that the conjugates obtained with f.m.d. antigens possessed high specificity, however, were not stable and 7 to 10 days later lost their activity. tests with the ...19846209849
biochemical aspects of variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus.the biochemical basis for variation in foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been explored by analysis of the virus rna and the virus-induced and structural proteins of three isolates of the virus. two of the isolates were from serotype a and the third was from serotype o. hybridization studies of the rnas showed greater than 80% homology between the two type a viruses and about 65% homology between the two type a viruses and the virus of type o. the ribonuclease t1 maps of the three viruses g ...19806243341
characterization of a foot-and-mouth disease mutant temperature-sensitive for viral rna synthesis.a temperature-sensitive (ts) mutant of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) did not produce rna polymerase activity nor synthesize viral rna when incubated in cells solely at the nonpermissive temperature (38.5 degrees c). infected cells initially incubated at 38.5 degrees c and then shifted down to 33 degrees c synthesized increased amounts of viral rna at earlier times compared to infected cells kept at 33 degrees c throughout, indicating that rna polymerase precursors were synthesized at 38.5 ...19806243922
aspects of heat inactivation of foot-and-mouth disease virus in milk from intramammarily infected susceptible skim milk obtained from susceptible cows after intramammary and intravenous inoculation (primary infected milk), foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus type o1 was slower inactivated by heat treatment than virus that had been added to pre-exposure skim milk. residual virus infectivity in heated primary infected milk was more efficiently detected in bovine thyroid cell cultures than in secondary pig kidney (pk2) cell cultures. untreated primary infected milk was found to inhibit both fmd-virus and ...19806244342
foot-and-mouth disease virus production in glass sphere based monolayer systems of 0.1 to 100 l medium volume.the cell and virus productivity of a 3 mm glass sphere based unit process monolayer system was determined at scales of 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 litres medium capacity. enhanced yields were obtained up to the 10l size when compared with control roux bottle cultures. modifications of the operating conditions of the 100l system should bring this into line with the smaller-scale units.19806244996
the potential of recombination for the production of foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine strains.biological proof of recombination in foot-and-mouth disease virus has been provided by studies on a large suite of conditional lethal mutants and a recombination map of approximately 70 mutations has been produced. however, recombination is a highly variable phenomenon and this has cast doubt on its validity and certainly on its applicability to such practical purposes as the production of good vaccine strains. evidence is presented to demonstrate (1) that the genetic map has a good correlation ...19806244999
foot and mouth disease virus production on microcarrier-grown cells.the industrial usefulness of the production of foot and mouth disease virus with microcarrier grown cells has been tested at a large scale. the vaccines, intended for pigs, prepared with such virus give a good level of immunity against virulent challenges. they are stable and free from side effects.19806245001
location of the initiation site for protein synthesis on foot-and-mouth disease virus rna by in vitro translation of defined fragments of the mrna-dependent reticulocyte lysate has been used to translate foot-and-mouth disease virus rna in vitro. polypeptides p16, p20a, and p88, which have been shown to be derived from the 5' end of the rna by pactamycin mapping experiments with infected cells, were preferentially synthesized in vitro. removal of vpg, the small protein covalently linked to the 5' end of the genome rna, had no effect on the translation of the rna. the two rna fragments (l and s) produced by specific digestion of the ...19806245254
variation in the susceptibility of bhk populations and cloned cell lines to three strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus.bhk monolayer and suspension cell populations maintained in different laboratories were found to vary in their susceptibility to infection with three strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). the susceptibility of parent cell populations was compared with that of individual clones of cells derived from them. the populations tested in this way consisted of a number of cell types, each expressing a different capacity to produce fmdv. the relative numbers of susceptible and insusceptible cell ...19806245630
structural proteins of hand, foot and mouth disease viruses.coxsackievirus a16 (ca16) and enterovirus 71 (e71), which cause hand, foot and mouth disease, were compared with respect to their polypeptide composition by page. only three proteins were resolved for ca16, whereas the four characteristic structural proteins of e71, (vp1, vp2, vp3 and vp4) were separated. the distribution of labeled proteins suggested that the molecular weights of vp2 and vp3 of ca16 were very similar. the smallest protein, vp4, of ca16 and e71 had the same molecular weight, but ...19806246027
temperature-sensitive mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered structural polypeptides. i. identification by electrofocusing.the structural polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus were analyzed by electrofocusing in a polyacrylamide gel containing 9 m urea. three versions of the technique were used to accomodate the widely differing isoelectric points of the four polypeptides. vp2 was identified by comparing mature virus with procapsids. the selective actions of proteases on virions of two serotypes and on their 12s particles were examined. from this emerged a simple test for distinguishing the similarly sized po ...19806246262
temperature-sensitive mutants of foot-and-mouth disease virus with altered structural polypeptides. ii. comparison of recombination and biochemical maps.the structural polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus were digested with staphylococcus aureus v8 protease in the presence of sodium dodecyl sulfate. the protease-resistant peptides derived from temperature-sensitive mutants were compared with those of the wild type by electrofocusing in a polyacrylamide gel. covariation between the charge shifts of different peptides indicated that they shared common sequences: only five independent peptides in all were derived from vp1, vp2, and vp3, acc ...19806246263
the application of a single radial haemolysis technique to foot-and-mouth disease virus-antibody study.experiments are described for the evaluation of the single radial haemolysis (srh) technique applied to fmd virus, using a method involving the coupling of either antigen or antibody to sheep erythrocytes. the antigen coupling method detected specific antibody but the technique was found to be impractical as it gave reproducible results only with purified virions. however, the antibody coupling technique gave clear zones of lysis using tissue culture harvest virus as well as purified virus, and ...19806246855
heterogeneity of the genome-linked protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the genome-linked protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was examined by electrofocusing in polyacrylamide gels. two proteins of different charge and amino acid composition were found. the tryptic peptide maps of the proteins were dissimilar. the possible relationship between the two proteins is discussed.19806247501
[the rotating aeration (system fuchs) for treatment of liquid animal and municipal wastes. 8. the effect of aerobic treatment of foot and mouth disease virus]. 19806248023
early interactions of foot-and-mouth disease virus with cultured cells. 19806249029
detection of antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus using purified staphylococcus a protein conjugated with alkaline phosphatase.purified protein a (pa) from staphylococcus aureus was conjugated with the enzyme alkaline phosphatase. this reagent reacted well with pig, rabbit and guinea pig igg and less well with mouse and bovine igg. radioactive 125i-labelled pa showed a similar affinity for the iggs examined. antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus contained in guinea pig, rabbit and pig serum were detected, using the enzyme-conjugated pa in indirect tests, which were of similar sensitivity to those using enzyme- ...19806249867
isolation of a foot-and-mouth disease polyuridylic acid polymerase and its inhibition by antibody.a template-dependent polyuridylic acid [poly(u)] polymerase has been isolated from bhk cells infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv). enzyme activity in a 20,000 x g supernatant of a cytoplasmic extract was concentrated by precipitation with 30 to 50% saturated ammonium sulfate. the poly(u) polymerase was freed of membranes by sodium dodecyl sulfate and 1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane extraction, and rna was removed by precipitation with 2 m licl. the solubilized poly(u) polymerase requ ...19806251248
some virus diseases of domestic animals in the sultanate of oman.little is known of the occurrence of animal virus diseases in the sultanate of oman. this paper reports the results of a countrywide survey carried out in 1978 to establish the prevalence of some important viral pathogens of domestic animals with the dual purpose of providing baselines for future investigations and guidelines for those entrusted with disease control. foot-and-mouth disease virus type o, previously identified in oman in 1976, was isolated from clinically affected animals. in addi ...19806251586
foot and mouth disease virus. properties of a clone selected by terminal dilution technique from the original population.using the terminal dilution technique, a cloned virus was selected in a tissue culture systems from a heterogenous population of the original virus. the different markers studied differentiated the cloned virus from the original virus on the basis of its following characters: 1. ability to grow more efficiently at 29 than at 37 degrees c. 2. unstability of its capsid as seen by: a. high degree of sensitivity to heating at 50 degrees c for 10 min of exposure to ph 6.4 for 10 min. b. more inactiva ...19806254429
morphogenesis of vesiculation in foot-and-mouth disease.the morphogenesis of vesiculation in cattle inoculated (aerosol expsoure) with foot-and-mouth disease virus was investigated by examining alternate, frozen sections of selected tissues stained by fluorescent antibody technique and with hematoxylin and eosin. viremia preceded the development of lesions, and virus appeared to be transported to the epithelium via papillae. lesions were initiated usually by the infection of single cells in the stratum spinosum adjacent to the papillae. three types o ...19806255841
detection and quantification of igm, iga, igg1 and igg2 antibodies against foot-and-mouth disease virus from bovine sera using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.a simple solid-phase enzyme immunoassay is described for the detection of antibody classes showing activity against foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in bovine sera. the assay achieves a preliminary separation of the specific class of antibody from other serum proteins through immuno-adsorption to class-specific immunoglobulin-coated wells of micro-titre plates. the specific antibody is reacted with fmd virus, which is then detected by an enzyme-labelled anti virus igg.19816257779
serological and immunological relations between the 146s and 12s particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus.intact 146s particles of the seven serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) produce type-specific precipitating, complement-fixing and neutralizing antibodies in cattle and guinea-pigs. however, the 12s structural subunit, produced from the virus particle by mild acid treatment (ph 6) or by heating at 56 degrees c, although stimulating the production of precipitating and complement-fixing antibodies, produces only low levels of neutralizing antibody. nevertheless, 12s antibody in guinea- ...19806257825
a study of the level of nucleotide sequence conservation between the rnas of two types serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the level of nucleotide sequence conservation between the rnas of type a and type o foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) has been compared by three methods. (i) rna hybridization of fragments containing either the poly(c) tract at the 5' end of the rna of the poly(a) tract at the 3' end of the rna indicates that there is a similar level of sequence conservation (65% homology) across the genome. rnase t1 fingerprinting of these fragments did not show the presence of any long regions of completely ...19806257826
a study of the cross-reacting antigens on the intact foot-and-mouth disease virus and its 12s subunits with antisera against the structural proteins.cross-reactions between two strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) belonging to different serotypes (a and o) were studied with intact virus and virus subunits and antisera produced against the isolated structural proteins. anti-vp1 type o serum showed cross-reactive neutralizing activity, in contrast to the sera raised against intact virus type o, whereas anti-vp1 type a serum only neutralized homologous virus. anti-vp2, vp3 and vp4 did not show neutralizing activity. in the enzyme-link ...19806257830
comparison of the nucleotide sequence at the 5' end of rnas from nine aphthoviruses, including representatives of the seven serotypes.the sequence of about 70 nucleotides at the 5' end of the rnas of nine different aphthoviruses (foot-and-mouth disease viruses), including representatives of the seven serotypes of the virus, has been determined by partial enzyme digestion of (32)p-end-labeled s fragment-that part of the rna lying to the 5' side of the poly(c) tract and including the 5' end of the molecule. the s fragments were prepared from polyadenylated virus-specific rna extracted from infected cells by digestion with rnase ...19806257918
cloning of cdna of major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus and expression in e. coli.double-stranded dna copies of the single-stranded genomic rna of foot and mouth disease virus have been cloned into the escherichia coli plasmid pbr322. a restriction map of the viral genome was established and aligned with the biochemical map of foot and mouth disease virus. the coding sequence for structural protein vp1, the major antigen of the virus, was identified and inserted into a plasmid vector where the expression of this sequence is under control of the phage lambda pl promoter. in an ...19816258084
nucleotide sequence heterogeneity of the rna from a natural population of foot-and-mouth-disease virus.the genomic rna from isolates of foot-and-mouth-disease virus (fmdv) of serological types o or c obtained during epizootic outbreaks have been analysed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of the t1 rnase-generated oligonucleotides (t1 fingerprinting). among virus isolates that are closely related serologically, 4-12 oligonucleotide changes were detected constitute the genome, the variations affect 0.7%-2.2% positions in fmdv rna. higher nucleotide-sequence divergence exists between the genomi ...19806260578
molecular cloning of foot and mouth disease virus genome and nucleotide sequences in the structural protein genes.foot and mouth disease virus (fmdv), of the family picornaviridae, consists of a single-stranded rna (approximately 8,000 nucleotides), the translation of which is initiated on the 3' side of a 150-nucleotide poly(c) tract and yields a single polyprotein which is processed by host cell proteases into four primary products (fig. 1). one or more virus-specified proteases further cleave these into the final products, the capsid proteins (vp1-4) being derived from the precursor p88 (for review see r ...19816261157
isolation of a soluble and template-dependent foot-and-mouth disease virus rna polymerase. 19816263001
visualization by chilling of protein bands in polyacrylamide gels containing 8 m urea: preparation and quantitation of foot-and-mouth disease virus capsid proteins. 19816263128
nucleotide sequence and corresponding amino acid sequence of the gene for the major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus.a segment of 1160 nucleotides of the fmdv genome has been sequenced using three overlapping fragments of cloned cdna from fmdv strain o1k. this sequence contains the coding sequence for the viral capsid protein vp1 as shown by its homology to known and newly determined amino acid sequences from this man antigenic polypeptide of the fmdv virion. the structural gene for vp1 comprises 639 nucleotides which specify a sequence of 213 amino acids for the vp1 protein. the coding sequence is not flanked ...19816264400
differential precipitation of foot and mouth disease virus proteins made in vivo and in vitro by hyperimmune and virus particle guinea pig antisera. 19816264693
sites of release of airborne foot-and-mouth disease virus from infected pigs.pigs infected with foot-and-mouth disease virus by different routes of exposure were air-sampled individually, first as 'intact' (i-) pigs and then as 'intubated' (t-) pigs, using an endotracheal tube. irrespective of the route of infection it was found that during the early stages of disease more virus was recovered from i-pigs than from t-pigs. most of the virus from i-pigs during incubation and early disease was associated with large and medium sized particles. t-pigs infected by direct or in ...19806265993
[laboratory trials of culturing bhk 21 c 13 cells in a roller using an enzymatic egg hydrolysate-based nutrient medium].experiments were carried out to find the optimal conditions for the replication of bhk 21 c 13 cells in one 1 roller glassware with the use of a nutrient medium containing products of the enzymatic breakdown of white of egg. studied was the sensitivity of these cells to the type c strain 'hungary' of the foot-and-mouth disease virus. two series of f. m. d. vaccines were produced, which proved to be sterile and innocuous for guinea pigs. immunogenicity trials with regard to these animals revealed ...19806266126
a sensitive method for the detection and isolation of recombinants of foot-and-mouth disease virus.recombination between temperature-sensitive (ts) mutants of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus was examined, using an infectious centre technique that was more sensitive (approx. 30-fold) than the conventional virus yield test. the test involved a brief incubation of the mixedly infected cells at the permissive temperature to allow recombination to occur followed by assay at the restrictive temperature to select for those cells in which recombination had occurred. with crosses involving widely s ...19816267181
removal of the genome-linked protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus by rabbit reticulocyte lysate.rabbit reticulocyte lysate cleaves the genome-linked protein vpg from foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) rna. this activity could be reliably monitored since removal of the protein resulted in a change in migration in polyacrylamide gels of the small specific 5' and fragment of the rna (s fragment). the unlinking activity cleaved the bond between the tyrosine residue of vpg and the rna to leave a 5' phosphate on the rna. the 5' sequence of the rna from which vpg had been removed by rabbit retic ...19816268821
identification of a protein kinase activity in purified foot- and-mouth disease virus.purified preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus types a, o, and c contain a protein kinase activity which can transfer the gamma phosphate of [32p]atp to virion structural proteins vp2 and vp3 and exogenous acceptor proteins. utilizing protamine sulfate as an acceptor, the kinase activity can be demonstrated in disrupted virus but not in intact virus. the enzyme is heat labile with optimal activity at ph 7 or greater. serine residues of protamine sulfate were identified as the amino acid p ...19816268834
effect of mutation on the virulence in mice of a strain of foot-and-mouth disease virus.twenty-eight mutations, representing mutation in five different polypeptide-coding regions of the foot-and-mouth disease genome, were examined for their effect on the virulence of the virus for suckling mice. five types of mutation were examined: temperature-sensitive (ts), electrophoretic (e), co-variant temperature-sensitive and electrophoretic (ts/e), guanidine-resistant (gs+) and putative co-variant guanidine-resistant and electrophoretic (gs+/e). all the ts mutations and three out of the 11 ...19816270249
temperature-sensitive rna polymerase mutants of a picornavirus.temperature-sensitive (ts) rna polymerase mutants of a picornavirus are reported. two foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) mutants designated ts 22 and ts 115 have been characterized. as judged by isoelectric focusing, both have charge alterations in p56a, the fmdv rna polymerase protein. virus rna synthesis in cells infected with the mutants is severely impaired at the nonpermissive temperature. rna polymerase purified from baby hamster kidney cells infected with these mutants exhibits a marked ...19816270678
heterogeneity of infection-associated particles in foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19816270879
vesicular exocytosis of foot- and -mouth disease virus from mammary gland secretory epithelium of infected cows.foot-and-mouth disease virus particles were observed by electron microscopy in the cytoplasma of alveolar secretory cells of the bovine mammary gland after contact exposure of uninfected cows to pits with foot-and-mouth disease. virus, contained in membrane-limited vesicles, was released from the basal and peranuclear portions of the cells into the intracellular and extracellular spaces by an exocytotic mechanism similar to that of the release of th milk-fat globule. virus was released into the ...19816271913
cloned viral protein vaccine for foot-and-mouth disease: responses in cattle and swine.a dna sequence coding for the immunogenic capsid protein vp3 of foot-and-mouth disease virus a12, prepared from the virion rna, was ligated to a plasmid designed to express a chimeric protein from the escherichia coli tryptophan promoter-operator system. when escherichia coli transformed with this plasmid was grown in tryptophan-depleted media, approximately 17 percent of the total cellular protein was found to be an insoluble and stable chimeric protein. the purified chimeric protein competed e ...19816272395
[comparative trial of the immunogenic properties of commercial foot-and-mouth virus strains].comparative investigations on the antigenic relation and the immunogenic properties of the foot-and-mouth disease virus types o, a, and c. were carried out with the aid of the quantitative cft and experiments with guinea pigs. it was established that the viruses of a given type were closely related antigenically and belonged to one and the same subtype group (r greater than of equal to 70 per cent). immunogenicity studies revealed that strains o1y a5f, c 564, and cf were best in terms of immunog ...19816272473
production in b. subtilis of hepatitis b core antigen and a major antigen of foot and mouth disease virus. 19816273732
characterization of a 70s polyuridylic acid polymerase isolated from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells.a polyuridylic acid polymerase complex isolated from foot-and-mouth disease virus-infected cells sedimented at 70s in a sucrose gradient and appeared in the exclusion volume of an agarose column whose molecular weight cutoff was 5 x 10(6). phenol extraction of the complex yielded a heterogeneous band of virus-specific rna and an apparently host cell-derived 4.5 to 5s rna, both of which are essentially single stranded. neither rna served as a template in the cell-free enzyme reaction. polyacrylam ...19816275123
thermal stability of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the thermal stabilities of 146s component of seven strains of foot-and-mouth disease virus were found to differ considerably. inactivation of infectivity with acetylethyleneimine (aei) reduced the thermal stabilities of all but one of the viruses. treatment of aei inactivated and control virus preparations with glutaraldehyde stabilized 146s particles to a considerable extent, whereas treatment with dimethyl suberimidate was less effective. in similar experiments with 75s, natural empty particle ...19816277281
relationship between plaque size and the immunising ability of the foot-and-mouth disease virus sat 1 nig 10/75. 19816277283
long distance transport of foot-and-mouth disease virus over the sea.the conditions required for the transport of foot-and-mouth disease (fmd) virus in the atmosphere over long distances and in sufficient concentrations to cause infection in exposed animals are described. using these factors a series of 23 outbreaks of fmd in europe, where the original outbreaks were separated from later outbreaks by sea passage, have been investigated. the findings obtained support the hypothesis that under certain conditions the airborne transmission of fmd over a long sea pass ...19826278697
cores in foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19826278713
the adsorption and degradation of foot-and-mouth disease virus by isolated bhk-21 cell plasma membranes. 19826278720
serological differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus on electron microscope grids coated with protein a and antibody.a serological technique using electron microscope grids coated with protein a and antiserum was able to detect foot-and- mouth disease virus particles in oesophageal-pharyngeal fluids from infected cattle without the need for prior concentration of the sample. the technique was adapted to differentiate serologically among foot-and-mouth disease virus types a, o and c with antigen-adsorbed sera. when grids were coated with heterotypic antigenadsorbed antisera, the homotypic antigen could be obser ...19816280815
the use of highly concentrated purified (by a large scale method) and long term liquid nitrogen stored foot-and-mouth disease viruses for the preparation of vaccines: physico-chemical quality controls and potency tests after 1974 a new industrial technique for concentration and purification of fmd virus was presented at the oie conference. the bulk inactivated virus from this technique was stored in liquid nitrogen vapour until required for vaccine formulation. in 1981, having applied this technique regularly for seven years, we now describe the results obtained and the advantages gained in the field of trivalent o, a, c bovine vaccine production. vaccines prepared from such bulk virus stocks after several years ...19816281108
observations and implications of proteolysis in preparations of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the integrity of the vp1 protein of foot-and-mouth disease virus was assessed by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (following storage at 4 degrees c of conventional tissue culture preparations and concentrated preparations of the virus. there was little evidence of vp1 degradation in tissue culture filtrates whereas considerable degradation was observed throughout a range of different concentrates. the use of the proteolytic enzyme inhibitor 'trasylol' appeared to inhibit vp1 degradation in som ...19816281109
application of rnase t1 one- and two-dimensional analyses to the rapid identification of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.the analysis of several isolates of foot-and-mouth disease virus by rnase t1 fingerprinting of the 32p-labeled rna is described. it has been shown that use of the 35s induced rna instead of the virus particle rna has two advantages. (i) about 40 times more radioactivity is incorporated into the induced rna. (ii) the rna can be prepared much more rapidly, thus increasing the value of the technique in rapid diagnosis. one-dimensional maps, in which the rnase t1 oligonucleotides are separated accor ...19826281186
three strains of european foot-and-mouth disease virus are highly conserved in the 3'-termini and highly variable in the genes of two capsid proteins.restriction enzyme-generated subgenomic fragments of cloned cdna prepared from rna of the strain o1 kaufbeuren (o1k) of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) were compared qualitatively and quantitatively for sequence complementarity with radioactive rna from strains c oberbayern (cobb) and a2 spain (a2s) in hybridization experiments on nitrocellulose membranes. quantitative comparison of nucleic acid sequences neighbouring (c obb/o1k) or including (a2s/o1k) the 3' end of the virus genomes demonst ...19826281370
the nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for the structural proteins of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the complete nucleotide sequence of cdna coding for the structural capsid polypeptides of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) (strain a(10)61) has been determined. portions of the flanking sequence coding for the nonstructural proteins p20a and p52 are also provided. the three larger structural polypeptides vp1, vp2 and vp3 have unmodified mrs of 23248, 24649 and 24213, respectively. the size of the smaller polypeptide, vp4, can only be estimated at 7360 because the 5'-limit of its coding region ...19826282711
differentiation of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains using a competition enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.foot-and-mouth disease virus isolates were compared using solid-phase competition and indirect microenzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. results were compared to those obtained from complement fixation tests. similar relationships between the isolates were obtained using the indirect enzyme immunoassay and complement fixation tests. the competition assay was more discriminatory and the results did not always correlate with the other two assays.19826282918
[use of the radial immunodiffusion test in the study of foot-and-mouth disease viruses].the radial immunodiffusion test (rit) was used in the study of the quantitative interrelations between three subtypes of type a of the foot-and-mouth disease virus--a5, a10, and a22. a reverse proportional correlation was demonstrated between the size of the precipitation circles and the antibody concentration in the homologous sera, and a direct proportional correlation between the diameter of the circles and the amount of the antigen used. it was shown that one and the same antigen produced pr ...19816283723
variations in the buoyant density of foot-and-mouth disease virus strains.some of the factors which effect the buoyant density in caesium chloride of foot-and-mouth disease virus were investigated. under standard conditions, the buoyant densities of a range of vaccine virus strains, representing all seven serotypes, were found to be unrelated to their potential of being formulated into effective vaccines. in some virus strains, a small amount of naturally occurring high and/or low density components were observed and these components were examined in more detail in on ...19826284093
antibody titres to african horse sickness, swine vesicular disease and foot-and-mouth disease viruses in samples from equidae in malta, 1975. 19826284298
sensitivity of seven different types of cell cultures to three serotypes of foot-and-mouth disease virus.the ability of bovine tongue origin foot-and-mouth disease virus serotypes a, o and c to replicate in seven different types of cell cultures was studied. primary and secondary calf thyroid cells were equivalent in susceptibility to bovine kidney cell cultures passaged up to five times. calf thyroid cells lost their susceptibility after two passages. cryopreserved bovine kidney cell cultures passaged three and four times were equivalent in susceptibility to sensitive calf thyroid and bovine kidne ...19826284329
interactions between saponin and 146s particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19826284760
qualitative assessment of 146 s particles of foot-and-mouth disease virus in preparations destined for vaccines. 19826284761
guanidine and heat sensitivity of foot-and-mouth disease virus (fmdv) strains.a study of the ability of 49 strains of fmd virus to replicate in bhk-21 monolayer cells maintained under a standard agar overlay containing 5.2 mm guanidine hydrochloride and to withstand heat inactivation at 54 degrees c for 1 h showed that strains belonging to serotypes c, o and asia 1 were generally more resistant to guanidine and heat stable than the sat 1, 2 and 3 serotypes. the type a viruses as a whole occupied an intermediate position between these two groups. in vitro passage in bhk-21 ...19826284836
[molecular biology of the foot-and-mouth disease virus]. 19816285123
immunosuppression in bovine trypanosomiasis: response of cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense to foot-and-mouth disease vaccination and subsequent live virus challenge.the primary and secondary antibody responses to foot-and-mouth disease virus vaccine were examined in cattle infected with trypanosoma congolense and the response of some of these animals to live foot-and-mouth disease virus challenge was assessed. infected groups of cattle had rather lower antibody responses than uninfected control cattle after primary vaccination but the antibody titres were not significantly depressed until after secondary vaccination. these levels remained depressed for the ...19826285433
foot-and-mouth disease virus: immunogenicity and structure of fragments derived from capsid protein vp and of virus containing cleaved vp.peptide fragments were obtained from the immunogenic capsid protein vp3, ca. 24 kilodaltons (kd), of foot-and-mouth disease virus type a12 119ab by three procedures: (1) spontaneous proteolysis of in virion vp3 in tissue cultures to produce a 15 kd peptide, designated s fragment; (2) trypsin treatment of purified virus to produce a 16 kg peptide, designated t fragment; and (3) cyanogen bromide cleavage of purified vp3 to produce a 13 kd fragment. following isolation and purification by gel elect ...19826287701
difference in protective immunity of the tongue and feet of guinea pigs vaccinated with foot-and-mouth disease virus type a12 following intradermolingual and footpad challenge. 19826287702
portraits of viruses: foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19826288615
the elution of foot-and-mouth disease virus from vaccines adjuvanted with aluminium hydroxide and with saponin. 19826290497
susceptibility of squirrel and cebus monkeys to foot-and-mouth disease virus. 19826290662
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